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HIMI Tables of Contents: 07-107-209-109-211-111-213-113-213-314-114-215-115-2

HIMI 2013: Human Interface and the Management of Information, Part I: Information and Interaction Design 2013-07-21

Fullname:HIMI 2013: 15th International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information, Part I: Information and Interaction Design
Note:Volume 13 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Sakae Yamamoto
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8016
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39209-2 hcibib: HIMI13-1; ISBN: 978-3-642-39208-5 (print), 978-3-642-39209-2 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. HIMI 2013-07-21 Volume 1
    1. Interacting with Information
    2. Information Searching, Browsing and Structuring
    3. Design and Development Methods and Tools for Interactive Systems and Services
    4. Personalized Information and Interaction
    5. Cognitive and Emotional Aspects of Interacting with Information

HIMI 2013-07-21 Volume 1

Interacting with Information

Estimation of Driver's Steering Intention by Using Mechanical Impedance BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Takafumi Asao; Satoshi Suzuki; Kentaro Kotani
We attempted to estimate a driver's steering intention by using human mechanical impedance, which changes as a result of muscle activity, because humans should be ready to act before moving. First, we verified the estimated accuracy of the impedance under a static condition. The estimation results showed good accuracy. Then, we tried to estimate the time-varying human impedance during a tracking task using the steering wheel. There were some instances where the stiffness became high before steering and became low after steering, but the occurrence rate was low.
Keywords: steering intention; mechanical impedance; dynamic identification; Kalman filter
The Relationship Between Handlebar and Saddle Heights on Cycling Comfort BIBAKFull-Text 12-19
  Min-Chi Chiu; Hsin-Chieh Wu; Nien-Ting Tsai
This study aims to clarify the relationship between handlebar and saddle heights on cycling comforts by assessing the kinematics, kinetics, physiological loading and subjective perceived exertion rating. Twenty young adults with mean age 24.6 years (SD=0.1) were recruited to participate in this study. A commercial city bike with the adjustable handlebar and saddle had been set on the indoor cycling stands. All subjects were asked to ride randomly with 9 different postures (3 handle × 3 saddle heights) for continuous one hour. A 3-D motion analysis system (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany) was used to collect the kinematic data. The body pressure measurement system (Body Pressure Measurement System, Tekscan, U.S.A) was applied to measure the pressure distribution, force and displacement of centre of mass (COM). A heart rate monitor (Polar RS-800, Kempele, Finland) was used to record the heart rate as the physiological loading. Moreover, a subjective perceived exertion rating scale (Borg CR-10) was used to assess subjective comfort around the body regions. The results of this study indicated that the lower handlebar with higher saddle cause greater ROM in wrist-ulnar deviation, wrist extension, trunk flexion and hip abduction. It also reveals more force on hand region, more discomfort around hand, ankle and back, and higher physiological loading. While cycling with higher handlebar and lower saddle, it has more ROM in wrist flexion, more body displacement on buttock region, little trunk forward, and more discomfort rating in buttock region. For handlebar and saddle adjustment, the considerations of body dimensions and characteristics, the relationship between handlebar and saddle heights might improve the cycling comfort and diminish musculoskeletal injury.
Keywords: cycling comfort; pressure distribution; range of motion; heart rate; subjective rating
Kanji Characters in Japan -- Remaining Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 20-29
  Toshihiro Enami
The Japanese Government has set its sights on becoming number one in the world in ICT, as seen in the announcement of an e-Japan strategy by the IT strategy organization established in 2000. However, according to the United Nations E-Government Development Index, Japan's ranking has remained low despite its progress in information infrastructure. The reason for this is that the Japanese government did not integrate the code and standardize the data which are needed to use ICT across the whole country. The government introduced the national ID bill into the Diet last year, but the issue of Kanji characters, i.e., how to define the Japanese Kanji character set, remains unresolved because this issue, especially as it related to Kanji characters of names, includes a complex problem of interface between human and machine. I think the current proposed solution will not be successful because it ignores the issue of human interface. I insist that the Kanji character issue should be viewed from the perspective of human interface, and I propose a solution whereby the government should regulate by law the range of Kanji characters used by ICT, rather than increasing the number of Kanji character used.
Keywords: e-Government; Character Code; Kanji Character
A Study on Selection Ability in the 3D Space by the Finger BIBAKFull-Text 30-36
  Junpei Fukaya; Yutaro Ooba; Hidetaka Kuriiwa; Ryuta Yamada; Makoto Oka; Hirohiko Mori
Intuitive gestures are very effective for interactions. Pointing gesture with a finger would be used for interactions like pie menu selection. It has been researched as to the appropriate numbers of menu items being displayed in a pie menu. However, no research has been made for the case where menus are selected by using gestures. We got the ability of pointing gesture (selection ability) in the 3-dimentional space from the previous research. By combining the obtained resolution abilities of pointing gesture at the 2-dimentional surface of Pitch and Yaw, it is suggested that the selection ability of selection behavior in the 3-dimentional space is 22 areas. We will experiment in order to examine whether the subjects really point 22 areas without vertical guide. As a result, we found they can point 12 areas of 22.
Keywords: Gesture; Selection Ability; Menu; Pie menu
Empirical Evaluation of Multimodal Input Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 37-47
  Sanjay Ghosh; Anirudha Joshi; Sanjay Tripathi
With variety of interaction technologies like speech, pen, touch, hand or body gestures, eye gaze, etc., being now available for users, it is a challenge to design optimal and effective multimodal combinations for specific tasks. For designing that, it is important to understand how these modalities can be combined and used in a coordinated manner. We performed an experimental evaluation of combinations of different multimodal inputs, such as keyboard, speech and touch with pen etc, in an attempt to investigate, which combinations are efficient for diverse needs of the users. In our study, multimodal combination of three modalities was found to be more effective in terms of performance, accuracy and user experience than that of two modalities. Further, we also inferred the roles that each of the modalities play in a multimodal combination to achieve the usability goals.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction; modality combinations; usability testing
Usability Evaluation of the Touch Screen User Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 48-54
  Chih-Yu Hsiao; You-Jia Liu; Mao-Jiun J. Wang
With the advancement of ICT technologies, touch-screen interface mobile devices become a standard feature. This study aims to evaluate the Popover interface design under different age groups. The UI elements being considered for evaluation include location, window length and font size of the popover in three visual search tasks. The results show that there were significant differences in reaction time and accuracy rate between age groups. The worst performance was found in the older group. The best button position was on the bottom screen. In addition, significant performance differences between popover window length and font size were also found. Generally speaking, it is recommended to use the popover window with long cell length, and bigger font size for better readability, especially for the older age group users.
Keywords: Touch screen; iPad; User Interface Elements; Popover; Performance Measures
A Study for Personal Use of the Interactive Large Public Display BIBAKFull-Text 55-61
  Shigeyoshi Iizuka; Wataru Naito; Kentaro Go
In recent years, "digital signage" has been used for large screen displays in public spaces, such as stations or shopping malls. Some display terminals have used digital signage to dispatch information in an interactive format; thus, a user touches an electronic screen to obtain information, such as a map, store location, or advertisement, and receives it freely. Public systems commonly adopt user interfaces with touch panels on display terminals to facilitate interactive information exchange.
   On the other hand, the popularity of personal computers and the explosive growth of the Internet now make it possible for users to handle a wide variety of information -- regardless of location or time of day. Furthermore, users communicate not only information that may be seen by others but sometimes information not intended to be seen by others. In other words, even information of a highly confidential nature can be accessed anywhere and anytime. The information dissemination which cared about this point is desirable.
   In this research, therefore, we will study information security and privacy as it pertains to large touch screens in public places. The goal of this research is to identify the variables associated with user safety when interfacing on large touch screens in public venues; additionally, we will propose a method for designing public space so that users can communicate interactively with reassurance of confidentiality.
Keywords: Information environment design; Public space; Large public display; private information; Reassurance
Study on Haptic Interaction with Maps BIBAKFull-Text 62-71
  Daiji Kobayashi; Anna Suzuki; Nanami Yoneya
Although older adults' haptic interaction with a paper map (HIM) has been observed in our previous studies, the effectiveness of touch panel operation introducing HIM was not addressed. In this study, young adults' characteristic hand movements were observed, and the hand movements to understand the present location and directions to a goal by a walker as the HIM were defined. Hence, a digital map with three HIM functions was developed and the effectiveness of these functions was measured and experimentally clarified. Further, the effectiveness of a prompted HIM was experimentally investigated using a specific digital map that prompted various HIM on the walker's demand. Finally, the characteristics of HIM and the effectiveness of prompting HIM to the walker using a map were clarified.
Keywords: haptic interaction; paper map; digital map; touch panel; tablet PC
Relative Position Calibration between Two Haptic Devices Based on Minimum Variance Estimation BIBAKFull-Text 72-79
  Masanao Koeda; Yuki Konbu; Hiroshi Noborio
In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the relative positions of multiple haptic devices. As is the case in stereo camera calibration, the accurate measurement of the relative positions of haptic devices is difficult. The proposed method uses the acquired stylus positions of two devices and estimates the relative positions of two devices based on minimum variance estimation. In this method, the data acquisition process has been improved to allow a large number of data points to be easily acquired. We conducted preliminary experiments to estimate the positions of two devices. The results showed the feasibility and reasonable accuracy of the proposed method.
Keywords: Haptics; Calibration; Positioning
Optimization of GUI on Touchscreen Smartphones Based on Physiological Evaluation -- Feasibility of Small Button Size and Spacing for Graphical Objects BIBAKFull-Text 80-88
  Shohei Komine; Miwa Nakanishi
Prompted by the increasing popularity of smartphones, we experimentally investigated how command button size and spacing influences users' operation and experience of the device. We measured user performance (input accuracy and operation time) and assessed physiological and psychological reactions. Tests were performed for a range of button sizes, spacing and handling modes. While large button size (9 mm) increased user comfort, a size of 7 mm aroused more user excitement, suggesting that user-interface design guidelines should be revised for uses such as games and amusement.
Keywords: GUI; touchscreen; smartphone; physiological evaluation; interest
Changes in Posture of the Upper Extremity Through the Use of Various Sizes of Tablets and Characters BIBAKFull-Text 89-96
  Hiroki Maniwa; Kentaro Kotani; Satoshi Suzuki; Takafumi Asao
The aim of this study was to analyze the posture of the upper extremities during the use of mobile communication devices. Using various sizes of mobile devices and display characters, we examined subjective muscular loads, viewing distances, and joint angles in the head, neck, shoulder, elbow, and lower back. No postural differences were found between the use of 7-in and 10-in devices, whereas the head and neck were significantly flexed and the elbow angles were decreased during the use of the 13-in device. Character size significantly affected the viewing distance; however, no differences in body angles were found. Participants continually increased their muscular loads during the task by flexing the head and neck, despite their high subjective discomfort levels in the neck and upper arm.
Keywords: tablet devices; smartphone syndrome; upper extremity posture; angle analysis
GUI Efficiency Comparison Between Windows and Mac BIBAKFull-Text 97-106
  Eric McCary; Jingyaun Zhang
In present times, it is not uncommon to have a desktop with two or more monitors. How these operating systems perform in a multiple monitor environment is an interesting topic. In this work, we will evaluate the efficiency of and compare how two popular operating systems, Windows and Mac OS, perform in large and multiple monitor environments. In particular, we will evaluate the performance of menu bars in both operating systems as they serve a near identical purpose and have the same functionality while providing their offerings differently. It is well-known that Mac OS uses a menu bar at the top of the screen (global) and Windows uses a menu bar attached to the top of its respective application (local). The conducted user study shows that the overall performance of Windows menu bar was better than that of the Mac menu bar implementation in the conducted tests.
Keywords: Graphical User Interface (GUI); Menu Bar; Title Bar; Operating System; Locality
Correction Method Based on KI-VPA Model for Changes in Vibratory Perception Caused by Adaptation BIBAKFull-Text 107-116
  Yuki Mori; Takayuki Tanaka; Shun'ichi Kaneko
This paper describes a method for correcting differences in human vibratory perception caused by sensory adaptation. Humans feel a vibrational strength when a vibrating device is held in the hand. However when the vibrational frequency is changed, human perception of the new frequency is affected by the vibrational frequency experienced before the change. This is called sensory adaptation. The Katagiri-Aida model-based vibratory perception adaptation (KI-VPA) mode can estimate changes in vibratory perception caused bt adaptation. We have developed a correction method on basis of the KI-VPA model and tested the method on ten human subjects. The results indicate that the proposed correction method reduced the effects of adaptive changes to vibratory perception.
Keywords: Vibration; Vibratory perception; Tactile sense; Vibration alert interface
Non-contact Measurement of Biological Signals Using Microwave Radar BIBAKFull-Text 117-125
  Hiroki Morodome; Satoshi Suzuki; Takafumi Asao; Kentaro Kotani
The objective of this study was to develop a prototype system to monitor biological signals using microwave radar, without making contact with the body and without removing clothing. The prototype system has a microwave Doppler radar antenna with a 24-GHz frequency and approximately 7-mW output power. Experiments were conducted with a group of subjects. We found that the prototype system precisely captured the heart rate and the heart-rate variability (HRV). Our prototype system allows for the monitoring of biological signals, without placing any burden on the monitored individuals.
Keywords: Non-contact; Microwave; heartbeat
Leaning Origami Using 3D Mixed Reality Technique BIBAKFull-Text 126-132
  Atsushi Nakano; Makoto Oka; Hirohiko Mori
3D Mixed Reality Technique is a kind of the AR (Augmented Reality). Using AR, we can reduce mistakes and can lead effective works. Especially, utilizing 3DCG will enhance the potential of AR. In the research of 3DCG, Non Photo Real rendering is proposed as a manner to understand structure of 3DCG easily. No researches have been done so far to verify whether the Non Photo Real technique works well in AR. This paper inspects whether the Non Photo Real technique is effective in utilizing AR to learning Origami (Japanese paper craft). We approach a way to rendering 3DCG animations in AR system and compare of works using each 3DCG animations. We got results accomplishment rate and easier to watch. As a result, we show that learning works using Non Photo Real in AR was improved understanding works.
Keywords: Leaning Origami; Mixed Reality
Basic Investigation into Hand Shape Recognition Using Colored Gloves Taking Account of the Peripheral Environment BIBAKFull-Text 133-142
  Takahiro Sugaya; Takayuki Suzuki; Hiromitsu Nishimura; Hiroshi Tanaka
Although infrared cameras are sometimes used for posture and hand shape recognition, they are not used widely. In contrast, visible light cameras are widely used as web cameras and are implemented in mobile and smart phones. We have used color gloves in order to allow hand shapes to be recognized by visible light cameras, which expands both the type of background that can be used and the application areas. It is considered that the hand shape recognition using color gloves can be used to express many patterns and can be used for many applications such as communication and input interfaces, etc. The recognition performance depends on the color information of the color gloves, which is affected by the environment, especially the illumination conditions, that is bright or dim lighting. Hue values are used to detect color in this investigation. The relative finger positions and finger length are used to confirm the validity of color detection. We propose a method of rejecting image frames that includes a color detection error, which will, in turn, give rise to a hand shape recognition error. Experiments were carried out under three different illumination conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified by comparing the recognition success ratio of the conventional method and with the results using the proposed methods.
Keywords: Colored Gloves; Visible Light Camera; Color Detection; Hue Value; Peripheral Environment
Managing HMI Quality in Embedded System Development BIBAKFull-Text 143-150
  Haruhiko Urokohara; Naotake Hirasawa
We have developed HMI metrics to evaluate the usability of software products. System engineers who are not usability professional can design basic HMI software by using this metrics. The HMI metrics is expected to be applied for the Software Quality Auditing System in the future.
Keywords: HMI; Usability; Software quality metric; Knowledge management; Safety; Security and reliability
Usability Evaluation of the Universal Computer Workstation under Supine, Sitting and Standing Postures BIBAKFull-Text 151-156
  Hsin-Chieh Wu; Min-Chi Chiu; Cheng-Lung Lee; Ming-Yao Bai
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of the self-made universal computer workstation. The 9 handicapped and 10 healthy adults were recruited to participate in this study, in order to understand the performances of computer operation, ratings in comfort and satisfaction for using the tested workstation in different positions. This workstation can be successfully adjusted for standing, sitting, and supine postures. This workstation also allows easy access of wheelchair. No significant differences in performances were found among supine, sitting, and standing postures. All of the participants considered this workstation comfortable. Most handicapped participants preferred to adopt supine posture to use the computer. The experimental results revealed that supine posture lead to more comfort in the lower back without decreasing performances while using a computer. Further, the healthy participants had the mean rating in satisfaction of 3.7, which was similar to that of the handicapped. It indicates that the tested workstation satisfied both the handicapped and the healthy participants. The findings of this study can provide helpful information for further improvement of a universal computer workstation.
Keywords: universal design; workstation; usability; ergonomic design
Window Manager Designed for Cloud Services BIBAKFull-Text 157-166
  Shizuki Yoshino; Tetsuo Tanaka; Kazunori Matsumoto
Cloud services like web-based e-mail or hosted office suites are becoming widespread. With these services, PC users are likely to use several services and to visit several sites at once. As a result, several windows appear on the desktop, and their overlapping complicates access to hidden windows. In this study, the authors propose a window manager running on the browser. The proposed window manager employs a tiling style in order to improve the usability of multiple cloud services at the same time. It also employs a window placement method, implemented by drawing frame edges, and a window replacement method using drag and drop. It is user-friendly, even for unskilled PC-users. An experiment showed that the proposed window manager was effective in reducing the number of operations for window placement or replacement.
Keywords: window manager; cloud service; drawing frame edges; tiling style; window placement; usability

Information Searching, Browsing and Structuring

Finders, Keepers, Losers, Seekers: A Study of Academics' Research-Related Personal Information Collections BIBAKFull-Text 169-176
  Mashael Al-Omar; Andrew Cox
In conducting their research, scholars are not only information seekers, they are information keepers and managers as well. This paper describes a study of seventeen scholars from Education and Health disciplines (College of Nursing and Health Science College) in the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET), Kuwait and their research-related personal information collections. A model explaining the size, diversity, hybridity and fragmentation of these collections to immediate and underlying causes is presented.
Keywords: Personal Information Management; Human Computer Interaction; Information Behavior; Information Practice; Information Retrieval
EventLens: An Automatic Magazine Generating System for Social Media BIBAKFull-Text 177-186
  Hao Chen; Han Tang; Zhiyu Wang; Peng Cui; Yingquing Xu; Shiqiang Yang
Social media has become the most convenient platform for news reading nowadays. In this paper, we introduce an automated digital magazine generating system -- EventLens, which provides a platform to help the users get information more effectively through intelligent information selection and integration on social media. In our application, we not only design the functionalities, interface, and overall user experience to satisfy users' need in terms of information content and reading habits, but also propose the necessary solutions: an automated magazine layout method and a swift image retargeting method to solve the problems in the process of digital magazine auto-generation.
Keywords: magazine generating; layout; image retargeting; usability
A User Driven Design Approach to Creating UGC Services -- Challenging the Newspaper Industry BIBAKFull-Text 187-196
  Esbjörn Ebbesson; Carina Ihlström Eriksson
This paper presents a user driven approach to creating user generated content services together with newspaper representatives and researchers in a Living Lab setting. Two cases are discussed, one with creating city district blogs and one with creating a site for un-employed youth. In each case both situated and distributed design activities were conducted, and the paper discusses the challenges with this approach. As the newspaper industry traditionally designs their services in-house from their own ideas and thereafter tests them with their readers, a user driven approach by readers was very challenging. However, the newspaper representatives also found it rewarding to embrace their ideas. The participating readers were very active in the situated activities but only a few continued the same activity online. The paper concludes by proposing a model for how to view the changing role of a researcher or facilitator in these types of setting.
Keywords: user generated content; newspaper industry; user driven; co-design
A Novel Human-Computer Interface for Browsing Web Data by Leaping Up Web Pages BIBAKFull-Text 197-202
  Che-Lun Hung; Cherng Chin; Chen-Chun Lai; Ho Cheung Cheung
With the rapid growth of network technologies, various web services have been developed for providing information. Therefore, search engines become popular to obtain the useful data. It is critical to efficiently acquire the data from huge data pool in the Internet; especially the number of web pages is increasing dramatically. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to browse web data by leaping up web pages. In addition, the proposed approach using web preloading and cache technologies to enhance the performance of accessing web page. The simulation results show the proposed approach can be useful for browsing and searching data in the Internet.
Keywords: Web Browser; Web Page; Leaping Up; Browser Interface
Can a Clipboard Improve User Interaction and User Experience in Web-Based Image Search? BIBAFull-Text 203-212
  Leon Kastler; Ansgar Scherp
We investigate if a clipboard as an extension to standard image search improves user interaction and experience. In a task-based summative evaluation with 32 participants, we compare plain Google Image Search against two extensions using a clipboard. One clipboard variant is filled with images based on DCG ranking. In the other variant, the clipboard is filled based on gaze information provided by an eyetracker. We assumed that the eyetracking-based clipboard will significantly outperform the other conditions due to its human-centered filtering of the images. To our surprise, the results show that eyetracking-based clipboard was in almost all tasks worse with respect to user satisfaction. In addition, no significant differences regarding effectiveness and efficiency between the three conditions could be observed.
The Effects of Website Familiarity on Website Quality and Intention to Use BIBAKFull-Text 213-220
  Scott McCoy; Eleanor T. Loiacono; Gregory D. Moody; Cristóbal Fernández Robin
Previous research has revealed that mere exposure to a website can positively influence a user's experience with that website. This research extends this line of investigation by looking into the influence of familiarity on ads that appear on a website as well as the website itself. The results revealed familiarity to have a significant impact on ad evaluation directly and website quality indirectly (through ad entertainment and informativeness).
Keywords: Website quality; WebQual; entertainment; online advertisement; Internet; experiment
Designing Effective User Interfaces for Crowdsourcing: An Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 221-229
  Robbie Nakatsu; Elissa Grossman
We investigate characteristics of the technology platform for different types of crowdsourcing initiatives, as characterized by their task type -- specifically we classify crowdsourcing applications by task structure, task interdependence, and task commitment. The method employed is to examine best practices of well-known crowdsourcing applications, investigating their user interface features, and characteristics that make them successful examples of crowdsourcing. Among the best practices uncovered were the following: easy searching for information; adaptive user interfaces that learned from the crowd; easy-to-use mobile interfaces; the ability to vote ideas up or down; credentialing; and creating sticky user interfaces that engaged the user. Finally, we consider issues for further study and investigation.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing; user interface design; open source design; online problem-solving platforms; distributed knowledge gathering; wisdom of the crowds
Trailblazing Information: An Exploratory Search User Interface BIBAFull-Text 230-239
  Marcus Nitsche; Andreas Nürnberger
When conceptualizing user interfaces (UIs) to support exploratory search, designers need to take into account various aspects. In contrast to ordinary information retrieval UIs, exploratory search user interfaces (XSIs) need to support users in a more complex and often long-term use scenario. Therefore aspects of Personal Information Management need to be taken into consideration. An XSI needs to provide a visually appealing overview over retrieved search results, it should offer simple ways to interact with the result set and offer easy ways of interaction to enhance the user's search experience by direct or indirect query refinement options. In this paper we propose a possible solution to address these requirements, implemented a fully functional prototype and present the results of a conducted usability study.
QUEST: Querying Complex Information by Direct Manipulation BIBAFull-Text 240-249
  Marcus Nitsche; Andreas Nürnberger
When users search for information in domains they are not familiar with, they usually struggle to formulate an adequate (textual) query. Often users end up with repeating re-formulations and query refinements without necessarily achieving their actual goals. In this paper we propose a user interface that is capable to offer users flexible and ergonomic interaction elements to formulate even complex queries in a simple and direct way. We call this concept QUEST (Query User Interface for Exploratory Search Tasks). The proposed radial user interface supports phrasing and interactive visual refinement of vague queries to search and explore large document sets. The main idea of this concept is to provide an integrated view of queries and related results, where both -- queries and results -- can be interactively manipulated and influence each other. Changes will be immediately visualized. The concept was implemented on a tablet computer and the usability was stepwise evaluated during a formative and a summative evaluation process. The results reveal high usability ratings, even if the concept was completely unknown to our test users.
Analytics on Online Discussion and Commenting Services BIBAKFull-Text 250-258
  Sungho Shin; Sangkeun Park; Jinseop Shin; Sa-Kwang Song; Sung-Pil Choi; Hanmin Jung
From the view of design claims for online communities, it is very crucial to take interactions among members in a community into account when starting and maintaining it. This means managers of online communities need to technically support their members through online discussion and commenting services. Online discussion and commenting service, so called, blog comment hosting service, helps communities to provide their members with feedbacks of others, since such feedbacks play much important role in starting and maintaining an online community. Through online discussion and commenting services, we can post a comment on the website using our own social network service account if the website uses a social comment platform. Whenever, whatever, and wherever users post a comment, every comment is integrated and managed by the social comment platform. One of most powerful social comment platforms is Disqus. It is the social comments platform or social discussion platform used in the world popular websites such as CNN, Billboard. Thus, we analyze it in various views and give a several suggestions to make the websites more active. Main findings reported in this paper include significant implications on the design of social comment platforms.
Keywords: Design Claims; Online Community; Disqus; Online Discussion and Commenting Service
Incentive Structure of Participation in Community Activity BIBAKFull-Text 259-268
  Yurika Shiozu; Katsuhiko Yonezaki; Katsunori Shimohara
In this paper, we disassemble community mutual aid into two components: providing local public goods and everyday associations with neighbors. If the OFT (Out-For-Tat) strategy is taken, and the benefit of everyday associations with neighbors exceeds the cost, cooperation was demonstrated not only in associations in everyday life but through providing local public goods. To fulfill this condition, it is necessary to lower the participation fees in associations with neighbors, and for all the members to choose the local public goods that receive the benefit. When using ICT (Information Communication Technology) especially, cost cutting for associations with neighbors is expected.
Keywords: Incentive structure; Community activity; OFT strategy
Are the Intrusive Effects of SPAM Probes Present When Operators Differ by Skill Level and Training? BIBAKFull-Text 269-275
  Hector I. Silva; Jason Ziccardi; Tristan Grigoleit; Vernol Battiste; Thomas Z. Strybel; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) plans to implement a series of automated tools into the National Airspace System to aid air traffic controllers (ATCos) in managing a two to three times increase in air traffic density. However, introducing automated technologies into a system like air traffic management (ATM) changes the responsibilities of the ATCo from an active controller to a passive monitor, which can result in lower levels of situation awareness (SA). To measure SA objectively in such a dynamic task as ATM, the Situation Present Awareness Method (SPAM) is often used. SPAM provides the operator with SA probes while the operator is performing the task. Some studies have shown that the use of SPAM to measure SA is intrusive because it provides the operator with a secondary task. The present study examines whether these intrusive effects of SPAM are present when the operator has achieved a high skill level at the time of test, and whether training operators to rely more or less on NextGen automated tools influence their performance when SPAM queries are presented as a secondary task.
Keywords: situation awareness; online probe methodology; situation present assessment method
Persuasive Narrative via Digital Storytelling BIBAKFull-Text 276-283
  Kaoru Sumi; Mizue Nagata
This paper describes an experiment on conveying the messages of stories to users. We investigated what kind of story and what kind of character, in terms of the level of abstraction, should be applied to convey a story's message. The animated stories used in the experiment were created using WordsAnime, a software tool for creating animation content easily from an input scenario. The experiment was then conducted by showing subjects animated stories with varying levels of abstraction for the story and the central character.
Keywords: Persuasion; digital storytelling
Prediction of the Concern of People Using CGM BIBAFull-Text 284-292
  Yusuke Ueda; Yumi Asahi
It is that the spread of CGM (consumer generated media) is been noticed in recent years. There are 42,890,000 Japanese SNS users at the end of 2011, and it is say that 56,430,000 people will be user of it at the end of 2014. The month-long user of a buzz marketing site has reached to 83,560,000 people, and it being increasing. Recent market scale is 200,500 million yen in Japan. This will be expanded 396,300 million yen in 2013. It originates in the background of growth at (A), (B), and (C). (A) It can use for free. (B) Not only a general user but a company can do promotion and communication.

Design and Development Methods and Tools for Interactive Systems and Services

Unified Modeling Language: The Teen Years and Growing Pains BIBAKFull-Text 295-304
  John Erickson; Keng Siau
Unified Modeling Language (UML) is adopted by the Object Management Group as a standardized general-purpose modeling language for object-oriented software engineering. Despite its status as a standard, UML is still in a development stage and many studies have highlighted its weaknesses and challenges -- including those related to human factor issues. Further, UML has grown considerably more complex since its inception. This paper traces the history of Unified Modeling Language (UML) from its formation to its current state and discusses the current state of the UML language. The paper first introduces UML and its various diagrams, and discusses its characteristics and features. The paper then looks at UML's strengths, challenges, and possible future development. The human factor issues with using UML are discussed and elaborated. Potential research questions related to UML are also highlighted.
Keywords: Unified Modeling Language; Human Factors; Systems Analysis and Design; Object Orientation
Evaluation of System Engineers' Intellectual Productivity BIBAKFull-Text 305-315
  Ryo Hirano; Yohei Nakamura; Miwa Nakanishi
In this study, we construct a method for evaluating thinking and judgment as intellectual productivity of system engineers, with a particular focus on a supporting system that the engineers engaged in software development. This method can be applied in two ways. The first application is an approach to evaluate the skill of system engineers. This method can not only evaluate the engineer's aptitude by scoring intellectual productivities but can also analyse tendencies related to the skill of system engineers by using proportions of each control processes and time-series graphs. The second application is an approach to improve the tools and manuals of the development environment. By comparing time-series graphs of the thinking process with operating logs, we can identify the specific point where system engineers have fallen into scrambled control processes so that we can specifically identify the problem in the corresponding instructions and manuals, which should result in improvements in development environment tools.
Keywords: Intellectual productivity; system engineers; application development tools
Freiform: A SmartPen Based Approach for Creating Interactive Paper Prototypes for Collecting Data BIBAKFull-Text 316-321
  Marcel Klomann; Jan-Torsten Milde
The creation of multi-modal data collection is a complex task for all empirically working scientific disciplines. Currently the data is collected using complex audio-video technology and is then manually processed, quite often in a computer supported way. In this project we developed a system allowing to easily create interactive paper prototypes for collecting data. The systems is based on smart pen technology, which allows the user to simply sketch out the form on paper by defining the field type and the field size. Once the sketch is available on paper, data collection can start. The system runs directly on the smart pen. Collected data will be stored in an XML-based, which can be further processed by external programs.
Keywords: interactive paper prototypes; electronic pen; data collection
Towards an Ontological Interpretation on the i* Modeling Language Extended with Security Concepts: A Bunge-Wand-Weber Model Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 322-328
  Gen-Yih Liao; Po-Jui Liang; Li-Ting Huang
Goal-oriented requirements engineering can facilitate the elicitation and representation of various types of requirements, including organizational and security requirements. This paper applies the Bunge-Wand-Weber ontological model to analyze and evaluate the security concepts in the extended i* modeling language that has been considered as one of representative methods concerning goal-oriented modeling languages. The findings revealed that among the seventeen terms analyzed, thirteen concepts can be directly mapped to ontological terms. The findings can help in future works develop modeling rules to assist security requirements engineering.
Keywords: i* modeling language; security requirement; Bunge-Wand-Weber ontological model; ontological analysis
Reconsidering the Notion of User Experience for Human-Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 329-337
  Hiroyuki Miki
Recently, the word "User Experience (UX)" has been often used in usability-related areas such as web design and system design. Although it was defined in ISO 9241-210 and its importance has been growing, details of the notion and results of introduction of it have not been well clarified yet. After reviewing related research results, this paper firstly summarizes a historical transition from usability to UX by seeing transitions from ISO/IEC 9126-1 to ISO/IEC 25010 in the software quality international standard, and from ISO 13407 to ISO 9241-210 in the ergonomics international standard. Then details of the notion are discussed and a framework for UX is proposed.
Keywords: User Experience; Usability; ISO 9241; ISO 13407; ISO/IEC 25010; Guideline; American Customer Satisfaction Index; Customer Expectation Management; Theory of Consumption Value; Persona
The Proposition of a Framework to Support the Design of Ecological Systems for the Web BIBAFull-Text 338-346
  Marcelo Morandini; Pedro Luiz Pizzigati Correa; Tharsis Novaes; Thiago Adriano Coleti
Usability evaluation is one of the main steps in a product development life cycle and is responsible for providing a better level for its quality. Applying usability evaluation techniques is an important activity to achieve better definitions that can be used in the software development. Specifically, when is considered the development of interactive systems designed to support Ecological Simulation Environments, this process must be taken with prudence and rigor. So, their Human-Computer Interaction must be taken with efficacy, efficiency and user satisfaction. When the Ecological Simulation Environment is considered, this problem has a special feature that turns it into a special one: the information localization is one of the main important characteristic of its definition. These systems allow the manipulation, maintenance and visualization of geographic data as coordinated sets and the interest for their applications is increasing a lot in the last few years. Nowadays, we can consider the Web Ecological Simulation Environment as a reality, as in these web sites the geographic information and the simulation features for specific ecological environments are being disposed in different pages and their manipulation is being supported by the internet. On the other hand, some of these web sites are usually designed and implemented for specific users, such as the biological community and it makes them too specific for being used and analyzed by "regular and traditional" users that can be able to interact with them, since these sites may be available on the web. The Web mapping services and the ecological simulation systems are being accessed more regularly and most of them can be available through accessing web sites. These applications are based on the possibilities that the technology offers, such as spatial localization for specific interest places or addresses, calculation of simulation taxes and some distances between two addresses or places, among others. In this context, the internet is the better way users can interact with them. This does contribute a lot in the increase of the quantity and diversity of users, their features and restrictions. So, ecological simulation systems utilization is not always an activity that may be considered as trivial or easy. When performing the usability evaluations, we do not just aim to collect the evaluators answers for the questionnaires applied, but we also plan to ask to the evaluators to rank the level of importance for each one of the Ergonomic Criterion, since each question had, at least, one Ergonomic Criterion associated. So, based on these results, we may have conditions to create a framework for designing web sites for Ecological Simulation applications as we can be able to figure out which information is more relevant and, so, propose strategies for making them more usable.
Environment-Centered Approach to ICT Service Design BIBAKFull-Text 347-356
  Takehiko Ohno; Momoko Nakatani; Yurika Katagiri
One of the key factors we should consider in designing the new ICT services that provide high user experience is environment. In this paper, we show two example in which the use of ICT service strongly depends on the environment in which the service is provided. We then propose an environment-centered approach for designing ICT services. Traditional user-centered approaches like the persona-scenario method focus on the user domain, but environmental factors are considered in little while designing services. We found, however, that service use is diversed drastically in the different environments. We have started to examine the proposed approach for ICT service design. A preliminary finding is that we can focus on environmental factors, especially, the environmental difference at different times, which is not considered explicitly in the traditional user-centered approach.
Keywords: User experience design; user-centered design; ICT service design; environment-centered design; ethnography
Overview of Global User Interfaces for Localization BIBAKFull-Text 357-364
  Clara Peters; Mazhar Sajjad; Myungkwon Hwang; Jinhyung Kim; Sa-Kwang Song; Do-Heon Jeong; Seungwoo Lee; Hanmin Jung
In today world user interfaces must meet the demands of an international environment. User Interface (UI) based on the user preferences and targeting a specific group of people can improve the usability, it fulfilled market demand and reduced the service cost. It is very difficult and costly process to localize a user interface before internationalize it. This paper highlights both the verbal and the visual part of the interface that can play a very important role while creating a user interface that aims at being adapted to local user groups. This paper gives an overview of cultural differences such as different color associations, divergent meaning of metaphors as well as different standards concerning typography. The goal of the work is to emphasize the usability of localized user interfaces and guarantee the comfortable and intuitive use for local users.
Keywords: localization; globalization; internationalization
Quantifying the Impact of Standards When Hosting Robotic Simulations in the Cloud BIBAFull-Text 365-374
  Sekou L. Remy
Cloud computing has the ability to transform simulation by providing access to computation remotely. The transformations are not without cost however. The physics-based simulations required in robotics are sensitive to timing, and given the complexity of the operating environments, there are many reasons for a roboticist to be concerned.
   In this work we explore the impact of the cloud, web, and networking standards on the control of a simulated robot. Our results show that, on average, there is a noticeable impact on performance, but this impact is not statistically significant in five of the six considered scenarios. These results provide support for efforts that seek to use the cloud to support meaningful simulations. Our results are not globally applicable to robotics simulation. When using cloud-hosted simulations, roboticists yield fine tuned control of the environment, and as such there are some simulations are simply not viable candidates for this treatment.
Survey and Expert Evaluation for e-Banking BIBAKFull-Text 375-382
  Basil Soufi
A variety of factors impact customer take-up of and satisfaction with e-commerce platforms. Aspects of functionality, usability, security and customer service are considered key determinants of perceived service quality. The study examines e-banking platforms in the United Arab Emirates using survey and expert evaluation. The evaluation has identified the platforms that were considered better overall and highlighted areas for improvement. The paper reflects on the usefulness of the methods employed in the evaluation and outlines issues for future work.
Keywords: Evaluating e-commerce; e-banking case study; survey and expert evaluations
Framework for Quantitatively Evaluating the Quality Requirements of Software System BIBAKFull-Text 383-392
  Yuki Terawaki
Quality requirements (QR) are a description which indicates how well the software's behavior is to be executed. It is widely recognized that quality requirements are vital for the success of software systems. Therefore, to define the quality requirements and to check the quality attributes carefully is necessary for bringing good-quality software and ensuring quality of the service. This paper proposes a framework that measures the quality attributes in the requirements document such as SRS. The effectiveness of this framework was briefly described, we discuss approach was to enrich the representative quality corpora.
Keywords: Requirements Engineering; Quality Requirements; Non-Functional Requirements; text-mining
Effective Practice of HCD by Usability Modeling and Standardization BIBAKFull-Text 393-399
  Hideo Zempo
Human-centered design (HCD) is one possible approach to enhancing usability, and it is important to take the HCD method to the development process. However, there is a realistic problem with insufficient resource such as manpower and time for the HCD method. Then, in order to practice HCD and to use know-how concerning the usability available more easily, the template defined of nine basic screens based on current findings was made. As a result, system engineers and developers came to be able to develop systems with a certain level of usability by using the templates, and that leads to the efficiency of the systems development and the improvement of the design quality.
Keywords: Human-centered design; usability; screen template; system development
Quality of Service Ontology Languages for Web Services Discovery: An Overview and Limitations BIBAKFull-Text 400-407
  Furkh Zeshan; Radziah Mohamad; Mohammad Nazir Ahmad
Web services discovery, ranking and selection based on QoS parameters is remained a hot topic for research since the start of the semantic web. Quality of service (QoS) plays an important role to resolve the issue of best service among the functional similar services. Semantic web relies on the ontologies for providing metadata schema and the vocabulary of concepts used in semantic annotation; resulting improved accuracy of web search. This is why; the success of semantic web depends on the proliferation of ontologies. Depending on the nature of the application, different companies may use different ontology languages and QoS models for web services selection which lead to the issue of heterogeneity. In this paper we have presented ontology evaluation criteria that if satisfied, can solve the problem of heterogeneity and interoperability. Moreover, ontology developers may also use these criteria to evaluate their developed ontology for the refinements. We have evaluated different ontologies in-order to know their strengths and limitations along with the new research directions.
Keywords: Web Services; Semantic Web; Semantic Web Services; QoS; Ontology

Personalized Information and Interaction

Placebooks: Participation, Community, Design, and Ubiquitous Data Aggregation 'In the Wild' BIBAKFull-Text 411-420
  Alan Chamberlain; Andy Crabtree; Mark Davies; Kevin Glover; Stuart Reeves; Peter Tolmie; Matt Jones
This paper outlines and describes the development of a multi-media data aggregation system called Placebooks. Placebooks was developed as a ubiquitous toolkit aimed at allowing people in rural areas to create and share digital books that contained a variety of media, such as: maps; text; videos; audio and images. Placebooks consists of two parts: 1) a web-based editor and viewer, and 2) an Android app that allows the user to download and view books. In particular, the app allows the user to cache content, thereby negating the need for 3G networks in rural areas where there is little-to-no 3G coverage. Both the web-based tools and the app were produced in the English and Welsh languages. The system was developed through working with local communities using participatory approaches: working 'in the wild'. Placebooks is currently being used by a Welsh Assembly Government project called the People's Collection of Wales/ Casgliad y Werin.
Keywords: collaborative work; Community computing; Electronic publishing; Participatory design; Quality of life and lifestyle
A Study of Different Consumer Groups' Preferences of Time Display on Watches BIBAKFull-Text 421-430
  Wen-Chih Chang; Wei-Ting Chen
Nowadays, through creative time displays, designers increase the value and novelty of watches for consumers in order to increase their purchase intention. Moreover, the diversity of consumer demands to watches has created many niche markets. This study raises the questions of whether designers' different time display techniques for specific consumer groups be identified by the target groups, and what are the differences between the different groups' preferences for time displays on watches. A questionnaire survey was conducted. The findings are: a. Different groups of consumers have different preferences of time displays on watches. b. There is high correlation between consumers' preference and purchase intention regarding time displays on watches. c. There is significant correlation between cognition of time display attributes (readability, playfulness, and innovation) and preference. Among the three attributes, readability influences preference the most. Thus, regarding time displays on watches for different consumer groups, there should be different designs.
Keywords: Watch time display; Consumers preference; Consumer group
Evaluation of Superimposed Self-character Based on the Detection of Talkers' Face Angles in Video Communication BIBAKFull-Text 431-438
  Yutaka Ishii; Tomio Watanabe
We build upon an embodied video chat system, called E-VChat, in which an avatar is superimposed on the other talker's video images to improve the mutual interaction in remote communications. A previous version of this system used a headset-type motion capture device. In this paper, we propose an advanced E-VChat system that uses image processing to sense the talker's head motion without wearing sensors. Moreover, we confirm the effectiveness of the superimposed avatar for face-to-face communication in an experiment.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction; Human Interface
Modeling of Music Recommendation Methods to Promote the User's Singing Motivation -- For Next-Generation Japanese Karaoke Systems BIBAKFull-Text 439-448
  Satoshi Isogai; Miwa Nakanishi
This study attempted to build a model that recommends music choices to encourage karaoke-system users to sing by using data about the music preferences and inner characteristics of each user. First, we conducted an auditory experiment in two phases. Additionally, we analysed the acoustics and lyrics of music pieces. Using these data, we built a map of the music based on user impressions, and used this map to reveal the relationship between the user's most favourite music piece and the music piece that a user was highly motivated to sing. Thus, we were able to establish a basic model of the system that recommends the music piece a user would be highly motivated to sing.
Keywords: music recommendation; singing motivation; karaoke system
Analysis of Purchasing Behavior Focusing on the Passage of Time at a Group Buying Site of Coupon BIBAKFull-Text 449-455
  Takuto Kobayashi; Toshikazu Yamaguchi; Yumi Asahi
In late years, the spread of Internet advances. The diffusion rate of the Internet in 2011 became 79.1%, and the Internet made generalization. With the spread of Internet, marketing technique called the flash marketing came up. As delegate of flash marketing, Group buying sites of coupon are receiving attention in Japan. But people relating to its business think that the sales are having peaked. In this study, we assume that behaviors of users using Group buying sites of coupon change by the time elapsed. By analyzing the change of their behavior, we understand the change of behavior to lead to the continued buying. As a final objective, we hope that we can give help that the sales are having peaked.
Keywords: Group buying site; Coupon; the Internet; Sequence analysis; RFM analysis; Cluster analysis
Research on Website Usage Behavior through Information Search Perspective: A Comparison of Experiential and Goal-Directed Behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 456-464
  Juihsiang Lee; Manlai You
Along with the rapid growth of the Internet, online information search has become a prevalent Internet activity. However, little research has addressed the factors and website features that influence website information search behavior. Prior studies investigate factors that affect consumer preferences in online shopping websites. And, seldom distinguish between pre-purchase and post-purchase experiences and tend to focus on post-purchase assessment only. Therefore, this study aimed at the Internet users' searching behavior, and further probed into users' willingness of continuous websites use. But when purchasing tourism products, Information search is even more important than information search before buying manufactured goods. Tourism products and services are seldom routine purchases (Swarbrooke & Horner, 1999). Choices of tourism products usually involve considerable emotional significance and perceived and actual risk for the individual (Xie, Bao, & Morais, 2006). Based on the prior literatures (Lee, 2005; Lin & Chen, 2009) a model was proposed and empirically tested to gain a better understanding on Internet users' search behavior. The results showed that Internet user's willingness to revisit was mainly influenced by his/her involvement and satisfaction toward the website, and these two factors were affected by website information quality, website interactivity, and hedonic value. Also, the research model was moderated by goal-directed and experiential behavior.
Keywords: On-line Shopping Website; Information Search Behavior; Interactivity
Semantically Structured VDL-Based Iconic Tags System BIBAKFull-Text 465-474
  Xiaoyue Ma; Jean-Pierre Cahier
Iconic tags system based on Visual Distinctive Language has been developed and assessed improving tagging effectiveness by considering tagging quality and tagging speed. This amelioration benefits from semiotic interpretation of tag meaning and graphical code of tag structure. To make in-depth research about this special iconic tags system, we study tags arrangement in this paper and hypothesized that semantically arranged iconic tags would imply better tagging results. A supplementary experiment was taken place by comparison between randomly and semantically arrangement method, which has validated our hypothesis.
Keywords: tags system; icon; visual distinctive language; tags cloud; semantic relations; knowledge organization system
A Model of Living Organisms to Integrate Multiple Relationship Network Descriptions BIBAFull-Text 475-483
  Tetsuya Maeshiro
We present a description of a living organism that integrates multiple relationship networks, where each network represents a different facet of the target phenomena. The lifestyle illness and diabetes related phenomena are described using the proposed model. The relationship network model denotes a representation model where the focused phenomena or element is represented as a node, and nodes are connected if the represented phenomena or elements are somehow related. Each relationship network is a hypernetwork model, whose representation power is stronger than conventional models. Different viewpoints can be selected from a single model, thus the user can grasp the represented phenomena according to his needs.
Similar or Not Similar: This Is a Parameter Question BIBAKFull-Text 484-493
  Andrey Araujo Masiero; Flavio Tonidandel; Plinio Thomaz Aquino Junior
There is much information of users to be analyzed to develop a personalized project. To perform an analysis, it is necessary to create clusters in order to identify features to be explored by the project designer. In general, a classical clustering algorithm called K-Means is used to group users features. However, K-Means reveals some problems during the cluster process. In fact, K-Means does not guarantee to find Quality-Preserved Sets (QPS) and its randomness let the entire process unpredictable and unstable. In order to avoid these problems, a novel algorithm called Q-SIM (Quality Similarity Clustering) is presented in this paper. The Q-SIM algorithm has the objective to keep a similarity degree among all elements inside the cluster and guarantee QPS for all sets. During the tests, Q-SIM demonstrates that it is better than k-means and it is more appropriate to solve the problem for user modeling presented in this paper.
Keywords: Q-SIM; Clustering; User Modeling; Personas
Generalized Algorithm for Obtaining a Family of Evaluating Attributes' Sets Representing Customer's Preference BIBAKFull-Text 494-504
  Takuya Mogawa; Fumiaki Saitoh; Syohei Ishizu
Product developments become complex and diversified. Many products appear which have a variety of features for adapting a customer's preference. A single evaluating attributes' set don't perform to evaluate these products. Because products which straddle multiple market segments are evaluated by customer's preferences which switch with the usage. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate products by a family of evaluating attributes' sets (hereinafter referred to as "FEAS") which corresponds to the customer's preferences. Mogawa [1] proposed an algorithm which guarantees to obtain FEAS under the conditions that Customer's Preference Grid (hereinafter referred to as "CPG")is reflexive. It is not until the algorithm limited relations of customer's preference that this allows to obtain FEAS. Our main aim is to provide a generalized algorithm for obtaining FEAS. Where, we present the conditions under FEAS existing and we extract the required relations of evaluating attribute for obtaining FEAS. We propose an algorithm for obtaining FEAS by defining propositions and an extraction procedure.
Keywords: customer's preference; attribute's set; a family of evaluating attribute's sets; Data-mining; Rough Set
TAGZILLA: Tag-Based File Storage and Retrieval BIBAKFull-Text 505-514
  Vikram Nair; Vijayanand Banahatti; Niranjan Pedanekar
Users have to rely on memory for storing or retrieving data in Hierarchical Folder Organization (HFO) such as the Microsoft Windows Explorer for managing their information. We propose 20 Interface Design Objectives (IDOs) for Personal Information Management (PIM) interfaces. We find IDOs of HFO that need the most improvement using a qualitative survey of 66 users on importance and satisfaction scales. We present an alternate tag-based interface called TAGZILLA based on the concept of the 'Stream of Consciousness'. TAGZILLA provides users with an interface to create tags for storing files and retrieve files based on tags. It also suggests tags during storage and retrieval. We report an increase in satisfaction for all IDOs using a return survey with 20 participants who used TAGZILLA. We also present a preliminary quantitative experimental comparison of TAGZILLA with the Windows Explorer interface for the IDOs needing most improvement.
Keywords: Microsoft Windows Explorer; Personal Information Management; Tagging; Human Computer Interfaces; Hierarchical Folder Organization
Proposal of Avatar Generating Method by Composition of the Portraits Made by Friends BIBAKFull-Text 515-523
  Masashi Okubo; Satoshi Nobuta
Recently, the Remote communication through the Internet has been performed actively. And as a remote communication tool, the uses of graphic avatars are especially popular in Japan. However, in many cases, the avatar used on the communication is not mirrored to a user who creates the avatar himself using the application software provided for the remote communication support system. Therefore, the remote friends cannot imagine the appearance of the user from his/her avatar at all. In this research, we will propose a method of creating an avatar. The method shows that the avatar is constructed by merging some portraits, which are created by user's friends. We have developed the prototype systems for creating a portrait and an avatar composed of some portraits. This paper describes methods and systems of creating a portrait and an avatar. We performed some experiments to evaluate the usability of the proposed system and the quality of an avatar created on the proposed system. As an experimental result, it is revealed that the avatar, which is created on the proposed system, tends to be preferred by the user and friends.
Keywords: Avatar; Portrait; Avatar communication
Usability Compliance Audit for Technology Intelligence Services BIBAKFull-Text 524-533
  Nadine Pietras; Mazhar Sajjad; Myungkwon Hwang; Jinhyung Kim; Sa-Kwang Song; Do-Heon Jeong; Seungwoo Lee; Hanmin Jung
Usability has become a central aspect of the success of applications in the mobile environment. However most usability engineering theories are rather cost intensive and involve the work of usability experts. This paper presents an approach for a "discount usability" check in the means of a usability compliance audit. Being composed of various international usability guidelines, policies and legislation as well as specific development tools for the iOS and Android platform, we have created an audit of 189 general usability recommendations as well as 39 statements focusing on usability issues within the tablet environment. The audit model has been tested at the example of the technology intelligence service application InSciTe (Intelligence in Science and Technology), designed by KISTI (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information). The results of the audit, conducted by researchers within the development team, show first insights into areas of usability compliance as well as areas in need for improvement. Although the model has a limited scope and needs further development, it can be seen as a starting point to employ usability testing means within the development lifecycle of tablet application projects.
Keywords: Discount usability; auditing; usability compliance audit
Factor Models for Promoting Flow by Game Players' Skill Level BIBAKFull-Text 534-544
  Mamiko Sakata; Tsubasa Yamashita; Masashi Okubo
In this study, to investigate the influence of game types and opponent's ability on the player's state of mind and performance, we developed a simple numerical calculation game system. Using this system, we performed some experiments under controlled situations. All subjects solved the calculations at a similar rate, except when factoring for the players' recognition of the cooperator or competitor' skill level. However, the subjects' performance and emotions are different depending on the situation, which suggests that the video game system has an effect on the player's emotional state.
Keywords: Flow; Video Game; Competitive Type; Cooperative Type; Factor Model
Social Experiment on Advisory Recommender System for Energy-Saving BIBAKFull-Text 545-554
  Hiroki Shigeyoshi; Ken'iti Tamano; Ryosuke Saga; Hiroshi Tsuji; Shuki Inoue; Tsuyoshi Ueno
This paper describes a social experiment on an advisory recommender system for home energy-saving, called KNOTES. Based on the user's value sense and the effectiveness of the advice, KNOTES aims to recommend highly effective advices over the user's own preferences. In addition, KNOTES uses an advice reference history to avoid the repetition of redundant advice. For the social experiment, forty-seven subjects used KNOTES for about two months. Introducing four metrics for comparing KNOTES with a random recommender, this paper verifies that KNOTES could recommend the advices which are desirable from the view of energy-saving and could avoid the repetition of redundant advices. The remaining issue has been prediction of the users' preferences according to their value sense.
Keywords: recommender system; home-energy-saving; man-machine interaction; knowledge management
Modeling a Human's Learning Processes to Support Continuous Learning on Human Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 555-564
  Kouki Takemori; Tomohiro Yamaguchi; Kazuki Sasaji; Keiki Takadama
This paper presents the way to design the continuous learning support system for a human to achieve continuous learning. The objective of this research is to make a prototype system based on a learning process model to guide a human to achieve continuous learning. The main problem is how to keep supplying new goals to a learner for achieving continuous learning. To encourage the sense of continuous awareness toward goal discovery, we propose an idea to provide a human learner with invisible goals. This paper formalizes the continuous learning by a simple maze model with invisible goals and designs the maze sweeping task which involves multiple solutions and goals.
Keywords: continuous learning; invisible goals; maze sweeping task

Cognitive and Emotional Aspects of Interacting with Information

On the Reading Performance of Text Layout, Switch Position, Topic of Text, and Luminance Contrast for Chinese E-books Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 567-575
  Wen-Te Chang; Ling-Hung Shih; Zunhwa Chiang; Kuo-Chen Huang
This study investigated the effects of four independent variables -- text layout, switch position, topic of text, and luminance contrast of Chinese E-books -- on reading time and reading accuracy. Forty-eight college students, 26 females and 22 males aged 18-23 years, were recruited for the experiment. The present study demonstrated that a down-to-up text direction with a switch located to the right was the best layout for Chinese E-books in terms of reading time and accuracy. Moreover, the present study also addressed the effects of interactions between text direction and luminance contrast on level of visual fatigue and between text direction and topic of text, between switch position and topic of text, and between text direction and switch position on reading time. The results of this study should contribute to research related to the impact of touch-pad or interface designs on reading, luminance contrast, interface layout, satisfaction, and reading comprehension.
Keywords: Text layout; Switch position; Topic; Luminance contrast; E-book
Search Results Pages and Competition for Attention Theory: An Exploratory Eye-Tracking Study BIBAKFull-Text 576-583
  Soussan Djamasbi; Adrienne Hall-Phillips; Ruijiao (Rachel) Yang
The World Wide Web plays a central role in many aspects of our modern life. In particular, using search engines to access information about products and services has become an integral part of our day-to-day activities. In this study we look at users' viewing behavior on search engine results pages (SERPs) through the lens of competition for attention theory. While this theory has been used for examining consumer behavior on e-commerce websites, little work has been done to test this theory for viewing behavior on SERPs. We use eye tracking data to analyze viewing behavior. The results show that viewing behavior can have an impact on a user experience and effective search, providing theoretical direction for studying the viewing behavior of SERPs.
Keywords: Eye Tracking; Search Engine Result Pages (SERPs); Viewing Behavior; Fixation; Competition for Attention
Assessing Mental Workload of In-Vehicle Information Systems by Using Physiological Metrics BIBAKFull-Text 584-593
  Susumu Enokida; Kentaro Kotani; Satoshi Suzuki; Takafumi Asao; Takahiro Ishikawa; Kenji Ishida
Use of physiological indices including ECGs and EMGs was investigated for estimation of drivers' mental workload induced by using in-vehicle information system (IVIS). The subject performed multiple simultaneous task paradigm consisted of driving using driving simulator, use of car navigation system and stimulus detection task paradigm. The results indicated that muscular loads obtained by EMGs tended to show higher activity in coherent with the level of mental workload and high correlation coefficient between muscular loads. The performance associated with stimulus detection task revealed the potential use of EMG signals as an index for evaluating mental workload.
Keywords: human engineering; bioinstrumentation/driving; physiological measurement; Electromyography
Evaluation of Somatosensory Evoked Responses When Multiple Tactile Information Was Given to the Palm: A MEG Study BIBAKFull-Text 594-603
  Akihito Jinnai; Asuka Otsuka; Seiji Nakagawa; Kentaro Kotani; Takafumi Asao; Satoshi Suzuki
In this study, as a part of comprehensive approach to develop an interface for tactile information delivery, we aimed at capturing the relationship between neuronal and perceptual sensitivity characteristics of in human hand as indexed by neuromagnetic and psychometric responses.
   Airpuff stimuli were presented to multiple locations on the ventral side of subjects' palm, which somatosensory evoked responses were observed.
   As a result, it was observed that the latency and amplitude of the evoked responses in the primary somatosensory area (SI) was not related to the location on the palm. Although mechanoreceptors in the palm area distributed densely at both the center of the palm and the proximal part of the proximal phalanges, no effects on location were found by the amplitude of the evoked responses at SI area. These results suggested that amplitude of the evoked responses at SI did not depend on the distribution of the mechanoreceptors.
Keywords: Magnetoencephalography; Tactile; Airpuff stimuli; Somatosensory evoked responses; Primary somatosensory area
The Right Level of Complexity in a Banner Ad: Roles of Construal Level and Fluency BIBAKFull-Text 604-613
  Chih-Tung Kao; Man-Ying Wang
The current study examined the emotional consequences involved in processing different levels of information complexity in a banner ad as well as the role of construal level [15] in the process. The entropy measure of information theory was used as a metric of complexity. This measure showed high correlation with subjective ratings of complexity. Complexity manipulation adopting this measure found reliable effects on subjective complexity across two experiments. On the other hand, construal level, manipulated or measured, interacted with complexity in determining banner preference. Participants preferred medium complexity banners over low or high complexity ones when the construal level was low. Complexity did not affect banner preference when the construal level was high (Experiments 1 and 2). The inverted U-shaped function of complexity on preference was interpreted in terms of the composite effect of perceptual and conceptual fluency that varied in opposite directions as complexity increased (Experiment 3). Research and practical implications of these findings were also discussed.
Keywords: Information complexity; construal level; fluency; preference; banner ads
Physiological Responses and Kansei Evaluation on Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 614-619
  Keiko Kasamatsu; Hiroaki Kiso; Misako Yamagishi; Hideo Jingu; Shin'ichi Fukuzumi
For tasks in which the steps to achieve a goal are not specified, a user adopts the trial and error method to achieve the goal. If the system is able to induce "awareness" to user, the goal can be achieved in an effective manner. We aim to elucidate the mechanism of "awareness" in order to develop a system that incorporates induction of "awareness".
   In this study, we examined the changes in the physiological indices of autonomic nervous activity before and after the occurrence of "awareness". We selected three types of tasks, namely, a jigsaw puzzle, a slide puzzle, and target shooting for which "awareness" was represented by the following items: "can see the end in sight", "I think I may do it", and "grasp the techniques". Kansei evaluation was performed for each task.
Keywords: Physiological response; Kansei; Affectiveness; Awareness
Analysis of Spatiotemporal Memory Using Air-Jets as Tactile Stimuli for Development of Noncontact Tactile Displays BIBAFull-Text 620-627
  Kentaro Kotani; Nobuki Kido; Satoshi Suzuki; Takafumi Asao
The effects of delay and distance of a pair of tactile stimuli on the memory of the two locations were analyzed. Tactile stimuli were induced at the palm with seven levels of interstimulus distances and seven levels of interstimulus intervals. The results showed that the smallest two-point differential threshold was when the delay time was around 0.5-2.0 s. The fundamental characteristics associated with spatiotemporal tactile memory that were obtained in the present study can lead to the design of a noncontact tactile display.
Understanding the Impact Congruent Images and News Articles Have on Mood and Attitude BIBAKFull-Text 628-634
  Eleanor T. Loiacono; Miaokun Lin
As more people turn online to get their news, the significance of online advertisements becomes even more important to companies seeking to enhance their bottom line. This paper is part of a larger project looking into how the congruency of online news articles and advertisements affect user's moods and attitudes towards both the ad and news article. Preliminary results indicate that congruency does impact user's moods and attitudes.
Keywords: Mood induction; online advertisement; Web; Internet
Eyes Don't Lie: Understanding Users' First Impressions on Websites Using Eye Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 635-641
  Hong Sheng; Nick S. Lockwood; Sirjana Dahal
Websites are prevalent these days. Web users make instantaneous judgments regarding a website based on their first impressions and usually decide either to stay on the website or bypass it during their initial interaction with the website. Hence, understanding users' first impression is important for both practitioners and researchers. This research examines users' first impression of websites using an eye tracker. Eye tracking can provide fixation points where users focus their attention on a stimulus. The eye tracking results indicate that users take at least 2.66 seconds to scan the website before they fixate their eyes on an element of the website. Our analysis also shows that first fixation duration lasted for 180 milliseconds. This indicates that after allocating attention to a specific area on a website, the eyes stopped to focus for 180 milliseconds during which the brain processed the visual information received from the eyes to organize the information and form an impression of the website.
Keywords: First impression; Websites; Eye Tracking; Attention
Cognitive Analysis of Driver's Behavior with Seamless Display of Back-Monitor and Side-View Mirror BIBAKFull-Text 642-649
  Naoyuki Susuki; Kenta Takiguchi; Makoto Oka; Hirohiko Mori
The accidents during reverse operation of vehicle are one of the traffic accidents often occur. To solve this problem, back-monitor system becomes very popular to provide blind spot information of car for drivers. The back-monitor system assists driver to get visual information of the rear of the car. This camera's view is usually displayed on the car navigation monitor in the dash board panel and drivers must watch many independent viewers, such as mirrors, monitors, and outside, while switching. This separating information and position must cause the difficulties to imagine the images of the wide area of the rear of the cars. In this paper, we proposed a display manner for display method of the back-monitor system which allows objects to not increase more. We conducted the experiment to investigate whether the distance that line of sight has been moved affects the parking and to consider the display method (Seamless, Overlap, and Discrete) of the rear vision before proposing our system. The results showed that overlap picture had good results as the distance between the monitors close. We proposed the rear view system that combines back-monitor system and side-view mirror. The part that reflects body of the car of side-view mirror displayed rear vision that overlaps vision of side-view mirror. We conducted the experiment to evaluate whether this system allows to drivers to park their car safety and precisely using our system. And we compared this proposed system to the traditional back-monitor system. The results showed that it is possible to exactly grasp the situation around the driver by our system. In particular, it is effective for the recognition of the right rear.
Keywords: Service applications; back-monitor system; side mirror; ITS; parking
Effects of Stimulus Orientation, Grouping and Alignment on Spatial S-R Compatibility BIBAKFull-Text 650-659
  Steve Ngai Hung Tsang; Ken W. L. Chan; Alan H. S. Chan
Effects of stimulus orientation, grouping, and alignment on spatial compatibility were investigated in this study. With eight possible stimulus locations mapped to two response keys, the parallel orientation was found to be responded to faster than the orthogonal orientation. As to the grouping effect, responses for the split stimulus array were superior to that for the continuous one, which seems to be the result of better reference frames and clearer distinction between visual signals. Comparing the single relative position (Left-Right-Left-Right/Up-Down-Up-Down) alignment to the double one (Left-Left-Right-Right/Up-Up-Down-Down), no significant difference in RT was noted, but the single relative position alignment was less prone to error responses than the double one. The effect of stimulus grouping and alignment interacted significantly that the single relative position alignment with split grouping was responded to much faster than that with continuous grouping. Also, the significant interaction effect of orientation and S-R compatibility showed that the up-left and down-right stimulus-response mappings were better than the mappings the other way round.
Keywords: Spatial Compatibility; Human-Computer Interfaces; Horizontal and Orthogonal displays
The Influence of Password Restrictions and Mnemonics on the Memory for Passwords of Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 660-668
  Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Martina M. Hills
Accessing Internet accounts can provide convenient services to users, regardless of age. However, these online services typically require that users enter a username and password. Forgetting one's password, then, often results in the inconvenience of having to reset your password. Although there has been research on the memorability of passwords, this research often focuses on younger adults. Little research has taken older adults into consideration when designing password requirements. Older adults show cognitive decline in memory, which can make the task of remembering passwords especially difficult. However, older adults experience less difficulty in memory for familiar pictures, making the use of pictures an ideal candidate for cuing passwords. Participants in this study were asked to generate passwords for five different fictitious online accounts using a text-based or image-based mnemonic technique. Older adults were less likely to forget passwords that were generated using image-based mnemonic technique compared to the text-based one, implying that pictures can be used as cues for password recall for older adults.
Word Classification for Sentiment Polarity Estimation Using Neural Network BIBAKFull-Text 669-677
  Hidekazu Yanagimoto; Mika Shimada; Akane Yoshimura
Though there are many digitalized documents in the Internet, the almost all documents are unlabeled data. Hence, using such numerous unlabeled data, a classifier has to be construct. In pattern recognition research field many researchers pay attention to a deep architecture neural network to achieve the previous aim. The deep architecture neural network is one of semi-supervised learning approaches and achieve high performance in an object recognition task. The network is trained with many unlabeled data and transform input raw features into new features that represent higher concept, for example a human face. In this study I pay attention to feature generation ability of a deep architecture neural network and apply it to natural language processing. Concretely word clustering is developed for sentiment analysis. Experimental results shows clustering performance is good regardless of an unsupervised learning approach.
Keywords: Natural Language Processing; Deep Architecture Neural Network; Feature Extraction