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HCII Tables of Contents: 13-513-613-714-114-214-314-414-515-115-215-315-415-5

HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on HCI, Part III: Users and Contexts

Fullname:HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Users and Contexts
Note:Volume 3 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:3
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9171
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21006-3 hcibib: HCII15-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-21005-6 (print), 978-3-319-21006-3 (online)
Papers:52
Pages:566
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 3
    1. Interaction and Quality for the Web and Social Media
    2. HCI in Business, Industry and Innovation
    3. Societal and Cultural Impact of Technology
    4. User Studies

HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 3

Interaction and Quality for the Web and Social Media

Heuristic to Support the Sociability Evaluation in Virtual Communities of Practices BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Larissa Albano Lopes; Daniela Freitas Guilhermino; Thiago Adriano Coleti; Ederson Marcos Sgarbi; Thiago Fernandes de Oliveira
The Virtual Community of Practices (VCoPs) create collaborative spaces that promote cooperation and the construction of knowledge, because provide communication and interaction between individuals so that knowledge and experience are utilized in a coordinated manner. A significant aspect of VCoPs is sociability, because it is related to the manner that people interact in the environment. Therefore, the objective of this work is assist expert professionals in the planning and creation of VCoPs interfaces, from proposition of a heuristic evaluation of interfaces these communities in order to minimize the difficulties of users concerning the sociability. The proposed heuristic was applied in the evaluation some VCoPs aiming the construction of virtual communities that allow a higher quality interaction for participants, respecting the guidelines for good sociability.
Keywords: Heuristic; Virtual community of practices; Interface evaluation; Human-Computer interaction; Sociability
Using a Lexical Approach to Investigate User Experience of Social Media Applications BIBAKFull-Text 15-24
  Abdullah Azhari; Xiaowen Fang
The objective of this research is to examine the most important issues in user experience about social media applications (SMAs) by using a lexical approach. After reviewing prior studies about user interactions with SMA, a process based on the revised lexical approach [52] is adopted to explore patterns among the adjectives in online reviews of SMAs. This process includes four stages: Stage 1: Collecting online reviews, Stage 2: Building a dictionary of SMA descriptive adjectives, Stage 3: Extracting user ratings of adjectives, and Stage 4: Factor analyses. The detailed development process is discussed.
Keywords: Social media applications; Lexical approach; Usability; User experience
BETTER-Project: Web Accessibility for Persons with Mental Disorders BIBAKFull-Text 25-34
  Renaldo Bernard; Carla Sabariego; David Baldwin; Shadi Abou-Zahra; Alarcos Cieza
The paper outlines a methodology proposed to give impetus to a collaborative effort involving integral stakeholders to determine whether Web accessibility facilitation measures must be adapted for people with depression and anxiety, and if so, in what way(s). The methodology has three-phases: (1) identification of Web accessibility barriers using two data sources: a systematic review of pertinent literature and focus group interviews with people with depression and anxiety; (2) validation of current Web accessibility facilitation measures for this population using experimental user-testing; (3) provision of expertise-based recommendations for the improvement of Web accessibility facilitation measures using a delphi method. If adopted, the study's findings are expected to herald improvements in the Web browsing experiences of people with depression and anxiety, and also everyone else who use the Web.
Keywords: Protocol; Web accessibility; Depression; Anxiety; Mental disorders
Short Scales of Satisfaction Assessment: A Proxy to Involve Disabled Users in the Usability Testing of Websites BIBAKFull-Text 35-42
  Simone Borsci; Stefano Federici; Maria Laura Mele; Matilde Conti
Short scales of user satisfaction analysis are largely applied in usability studies as part of the measures to assess the interaction experience of users. Among the traditional tools, System Usability Scale (SUS), composed of 10 items, is the most applied quick evaluation scale. Recently, researchers have proposed two new and shorter scales: the Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX), composed of four items, and the UMUX-LITE, which consists of only the two positive items of UMUX. Despite their recent creation, researchers in human-computer interaction (HCI) have already showed that these two tools are reliable and strongly correlated to each other [1-3]. Nevertheless, there are still no studies about the use of these questionnaires with disabled users. As HCI experts claim [4-7], when disabled and elderly users are included in the assessment cohorts, they add to the overall analysis alternative and extended perspectives about the usability of a system. This is particularly relevant to those interfaces that are designed to serve a large population of end-users, such as websites of public administration or public services. Hence, for a practitioner adding to the evaluation cohorts a group of disabled people may sensibly extend number and types of errors identified during the assessment. One of the major obstacles in creating mixed cohorts is due to the increase in time and costs of the evaluation. Often, the budget does not support the inclusion of disabled users in the test. In order to overcome these hindrances, the administering to disabled users of a short questionnaire -- after a period of use (expert disabled costumers) or after an interaction test performed through a set of scenario-driven tasks (novice disabled users) -- permits to achieve a good trade-off between a limited effort in terms of time and costs and the advantage of evaluating the user satisfaction of disabled people in the use of websites. To date, researchers have neither analyzed the use of SUS, UMUX, and UMUX-LITE by disabled users, nor the reliability of these tools, or the relationship among those scales when administrated to disabled people.
   In this paper, we performed a usability test with 10 blind and 10 sighted users on the Italian website of public train transportation to observe the differences between the two evaluation cohorts in terms of: (i) number of identified errors, (ii) average score of the three questionnaires, and (iii) reliability and correlation of the three scales.
   The outcomes confirmed that the three scales, when administered to blind or sighted users, are reliable (Cronbach's α > 0.8), though UMUX reliability with disabled users is lower than expected (Cronbach's α < 0.5). Moreover, all the scales are strongly correlated (p < .001) in line with previous studies. Nevertheless, significant differences were identified between sighed and blind participants in terms of (i) number of errors experienced during the interaction and (ii) average satisfaction rated through the three questionnaires. Our data show, in agreement with previous studies, that disabled users have divergent perspectives on satisfaction in the use of a website. The insight of disabled users could be a key factor to improve the usability of those interfaces which aim to serve a large population, such as websites of public administration and services. In sum, we argue that to preserve the budget and even incorporate disabled users' perspectives in the evaluation reports with minimal costs, practitioners may reliably test the satisfaction by administrating SUS and UMUX or UMUX-LITE to a mixed sample of users with and without disability.
Keywords: Disabled user interaction; Usability evaluation; Usability Metric for User Experience; System Usability Scale
Automatic Deformations Detection in Internet Interfaces: ADDII BIBAKFull-Text 43-53
  Leandro Sanchez; Plinio Thomaz, Jr. Aquino
Developers have been trying to create uniform and consistent webpages in the different browsers available in the market. Known as Crossbrowser issue, it affects pages in different ways, on its functionalities and visually aspects and sometimes not related to the source code. Using screenshot and image comparison algorithms, this paper presents a technique for automated detection of visual deformations in web pages using a tool developed during the research called Automatic Deformations Detection in Internet Interfaces (ADDII).
Keywords: Business: interfaces in automated manufacturing; Business: visual analytics and business intelligence; Technology: intelligent and agent systems
Usability and Aesthetics: The Case of Architectural Websites BIBAKFull-Text 54-64
  Evanthia Faliagka; Eleni Lalou; Maria Rigou; Spiros Sirmakessis
Modern people create, communicate and share knowledge and information through the web, but the need for usable website design is taken for granted. The ever increasing user familiarity with the web has drastically reduced user tolerance to website functionality problems. On the other hand, a requirement steadily observed by usability specialists refers to an increasing preference for the aesthetically pleasing and not the merely functional. This study aims to investigate the relation between website usability and aesthetics using the case of architectural websites and their typical users who are design experts with demanding aesthetic requirements. The study confirms that there is a close connection between aesthetics and perceived usability both when these two requirements are satisfied and when they are not.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Aesthetics; Heuristics; Architectural websites; Questionnaires; SUS; AttrakDiff
The Effect of Banner Location on Banner Recognition in a Turkish Government Website: An Eye Tracking Study BIBAKFull-Text 65-72
  Hacer Güner; Yavuz Inal
This study aims to examine users' eye movement patterns and their attention to the banner of a Turkish government website. The website was redesigned as two versions in a way that the banner was located on the left (the original site) in one version and on the right in the other version. 14 university students with 9 male and 5 female participated to the study. The heat maps were examined as well as eye movement patterns while performing the given tasks. Results of the study revealed that the banner (including a picture of the head of a public institution) was not directly focused in both groups during the task completion process. Although nearly half of the participants recalled the place of the banner correctly, none of the participants remembered any information about the institution head such as name, picture or social media information.
Keywords: Banner blindness; Eye-Tracking; E-Government; Government website; Usability
Compatibility of Information and Interface of Universities' Multilingual Websites BIBAKFull-Text 73-81
  Krzysztof Hankiewicz
The article presents results of research regarding the use of Polish university websites to handle the affairs of foreign students. The study included 57 faculties in 8 universities of different size and type.
   The aim of the study is to examine the way selected universities use the abilities of websites to serve foreign students. The article presents results of inspection of faculty websites of all public universities in Poznan. The results indicate that universities use the potential of websites to a limited extent. Part of the websites checked lacked even an English version, and only a few make necessary information for students in the English language sufficiently available.
Keywords: User interface; Websites; Usability; Design for diversity
GT Journey: The Importance of Accessible Rich Data Sources to Enable Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 82-91
  Matt Sanders; Russ Clark; Brian Davidson; Siva Jayaraman
GT Journey (gtjourney.gatech.edu) is an initiative, which empowers members of the Georgia Tech community to develop and deploy applications and services through access to resources (tools, data, services, space) and mentors with technical and domain expertise. The genesis for this initiative comes from a long history of facilitating application and service development for students by students in classroom and entrepreneurial settings. This paper reveals many of the lessons learned from this participatory design, build, and deploy initiative, which may be applicable to a variety of activities in educational, civic, and industry innovation settings.
Keywords: Civic computing; Participatory design; Open data; Development communities; Mobile computing; Hackathons; Innovation ecosystems; Devops
The Role of Quality in Websites: A Discussion Focusing on Public Versus Private Sector Organizations BIBAKFull-Text 92-101
  Hanne Sørum
After 15 years of online experience among most organizations, we witness that increasingly more information and services are provided on the Web. Additionally, website users today are more demanding and knowledgeable compared to some years ago. High expectations and frequent use of online channels in dialogue and interaction place considerable pressure on most organizations. This paper discusses the importance of high quality websites and debates whether quality in public websites is more important compared to the private sector. The concluding remarks speculate on whether the subject of quality is more important within public sector websites, because they are serving all the citizens in provision of public information and services. Conversely, however, the quality of the website within the private sector is probably more important for creating business benefits and marketing exposure. This paper ends by providing suggestions for future research streams linked to the outcome of the present study.
Keywords: Human-Computer interaction; Website quality; eGovernment; Public sector websites; Private sector websites; User satisfaction
How to Evaluate Investments in Website Quality Within eGovernment? Exploring the Webmaster's Perception of Benefits BIBAKFull-Text 102-111
  Hanne Sørum; Asle Fagerstrøm
For most organizations today, the website is an important channel for interacting with users. Within an eGovernment context, we find a large and inhomogeneous group of users and the quality in websites is, therefore, of particular importance. Facing this fact, many organizations spend lot of resources on development and quality improvements. In order to investigate perceptions of benefits-driven public sector websites, the present paper draws on both qualitative and quantitative data, represented by interviews and an online survey conducted among webmasters and business managers. The aim of combing qualitative and quantitative data is to provide complementary analysis. The findings show that user satisfaction is found to be the most important, followed by efficiency, effectiveness and the branding effect. The paper concludes that the website increase efficiency and effectiveness within an organization and is a great opportunity for marketing purposes, such as stimulating the branding effect. Recommendations for future research contributions are provided.
Keywords: eGovernment; Human-computer interaction; Website quality; Benefits; Public sector websites
The Evolution of the Argon Web Framework Through Its Use Creating Cultural Heritage and CommunityBased Augmented Reality Applications BIBAKFull-Text 112-124
  Gheric Speiginer; Blair MacIntyre; Jay Bolter; Hafez Rouzati; Amy Lambeth; Laura Levy; Laurie Baird; Maribeth Gandy; Matt Sanders; Brian Davidson; Maria Engberg; Russ Clark; Elizabeth Mynatt
The Argon project was started to explore the creation of Augmented Reality applications with web technology. We have found this approach to be particularly useful for community-based applications. The Argon web browser has gone through two versions, informed by the work of our students and collaborators on these kinds of applications. In this paper, we highlight a number of the applications we and others have created, what we learned from them, and how our experiences creating these applications informed the design of Argon2 and the requirements for the next version, Argon3.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Web-based technology; Community computing
Historical Registry of Our Families Through Textiles BIBAKFull-Text 125-132
  Cathy L. Starr; Sandra L. Bailey; Sheryl Brahnam; Jenifer J. Roberts
Dress provides an insight into a person's value system, as well into the state of the socioeconomic environment of the time. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a mobile application and website where users of all walks-of-life can document their heritage by capturing photographs of family members' clothing throughout their lifetimes. Dress evokes memories, feelings of nostalgia, and speaks volumes about a person's personal history and heritage. This application will allow each and every person who logs on and participates to document their lives and the important role dress plays in their lives, whether they are rich and famous or not. This will enable the creation of a large archive of information representing all of the populace, not just the rich and famous, for future research based on the subjects' own words and visuals.
Keywords: Historical costume; Social media applications; Meanings of dress; Textile; Sociocultural environment

HCI in Business, Industry and Innovation

Early Prototype Assessment of a New Virtual System for Training Procedural Skills of Automotive Service Operators: LARTE Tool BIBAKFull-Text 135-143
  Simone Borsci; Glyn Lawson; Mark Burgess; Bhavna Jha
The consortium of the Innovate UK funded Live Augmented Reality Training Environments (LARTE) project, composed of Jaguar Land Rover (JLR), Holovis International Ltd and The University of Nottingham, developed a new concept of a 3D multiplatform training system to train the procedural skills of service maintenance operators. The LARTE tool was designed on the basis of JLR needs and desiderata. This paper presents the functionalities of the initial prototype of LARTE training system, and outcomes of an evaluation study of the usability of the product.
Keywords: Automotive; Training; Trust; Usability; Virtual reality
The Convergence Innovation Competition: Helping Students Create Innovative Products and Experiences via Technical and Business Mentorship BIBAKFull-Text 144-153
  Russ Clark; Matt Sanders; Brian Davidson; Siva Jayaraman; Carl DiSalvo
The Convergence Innovation Competition is an annual event designed to encourage innovation and entrepreneurship among students from multiple disciplines and experience levels. The competition provides a unique model for engaging industrial partners to work with students through category definition, mentoring and judging. In this paper we describe the evolution of the program over the last eight years, lessons learned and new opportunities for engaging students in a meaningful learning experience.
Keywords: Mobile computing; Student engagement; Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Hackathons; Competitions; Experiential learning
Graphic Visualization of Probabilistic Traffic/Trajectory Predictions in Mobile Applications. A First Prototype and Evaluations for General Aviation Purposes BIBAKFull-Text 154-164
  Giuseppe Frau; Francesca De Crescenzio; Damiano Taurino
The present work describes the interactive prototype and the preliminary evaluation results of a tool dedicated to the light General Aviation pilot's community. The tool's interface has been developed through an Android tablet application and aims at supporting the pilots in the task of staying "well-clear" from the surrounding traffic by presenting them the long-term prediction of the flights. The initial results and the approach of a heuristic evaluation conducted with five experts coming from the fields of user-experience, aviation and automotive are discussed along with the improvements in the design of the user-interface focusing on the trajectory depictions.
Keywords: User-interface design; Heuristic evaluation; Light general aviation; Trajectory prediction visualization
Building Mobile Software Ecosystems -- A Practical Approach BIBAKFull-Text 165-177
  Steffen Hess; Susanne Braun; Johannes Feldhaus; Marco Hack; Felix Kiefer; Dominik Magin; Matthias Naab; Dominik Richter; Torsten Lenhart; Marcus Trapp
Mobile apps are gaining great importance in the world of business software. Developers' intentions are to build apps that support a specific piece of functionality with great user experience, business often needs to cover a large spectrum of functionality. The results are Mobile software ecosystems (MSE), which usually consist of a large number of apps supporting a certain type of business and combine the strengths of multiple service providers. At a first glance, developing mobile software might look simple. Doing it for business and at an ecosystem scale makes it extremely challenging in practice. Initiating an MSE means to come up with an attractive set of apps that provide adequate openness so that other companies can contribute to them and increase the value of the ecosystem for customers. This paper describes an approach to build MSEs in their initial version. This approach is based on software engineering state-of-the-art practices from requirements engineering, user experience (UX) engineering, and software architecture. The paper elaborates the specifics of MSEs and describes how they can be addressed in the approach. The approach has been applied in a large-scale industrial case study in the agricultural domain in a joint project of John Deere and Fraunhofer IESE. Within that case study, lessons learned with regard to user experience and software architecture are derived and described in detail. Practitioners setting up an MSE can avoid these pitfalls by taking our lessons learned into account.
Keywords: Mobile; App ecosystem; Practical experiences; Human-computer-interaction; Software architecture; User experience
Cloud Computing: A Multi-tenant Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 178-189
  Anindya Hossain; Farid Shirazi
Cloud computing has enabled businesses to infinitely scale services based on demand while reducing the total cost of ownership. Software as a service (SaaS) vendors capitalized on the scalable nature of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deploy applications without having the need for heavy upfront capital investment. This study uses a real case study from a Canadian SaaS vendor migrating from a single-tenant applications system to a single-tenant applications (MTA) system. The results of this empirical study show a decrease of a factor of 3 in setup times and a reduction in number of bugs reported and the amount of time required to fix these bugs. Despite the fact that migration from a single-tenant applications system to a multi-tenant system requires some re-engineering efforts, but the benefits of MTA far outweigh these re-engineering costs. Furthermore, migrating to MTA enables firms to focus on their core competences. The empirical results of this study show that in the long run, MTA can enable SaaS vendors to increase the quality of service, performance, service level agreement adherence, re-focus on creating innovative products, lower operational costs and earn higher profits.
Keywords: Cloud computing; Multi-tenant application; SaaS; IaaS; PaaS; ANOVA
On Time: Efficient and Personalized Hospital Service BIBAKFull-Text 190-197
  So Yon Jeong; Da Young Ju
For every kind of service, reduction of waiting time appears to be critical. Particularly, the occurrence of waiting time in a clinical environment gives patients negative impression of the clinic (or hospital). By observing the present state of hospital waiting time we suggest 'On Time', a mobile application design for when waiting time occurs. 'On Time' mobile application is efficient, personalized and patient centered hospital service that satisfies the patients by both using existing monitor service and big data.
Keywords: IT; Hospital service; Big data; Mobile application
NAMIDA: Multiparty Conversation Based Driving Agents in Futuristic Vehicle BIBAKFull-Text 198-207
  Nihan Karatas; Soshi Yoshikawa; P. Ravindra S. De Silva; Michio Okada
We propose socially interactive NAMIDA (Navigational Multiparty based Intelligent Driving Agents) as three friendly interfaces those sit on the dashboard inside a car. NAMIDA interfaces conduct multiparty conversation within each other to provide outside information for driver by utilising the context aware interaction. In this research, we introduce the conceptual design of NAMIDA and discuss about the superiorities of multiparty communication in the aspects of decreasing cognitive workload and increasing sociability plus enjoyable driving experience through an experiment which includes mock driving tasks by getting support from 1-NAMIDA (single) and 3-NAMIDAs (multiple) consecutively. Finally we mention about the results of the experiment which depicts that using multiparty based communication (3-NAMIDAs) could reduce the workload of driver and induced more enjoyable driving experience by increasing interaction and social bonding inside the car.
Keywords: Multiparty conversation; Context aware interaction; Conversational workload; NAMIDA
VR Processes in the Automotive Industry BIBAFull-Text 208-217
  Glyn Lawson; Davide Salanitri; Brian Waterfield
Virtual Reality (VR) has seen rapid developments in the past decades. Among the domains where VR has been applied, automotive has been a pioneer due to the possibility of cost and time reductions derived from the implementation of this technology. Examples of VR automotive applications include: (i) manufacturing workstation optimization; (ii) vehicle design; and (iii) assembly training. A review was conducted in order to understand opportunities and challenges in the application of VR in the automotive industry. This paper presents the review process, which encompasses interviews with stakeholders from an automotive manufacturer to understand their current processes and ambitions for VR use and a literature search of advancements in VR and empirical studies. A total of 11 stakeholders were interviewed. Recommendations are made to address the issues they reported, including: improve depth perception in VR technologies; use haptic feedback to improve manufacturing investigations; and provide virtual contexts for evaluations.
Entrepreneurial IS Development: Why Techniques Matter and Methods Don't BIBAKFull-Text 218-225
  Nikolaus Obwegeser
In this article we look at the current situation of information systems development in research and mirror our findings with insights from practice. Many firms and decision makers underestimate the influence that IS development projects have on their success and competitiveness. In addition, the process of efficient development of high quality and value-creating software remains a major challenge for many organizations. After a review of general IS development approaches we draw on an analysis of the literature on method tailoring and contingency approaches in IS development in combination with qualitative empirical insights from two software development companies to posit that past research has largely focused on creating bloated, inflexible methods rather than flexible toolsets. Based on the analysis of our findings we propose an open, framework-based IS development approach that allows for the flexibility required in practice but still ensures learning processes, knowledge retention and transfer.
Keywords: IS development; Agile; Methodology; Software engineering
Simulation of an Affordance-Based Human-Machine Cooperative Control Model Using an Agent-Based Simulation Approach BIBAKFull-Text 226-237
  YeongGwang Oh; IkChan Ju; Namhun Kim
An automated system relies mostly on a robot, rather than a human operator. In the automated system considered in this paper, a human operator mainly verifies the product quality, where the performance of the human is affected by his or her characteristics. To present this kind of system, an ABM is better than DES to simulate the role of the human operator. This is because the human characteristics are dynamic and are affected significantly by time and environment. This paper presents a DES-ABM model which simulates the performance of a human operator in a human-machine cooperative environment. It may enable this model to be utilized for further development in controller toward the supervisory control.
Keywords: Human and robot collaboration; Affordance theory; Agent-based simulation
Cause the Trend Industry 4.0 in the Automated Industry to New Requirements on User Interfaces? BIBAKFull-Text 238-245
  Carsten Wittenberg
Industrial automated production is a conservative domain. New information technologies find the way into this domain slowly or not at all. But in 2013 the fourth industrial revolution was announced: The so-called Industry 4.0 implicates techniques like cloud-computing and self-organizing machines. The degree of technological complexity increases. Beside the technological innovation the use context and the tasks for the users will also be changed. In the design phase the engineers have to handle the increased complexity. In the operating phase the operators and also the service and maintenance technicians have to keep the production systems running. This paper discusses the results of the research about the effects of Industry 4.0 on the different user groups and highlight selected user requirements.
Keywords: HCI in automation; Industry 4.0; CPS; Mobile HCI; Augmented reality
Post-Implementation ERP Success Assessment: A Conceptual Model BIBAKFull-Text 246-255
  Fan Zhao; Eugene Hoyt
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) success research has been widely studied. Models to test the success of an ERP implementation have been developed, but most models do not adequately test all implementations success after implementation. This literature review study introduces a new model for testing any ERP post-implementation to determine if it was successful or not rather than relying on other models that determine it to be a failure if it did not fit within the model constraints.
Keywords: IS; ERP; Success; Post-implementation

Societal and Cultural Impact of Technology

Interactive Evaluation of Pragmatic Features in Spoken Journalistic Texts BIBAKFull-Text 259-268
  Christina Alexandris; Mario Nottas; George Cambourakis
The designed annotation tool intends to facilitate the evaluation of pragmatic features in spoken political and journalistic texts, in particular, interviews, live conversations in the Media and discussions in Parliament. The evaluation of pragmatic features focuses in the discourse component of spoken political and journalistic texts, in addition to implied information and connotative features. The present tool may be used by professional journalists and for training purposes, for journalists and other professionals.
Keywords: Interactive topic-tracking; Semantic relations; Discourse structure; Graphic representation; Connotative features
Socio-Cultural Aspects in the Design of Multilingual Banking Interfaces in the Arab Region BIBAKFull-Text 269-280
  Sarah Alhumoud; Lamia Alabdulkarim; Nouf Almobarak; Areej Al-Wabil
This paper reports on insights gained from investigating multilingual user interfaces designed for banking systems in the Arab Region. In this region, Arabic is the native language; however a plethora of expatriates reside in the region who speak different languages. Three modes of banking interactions are examined in the local context; internet banking, automatic teller machines (ATMs), and mobile banking (MB). Reflections on interaction design for the three modes of banking illuminates the culture-orientated design considerations for banking interactions and demonstrates how users, in this case bank customers, shape technological changes and influence interface design. The contribution of this research is threefold. Firstly, gain an insight into socio-cultural design requirements for banking interfaces; secondly, an exploratory survey of interface design considerations in the three modes of banking with a focus on multilingual aspects of the design; and finally, distil the findings into design recommendations for socio-cultural aspects that are relevant to the context of banking interactions in the Arab Region.
Keywords: ATM; Mobile banking; Online banking; Heuristics; Usability
Prospecting HCI Challenges for Extreme Poverty Communities: Redefining and Optimizing User Experiences with Technology BIBAKFull-Text 281-290
  Daniel Almeida Chagas; Camila Loiola Brito Maia; Elizabeth Furtado; Carlos R. Maia de Carvalho
According to the United Nations (UN), 1.4 billion people live in extreme poverty conditions, about 1/5th of the planet population. Beyond the financial condition, extreme poverty is defined by the lack of access to information. This paper proposes to investigate the HCI challenges related to giving access to information for those communities, especially related to illiteracy, functional illiteracy and empowering them of technologies. Those challenges include not only the access to information, but questions about reaching the community, adapting information technology tools to their real needs, and empowering them to be not just consumers of information and systems, but also creators of new knowledge.
Keywords: Extreme poverty; Illiteracy; Oral communities; Interdisciplinary empowering
Moral Biases and Decision: Impact of Information System on Moral Biases BIBAKFull-Text 291-302
  Karim Elia Fraoua
The aim of this work, is to find a better way to understand an information system that take into consideration agent's through moral system, words, image, appeal to culture or religion, in order to correct to some biases observed in polling in France during the same-sex marriage debate. This approach will thus, in diverse and multicultural societies, provide to managers or politicians with a better definition of problems, to better predict the behavior of individuals when the efficiency of the decision taken and the possible opposition it can generate. In this way, they can build an information system capable of correcting the deviation from the expectations of agents. We could consider that this component would be the main one in decision-making during the passage of the law. We can then assess the value of this component in the calculation of expected utility as developed by Harsanyi. We can easily show that when the information system is corrected, the actors can then adhere to processes that would be in opposition to their moral principle or religious values due to the fact that in reality the lack of information has caused the appearance of this moral utility in decision-making based in principle on a single dominant component.
Keywords: Information; Harsanyi; Social representation; Central personage; Neuroscience
Midtown Buzz: Bridging the Gap Between Concepts and Impact in a Civic Computing Initiative BIBAKFull-Text 303-313
  Maribeth Gandy; Laurie Dean Baird; Laura M. Levy; Amy J. Lambeth; Elizabeth Mynatt; Russ Clark; Matt Sanders
Midtown Buzz is a partnership between Georgia Tech and Midtown Alliance (MA), focusing on engaging urban communities through mobile innovation. Since 2013, we have been collaborating with the Midtown Atlanta community with the goal of transforming the area into an innovation district. This approach provided us with an opportunity to utilize Midtown as a living laboratory for civic computing research. During the two years of this project we have engaged in a participatory design process with diverse stakeholders to explore the needs of people in the Midtown area, and develop new technologies and approaches to address the identified needs. In this paper we discuss the lessons learned regarding the challenges of bridging the gap between concepts and deployable systems that can create positive transformation in a community.
Keywords: Civic computing; Participatory design; Mixed reality; Mobile computing; Hackathons
Some Investigations of Fukushima Dai-ichi Accidents from the Viewpoints of Human Factors BIBAFull-Text 314-326
  Akio Gofuku; Hiroshi Furukawa; Hiroshi Ujita
Many problems were posed in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS accident, including recognizing the situation in the plant, information sharing in/out of the power station, decision making, emergency response, education and training on daily basis, instrumentation/control facilities and work environment of the plant, etc. A voluntary group in the division of Human-Machine System of Atomic Society of Japan reviewed the problems suggested in various reports from the viewpoint of human factors. This paper reports the outline of some results of the review based upon some accident reports published after the accident and the information published by the defunct Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. The severe situations due to the loss of all power resulted in unsuccessful operation. However, the staffs on the site seem to have taken flexible approaches based on their knowledge and experience. As for the fields of communication and information sharing, there found some problems among two groups, operation groups, or order-givers and takers. On the other hand, in the analysis of emergency response capability to the accident by several techniques, many good cases were found in individual and organizational levels, but there were bad crisis responses found in managerial or national levels.
Cycle Atlanta and OneBusAway: Driving Innovation Through the Data Ecosystems of Civic Computing BIBAKFull-Text 327-338
  Christopher A. Le Dantec; Kari E. Watkins; Russ Clark; Elizabeth Mynatt
Smart cities and digital democracy have begun to converge around mobile computing, enabling, web services, and different operational and shared databases to create new opportunities for civic engagement for concerned citizens as well as new efficiencies for public services provided by local government. While many of these projects remain siloed to specific departments of local government, when viewed in aggregate, they begin to fill in a more complex picture of how piecemeal projects are changing the relationship between local government and the public. As an example of this change, we describe our partnership with multiple city and regional agencies in Atlanta. We discuss a pair of projects that together, aim to transform Atlanta's transportation system by more effectively connecting the public to transportation services and to the processes of infrastructure planning. The projects we present here -- Cycle Atlanta and OneBusAway -- are part of a larger civic computing agenda where models of digital democracy and smart cities combine to create a data ecosystem where citizens produce and consume different forms of data to enable better infrastructure planning and to enhance alternative modes of transportation.
Keywords: Digital democracy; Smart cities; Civic computing; Urban informatics
Post-mortem Digital Legacy: Possibilities in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 339-349
  Cristiano Maciel; Vinicius Carvalho Pereira
As designers and stakeholders attentive to HCI issues, it is paramount to understand questions such as death and post-mortem digital legacy and how they affect systems development. This paper presents current discussions about that topic, by presenting a brief overview of what has been produced by the HCI community on death and digital legacy and some of the solutions created to address those phenomena. Such solutions include adaptations to already-existing tools, such as Facebook and its memorial profiles, as well as the creation of new tools for the domain of death, such as social networks for dead people's profiles. However, the implementation of those technologies demand further studies on the differences between law systems and belief systems regarding death and what can be considered either universal or particular in the understanding of death. Therefore, there is an urge for more interdisciplinary studies on this topic, so as to bring to HCI discussions different perspectives, theories and methods that can be used in the study of death.
Keywords: Post-mortem digital legacy; Posthumous interaction; Death
Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant: The Moment of "Safety Myth" Collapses BIBAFull-Text 350-357
  Aki Nakanishi; Toshio Takagi; Hajime Ushimaru; Masato Yotsumoto; Daisuke Sugihara
This study examines the conversations and actions of the operators and managers of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) on March 11, 2011, when Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant (1F) suffered a "severe accident" due to the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. Using the archives from TEPCO's videoconference system, we conducted a network and content analysis of discussions and steps that were taken on the cutting edge of organizational crises. Staff members at the various sites (1F operators and managers, as well as employees at Headquarters and the Offsite Center) used different vocabulary, which meant they could not build a shared organizational reality of the ongoing crisis.
Accident Analysis by Using Methodology of Resilience Engineering, High Reliability Organization, and Risk Literacy BIBAKFull-Text 358-369
  Hiroshi Ujita
The good cases of resilience response are observed in individual base and organizational base as below: The effectiveness of insight on accident cases (inundation in Madras, 9.11 terrorism-B.5.b. order) and of the risk evaluation, Decision of continuation of sea water infusion (individual base), Reflection of the experience on Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake, Improvement of seismic building which is equipped emergency power source system and air conditioning system (organizational base), Deployment of fire engines (organizational base), The effectiveness of command system in ordinal time (on-site of organizational base), and Support by cooperation companies and manufacturers (designers and site workers of organizational base). It is important to 'establish the feedback system on organization learning in ordinal time' and it means that it is important to establish the system admitting violation of order. The decision at on-site are given priority than other ones. The representative example is the decision of sea water infusion continuation which was given priority at on-site, even though the official residence and the main office of Tokyo Electric Power Company had ordered to stop the infusion.
Keywords: Resilience engineering; High reliability organization; Risk literacy; Fukushima accident; Bounded rationality; Information limitation; Context

User Studies

What Learnability Issues Do Primary Care Physicians Experience When Using CPOE? BIBAKFull-Text 373-383
  Martina A. Clarke; Jeffery L. Belden; Min S. Kim
Objective: To determine learnability gaps between expert and novice primary care physicians when using a computerized physician order entry (CPOE). Method: Two rounds of lab-based usability tests using video analyses with triangular method approach were conducted to analyze learnability gaps between ten novice and six expert physicians. Results: There was a 14 percent point increase in novice physicians' task success rate (p = 0.29) and an 11 percent point increase in expert physicians' task success rate between round one and round two (p = 0.64). There was an 8% decrease in novice physicians' time on task between round one and round two (p = 0.83) and a 12% decrease in expert physicians' time on task between round one and round two (p = 0.47). There was a 17% decrease in novice physicians' mouse clicks between round one and round two (p = 0.97) and a 20% decrease in expert physicians' mouse clicks between round one and round two (p = 0.80). There was a 5% increase in novice physicians' mouse movements between round one and round two (p = 0.67) and an 8% decrease in expert physicians' mouse movements between round one and round two (p = 0.99). Conclusion: Future directions include identifying usability issues faced by physicians when using the EHR through subtask analysis.
Keywords: Usability; Primary care; Computerized provider order entry
Designed to Thrill: Exploring the Effects of Multimodal Feedback on Virtual World Immersion BIBAKFull-Text 384-395
  Dimitrios Darzentas; Michael Brown; Noirin Curran
The following paper presents research into the effects of multi- and uni-modal output on virtual immersion. It describes the implementation of a balanced experimental study designed to measure participant immersion in a variety of conditions and presents the resulting findings. These demonstrate the potential of primary and secondary modalities on the perception of the participants. The findings of the study can form part of the basis for a set of HCI guidelines for the creation of highly immersive digital experiences.
Keywords: Virtual worlds; Games; Immersion; Interaction; Modalities
Survey on Risk Management Based on Information Security Psychology BIBAKFull-Text 396-408
  Yasuko Fukuzawa; Masaki Samejima; Hiroshi Ujita
In developing Cyber Physical Systems, such as smart grid and smart cities, risk management technologies play an important role to provide safe and secure services. In this paper, focusing on changes of recent threats represented by Social engineering, a survey shows that the information security psychology is valuable for the risk management of the Cyber Physical Systems. Through surveying, we outline the risk management framework for Cyber Physical Systems.
Keywords: Security; Cyber physical systems; Risk management; Information security psychology
Digital Wellbeing Assessments for People Affected by Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 409-418
  Kyle Harrington; Paul Fulton; Michael Brown; James Pinchin; Sarah Sharples
Currently there is a lack of digital tools for assessing the Wellbeing of those affected by dementia in a home environment. This paper presents an alternative to existing assessment modalities in order to facilitate large scale collection and analysis of data. This development will allow those affected to be assessed from the comfort of their own home, potentially reducing time costs and personal discomfort associated with assessment. Existing Wellbeing measures were evaluated against inclusion criteria and four tools were considered appropriate to develop into a digital application. An additional tool was also developed for quick assessment. Issues surrounding the use of technological devices for those affected by dementia are also considered. In light of these considerations an Android application was developed for Wellbeing self-assessment. Finally, the methods and approaches for user-evaluations of such technologies are explored.
Keywords: Human-centered Design; User-centered Design; Service design; Telehealth; Dementia care; Assessment; Wellbeing
Factors Influencing Online Shop Layout Preferences BIBAKFull-Text 419-429
  Katarzyna Jach; Marcin Kulinski
The usability research on web pages layout preferences of online shops consumers has been continued since 2008 on a sample of over 1,000 Polish students. This gives a possibility to observe changes in preferences, both over time as well as across the respondents' buying experience. Preferred locations of selected interface objects specific for an online shop, like a shopping cart, product image and search button were analyzed. The research showed that the main differentiating factor of preferences is the users' experience. Concurrently, the layout patterns preferred by more experienced participants were consistent with standards defined as the most frequently used placement of the objects on existing online shop web pages.
Keywords: Web usability; GUI; E-commerce; Users' preferences
Playing Dice with a Digital Library: Analysis of an Artist Using a New Information Resource for Her Art Production BIBAKFull-Text 430-440
  Heli Kautonen
Artists are a lesser-known group of information resource users. Previous research on their information behavior and needs are few, and there is not enough evidence of artists' experiences of information systems in a natural context of use. This paper presents a reflective study of an artist using a new online information resource during seven intensive days for her artistic production. The resource is a digital library, which combines materials from a wide range of archives, libraries, and museums in one nation. The analysis was based on data collected during two interviews with the artist, as well as artifacts she produced during the production. The key findings were validated with a survey among a community of artists. The results indicate an impulsive and strongly associative, yet extremely goal-oriented, information usage pattern that challenges developers of the digital library service. Similar usage behavior and needs may be common among other user groups.
Keywords: Artists; User experience; Information search and retrieval; Digital library; Contextual design; Cultural-Historical Activity Theory
The Effects of the Anthropological Race, Gender and Location of Verbal-Pictorial Stimuli on the Usability of Visual Information Conveyance BIBAKFull-Text 441-451
  Joanna Koszela-Kulinska; Rafal Michalski
The usability of information conveyance is influenced by various factors. It has already been confirmed that verbal stimuli to be more effective should be presented on the right-hand side while non-verbal stimuli on the left-hand side. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of three factors: the race, gender and location of the human model picture in relation to a text on people's perception of visual information promoting social campaign for tolerance. A total of 31 students from the Wroclaw Academy of Art and Design took part in this study. Participants were shown a series of visual banners containing a picture of a human along with the campaign slogan. The subjective evaluation of experimental conditions was conducted by the AHP method involving pairwise comparisons. The obtained results revealed significant effects of the race, gender and the interaction between them.
Keywords: Display design; Brain lateralization; Digital signage; Ergonomics; Subjective preferences; AHP
Do We Differ in Our Dispositional Tendency to Perceive Virtual Agents as Animate Beings? BIBAKFull-Text 452-462
  Benny Liebold; Daniel Pietschmann; Peter Ohler
With few exceptions, the role of user factors in the evaluation of virtual agents has largely been neglected. By taking them into account properly, researchers and virtual agent developers might be able to better understand interindividual differences in virtual agent evaluations. We propose the animacy attribution tendency as a novel user factor that assesses a users individual threshold to accept virtual entities as living and animate beings. Users scoring higher in animacy attribution tendency should accept anomalies in virtual agent behavior more easily and thus provide favorable evaluations. To investigate the impact of this novel concept along with other user factors, we first developed a test to assess interindividual differences of animacy attribution and subsequently carried out an online-study, during which participants had to evaluate video recordings of different virtual agents.
Keywords: Virtual agent; Agent evaluation; Animacy; User factors
Psychological Impact of Direct Communication and Indirect Communication Through a Robot BIBAFull-Text 463-470
  Mitsuharu Matsumoto; Hiroyuki Yasuda
When we communicate with someone, we tend to send not only our intention but also our emotion. Emotion includes not only positive one but also negative one. Such negative emotion makes our communication worse in contradiction to our intention. To avoid such negative communications, we focus on indirect communication through a robot. In indirect communication through a robot, a user requests desired tasks to another user not by themselves but through a robot. If the robot is carefully designed, it is expected that users regard the robot as a client, and their emotions are directed not to the real client but to the robot. We developed a simple trash box robot and investigated psychological difference between direct communication and indirect communication through the robot. Throughout the experiments, negative emotion from the recipient was directed not to the human but to the robot via indirect communication.
Subjective Perception of the Background Color and Layout in the Design of Typical Graphical Control Panels BIBAKFull-Text 471-479
  Rafal Michalski; Jerzy Grobelny
The main goal of this research is to examine the influence of various control panel background colors and geometrical layouts on users' subjective perceptions. We investigated five different colors including red, green, blue, white and grey as well as two different arrangements of the panel's informative and controlling items. In the latter case, more vertical and more horizontal layouts were investigated. Panels included typical elements and colors were selected in such a way that their perceptual differences in the CIE Lab color space are similar. A method involving pairwise comparisons was applied to compute relative preferences towards examined conditions. The outcomes generally showed significant influence of the studied effects on the subjects' subjective assessments.
Keywords: Display design; Colors; Control panels; Layout; Ergonomics; Subjective preferences; AHP
A User Interface Usability Evaluation of the Electronic Ballot Box Used in the 2014 Brazilian Election BIBAKFull-Text 480-491
  Mauro C. Pichiliani; Talita C. P. Britto
Electronic ballot boxes are becoming one of the main instruments used to represent and reinforce democracy in modern world electoral processes. Most recent research focuses on security, confidentiality and trust requirements. Few of those works target ergonomics, usability, and accessibility of the user interface (UI) and interaction elements issues. We present an empirical evaluation based on usability heuristics and accessibility guidelines assessed from the UI elements presented to voters during their interaction with the electronic ballot box used in the 2014 national Brazilian election. We show that there are many recommendations and design suggestions that can reduce voter's confusion, decrease the number of typing errors, and increase the accessibility for voters with special needs.
Keywords: Brazilian election; Electronic ballot box; User interface; Usability; Interaction; Accessibility; Evaluation; Redesign
Instantaneous Human-Computer Interactions: Button Causes and Screen Effects BIBAFull-Text 492-502
  Kjetil Raaen; Ragnhild Eg
Many human-computer interactions are highly time-dependent, which means that an effect should follow a cause without delay. In this work, we explore how much time can pass between a cause and its effect without jeopardising the subjective perception of instantaneity. We ran two experiments that involve the same simple interaction: A click of a button causes a spinning disc to change its direction of rotation, following a variable delay. In our adjustment experiment, we asked participants to adjust the delay directly, but without numerical references, using repeated attempts to achieve a value as close to zero as possible. In the discrimination task, participants made judgements on whether the single rotation change happened immediately following the button-click, or after a delay. The derived thresholds revealed a marked difference between the two experimental approaches, participants could adjust delays down to a median of 40 ms, whereas the discrimination mid-point corresponded to 148 ms. This difference could possibly be an artefact of separate strategies adapted by participants for the two tasks. Alternatively, repeated presentations may make people more sensitive to delays, or provide them with additional information to base their judgements on. In either case, we have found that humans are capable of perceiving very short temporal delays, and these empirical results provide useful guidelines for future designs of time-critical interactions.
How Do Japanese People Return a Greeting with a Bow? BIBAKFull-Text 503-513
  Mamiko Sakata; Noriko Suzuki; Kana Shirai; Haruka Shoda; Michiya Yamamoto; Takeshi Sugio
The greeting is one of the most familiar communicative behaviors in everyday life. In this study, we clarified the features of spontaneous greeting interactions by focusing on the timing of bows and utterances. In particular, we focused on how the response changes with the timing of the greeting. In the experiment, we performed simulated interviews and analyzed spontaneous greetings before and after the interview. Our experiment showed that the responses did not change with the interviewer's bows and utterances. It also revealed that there was a routine response pattern, appropriate for the people (i.e., greeters) involved.
Keywords: Greeting behavior; Spontaneous bowing; Timing structure
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Repeated Exposure of Facial Caricature on Memory Representation of a Model's Face BIBAKFull-Text 514-524
  Yoshimasa Tawatsuji; Yuki Iizuka; Tatsunori Matsui
Why does human can identify a facial caricature with its model's face? We hypothesize that a facial caricature has an effect on a person's memory representation of the model's face to get closer into the facial caricature itself, which causes a person to evoke the feeling of similarity between the model's face and its facial caricature. In this point, we conducted the experiment to verify whether the continuous exposure of a facial caricature changes participants' memory representation and whether the exposure also evokes participants' feeling of similarity between them.
Keywords: Face recognition; Facial caricature; Facial similarity
An Experimental Study on Visual Search Factors of Information Features in a Task Monitoring Interface BIBAKFull-Text 525-536
  Xiaoli Wu; Chengqi Xue; Feng Zhou
This paper carries out an experimental study on eye movement tracking when performing different visual searching tasks on a task monitoring interface, from the perspective of psychometrics. Behavior and physiological reaction data have been obtained through experiments -- firstly in a scenario where no visual searching task is requested, and secondly within three separate tasks where the subjects are asked to search for enemy information, threat information and data information, respectively. Eye movement data indexes in nine areas of the task monitoring interface have been analyzed for each task based on a division of the different task monitoring areas. The experiments demonstrate that the search path followed by subjects on the task monitoring interface show significantly different subject reaction times and eye movements when undergoing each different task, as the search path is influenced by task-driven cognitive information processing and information search time. Fixation duration, duration count and visit count also show significant differences in each different monitor area; there-fore information features distributed in the radar sub-interface can be easily captured, which have been proven to be related to task-driven automatic capture. In-formation position and features such as colors, shapes and sizes have a significant impact on visual searches as they can easily cause problems with information omission, misreading and misjudgment, missing/ignoring data etc. when under-going each different task. The paper concludes that monitoring tasks and the individual information features within in an interface have a great influence on the visual search, which will guide further research on design of information features in task monitoring interfaces.
Keywords: Task monitoring; Visual search; Information features; Factors; Information interface
Health Information Tailoring and Data Privacy in a Smart Watch as a Preventive Health Tool BIBAKFull-Text 537-548
  HongSuk Yoon; Dong-Hee Shin; Hyup Kim
Wearable technologies, especially smart watches are recently becoming popular and their health-related functions are well recognized. They can be effective to deliver health information to users, because they are able to track their activities. Whereas there is a privacy concern that users' personal health data could be misused according to be monitored their physical conditions via the smart watch. In this light of importance, this qualitative study explores the perceptions of smart watches as preventive health tools with 2 subjects: information tailoring and data privacy. This study used multiple methods: online survey, focus group interview and in-depth interview. A total of 12 users including power users and non-power users from Korea participated in a survey, 3 focus group sessions and post interviews. Three main themes emerged: (1) useful high-tech toy, (2) needs of hybrid tailoring service and (3) unnecessary anxiety vs. vague fear. Finally implications and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Customization; Data privacy; Health informatics; Information tailoring; Personalization; Power user; Smart watch; Wearable device
A Study of the Interactive Application in Aquarium Exhibit BIBAKFull-Text 549-559
  Linye Zhang; Young Mi Choi
Mobile technology is becoming increasingly widespread in museums, and many institutions have already developed applications that can be downloaded on mobile phones. The use of mobile technology is a new communication between museum and visitors yet there are few mobile apps for Aquariums even though there is an enormous amount of information available to visitors. Mobile apps are a powerful educational environment for inspiring and supporting children and adults interested in nature. They potentially may be used commonly due to increasing use of wireless networks for dissemination of media. The aim of this study is help visitors get information and interact with marine animals in the aquarium via a mobile app. Data collected from observations, surveys and tests with 259 visitors to exhibits in the Georgia are discussed in this study. The results will provide insights and guidelines for using mobile technology to interact in other museums.
Keywords: Aquarium; Interaction; Usability; Mobile app