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HIMI Tables of Contents: 07-107-209-109-211-111-213-113-213-314-114-215-115-2

HIMI 2011: Human Interface and the Management of Information, Symposium on Human Interface, Part I: Interacting with Information

Fullname:HIMI 2011: Human Interface and the Management of Information, Symposium on Human Interface, Part I: Interacting with Information
Note:Volume 11 of HCI International 2011
Editors:Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:2011-Jul-09 to 2011-Jul-14
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6771
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-21792-0 (print), 978-3-642-21793-7 (online); hcibib: HIMI11-1
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. HIMI 2011-07-09 Volume 1
    1. Design and Development Methods and Tools
    2. Information and User Interfaces Design
    3. Visualisation Techniques and Applications
    4. Security and Privacy
    5. Touch and Gesture Interfaces
    6. Adaptation and Personalisation
    7. Measuring and Recognising Human Behaviour

HIMI 2011-07-09 Volume 1

Design and Development Methods and Tools

Visual Programming of Location-Based Services BIBAFull-Text 3-12
  Antonio Bottaro; Enrico Marino; Franco Milicchio; Alberto Paoluzzi; Maurizio Rosina; Federico Spini
In this paper we discuss a visual programming environment for design and rapid prototyping of web-based applications, securely connected to remote Location-Based Services. The visual programming approach of this research is based on computation as data transformation within a dataflow, and on visual composition of web services. The VisPro environment uses a very simple approach to service composition: (a) the developer takes a set of web widgets from a library, (b) builds interactively a user interface by drag and drop, (c) builds the application logic of the web service by drawing the connections between boxes (standing for suitable data transformations) and widgets (standing for user interaction). The development session produces, in presentation mode, a web page where the user may trigger, and interact with, the novel data mining and related computation. A successful GUI (and logic) is abstracted as a new service, characterized by a new widget, and stored in the widget library.
Connecting Envisioning Process to User Interface Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 13-19
  Naotake Hirasawa; Shinya Ogata; Kiko Yamada-Kawai
As embedded systems have increasingly become multifunctional, it has become necessary to clarify what sorts of experiences the user can have through these functions. It is the system's user interface (UI) that leads this user experience, therefore, UI design has increased in importance. However, conventional design processes, often set the UI design after defining the system requirements, which causes operations to become more complex and leads to a lack of operational consistency. To overcome these problems, a design process was conceived whereby the user experience envisioned in the product planning phase is realized in the UI. Two workshops were held for development-related personnel to introduce the conceived process into actual development projects. The effectiveness of the process was acknowledged by all the participants, but they also pointed out the difficulty of incorporating the process into their organizations.
Keywords: User Interface Design; Design Processes; Workshop
Learner-Centered Methodology for Designing and Developing Multimedia Simulation for Biology Education BIBAKFull-Text 20-29
  Chi-Cheng Lin; Mark Bergland; Karen Klyczek
Biology students need exposure to modern research techniques relatively early in their educational careers. Computer multimedia simulation tools have been developed to address the challenge of providing all students with hands-on laboratory research experience. This paper presents a learner-centered approach to the design and development of a multimedia simulation for biology education. We present our methodology and a multimedia simulation tool designed and developed using the methodology. Out tool has been widely adopted by biological science educators for teaching molecular biology subjects in a wide range of undergraduate biology courses. We believe that our methodology can be adopted or adapted by learner communities in other disciplines.
Keywords: learner-centered methodology; case-based pedagogy; multimedia simulation; biology education; bioinformatics; workflow analysis
User Interface and Information Management of Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 30-39
  Robert Louden; Matthew Fontaine; Glenn A. Martin; Jason Daly; Sae Lynne Schatz
Scenario-based training has shown to be an effective instructional approach. However, it can be difficult for instructors to create scenarios as they are time-consuming to develop. This can result in the same scenarios being re-used, reducing training effectiveness. Furthermore, scenarios are based on training objectives and can vary in complexity. Researchers have investigated methods to simplify this process by assessing various approaches to scenario generation. Within such a tool, however, there needs to be a way to easily understand the different scenario components and their relationships within the scenario. This paper discusses the PYTHAGORAS (Procedural Yielding Techniques and Heuristics for Automated Generation of Objects with Related and Analogous Scenarios) system and specifically its editor used to create scenarios. We designed this system to simplify the process of scenario generation, providing a clearer understanding of the scenario components and relationships.
Keywords: Scenario Generation; Scenario Editor; Scenario Components
Giving UI Developers the Power of UI Design Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 40-47
  Jocelyn Richard; Jean-Marc Robert; Sébastien Malo; Joël Migneault
UI developers interested in UI design patterns generally face major problems when trying to use them, because of the complexity of pattern libraries and the lack of supporting tools. As a consequence, UI design patterns are not widely used and this entails an important loss of productivity and quality. In this study, we identified and wrote 30 UI patterns that were made available in a library, and we compared four modes of presentation for them: pattern thumbnails, application types, decision trees, and alphabetical mode. Ten subjects participated in the study. User satisfaction was higher with the three new modes than with the alphabetical mode. Search time was higher with the three new modes than with the alphabetical mode. Although difficult to evaluate, pattern relevance was better with the three new modes. Those findings were turned into recommendations for immediate applications. In the conclusion, we propose some research avenues for the future.
Keywords: user interface design patterns; design pattern libraries; pattern language user interface design; mode of presentation
The Cultural Integration of Knowledge Management into Interactive Design BIBAKFull-Text 48-57
  Javed Anjum Sheikh; Bob Fields; Elke Duncker
This research is being conducted to address the integration of cultural factors in interactive information system to enhance the reach of knowledge management to culturally heterogeneous user. In this context, we introduced a knowledge management framework. This method will help researchers to understand how different cultures view similar concepts. The result and analysis we expected in this research is intended to guideline to design knowledge management based cross-cultural interface. The result will increase usability enhancement and interaction patterns in interactive design.
Keywords: Cultural Integration; Cultural Interface; Cultural Representation; Cultural Design; Knowledge Management; Usability; User Interaction
Supporting of Requirements Elicitation for Ensuring Services of Information Systems Used for Education BIBAKFull-Text 58-65
  Yuki Terawaki
This paper describes a method to ensure the quality requirements from service receiver in the requirement definition phase of system development. The proposed method measures the quality characteristics that are in the requirement document using the text-mining technique and concept dictionary and identifies requirements of document with quality characteristics of the International Standards Organization (ISO) / the International Electrical technical Commission (IEC) 9126-1:2001[1]. The case study shows that the quality characteristics are contained in the requirements document.
Keywords: Requirements Engineering; RE; Non-Functional Requirements; ISO/IEC 9126; text-mining approach
Visualizing Programs on Different Levels of Abstractions BIBAKFull-Text 66-75
  Jo-Han Wu; Jan Stelovsky
To facilitate comprehension in an educational environment, a program should be ideally visualized using numerous depictions that employ different perspectives and levels of detail. Object-oriented programs that contain multiple levels of abstractions as a result of the modular design and encapsulation are primary candidates for such visualizations. ProViz is a framework that supports efficient creation of high-level visualizations for programs. Therefore implementing several visualizations of a program with ProViz has become a manageable effort. This article describes how a stack program is visualized on different levels of abstractions as an example of how multiple visualizations can be used in a course to help students understand data structures and algorithms.
Keywords: abstraction; object-orientation; software visualization; program visualization; algorithm
Measurement and Evaluation in Service Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 76-81
  Sakae Yamamoto; Hiroyuki Miki; Hirohiko Mori
This paper discusses how to advance the service engineering research. The service engineering is still established as study, and has not been completed. However, it dared to take up how to advance the service engineering research. As for the reason, the following three points are thought. First of all, the methodology of an original service engineering cannot establish it yet. The secondly, researchers involved in the service engineering have taken an active part to the research in various fields. Thirdly, the service engineering is researched therefore based on each one's current knowledge. It has been thought that it is necessary to devise a method that manages to be unified. Of course, what respect you should note while thinking about the system of the service engineering now is described. Especially, it is thought that the finding of a deeply related field to the Ergonomics is needed in the service engineering.
Keywords: Service Engineering; Kano Theory; Industrial Engineering
A Human Interface Toolkit for Developing Operation Support System of Complex Industrial Systems with IVI-COM Technology BIBAKFull-Text 82-89
  Yangping Zhou; Yujie Dong; Xiaojing Huang; Hidekazu Yoshikawa
A human interface toolkit is proposed for helping the user to develop operation support system of complex industrial system such as Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). With a friendly graphical interface, this integrated tool includes a database, a procedure editor and a procedure executor. A three layer hierarchy is adopted to express the complexity of operation procedure, which includes mission, process and node. There are 10 kinds of node: entrance, exit, hint, manual input, detector, actuator, data treatment, branch, judgement and plug-in. The operation support system will sense and actuate the actual industrial systems with the interface based on IVI-COM (Interchangeable Virtual Instrumentation-Component Object Model) technology. A prototype system of this human interface toolkit has been developed is applied to develop a simple operation support system for a simulated NPP.
Keywords: Human Interface Toolkit; Operation Support System; Complex Industrial System; IVI-COM

Information and User Interfaces Design

A Conceptual Model of the Axiomatic Usability Evaluation Method BIBAKFull-Text 93-102
  Yinni Guo; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
This paper describes a new usability evaluation method developed for consumer electronics. This method, Axiomatic Evaluation, is based on Axiomatic Design theory, a formalized methodology that can be used to represent a variety of design problems. From this perspective, to generate a design that meets the perceived needs, designers should first specify the design goals of "what we want to achieve", and then start the design process with a clear description of "how we will achieve it", so that the recursive "design/build/test" cycle could be reduced.
Keywords: axiomatic design; usability engineering
Study on Evaluation of Kawaii Colors Using Visual Analog Scale BIBAKFull-Text 103-108
  Tsuyoshi Komatsu; Michiko Ohkura
In the 21st century, the Kansei values of industrial products are considered very important. Kawaii is one of the important Kansei values for future interactive systems and industrial products. However, since only few studies have focused on kawaii attribute, we systematically analyze the kawaii interfaces themselves, that is, the kawaii feelings caused by such attributes as shapes, colors, and materials. In previous experiments, we obtained interesting tendencies about kawaii attributes. For example, if an object has more brightness and more saturation, more participants chose it as most kawaii for every hue. The most commonly chosen hue was purple for both men and women. However, since we have not studied intermediate hues based on the Muncell Color System, we systematically experimented on the color elements to clarify the tendencies of kawaii colors. The experimental results clarified the tendencies of kawaii colors for each color element, such as hue, saturation, and brightness.
Keywords: kawaii; color; hue; saturation; brightness; vas; Kansei; virtual object
Representation of Decision Making Process in Music Composition Based on Hypernetwork Model BIBAKFull-Text 109-117
  Tetsuya Maeshiro; Shin-ichi Nakayama; Midori Maeshiro
Music composition is treated as a repetitive decision making process, and represented using the hypernetwork model, the proposed model. The hypernetwork model allows more specific description of relationships among represented entities than conventional knowledge representation models such as semantic network. Music composition of a musical piece of 100 measures (performance duration of 6-8 minutes) by a professional composer is analyzed based on the description of decisions involved. Musical piece represented as musical scores are represented with hypernetwork model where the decisions are the representational units. Single or multiple decisions are related with other decisions, and quantitative similarity based on relationality among decision sequences provided by the hyperlink model enables the discrimination of various types and degrees of similarity.
Keywords: Knowledge representation; similarity relationship network; decision making; music composition
Some Issues toward Creating Human-Centric Services BIBAFull-Text 118-121
  Hirohiko Mori
Some issues about creating some human-centric services and contents are described and discussed, especially in ubiquitous computing environments. The term of "ubiquitous" are used in the different meanings in different situations. So, I, first, try to identify each meaning and, according to this arrangement, I discuss some issues how to create human-centric services in the academic ways.
A User-Centric Metadata Creation Tool for Preserving the Nation's Ecological Data BIBAKFull-Text 122-131
  Fatma Nasoz; Renée C. Bryce; Craig J. Palmer; David J. Rugg
This paper describes the methodology to develop a metadata editing environment that (1) is scientist-friendly, (2) promotes accurate recording of metadata, and (3) enables interoperability across multiple metadata standards. Scientist-friendly software will increase scientists' willingness to create metadata and the quality of that metadata. This study identifies the usability issues in an existing metadata creation tool and initiates the development of a state-of-the-art user interface that allows the biological research community to more accurately record and share data.
Keywords: Metadata; user-centric; usability; heuristics
Comparison between Mathematical Complexity and Human Feeling BIBAKFull-Text 132-141
  Masashi Okubo; Akiya Togo; Shogo Takahashi
Recently, we have often the opportunity to shop for something on the computer display connected to the Internet. However, it is often said that the product arrived at the home is something different from it presented on the computer display. We have studied into the differences between the shape evaluation in virtual space and in real space. And it is indicated that the shape evaluation in virtual space is slightly difference from it in real space, especially, in case of evaluation of product which has the complex contour[1]. In this research, we are focusing on the complexity of contour. The complexity is defined by mathematical methods, for example, Hurst exponent in fractal geometry. In this paper, we have proposed the algorithm which makes the curve lines based on the Hurst exponent. And using these curve lines made by proposed method, we have investigated that the mathematical complexity is equal to the complexity which people feel by sensory evaluation or not. The result shows that Hurst exponent almost can show the complexity which people feel, however, it is difficult in case of the cyclic curves.
Keywords: Curve complexity; Sensory evaluation; Bradley-Terry model
How Do Real or Virtual Agent's Body and Instructions Contribute to Task Achievement? BIBAFull-Text 142-151
  Yugo Takeuchi; Hisashi Naito
In face-to-face communication, we can confidently communicate through our bodies. Recently, agents have widely surfaced as existences that interact with humans, and several studies have investigated the formation of social relations with such agents. This research focuses on 'sharing an environment' when humans communicate with humans, and we adapt it to human and agent interactions. We examined the effects of sharing an environment in two cooperative task experiments in real/virtual worlds and found that reception frequency for information from the agent with a body in the real world is significantly higher than the reception frequency for information with the agent with a body in the virtual world. In conclusion, our results suggest that sharing the same environment through a body affected the reliability of the information.
Interaction Mediate Agent Based on User Interruptibility Estimation BIBAKFull-Text 152-160
  Takahiro Tanaka; Kinya Fujita
In recent years, the scope of users receiving information from information systems has been increasing. However, the timing of interruption is not controlled in most of these systems. In this paper, we propose a secretary agent to mediate interactions between users and others. The agent estimates user interruptibility from PC operation records and head motions. Moreover, the agent requests interaction from others by controlling the avatar's gaze, joint attention, and mutual gaze on the basis of the interruptibility. We confirmed the usefulness of the mediation based on the estimation of user interruptibility.
Keywords: interruptibility; estimation; human-agent interaction; application switching
Ontological Approach to Aesthetic Feelings: A Multilingual Case of Cutism BIBAKFull-Text 161-164
  Akifumi Tokosumi; Fumina Teng
This paper outlines how the Sensibility-Aesthetics Ontology project aims to construct a comprehensive knowledge-base of sensibility-aesthetics related concepts. The target of the current paper is to examine 'kawaii' (Cutism) in Japanese and Chinese culture. Using a combination of four methodologies (meta-analysis of dictionary definitions, quantitative analysis of linguistic usage, content analysis of voluntarily produced text containing the target concept, and structured interviews concerning the cognitive components of the target concept), cognitive components of the concept were formalized into a frame structure. The typical frame for Japanese Cutism is: experiencer -- mother, female, male; user -- female; appraisal -- small, weak; object -- girl, baby, infant, pet, everyday things, animal, plant; subjective experience -- attachment, charmed; action inclination -- protect, possess, emotion share, conceal. Chinese Cutism has similar framing terms although the 'object' component has far fewer variants than Japanese. As an application of the constructed Cutism ontology, an analysis of the Cutism words used in the novels of Haruki Murakami was discussed.
Keywords: Cutism; Aesthetic emotions; Ontology; Frame; Semantics
Constructing Phylogenetic Trees Based on Intra-group Analysis of Human Mitochondrial DNA BIBAKFull-Text 165-169
  Ivan Vogel; Frantisek Zedek; Pavel Ocenasek
This paper describes a modified algorithm for inferring phylogenetic trees based on distance techniques. The input of the algorithm consists of predefined clusters of data. It uses a usual agglomerative approach, however it involves a novel technique for distance matrix creation as the task of clustering predefined groups of human mitochondrial DNA sequences should be fulfilled.
Keywords: intra-group analysis; substitution model; position-specific clustering vector; mtDNA; population divergence; phylogenetic tree; neighbor joining
A Qualitative Study of Similarity Measures in Event-Based Data BIBAKFull-Text 170-179
  Katerina Vrotsou; Camilla Forsell
This paper presents an interview-based study of the definition of sequence similarity in different application areas of event-based data. The applicability of nine identified measures across these areas is investigated and discussed. The work helps highlight what are the core characteristics sought when analysing event-based data and performs a first validation of this across disciplines. The results of the study make a solid basis for follow-up evaluations of the practical applicability and usability of the similarity measures.
Keywords: Event-based data; event-sequences; evaluation; qualitative study; similarity measures
Feasibility Study of Predictive Human Performance Modeling Technique in Field Activities BIBAKFull-Text 180-189
  Naomi Yano; Toshiyuki Asahi; Shin'ichi Fukuzumi; Bonnie E. John
This paper reports the results of usability evaluation based on the predictive human performance models applied to any products, and introduces application of a tool for predicting operational time to an IP phone and an electronic health record system UI consulting. We assessed effectiveness of this tool using efficiency estimation technique and extracted the practical the practical problems. In the human interface (HI) consultation process, as the tool predicts execution time of the current version and of the improved version, the improvement effect could be assessed. For an IP phone, we created the modified user interface designs from the point view of operational efficiency, so that we could indicate effectiveness of this tool by comparing task execution time. For an electronic health records, however, it is difficult to "directly" verify the effectiveness of the modified user interface designs from an efficiency standpoint. Through an evaluation scenario, the tool provided data that is necessary for assessment of improvement in this case.
Keywords: Usability Evaluation; Predictive human performance model; Consultation; Efficiency; Understandability
Surprise Generator for Virtual KANSEI Based on Human Surprise Characteristics BIBAFull-Text 190-198
  Masaki Zenkoyoh; Ken Tomiyama
This paper proposes a technique to generate emotion state of surprise and to generate motions to express this emotion for robots. Surprise emotion is known to have unique characteristics compared to other emotions such as anger and grief. It is often caused by discrepancies between prediction and actual event and is also an instant emotion. A conceptual structure of a surprise generator to generate emotion state of surprise for robots is developed based on these human surprise characteristics. The generator contains a predictor that is used to fined discrepancies between the real events and expectations.

Visualisation Techniques and Applications

Explicit Modeling and Visualization of Imperfect Information in the Context of Decision Support for Tsunami Early Warning in Indonesia BIBAFull-Text 201-210
  Monika Friedemann; Ulrich Raape; Sven Tessmann; Thorsten Schoeckel; Christian Strobl
A certainty model and appropriate visualization techniques are presented which are applied in a newly developed Decision Support System (DSS) for tsunami early warning deployed in Jakarta, Indonesia. Our decision support approach makes use of multi-sensor fusion and pre-computed tsunami scenario simulations to create situational awareness as basis for reasonable early warning. As the Indonesian coastline is prone to near-field tsunami scenarios decision making must take place under time-critical conditions based on incomplete and uncertain information. In order to reduce the probability and the consequences of a false decision, we have developed and employed a certainty model which implies a classification of imperfect information suitable for the tsunami early warning domain and the quantification of imperfect data. The model is mapped onto and supported by appropriate visual representations.
Kansei Stroll Map: Walking around a City Using Visualized Impressions of Streetscapes BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
  Yuichiro Kinoshita; Satoshi Tsukanaka; Takumi Nakama
Information about the nature and characteristics of streets is useful to tourists. This paper introduces the Kansei stroll map that visualizes streetscape impressions. First, subjective evaluation experiments were conducted to investigate the impressions of 475 streetscapes in Kyoto. Using the Kansei structure visualization technique, proposed by the present authors, these impressions from around the city were visualized using colour and colour density and then implemented on PCs. User studies with eight participants examined its use in planning routes and walking in the city. The user studies suggest that the visualized impressions provided by the Kansei stroll map help users to find less-known places and streets that match their interests.
Keywords: visualization; impression; map; stroll trip; Kansei
Multivariate Data Visualization: A Review from the Perception Aspect BIBAKFull-Text 221-230
  Yan Liu
Last two decades have seen the development of varieties of new methods for visualizing multivariable data and a few attempts have been made to survey and compare some of these techniques. Despite valuable reviews, they did not systematically study the perception tasks involved in these techniques which affect the efficiency of their information decoding due to limited humans' visual perception system. This paper serves to fill this gap through reviewing three well known multivariate visualization techniques apropos their associated perception tasks for three data exploration purposes. Advantages and disadvantages of each tool are discussed.
Keywords: visual perception; data exploration; trellis display; parallel coordinates; pixel-based techniques
Methods for Service Sciences from Visualization Points BIBAKFull-Text 231-238
  Hiroyuki Miki; Naotsune Hosono; Sakae Yamamoto
Recently, situations surrounding business organizations have been changing rapidly and extensively. Due to the wide availability of broadband Internet in many countries, international division of labor, namely offshoring, has become quite common, and global competition is growing intense [1]. As a result, business organizations must seek to produce added-values and higher efficiency to survive the competition. To produce added-values and higher efficiency, a variety of issues have been coped with in the research area named Service Sciences or Service Engineering (SS in short). Since a large amount of data is acquired, analyzed, and utilized in SS, a scientific and engineering approach is important in it. This paper firstly outlines the approach and visualizations for it, and then discusses good solutions for both the service provider and the customer. By addressing "visualization", important points of SS activities are clarified.
Keywords: Service Sciences; Customer Expectation Management; Persona; Scientific Disciplines; Productivity
Interacting with Semantics: A User-Centered Visualization Adaptation Based on Semantics Data BIBAKFull-Text 239-248
  Kawa Nazemi; Matthias Breyer; Jeanette Forster; Dirk Burkhardt; Arjan Kuijper
Semantically annotated data gain more and more importance in future information acquiring processes. Especially the Linked Open Data (LOD) format has already experienced a great growth. However, the user-interfaces of web-applications mostly do not reflect the added value of semantics data. The following paper describes a new approach of user-centered data-adaptive semantics visualization, which makes use of the advantages of semantics data combined with an adaptive composition of information visualization techniques. It starts with a related work section, where existing LOD systems and information visualization techniques are described. After that, the new approach will bridge the gap between semantically annotated data (LOD) and information visualization and introduces a visualization system that adapts the composition of visualizations based on the underlying data structure. A case study of an example case will conclude this paper.
Keywords: linked open data; semantic visualization; semantic web
Riding the Technology Wave: Effective Dashboard Data Visualization BIBAFull-Text 249-258
  Lisa Pappas; Lisa Whitman
Riding the technology wave, we are awash in data. Attempts to stem the tide, or at least to manage its flow, have led to a proliferation of dashboards. With data dashboards, organizations consolidate important data in a single place, typically accessed via web browser. Dashboard contents may be tables, graphics, or visual key performance indicators (KPIs). While dashboards proliferate, displaying actionable data to support decisions, they are often developed by technical professionals inexperienced in human-computer interaction design. Research abounds on visual perception, but typically this is in the context of individual entities rather than composites. This research will survey corporate and institutional dashboards and their use of particular methods of data visualization. Building on existing research into effectiveness of interactivity in diagrams, the authors seek to identify which types of data are best represented in what types of visualizations and best practices for displaying multiple visualizations in a single view.
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Communication Detection Using Spherical SOM Visualization for Network Management BIBAKFull-Text 259-267
  Satoshi Togawa; Kazuhide Kanenishi; Yoneo Yano
In this research, we have built a system for network administrators that visualize the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) file sharing activities of network users. This system monitors network traffic and discerns traffic features using traffic mining. This system visualizes the P2P file sharing traffic activities of an organization by making the processing object not an individual user but a user group. The network administrator can comprehend the P2P sharing activities of the organization by referring to the map. This system extracts traffic features from captured IP packets that the users communicated. And this system extracts the appearance ratio of DNS host query. These extracts data are processed by MapReduce method for high-speed sorting and calculation. Afterwards this system creates traffic model. These features of the traffic model are emphasized by weighting. After that, the traffic model is visualized by High Speed Spherical Self-Organizing Map. This feature map shows network traffic behavior related with P2P file sharing communication like a birds-eye view. As a result, we think we can assist the monitoring operation and network administration.
Keywords: Traffic Mining; Traffic Visualization; Administrator Assistance; Peer-to-Peer communication Detection; Spherical SOM
Visualizing Stakeholder Concerns with Anchored Map BIBAKFull-Text 268-277
  Takanori Ugai
Software development is a cooperative work by stakeholders. It is important for project managers and analysts to understand stakeholder concerns and to identify potential problems such as imbalance of stakeholders or lack of stakeholders. This paper presents a tool which visualizes the strength of stakeholders' interest of concern on two dimensional screens. The proposed tool generates an anchored map from an attributed goal graph by AGORA, which is an extended version of goal-oriented analysis methods. It has information on stakeholders' interest to concerns and its degree as the attributes of goals. Results from the case study are that (1) some concerns are not connected to any stakeholders and (2) a type of stakeholders is interested in different concerns each other. The results suggest that lack of stakeholders for the unconnected concerns and need that a type of stakeholders had better to unify their requirements. And a preliminary evaluation suggests that the tool enables users to identify imbalance of stakeholders or lack of stakeholders faster and more correctly than a matrix of stakeholders and concerns.
Keywords: Stakeholder management; Anchored map; visualization
VICPAM: A Visualization Tool for Examining Interaction Data in Multiple Display Environments BIBAKFull-Text 278-287
  Roshanak Zilouchian Moghaddam; Brian P. Bailey
Multiple Display Environments (MDEs) facilitate collaborative activities that involve the use of electronic task artifacts. Supporting interactions and infrastructures have matured in recent years, allowing researchers to now study how the use of MDEs impacts group work in controlled and authentic settings. This has created a need for tools to understand and make sense of the resulting interaction data. To address this need, we have designed and developed a new interactive analysis tool called VICPAM. Our tool reduces the effort necessary to analyze and make sense of users' interaction data in MDEs. VICPAM consists of several components: (i) a time-aligned view, which shows users' activities over time and the duration of each activity; (ii) A spatial view, which gives a 2D overview of all users' activities in the environment; (iii) A time-bar, which allows selection of a desired time period for in-depth analysis; and (iv) a video player, which allows the user to watch a video of the session synchronized with the selected period of time.
Keywords: Visualization; Multiple Display Environment; Interactive Analysis

Security and Privacy

Privacy Concern in Ubiquitous Society and Research on Consumer Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 291-300
  Yumi Asahi
Ubiquitous means being present everywhere at the same time, which expresses the situation that users can have no trouble accessing computers and networks from anywhere, anytime. This broadens its prospect in marketing. On top of the customer information and buying history that the company keeps track of, the customers' environment information including time, place and activity field has become available. These days, due to ubiquitous marketing, concierge-styled service becomes a real possibility. This is where various suggestions are provided according to users' interests, thoughts and behavioral patterns. This research explains consumer awareness based on a questionnaire survey about consumers' privacy in ubiquitous marketing.
Keywords: Classifying respondents; Cluster analysis; Covariance structure analysis
Modelling Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Software Piracy Intention BIBAKFull-Text 301-310
  Ameetha Garbharran; Andrew Thatcher
This study found evidence for a viable social cognitive model of software piracy intention using path analysis. Compared to outcome expectations, moral disengagement emerged as the stronger significant mediator in the model exerting its influence on the relationships between past behaviour and future intention and between past behaviour and outcome expectations. This study found weak evidence for the mediating influence of facilitators and impediments while their impact as a moderating variable was inconclusive.
Keywords: social cognitive theory; software piracy; path analysis; social cognitive model; software piracy intention
A Practical Analysis of Smartphone Security BIBAKFull-Text 311-320
  Woongryul Jeon; Jeeyeon Kim; Youngsook Lee; Dongho Won
Recent developments in mobile technologies have produced a new kind of device, a programmable mobile phone, the smartphone. Generally, smartphone users can program any application which is customized for needs. Furthermore, they can share these applications in online market. Therefore, smartphone and its application are now most popular keywords in mobile technology. However, to provide these customized services, smartphone needs more private information and this can cause security vulnerabilities. Therefore, in this work, we analyze security of smartphone based on its environments and describe countermeasures.
Keywords: Smartphone; Smartphone security; Security analysis; Security mechanism
Cryptanalysis to a Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards for Multi-server Environment BIBAKFull-Text 321-329
  Youngsook Lee; Jeeyeon Kim; Dongho Won
Recently, Hsiang et al. proposed a remote user authentication scheme suited for multi-server environment, in which users can be authenticated anonymously using a smart card. This work reviews Hsiang et al.'s scheme and provides a security analysis on the scheme. Our analysis shows that Hsiang et al.'s scheme does not achieve its fundamental goal of not only any kind of authentication, either server-to-user authentication or user-to-server authentication but also password security. The contribution of the current work is to demonstrate these by mounting two attacks, a server impersonation attack and a user impersonation attack, on Hsiang et al.'s scheme. In addition, we demonstrate that their scheme is vulnerable to two-factor security which guarantees the security of the scheme when either the user's smart card or its password is stolen, but not both by employing the off-line dictionary attack.
Keywords: distributed system; authentication scheme; smart card; user anonymity; impersonation attack; off-line dictionary attack
Exploring Informational Privacy Perceptions in the Context of Online Social Networks: A Phenomenology Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 330-338
  Emma Nuraihan Mior Ibrahim
The paper presents a conceptual framework of informational privacy dimensions and its elements in the context of social networks that derived from the understanding of the user's perceptions based on a focus group interview. Phenomenology approach is adopted as it enables us to discover the lived experiences of the people involved rather using a survey or a self reported attitude studies for online social networks investigation where users tend to depart from their usual practices which is proven to be biased. It is found that the main dimensions of the informational privacy within the context of online social networks are (1) limited communication dimension that has the element of sharing of personal information with trusted others (2) release of personal information dimension that has the element of content control and the amount of personal information being released; and (3) control dimension that has the element of the ability to control over information about oneself.
Keywords: informational privacy; online social networks; phenomenology method
Server-Aided Password-Authenticated Key Exchange: From 3-Party to Group BIBAKFull-Text 339-348
  Junghyun Nam; Juryon Paik; Jeeyeon Kim; Youngsook Lee; Dongho Won
Protocols for group key exchange are cryptographic algorithms that describe how a group of parties communicating over a public network can come up with a common secret key. Due to their critical role in building secure multicast channels, a number of group key exchange protocols have been proposed over the years for a variety of settings. In this work, we present a new protocol for password-authenticated group key exchange in the model where the clients wishing to establish a common secret do not share any password between them but hold their individual password shared with a trusted server. This model is practical in that no matter how many different session keys for different groups a client wants to generate, he/she does not need to hold multiple passwords but only needs to remember a single password shared with the server. Our construction is generic. We assume a 3-party password-authenticated key exchange protocol and use it as a key component in building our password-authenticated GKE protocol. Our generic protocol requires no further long-term secrets than those used in the underlying 3-party protocol. This implies that if the given 3-party protocol is password-only authenticated, then our group key exchange protocol is password-only authenticated as well.
Keywords: Group key exchange; multicast; 3-party key exchange; password
Does Privacy Information Influence Users' Online Purchasing Behavior? BIBAKFull-Text 349-358
  Jimmy H. Nguyen; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Web sites provide privacy policies to inform users about how their personal information is being handled. However, privacy policies are usually difficult to find or are written in a legal language that is hard for the average user to understand. Thus, privacy information is often ignored by users. The goal of the present study was to determine whether more salient presentation of privacy information, through a summary provided by the Privacy Finder Web site, would influence user purchasing behavior. Specifically, we examined whether Privacy Finder influenced college students' comfort levels in making small and large purchases from familiar and unfamiliar Web sites in a simulated e-commerce task. Users were more comfortable purchasing inexpensive items, as well as making purchases from more familiar Web sites. However, Privacy Finder did not influence their purchasing behaviors or comfort levels for the different types of Web sites.
Keywords: Web Privacy; Privacy Finder; E-Commerce; Usability
Analysis of Authentication Protocols with Scyter: Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 359-365
  Ocenásek Pavel
This paper describes one of possible implementations of method used for protocol design described in a paper from 1998 by L. Buttyán, S. Staamann and U. Wilhelm which proposes a backward search (regression) when synthesizing an authentication protocol. Furthermore, the approach presented in this paper allows a designer to define participants who are trustworthy enough to transfer information between other two participants without existence of a direct channel to achieve basic routing functionality.
Keywords: Logic; Authentication; Key Distribution; Security Protocol; Routing
Routing Functionality in the Logic Approach for Authentication Protocol Design BIBAKFull-Text 366-373
  Ocenasek Pavel; Hranac Jakub
This paper describes one of possible implementations of method used for protocol design described in a paper from 1998 by L. Buttyán, S. Staamann and U. Wilhelm which proposes a backward search (regression) when synthesizing an authentication protocol. Furthermore, the approach presented in this paper allows a designer to define participants who are trustworthy enough to transfer information between other two participants without existence of a direct channel to achieve basic routing functionality.
Keywords: Logic; Authentication; Key Distribution; Security Protocol; Routing
An Approach for Security Protocol Design Based on Zero-Knowledge Primitives Composition BIBAKFull-Text 374-378
  Ocenásek Pavel
The paper deals with automated methods for the design of security protocols and their design using zero knowledge protocols, or protocols, where it is possible to use zero knowledge protocols such as subprotocols.. Specific emphasis is placed on the use of compositional method. The paper also include the example of protocol design.
Keywords: Zero knowledge; Security Protocol; Automation; Implementation

Touch and Gesture Interfaces

Effects of Joint Acceleration on Rod's Length Perception by Dynamic Touch BIBAKFull-Text 381-390
  Takafumi Asao; Yuta Kumazaki; Kentaro Kotani
Studies on dynamic touch have indicated that humans can estimate the length of a rod held in one hand simply by wielding it, without any visual information. Traditionally, these types of studies have held that proprioception is important for perceiving the moment of inertia of the rod, but this has not been demonstrated experimentally. In the present paper, we focused on joint acceleration and torque as physical values that approximate proprioception by introducing dynamics-based mechanics. In the experiments, the acceleration of the swinging of the rod was controlled. Since the acceleration and the torque both varied with time, their peak values were adopted as representative values. No correlation was observed between the angular acceleration and the perceived rod length. However, a strong correlation was found between joint torque and the perceived length. This indicates that humans perceive rod length through joint torque, which approximates proprioception.
Keywords: Dynamic touch; joint acceleration; joint torque; proprioception
ERACLE: Electromyography System for Gesture Interaction BIBAFull-Text 391-398
  Paolo Belluco; Monica Bordegoni; Umberto Cugini
Gesture interaction is one of the most important topics in the human-computer interaction. In this field, the main research activities are oriented on recognizing and classifying different gestures in order to interact with the computer directly with the body, without using classical mobile devices such as touchpad or trackball. This paper describes the development and the testing of our wearable interaction system that uses surface electromyography (sEMG) signals to recognize and process the gestures of the users. The core of the system is the "Eracle-board" that is a wearable 3-channel board developed in order to acquire the sEMG signals from the user's forearm. The acquired data are subsequently processed by an external device, which allows us to recognize and classify seven different gestures through the implementation of a neural network. Finally, the effectiveness of the system has been evaluated through some tests carried out with users.
Development of Tactile and Haptic Systems for U.S. Infantry Navigation and Communication BIBAKFull-Text 399-407
  Linda R. Elliott; Elmar T. Schmeisser; Elizabeth S. Redden
In this paper we discuss plans initiated to develop and evaluate multisensory displays (i.e. visual, haptic, tactile) to support dismounted (i.e., not in vehicle) Soldier movement, communication, and targeting. Human factors studies of an array of military operational roles have shown significant demand for focal visual attention that diminishes the capacity for task-sharing and attention allocation, especially in the context of unexpected changes and events. If other sensory modalities can be effectively used in a military environment, the benefit could be significant in increasing survivability, information flow, and mission achievement. We discuss operational task demands and two efforts supported from a 2010 SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) topic.
Keywords: Tactile displays; Haptic displays; Soldier navigation; Soldier performance; Multisensory displays; Intuitive displays
Utilization of Shadow Media -- Supporting Co-Creation of Bodily Expression Activity in a Group BIBAKFull-Text 408-417
  Koji Iida; Shiroh Itai; Hiroko Nishi; Yoshiyuki Miwa
In this research, in order to assist creation of the body expression acidity in a group, the shadow media system that can cope with a group of up to 30 kindergarteners was developed and utilized in the kindergarten. As a result, we found out that the shadow media system can open up bodies of individuals to improve physical sensitivities or that body expression to be created differs depending on each shadow media type. Moreover, it was observed that how the individual body expression was evolved to the body expression activities in one coherent group. Additionally, it was revealed that formation or breakup of a group can be observed in the body expression activity in the group of such kindergarteners.
Keywords: Bodily Expression; Image; Awareness; Co-creation; Shadow Media
Virtual Interaction between Human and Fabric BIBAKFull-Text 418-424
  Shigeru Inui; Akihiro Yoneyama; Yosuke Horiba
We tried to simulate human bodily movements to put on clothing. This is a combination of mechanical clothing simulation and measurement of bodily movements. A vest was modeled as virtual clothing because of its simple structure. Paper patterns were scanned and from the obtained images, virtual component panels of clothing were created. A model of clothing was constructed to seam virtually different component panels. The bodily movements to put on clothing were measured by a motion capture system. A virtual human model was moved according to the measured data of the movements. First, the shape of a vest in stable state hanging in the air was calculated, human body model was started to move, then the shape of the vest was calculated in every step of the movements. The movements to put on clothing were reproduced with the simulation.
Keywords: simulation; dressing activity; clothing; bodily movements; motion capture; BVH file format
Hand Gesture-Based Manipulation of a Personalized Avatar Robot in Remote Communication BIBAKFull-Text 425-434
  Teruaki Ito
This study proposes an idea of hand gesture-based manipulation of an personalized avatar robot for video conference and presents the on-going work for this study. To achieve this goal, a remote controlled communication robot called Collabo-Bot is under development, which has face projection, maneuvering and manipulation functions to improve the better communication over the network. One of the challenging ideas in this study is to personalize the communication robot using face projection to represent the operator. By doing this, the remote operating person who controls the robot enables the video conference attendees at the local site to feel the existence of the operator much stronger than a regular video conference without using a robot, or even than a typical robot-based conference. In addition to that, hand gesture-based manipulation is under study to control the avatar robot. This paper overviews the design and manufacturing of Collabo-Bot and presents some experimental results on the implementation of this hand gesture-based manipulation.
Keywords: Network-based robot; hand gesture-based manipulation; robotic arm manipulation; human interface; face projection
Vector Keyboard for Android Platform-Based Devices BIBAKFull-Text 435-442
  Martin Klíma; Pavel Slavík
This paper introduces a Vector keyboard for mobile devices with a touchscreen. Typing is produced by simple strokes sourcing from one of four blocks of letters. A user study was made comparing this keyboard with standard QWERTY, ABC and a Mobile keyboards. The study resulted in a comparable performance in terms of speed and typing with all the named layouts but QWERTY. The user preference and subjective evaluation is in contrast to the performance measured preferring the Vector keyboard over ABC and Mobile.
Keywords: vector keyboard; virtual keyboard; touch screen; PDA; QWERTY; ABC
Study on Haptic Interaction with Digital Map on Mobile Device BIBAKFull-Text 443-449
  Daiji Kobayashi; Yoshitaka Asami; Sakae Yamamoto
Touch panel operation is low-skilled interface for young individuals, thus the map on PDA (digital map) is used by the young individuals. However, we have not seen the less Japanese elderly or older persons use the digital map. Although our previous study pointed that Japanese elderly have an allergy to using PC, we conducted the simulation experiment and investigated the usability of our custom digital map for Japanese elderly. Although almost of the older participants could not get to the goal by using the digital map, we assumed that the haptic interaction supported planning route and understanding present location but the haptic interaction. Therefore, we observed the older participant's haptic interaction with paper map and digital map while they move to a goal position in residential area. From the results of the observational study, the relation between the haptic interaction and their performance was revealed.
Keywords: haptic interaction; digital map; touch panel operation; navigation
Characteristics of Information Transmission Rates Using Noncontact Tactile Display BIBAFull-Text 450-453
  Kentaro Kotani; Masayoshi Hayashi; Nobuki Kido; Takafumi Asao
Recently, tactile interfaces, which are user interfaces that employ tactile perception for input/output, have been the focus of an increasing number of studies. However, tactile interface design guidelines to help optimize the characteristics of human tactile perception have not yet been fully developed. Thus, the objective of the study was to identify the influence of perception of phantom sensation on the location of stimulus presentation on the palm. For this purpose, a noncontact tactile display with an independent driven 12 by 12 matrix air-jet driver was constructed. The subjects orally responded one of following three perception levels, i.e., (1) a crisp phantom sensation was obtained, (2) incomplete phantom sensation was perceived due to scattered stimuli, and (3) only separate stimuli were perceived and no integrated perception was generated. Phantom sensation was perceived apparently at the proximal side of the index finger compared to the wrist areas. The obtained topography drastically changed between subjects, suggesting that each individual has different distribution of perceived phantom sensations. Future study included the range of securely perceived phantom sensations for determining the specifications of tactile displays.
Multimodal Threat Cueing in Simulated Combat Vehicle with Tactile Information Switching between Threat and Waypoint Indication BIBAFull-Text 454-461
  Patrik Lif; Per-Anders Oskarsson; Björn Lindahl; Johan Hedström; Jonathan Svensson
We investigated four display configurations for threat cueing in a simulated combat vehicle. The display configurations were a tactile belt only; the tactile belt combined with 3D audio; two visual displays combined with 3D audio; and a multimodal configuration (the visual displays, the tactile belt and 3D audio combined). The tactile display was also used for navigation information. The participant's main task was to drive according to the navigation information, and when threat cueing onsets occurred, as fast as possible align the heading of the combat vehicle with the displayed direction of the threat. The tactile display thus switched between navigation and treat cueing information. Performance was overall best with the multimodal display. Threat localization error was smallest with the visual and multimodal displays. The response time was somewhat longer with the tactile belt only, and especially in the front sector. This indicates interference between the two tasks, when threat cueing onsets occurred at the same position as the navigation information. This should however not be a problem in a real combat vehicle, since the sound alert will most likely not be excluded. Thus, if coded correctly tactile information may be presented for both navigation and threat cueing.
Design of Vibration Alert Interface Based on Tactile Adaptation Model to Vibration Stimulation BIBAKFull-Text 462-469
  Yuki Mori; Takayuki Tanaka; Shun'ichi Kaneko
In this paper, we describe the influence of vibratory adaptation on vibration perception and its correction method. Vibration strength after change depends on the vibration frequency before change even if the vibration frequency itself does not change. We found that the higher the vibration frequency before change, the weaker the perceived vibration strength. To correct this perception gap, the frequency before change is fed back to the KI model that expresses the vibratory adaptation. We performed a simulation to show that output of the KI model is able to express changes in vibration caused by adaptation.
Keywords: Vibration; Adaptation; Sense of touch
Applicability of Touch Sense Controllers Using Warm and Cold Sensations BIBAKFull-Text 470-477
  Miwa Nakanishi; Sakae Yamamoto
At present, designing controllers considering the physical aspect, such as a user's muscle load or range of movement, and the cognitive aspect, such as easy handling or simple functions, has become a basic requirement, and many products have satisfied these aspects. Thus, conversely describing, because it is difficult to find differences among products using these aspects for customers, manufacturers are seeking ways to effectively appeal to users in the psychological aspect. A touch sense is expected to produce new interaction that meets our psychological satisfaction beyond visual and auditory senses. In this study, aiming at producing the reality effectively in user-system interaction, we examine the applicability of controllers with warm and cold sensation that match users' images of a change in system conditions. In particular, 1) we examine if there is a relationship between the cold or warm sensation that users feel at their fingertips and an image of changes in system conditions, and 2) we examine if a slider-type controller with warm and cold sensations helps a user's finger to slide correctly and naturally. Furthermore, on the basis of the results of this study, we propose some concepts for applying a touch sense to actual situations.
Keywords: Touch sense; Warm and cold sensations; System conditions
Information Processing for Constructing Tactile Perception of Motion: A MEG Study BIBAKFull-Text 478-487
  Ayumi Nasu; Kentaro Kotani; Takafumi Asao; Seiji Nakagawa
We clarified whether temporal changes in information processing exist by comparing real and apparent motion conditions when tactile moving perception was given. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG), which has a high temporal resolution, to capture the dynamic changes in brain information processing. As a result, it was revealed that temporal transition through several cortexes was shown in which initial information processing occurred in the somatosensory cortex, followed by MT/V5, and then the activity was transmitted to motor-related areas when tactile moving stimuli were given.
Keywords: Magnetoencephalography; Tactile; Apparent motion; Real motion; Perception of speed; Somatosensory; Motor cortex; MT/V5
A Study on Selection Ability in the 3D Space by the Finger BIBAKFull-Text 488-497
  Makoto Oka; Yutaro Ooba; Hidetaka Kuriiwa; Ryuta Yamada; Hirohiko Mori
Intuitive gestures are very effective for interactions. Pointing gesture with a finger would be used for interactions like pie menu selection. It has been researched as to the appropriate numbers of menu items being displayed in a pie menu. However, no research has been made for the case where menus are selected by using gestures. We will experiment in order to examine the ability of pointing gesture (selection ability) in the 3-dimensional space. The experiment was conducted in order to find out the test subjects' selection ability of pointing gesture. By combining the obtained resolution abilities of pointing gesture at the 2-dimensional surface of Pitch and Yaw, it is suggested that the selection ability of selection behavior in the 3-dimensional space is 22 areas.
Keywords: Gesture; Selection Ability; Menu; Pie menu
Characteristics of Comfortable Sheet Switches on Control Panels of Electrical Appliances: Comparison Using Older and Younger Users BIBAKFull-Text 498-507
  Yasuhiro Tanaka; Yuka Yamazaki; Masahiko Sakata; Miwa Nakanishi
This study focuses on sheet switches, which are among the most common user interfaces in electrical appliances, and explores the comfort level required by elderly users. Touching a switch is a common action in our daily lives; however, little research has been performed on this action. In particular, we were unable to find any reports on the comfort elderly users experience upon touching a sheet switch. Thus, electrical-appliance designers have no well-prepared reference data when designing new products. As a consequence, elderly users experience discomfort when using new appliances. Our goal is to construct a guideline for designing comfortable sheet switches for elderly users. In this study, as the first step toward achieving this goal, we attempt to clarify the physical parameters of sheet-switch features that contribute toward ease of use and comfort.
Keywords: Sheet switches; Electrical appliances; Elderly users; EMG; Comfort
Support for Generation of Sympathetic Embodied Awareness: Measurement of Hand Contact Improvisation under Load Fluctuation Stress BIBAKFull-Text 508-518
  Takabumi Watanabe; Yoshiyuki Miwa; Go Naito; Norikazu Matsushima; Hiroko Nishi
The eventual goal of this study is to establish a method to enhance implicit embodiment and support for creation of expression with others. As a first step, we studied how implicit embodiment relevant to the creation of expressions is represented in the body movement during Hand Contact Improvisation. Specifically, by building a system that measures movements of the entire body in the process of hand contact improvisation, experiments were carried out using skilled person of improvised bodily expressions as subjects. From the results, it was inferred that implicit embodiment is activated and both skilled performers. Next, we have focused on fluctuation as a means to enhance implicit embodiment. Hence, a device was developed to present load fluctuation to the hands of test subjects arbitrarily. Effects of load fluctuation were evaluated using measurement results of the entire body and subjective evaluation. The results suggested that by presenting a fluctuation which has little effect on the consciousness, implicit embodiment of performer can be activated.
Keywords: Bodily expression; fluctuation; embodied interaction; embodiment

Adaptation and Personalisation

Different People Different Styles: Impact of Personality Style in Web Sites Credibility Judgement BIBAFull-Text 521-527
  Rahayu Ahmad; Jieyu Wang; Károly Hercegfi; Anita Komlodi
Reliance on the Internet as a source of information has increased dramatically in recent years among information seekers. The reliability of information on the Internet can sometimes be questionable due to the absence of an editorial function. Users need to carefully consider the quality of the information before using it. The goal of this research was to study the process of credibility evaluation by users. We examined how personality styles influence the way people make credibility judgments when they are browsing online. Our results show that thinkers' evaluation style were more fact based than intuitive users who relied more on their initial impression and prior experience with the websites. Perceivers gathered information from various sources before trusting information and forming perception on the credibility of authors and websites. Lastly the judgers tend to formed conclusions quickly. This resulted to filtering credible web sites based on the format and layout of the websites.
A Comprehensive Reference Model for Personalized Recommender Systems BIBAKFull-Text 528-537
  Matthias Breyer; Kawa Nazemi; Christian Stab; Dirk Burkhardt; Arjan Kuijper
Existing reference models for recommender systems are on an abstract level of detail or do not point out the processes and transitions of recommendation systems. However, this information is relevant for developers to design or improve recommendation systems. Even so, users need some background information of the calculation process to understand the process and accept or configure these systems proper. In this paper we present a comprehensive reference model for recommender systems which conjuncts the recommendation processes on an adequate level of detail. To achieve this, the processes of content-based and collaboration-based systems are merged and extended by the transitions and phases of hybrid systems. Furthermore, the algorithms which can be applied in the phases of the model are examined to identify the data flow between these phases. With our model those information of the recommendation calculation process can be identified, which encourages the traceability and thus the acceptance of recommendations.
Keywords: recommender system; recommender reference model; recommendation calculation; calculation information; data flow
Dynamic Interface Reconfiguration Based on Different Ontological Relations BIBAFull-Text 538-547
  Elisa Chiabrando; Roberto Furnari; Pierluigi Grillo; Silvia Likavec; Ilaria Lombardi
This paper presents a framework and a prototype implementation of a system that integrates ontological knowledge base with the services for the users in mobility. Our system tries to help users navigate the domain of gastronomy, offering a possibility to explore the ontological base consisting of many concepts and relations. We present the logic and technical realization of the modules responsible for knowledge base interrogation and for presenting the obtained information to a user. We also provide a brief description of the implemented interface and user evaluation.
Analysis of Content Filtering Software BIBAKFull-Text 548-557
  Woongryul Jeon; Youngsook Lee; Dongho Won
The openness of web allows any user to easily get information anytime and anywhere. However, as well as the advantage of easy access to useful information, the web has disadvantages of providing users with harmful information indiscriminately. Some information, such as adult content, is not appropriate for children. To protect children from adult contents, many types of filtering software have been distributed. However, filtering software cannot entirely block adult contents, because it has some functional limitations. In this paper, we analyze several filtering software and discuss their limitations. Furthermore, we propose the essential functionalities for filtering software.
Keywords: Evaluation; Filtering Software; Adult Contents Filtering
A Smart Movie Recommendation System BIBAKFull-Text 558-566
  Sang-Ki Ko; Sang-Min Choi; Hae-Sung Eom; Jeong-Won Cha; Hyunchul Cho; Laehyun Kim; Yo-Sub Han
We propose a movie recommendation system based on genre correlations. We modify the previous algorithm; we use a list of movies as input instead of genre combinations. We implement a new recommendation algorithm as Android application with additional functions. By combining with existing web services such as Google Movie Showtimes and Open APIs, our system can recommend movies playing in cinemas currently and show the detailed information of movies. Location-based function is also implemented. We utilize GPS information of mobile device and web service provided by Google Maps for recommending suitable cinemas for users with mobile devices.
Keywords: recommendation system; movies; smartphones; Android
Interactive Personalization of Ambient Assisted Living Environments BIBAKFull-Text 567-576
  Alexander Marinc; Carsten Stocklöw; Andreas Braun; Carsten Limberger; Cristian Hofmann; Arjan Kuijper
Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) comprises methods, systems, and services applied to improve the quality of daily life for humans, especially elderly people. Recent research emphasizes the implementation of comprehensive AAL platforms which control all technological components included in the entire environment such as one's apartment. The behavior of the system is often determined by a specific set of rules. Thus, personalization according to the person's needs and preferences includes a configuration of the given rule system. Assuming that configuration is not only conducted by technical staff but also by the person him or herself, this process can be regarded as complex, requiring technical knowledge. In this work, we present an interactive and architectural approach to support at the personalization of an AAL system by different types of users.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; End User Configuration; Personalization
Development of a System for Proactive Information Service BIBAKFull-Text 577-584
  Myon-Woong Park; Soo-Hong Lee; Young Tae Sohn; Jae Kwan Kim; Ilju Bae; Jae-Kwon Lim
This paper describes a Context-based Information Service Agent which has been developed in the domain of sports, especially for baseball game which often called a sport based on data. For the implementation of the agent, a knowledge model structure which can define the change of context along the axis of time has been suggested. The usability of the agent has been proved as the service system implemented on mobile phone proactively recommended the observation points and information suitable for the current context of watching the game in non-invasive manner.
Keywords: information service; context-awareness; agent; knowledge model; mobile platform
My Personal User Interface: A Semantic User-Centric Approach to Manage and Share User Information BIBAKFull-Text 585-593
  Till Plumbaum; Katja Schulz; Martin Kurze; Sahin Albayrak
With the growing impact of the Web 2.0 on our every day life, people start to use more and more different web based services like Facebook or Twitter. Thereby, they generate and distribute personal and social information such as interests, preferences and goals that are stored in a user profile. This leads to open challenges regarding the users ability to keep track of their personal information but it also offers chances to use this data to enhance personalization and recommendations of existing services. This paper presents a user-centric, thus privacy preserving, system to cope with these challenges and a personal user interface (UI) that allows users to manage and share personal data.
Keywords: information visualization; recommender systems; data mining; user modeling; user-centered design; ontological engineering; semantic mapping

Measuring and Recognising Human Behaviour

Effect of Menstrual Distress on Task Performance BIBAKFull-Text 597-602
  Keiko Kasamatsu; Mi Kyong Park; Seiko Taki
Women have periodic physiologic change of menstruation. There is a possibility to be influenced the physical and mentally in the female. It is necessary to support a comfortable life and work for female. The relationship between workload and stress that was taken the menstrual cycle into consideration had been examined on mental tasks in this research. Menstrual phase, follicular phase and premenstrual phase of menstrual cycle were focused and analyzed. The survey was conducted to grasp the menstrual cycle of the subjects. The experiment was consisted of two kinds of tasks. As the results of the survey and the experiment, it was suggested that there were differences on task speed, stress, and sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity due to menstrual complaints.
Keywords: Menstrual cycle; Task Performance; Mental Workload; Menstrual Associated Symptoms
A Study of Attention Control by Using Eye Communication with an Anthropomorphic Agent BIBAKFull-Text 603-611
  Tatsuya Mita; Ryo Wada; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto
We are developing the self-toileting support system for the dementia patient by combining posture-detection method and video contents. We conducted a preliminary evaluation, and found a problem. When we gave instruction to pick up the paper in the box to patient by video-voice guidance, the patient persisted in the box in the audio-visual guidance and did not notice the real box. From this result, we noticed that it was difficult for people with dementia to shift the eye gaze and attention from something to something only by giving verbal instruction. We are investigating the way of the attention control by using the eye communication model with the anthropomorphic agent. In this paper, we showed the results of the experiment in that we compared the effectiveness of the eye gaze and the attention control by adding the text message, the arrow animation, and the agent animation respectively to the voice instruction.
Keywords: Dementia; Anthropomorphic agent; Eye communication model; Attention shift; Joint attention; Eye gaze
Auditory Feature Parameters for Music Based on Human Auditory Processes BIBAKFull-Text 612-617
  Masashi Murakami; Toshikazu Kato
Authors aim to show the similarity and difference of sensibility effect when human listen to the music. For concrete example, we assume the music recommendation services. To propose the music that users really want, we use the image words that users feel for the music, and retrieve and propose the music based on the similarity of the image word. We intend to propose the music that users really want based on Kansei engineering. We make the Hierarchical model of Kansei. This model shows that human have the 4 processes when listen the music. Feature parameters are physical frequency data with physiological process. These parameters make us possible to represent how human listen the music. In next step, we represent how human feel for the music. These representations help users possible to retrieve the music really want. For representation of human feelings, we use image words and subjective estimation.
Keywords: Music; Hierarchical model of Kansei; Auditory characteristic
Construction of a Model for Discriminating between Electroencephalographic Patterns at the Time of Incorrect Inputs Based on Sensitivity Spectrum Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 618-626
  Raita Ohori; Daiki Shinkai; Yoshimitsu Nagai; Syohei Ishizu
We consider the possibility of prior discovery of slip-type human error by quantifying the "distraction" state that precedes it. We investigated brain activity during the task of keyboard-based text input taking incorrect input as a slip-type error. We used sensitivity spectrum analysis to quantify four output states. We attempted to detect in correct input by discriminating between the output of the distraction state before and after incorrect input and that of the state before correct input.
Keywords: Sensitivity spectrum analysis; electroencephalogram; event-related potential; distraction; error recognition; human error
Basic Study of Analysis of Human Brain Activities during Car Driving BIBAFull-Text 627-635
  Noboru Takahashi; Shunji Shimizu; Yukihiro Hirata; Hiroyuki Nara; Hiroaki Inoue; Nobuhide Hirai; Senichiro Kikuchi; Eiju Watanabe; Satoshi Kato
Recently, as the worldwide population grows older, it is thought that various assistive systems have soared. It is necessary to discuss functions of humans, spatial perception, decision-making, and determining direction, for developing assistive systems. The final goal of our research is to contribute to developing of welfare robots with functions that are responsive like human. We measured brain activities during virtual car driving using NIRS. As a result of these experiments, there were significant differences at outside frontal cortex in left brain. This go-round, we measured brain activity during actual car driving. In general roads, experiments were performed by taking f-NIRS in the car, and measuring the brain activity when car driven by subjects was went through a number of intersections and road signs. In addition, there was significant difference in common regions. We report a significant association between car driving and brain activity.
Bereitschaftspotential Modeling by DBNM and Its Application to BCI BIBAFull-Text 636-640
  Shino Takata; Toshimasa Yamazaki; Maiko Sakamoto; Takahiro Yamanoi; Ken'ichi Kamijo
In this study, movement-related potentials (MRPs) including Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is modeled by a dynamic Bayesian network model (DBNM). The containing the MRPs BP are divided into the early BP, NS' (negative slope) and MP (motor potential) intervals, each of which is represented by a Bayesian network model (BNM). Each BNM is constructed using the results by equivalent current dipole source localization (ECDL) after independent component analysis (ICA), for single-trial EEGs recorded during the hand movement. Nodes in the BNM correspond to the brain sites where dipoles are located. Connecting with the three BNMs yields a DBNM. This model is used to discriminate between the left- and right-hand movements in a framework of single-trial-electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCI.
Emotional Human-Machine Interaction: Cues from Facial Expressions BIBAKFull-Text 641-650
  Tessa-Karina Tews; Michael Oehl; Felix W. Siebert; Rainer Höger; Helmut Faasch
Emotion detection provides a promising basis for designing future-oriented human centered design of Human-Machine Interfaces. Affective Computing can facilitate human-machine communication. Such adaptive advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) which are dependent on the emotional state of the driver can be applied in cars. In contrast to the majority of former studies that only used static recognition methods, we investigated a new dynamic approach for detecting emotions in facial expressions in an artificial setting and in a driving context. By analyzing the changes of an area defined by a number of dots that were arranged on participants' faces, variables were extracted to classify the participants' emotions according to the Facial Action Coding System. The results of our novel way to categorize emotions lead to a discussion on additional applications and limitations that frames an attempted approach of emotion detection in cars. Implications for further research and applications are outlined.
Keywords: Emotion detection; human-computer interaction; human-centered design; affective computing
Development of an Eye-Tracking Pen Display for Analyzing Embodied Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 651-658
  Michiya Yamamoto; Hiroshi Sato; Keisuke Yoshida; Takashi Nagamatsu; Tomio Watanabe
In recent times, intuitive user interfaces such as the touch panel and pen display have become widely used in PCs and PDAs. Previously, the authors developed the bright pupil camera. They subsequently developed an eye-tracking pen display based on this camera and a new aspherical model of the eye. In this paper, a robust gaze estimation method that uses a integrated-light-source camera is proposed for analyzing embodied interaction. Then, a prototype of the eye-tracking pen display was developed. The accuracy of the system was approximately 12 mm on a 15" pen display, which is sufficient for human interaction support.
Keywords: Embodied interaction; pen display; eye-tracking; aspherical model
Care Giving System Based on Consciousness Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 659-668
  Noriko Yokoyama; Tomoyuki Yamaguchi; Shuji Hashimoto
In these days, robotics systems that provide supportive communication to human have been actively developed. However in such systems the internal consciousness state of human is not taken into consideration and hence the provision of support might not be appropriate. In this article we proposed a study support communication system that encourages and praises the human user based on the recognition of consciousness state through the user posture.
Keywords: Human interface; Bayesian network