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NORDICHI Tables of Contents: 020406081012142000

Proceedings of the Second Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2002 Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Location:Aarhus, Denmark
Dates:2002-Oct-19 to 2002-Oct-23
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-616-1; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: NORDICHI02
Papers:54
Pages:309
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Papers
  2. Short papers
  3. Demonstrations
  4. Aesthetic artefacts
  5. Keynotes

Papers

Using 'endowed props' in scenario-based design BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Steve Howard; Jennie Carroll; John Murphy; Jane Peck
We have developed a form of scenario-based design that aims to increase stakeholders' sense of 'immersion' in the happenings and situations depicted in the scenarios. In our approach, scenarios are 'acted out' by actors and/or candidate users during participatory design sessions, rather than being 'walked through' by designers and users. In form, our scenarios are bare and malleable and load on the context of use more than the activities and objectives of the candidate users. In usage, our scenarios play a role similar to stage directions in theatrical performance. Props are a vital accompaniment to such scenarios. Props focus the attention of the design team and stakeholders during participatory design sessions and this paper describes their form and usage.
Staging a professional participatory design practice: moving PD beyond the initial fascination of user involvement BIBAFull-Text 11-18
  Susanne Bødker; Ole Sejer Iversen
Use and users have an important and acknowledged role to most designers of interactive systems. Nevertheless any touch of user hands does not in itself secure development of meaningful artifacts. In this article we stress the need for a professional PD practice in order to yield the full potentiality of user involvement. We suggest two constituting elements of such a professional PD practice. The existence of a shared 'where-to' and 'why' artifact and an ongoing reflection and off-loop reflection among practitioners in the PD process.
Making user-centred design common sense: striving for an unambiguous and communicative UCD process model BIBAFull-Text 19-26
  Timo Jokela
One challenge with regard to organisations and user-centred design (UCD) is to communicate the core substance of UCD to designers. For this purpose, we propose an outcome-driven, method-independent process model of UCD that was developed based on experiments in industrial settings. The model takes ISO 13407 and ISO 18529 as its base. The distinctive features of the new model are the identification of six UCD processes; the identification of process categories usability engineering and user interaction design; the definition of processes through outcomes; and the definition of the performance of the processes from three dimensions (quantity, quality, integration). We have used the model in the assessment of the performance of UCD processes -- the original purpose of the model -- and in project planning and training. Our experiments indicate that the model makes the essentials of UCD more comprehensible and easier to define. Furthermore, it responds to the challenge of integrating usability engineering and interaction design.
Mobile text entry using three keys BIBAFull-Text 27-34
  Scott MacKenzie
Six techniques for three-key text entry are described. The techniques use Left- and Right-arrow keys to maneuver a cursor over a linear sequence of characters, and a Select key to select characters. The keystrokes per character (KSPC) for the methods varies from 10.66 to 4.23. Two techniques were chosen for formal evaluation. Method #2 positions characters in alphabetical order, while Method #6 uses linguistic enhancement to reorder characters following each entry to minimize the cursor distance to the next character. Both methods position SPACE on the left and use a snap-to-home cursor mode, whereby the cursor snaps to SPACE after each entry. Entry rates were about 9-10 wpm for both techniques, as measured in an experiment with ten participants. Interaction issues are examined, such as the challenges in using linguistic knowledge to accelerate input, and the opportunity for using typamatic (viz. auto-repeat) keying strategies to reduce the number of physical keypresses.
Oops! silly me! errors in a handwriting recognition-based text entry interface for children BIBAFull-Text 35-40
  Janet C. Read; Stuart MacFarlane; Chris Casey
This paper describes an empirical study in which children aged 7 and 8 used handwriting recognition software and hardware to input their own unconstrained text into the computer. The children were observed using the software, and the behaviour of both the children and the system is described.
   Handwriting recognition is a 'disobedient' technology; that is, it behaves erroneously, sometimes failing to generate correct representations of the child's intentions. This presents problems for the child, and these problems, and the strategies which the children adopted, are considered. Previous work on error correction with disobedient interfaces is used to provide grounding for the discussion.
   Two models are proposed, one describing user-states, the second introducing the notion of 'tidal' error repair. These models are then used to suggest some strategies for the design of more usable handwriting recognition interfaces for children.
Understanding remote presence BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Konrad Tollmar; Joakim Persson
In this paper, we discuss a study of new media for interpersonal communication. The paper motivates, designs and presents a small evaluation of a technology that is intended to support intimacy at a distance. It first presents an ethnographic study examining family communication and the role of artifacts in supporting emotional closeness, e.g. heirlooms, activities and places in the house. The paper then describes a couple of prototypes that were designed to support different types of closeness and how we evaluated one of these prototypes in a study of 3 families (6 households), for two weeks each. The interview data that the study presents show that people were generally positive about the technology, although this depended on the nature of the users' pre-existing communication patterns. One critical point is the importance of pairing blue sky design with down-to-earth deployment: we demonstrate how ethnographic-like work can inform design practice. Finally we discuss user experiences of "telematic emotional communication" and how this has enriched our understanding of remote presence.
An activity theory approach to affordance BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Klaus B. Baerentsen; Johan Trettvik
The concept of affordance was introduced to the field of HCI as a means to enhance the understandability and usability of artifacts and especially their user interface. The results have however not been entirely convincing. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the concept of affordance coined by James J. Gibson. The concept of affordance was meant to cut through the subjective-objective dichotomy of traditional psychology and philosophy, but its interpretation in HCI has often retained this dichotomy. We argue, that at least some of the misunderstanding of the concept is caused by the fact that Gibson focused mainly on the perceptual side of the concept, leaving the activity of the organism as a largely implicit precondition. We suggest that this shortcoming have significant consequences, but that they can be overcome by employing the concepts for activity and consciousness found in the Russian activity theory as a frame of reference for the concept of affordance.
Procurer usability requirements: negotiations in contract development BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Henrik Artman
This article describes a case study that examined one procurer's reasoning about and work with usability-related issues as well as the contractor's response to those requirements. The aim of this study was to examine the procurer's power to direct the system development process according to user-centred principles and indeed to point out its responsibility to use that power. The study elucidated the procurer's and the contractor's differing views of usability. The results suggest that the project leaders from the two organisations examined in this study had differing views of usability and that both approached usability more from a business perspective than from a user perspective. Furthermore, we found that the procurer valued user-centred activities less for their results than for the opportunity they gave to come in contact with the user's point of view and then to visualize the requirements concretely. We conclude this article with an analysis of some contradictions within and between the two organisations from a socio-cultural point of view. We suggest some mundane but nevertheless important requirements that procurers should think of when contracting consultants.
Complementarity and convergence of heuristic evaluation and usability test: a case study of universal brokerage platform BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  Lai-Chong Law; Ebba Thora Hvannberg
The aim of this paper is twofold (i) comparing the effectiveness of two evaluation methods, namely heuristic evaluation and usability testing, as applied to an experimental version of the UNIVERSAL Brokerage Platform (UBP), and (ii) inferring implications from the empirical findings of the usability test. Eight claims derived from previous research works are reviewed with the data of the current study. While the complementarity and convergence of the results yielded by the two methods can be confirmed to a certain extent, no conclusive explication about their divergence can be obtained, especially the issue whether usability problems reported lead to failures in real use. One of the significant implications thus drawn is to conduct meta-analysis on a sufficient number of well-designed and professionally performed empirical works on usability evaluation methods.
Sense-making of an emergency call: possibilities and constraints of a computerized case file BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Maria Normark
Work in control rooms, or so-called Centers of coordination, challenges both humans and technology. The people working there have to be able to make quick decisions as well as be alert during less busy times. The work has to be coordinated within the group, since the operators are much depending on each other's work. This places special demands on the technology; it should be fast, trustworthy and easy to manipulate so that the complexity of the work is reduced.
   SOS Alarm is a company that is responsible for managing the telephone calls made to the emergency telephone number 112 in Sweden. The SOS operators receive, categorize, document, dispatch and monitor the incoming cases. This paper discusses SOS operators work; how they coordinate the information and tasks between them; how the technology supports that work. This study presents a fully computerized setting, compared to many other studies of centers of coordination that are not.
One for all and all for one?: case studies of using prototypes in commercial projects BIBAFull-Text 91-100
  Nick Bryan-Kinns; Fraser Hamilton
The HCI discipline has long promoted the communication and collaboration between usability experts and intended users of systems. We present case studies that highlight the importance of representations in communication between not just usability experts and end users, but also graphic designers, clients, and technologists. Our case studies are used to illustrate the need to select appropriate representations for the target audience and the stage of system development. We argue that relationships can be identified between representation fidelity, target audience, and stage of development. These relationships can then be used to inform the appropriate selection of representations.
Getting access to what goes on in people's heads?: reflections on the think-aloud technique BIBAFull-Text 101-110
  Janni Nielsen; Torkil Clemmensen; Carsten Yssing
One of the basic usability testing techniques the HCI community draws on, and which stands out as unique, is thinking aloud. We introduce the many names, uses and modifications of the classical think aloud technique, and ask the rhetorical question: What do researchers think they get when they ask people to think aloud? We answer it by discussing the classical work of Ericsson and Simon (1984), in particular their distinction between vocalisation, verbalisation and retrospective reports and the relation to short term memory. Reintroducing the psychological perspective and the focus on higher order cognitive processes, we argue that access to subjective experience is possible in terms of introspection and describe a technique that invites the user to become a participant in the analysis of his or her own cognitive processes. We suggest that use of think aloud has as a prerequisite explicit descriptions of design, test procedure and framework for analysis. We point out, however, that if the aim is to get access to human thinking, HCI research may benefit from experimental research.
Bifrost inbox organizer: giving users control over the inbox BIBAFull-Text 111-118
  Olle Balter; Candace L. Sidner
Many email users, especially managers, receive too many email messages to read in the time available to them. The solutions available today often require programming skills on the part of the user to define rules for prioritizing messages or moving messages to folders. We propose a different approach: categorize messages in the inbox with predefined rules that do not require maintenance and are scalable to handle anything from 50 to thousands of messages.
On the effects of viewing cues in comprehending distortions BIBAFull-Text 119-128
  A. Zanella; M. S. T. Carpendale; M. Rounding
As a community, human-computer information and interface designers have tended to avoid use of fisheyes, and multi-scale presentations with their attendant distortion because of concern about how this distortion may lead to confusion and misinterpretation. On the other hand, for centuries, hand-created information presentations have made regular use of distortion to provide emphasis and actually enhance readability. Is the lack of use in computer presentations because thus far in our computational uses of distortion we have failed to provide adequate support that allows people to comprehend the manner in which the information is being presented? We describe a study about relative difficulty in reading distortions that investigates the effect of the use viewing cues such as the cartographic grid and shading on people's ability to interpret distortions. We look at two interpretation issues: whether people can locate the region of magnification and whether people can read the relative degree of magnification of these regions. We present the findings of this study and a discussion of its results.
Critical approach to 3D virtual realities for group work BIBAFull-Text 129-138
  Samuli Pekkola
Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) have been studied extensively during the past few years. In this paper, the concept of virtual reality (VR), and its value for group work are critically examined. To ground the discussions, experiences from a virtual reality project, from 3D chats, and from present CVE applications are analysed in the light of human communication. It is argued that the value of virtual reality is often overemphasised and overrated in the group work context, especially when conce rning desktop virtual realities and generic groupwork without an explicitly defined task or purpose. The main problem with VR is its self-centricity and inadequate support for shared real-life related objects.
Physically embodied video snippets supporting collaborative exploration of video material during design sessions BIBAFull-Text 139-148
  Tomas Sokoler; Hakan Edeholt
In this paper we explore the idea of using physically embodied video snippets as an alternative to today's means for control of video playback during collaborative design oriented meetings. We aim to make video snippets a more integral part of the shared resources and opportunities for action already present at brainstorm like meetings. We present our VideoTable and VideoCards. The VideoTable is an augmented meeting table. The VideoCards are paper card representations of video snippets embedding means for control of video playback. Our implementation is based on modified passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. Preliminary observations of use indicate that our VideoTable and VideoCards enable the seamless mix of video snippets with other physical design artifacts we are aiming for.
The design of auditory user interfaces for blind users BIBAFull-Text 149-156
  Hilko Donker; Palle Klante; Peter Gorny
Previous screen readers provide blind WWW-users only with the textual contents of the web pages, but exclude the access to important information coded in the layout of web pages. The approach we introduce here shall overcome the layout barrier of webpages with the help of three-dimensionally auditory objects ("hearcons") which are positioned in an auditory interaction realm (AIR). The elements of a webpage are reproduced in the AIR by a reference model ("torch metaphor").
   In a first detailed investigation the tonal qualities of the hearcons and the general design rules of the auditory interaction space have been examined. These results formed the foundation for the construction of an auditory webbrowser. The usability of this auditory webbrowser has been evaluated by a group of blind experts.
Textile displays: using textiles to investigate computational technology as design material BIBAFull-Text 157-166
  Lars Hallnas; Linda Melin; Johan Redstrom
As we face an increasingly heterogeneous collection of computational devices, there is a need to develop a general approach to what it is that we design as we create computational things. One such basic approach is to consider computational technology to be a design material. In the present paper, we describe how a traditional material -- textiles -- can be used to investigate aspects of the expressiveness and aesthetics of computational technology as design material. As an example of this approach, we use an experimental design project made for an art museum. We describe a series of conceptual sketches of how textile artefacts can be used to re-interpret elementary acts of information technology use and the experiences from working with the final installation of one of them. Finally, we discuss properties of textiles and computational technology, such as expressions related to vagueness, unpredictability and slowness.
Imagining and experiencing in design, the role of performances BIBAFull-Text 167-176
  Giulio Iacucci; Carlo Iacucci; Kari Kuutti
Several works have been published describing group performances to experience ideas during early design phases. Beyond practical accounts, performances have been poorly considered in the design literature. By analysing some of these works along with ours, we have inferred three roles of performance in the design of interactive systems: exploring, communicating, and testing. Starting from this categorization we discuss concepts that might be useful for a deeper understanding of the role of performances: the creation of a fictional space, the role of imagination, and interactional creativity.
Designing for accountability BIBAFull-Text 177-186
  Sara Eriksen
Accountability is an important issue for design, in more than one sense. In software engineering literature, accountability is mainly seen as a goal for quality assurance of design processes. In ethnomethodological studies, accountability is a central concept for understanding how people organize their everyday actions and interactions. Where the different research approaches meet, in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) literature, new and hybrid understandings of accountability arise. In this paper, I explore and compare uses of the concept of accountability in a selection of texts. Finally, using a specific case as an example, I discuss what focusing on ethnomethodological understandings of accountability might imply for design of information technologies.
Pivots and structured play: stimulating creative user input in concept development BIBAFull-Text 187-196
  Tore Urnes; Asmund Weltzien; Anne Zanussi; Solveig Engbakk; Julie Kleppen Rafn
Design methods based on participatory design need to stimulate creativity in potential users. We propose the pivot method to address this need during the concept development stage of the broader interactive system development process. Pivots are symbolic, yet physical, representations that allow a person to move back and forth between a figured (imagined) world and the real world. This movement generates experiences that can be exchanged and that stimulate creativity. We offer insights into the theoretical foundations of pivots and the pivot method. We also report on our experience from employing the pivot method during the development of a "universal remote controller" concept for a smart home.

Short papers

Personas in action: ethnography in an interaction design team BIBAFull-Text 197-200
  Asa Blomquist; Mattias Arvola
Alan Cooper's view on interaction design is both appealing and provoking since it avoids problems of involving users by simply excluding them. The users are instead represented by an archetype of a user, called persona. This paper reports a twelve-week participant observation in an interaction design team with the purpose of learning what really goes on in a design team when they implement personas in their process. On the surface it seemed like they used personas, but our analysis show how they had difficulties in using them and encountered problems when trying to imagine the user. We furthermore describe and discuss how the design team tried to involve users in order to compensate for their problems. It is concluded that it is not enough for the design team, and particularly not for the interaction designers, to have the know-how of using the method. They also have to integrate it with existing knowledge and practices in order to feel at home with it and use it efficiently.
Organisational implementation: a complex but under-recognised aspect of information-system design BIBAFull-Text 201-204
  Morten Hertzum
The development of information technology (IT) is often seen as consisting of analysis, design, technical implementation, and testing. While this may involve user input at several stages -- to support the software engineers in devising and revising the system -- this view on systems development marginalises organisational implementation. Organisational implementation comprises the activities that prepare organisations and users for a new system as well as the activities that prepare the system for the transition period during which it enters into operation and takes over from previous systems and artefacts. This study analyses three organisational-implementation activities undertaken during the complete redesign of a large information system: the information plan, the data conversion, and the release strategy. It is found that these activities must be carefully aligned with the technical implementation of the system and that they involve the development of additional system facilities. In sum, this study provides evidence of the complexity and importance of organisational implementation and, thereby, argues that it must be recognised as a first-rate constituent of the design process.
An evaluation of color patterns for imaging of warning signals in cockpit displays BIBAFull-Text 205-208
  Tatiana Evreinova; Roope Raisamo
The quality of information perception in an aircraft cockpit depends on the way of interacting with display units, including modality, interface structure, and external exploitation conditions. The goal of this work is to find a solution that would allow real-time imaging or doubling of audible warning signals through spatial-temporal color coding. Software emulation of the peripheral display was built. The development and pilot evaluation of the method were both performed. Presentation of visual signals in paracentral field is efficient, but their optical and temporal parameters are critical in relation to distraction effect.
"The snatcher catcher": an interactive refrigerator BIBAFull-Text 209-212
  Jonas Lundberg; Aseel Ibrahim; David Jonsson; Sinna Lindquist; Pernilla Qvarfordt
In order to provoke a debate about the use of new technology, the Snatcher Catcher, an intrusive interactive refrigerator that keeps record of the items in it, was created. In this paper we present the fridge, and how we used it in a provocative installation. The results showed that the audience was provoked, and that few people wanted to have the fridge in their surroundings.
Interfacing with the invisible computer BIBAFull-Text 213-216
  Kasim Rehman; Frank Stajano; George Coulouris
The Ubicomp scenario of wirelessly networked processors embedded in everyday objects has been dubbed "the invisible computer". Users no longer interact with a computer but with familiar objects whose functionality is transparently enhanced by computing features.
   Using the results of an extensive survey of past and current Ubicomp research (Rehman 2001), we highlight the major problem of this new style of interaction: because the computer is invisible, the user lacks an appropriate cognitive mod el for it, and cannot predict the behaviour or even the available features of the system. We argue that effective and usable Ubicomp systems will have to make the invisible computer visible.
Personality preferences in graphical interface design BIBAFull-Text 217-218
  Arvid Karsvall
The paper presents and discusses the graphical interface design of three interactive television prototypes. These were manipulated in colour and shape in order to display different degrees of extrovert character. The manipulation was based on colour and psychology theory that connects personality traits with visual aesthetics. The first-time impressions of the prototypes were later evaluated in reference to the users' measured personality traits; this since previous work on postures and voice has shown that personality factors influence the users' interface design preferences. The user test concludes that the users do recognise the intended extrovert and introvert features of the prototypes.
Searching for optimal methods of presenting dynamic text on different types of screens BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Jari Laarni
Automatic dynamic presentation methods (e.g., vertical scrolling) are thought to be viable alternative means to present text on small-screen interfaces. Here we studied what is the most suitable method for different types of screens (for a laptop, a palm-type pocket computer, a communicator and a mobile phone). Reading rate and comprehension data suggest that there is an optimal screen type for each presentation method. The recommendations based on performance measures, however, differ from those based on usability and preference ratings.
Helping the helpers: cameo -- an information appliance for home care service BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  Niklas Andersson
In the future the proportion of elderly in the population will increase rapidly, while those who will take care of them will be fewer then today. The goal with the project was to create a vision of how digital technology and designated hardware and software can make tomorrows' home care more efficient, with increased quality and flexibility. The resulting design "Cameo", is a small handheld device which has been developed with the users' needs and requirements elaborated in a future scenario.
Designing for small display screens BIBAFull-Text 227-230
  Lari Karkkainen; Jari Laarni
Wireless access to the Internet via PDAs (personal digital assistants) provides Web type services in the mobile world. What we are lacking are design guidelines for such PDA services. For Web publishing, however, there are many resources to look for guidelines. The guidelines can be classified according to which aspect of the Web media they are related: software/hardware, content and its organization, or aesthetics and layout. In order to be applicable to PDA services, these guidelines have to be modified. In this paper we analyze the main characteristics of PDAs and their influence to the guidelines.
Developing 3D information systems for mobile users: some usability issues BIBAFull-Text 231-234
  Teija Vainio; Outi Kotala
Location-based services, navigation and way finding in three-dimensional worlds are some challenges of current research in mobile computing and information systems. This paper introduces a prototype of future mobile city information systems. In 3D City Info research project, we integrated in one prototype system a three-dimensional city model, a map and a database, which includes information from the same area. In addition, we have built a fully working mobile laptop version of the 3D City Info with an integrated GPS receiver for our field tests. Our preliminary user study appears to support the conclusion that three-dimensional model integrated to a map appears to visualize motion better than a map alone. In the user interface design a user's possibility to adapt separately a model and a map might be worth considering in the future.
Wanted: a wider scope for interaction design in Sweden BIBAFull-Text 235-238
  Astrid Selling Sjoberg; Cristian Norlin
This paper focuses on the interaction design process as a practice experienced in the commercial business of telecom. Our concern for new and brave design is not mainly aimed at the development of products, but at the way we as interaction designers view our practice. This paper is to be seen as a reflection on interaction design practice through the daily experience of commercial information technology industry.
Using marking menus to develop command sets for computer vision based hand gesture interfaces BIBAFull-Text 239-242
  Soren Lenman; Lars Bretzner; Bjorn Thuresson
This paper presents the first stages of a project that studies the use of hand gestures for interaction, in an approach based on computer vision. A first prototype for exploring the use of marking menus for interaction has been built. The purpose is not menu-based interaction per se, but to study if marking menus, with practice, could support the development of autonomous command sets for gestural interaction. Some early observations are reported, mainly concerning problems with user fatigue and precision of gestures. Future work is discussed, such as introducing flow menus for reducing fatigue, and control menus for continuous control functions. The computer vision algorithms will also have to be developed further.
A character-level error analysis technique for evaluating text entry methods BIBAFull-Text 243-246
  I. Scott MacKenzie; R. William Soukoreff
We describe a technique to analyse character-level errors in evaluations of text entry methods. Using an algorithm for sequence comparisons, we generate the set of optimal alignments between the presented and transcribed text. Percharacter errors, categorized as insertions, substitutions, or deletions, are obtained by analysing the alignments and applying a weighting factor. A detailed example using a real data set is given.
Window frames as areas for information visualization BIBAFull-Text 247-250
  Staffan Bjork; Johan Redstrom
We describe how the frames of document windows can be used as areas for visualizing information about a document. A number of design examples are presented as illustrations of how users can be supported with contextual information about a document in a way that does not interfere with the visual presentation of the document itself. A ChangeIndicator is used as an example of how information can be mapped to basic design variables of a frame, such as its color. More complex visualizations can be achieved by mapping information about parts of documents to parts or details of the frame. This is illustrated with a Readability-Viewer. Finally, the ScrollSearcher is presented as an example of how the results of processes and functions can be visualized in the frames of a document.
Adaptive runtime layout of hierarchical UI components BIBAFull-Text 251-254
  Heikki Keranen; Johan Plomp
Emerging small mobile terminals, each having a different screen size, create challenges for graphical user interface designers of multi-platform applications and services. In this paper we present a method which considers the screen size of the terminal and the currently active user interface component to divide the screen space for components at runtime. The method is demonstrated by using a modified treemap layout algorithm. The method has many advantages over existing zoomable interfaces using predefined layout including constant information density, context visibility and better suitability for screens being small and having extreme aspect ratios.
Football animations for mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 255-258
  Greger Wikstrand; Staffan Eriksson
Animations, based on a streamed model, are a cost and bandwidth efficient way to transmit data to an end-user on the mobile network. They might also be enlightening and enjoyable to view. An experiment was performed to contrast different animations and video codings in terms of their cognitive and emotional effectiveness for spectating a football game on the mobile phone. Analysis shows that different renderings of the same model give differential results for understandability and enjoyment of a game. The conclusion is that more advanced renderings might be able to give an individually optimized blend between emotional and cognitive effectiveness.
Medium effects on persuasion BIBAFull-Text 259-262
  Jan Heim; Trude Asting; Trond Schliemann
In this study the effect of different communicative media on the outcome of the interaction between two persons is studied in relation to persuasion. When does the medium have an impact on an effort to try to convince or persuade another person? When arguing on behalf of a third party, participants did better over Audio-only compared with other media (Text chat, Video, Face-to-face). The results suggest that the other person may yield, but there is no evidence that it will result in opinion change as well. The advantage is probably due to the enhanced formality of the medium.
A semiotic-based framework to user interface design BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  Jair C. Leite
This work proposes a framework based on the Semiotic Engineering approach that drives designers to specify the application conceptual model and its associated user interface. Our work contributes to user interface design by proposing the LEMD, a linguistic formalism to the user interface specification in an abstract and structured way focusing on what he/she really wants to mean to the users. The resulting specification could be mapped on conventional widgets.
User interfaces for browsing and navigation of continuous multimedia data BIBAFull-Text 267-270
  Wolfgang Hurst; Patrick Stiegeler
Browsing continuous multimedia data is very important, for example, to find a particular information in a very long document or to get a first quick overview of the content of some unknown data. Unfortunately, common interfaces do not always support users in the best possible way for this. In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study we did with some alternative user interfaces for (visual) browsing and navigation of continuous multimedia data. In particular, we focus on fine granular navigation which is critical in case of continuous data.
Exploring the embodied-mind approach to user experience BIBAFull-Text 271-274
  Thomas Hoff; Trond A. Oritsland; Cato A. Bjorkli
This paper presents context-free and technology-free descriptions of basic elements of user experience from an embodied-mind perspective. The Ecological Interaction Properties suggested refer both to aspects of the user as well as aspects of the interface. Examples of the explanatory power of the approach compared to that of contemporary concepts in the HCI-litterature are provided.
Experiences on a multimodal information kiosk with an interactive agent BIBAFull-Text 275-278
  Erno Makinen; Saija Patomaki; Roope Raisamo
Information kiosks provide useful information to many people in many different situations and they should be easy to use since persons with little or no knowledge of computing may use them. One way to ease interaction between a user and a kiosk is multimodal interaction. In this paper, we present a multimodal kiosk that includes a computer vision component and an interactive agent that makes use of computer vision. We also discuss preliminary results of user tests that were carried out with the kiosk.
Instant collaboration: using context-aware instant messaging for session management in distributed collaboration tools BIBAFull-Text 279-282
  Klaus Marius Hansen; Christian Heide Damm
Distributed collaboration has become increasingly important, and instant messaging has become widely used for distributed communication. We present findings from an investigation of instant messaging use for work-related activities in a commercial setting. Based on these findings, we propose a lightweight session management design for distributed collaboration tools based on context-aware instant messaging. An implementation of this design is presented and an ongoing evaluation is discussed.
The benefits of a long engagement: from contextual design to the co-realisation of work affording artefacts BIBAFull-Text 283-286
  Mark Hartswood; Rob Procter; Roger Slack; James Soutter; Alex Voss; Mark Rouncefield
This paper critically examines Beyer and Holtzblatt's contextual design methodology. As a way of addressing what we argue are contextual design's limitations, we propose co-realisation, a methodology that calls for a long engagement: i.e., a longitudinal commitment from designers to building a shared practice with users. We illustrate what doing co-realisation means as practice with extracts taken from case studies of two projects.
The role of "genre" in the analysis of the use of videoconference systems at work BIBAFull-Text 287-290
  Teresa Cerratto Pargman; Ann Lantz
This paper reports the results of three case studies aimed at exploring the use of videoconference systems in different working situations. We observed how professionals in three geographically distributed groups -- one from the academic world and two from large Swedish companies -- used different videoconference systems for work. The paper discusses the fact that groups from different working contexts, using different videoconferences systems, decided to avoid them and instead all chose telephone conferences to support their meetings. This result is interpreted as a sign of a gap between emerging technologies and implementations of genres (conventions) in design.

Demonstrations

Ideogramic: flexibility and formality in collaborative diagramming BIBAFull-Text 291-292
  Anne Vinter Ratzer; Klaus Marius Hansen
Modelling is central to doing and learning object-oriented development. We present a new tool, Ideogramic UML, for gesture-based collaborative object-oriented modelling, which is particularly effective on pen-based input and output devices such as electronic whiteboards. Furthermore we show how the interaction principles of this tool generalize to other application domains.
PDA's, barcodes and video-films for continuous learning at an intensive care unit BIBAFull-Text 293-294
  Eva Brandt; Erling Bjorginsson; Per-Anders Hillgren; Viktor Bergqvist; Marcus Emilson
This describes a prototype made to support and augment continuous learning for the employees at an Intensive Care Unit. The prototype is made from off-the-shelf products. The prototype is a mobile interface consisting of a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and a barcode reader. On the PDA are a number of short video-films produced by the employees (especially the nurses) at the Intensive Care Unit. The content of the video-films vary from instructions about medical equipment to films about handling of sores, reflections on "best practices" etc. Barcodes distributed in the Intensive Care environment give access to the video-films. A running prototype will be demonstrated and the conference participants will be able to try the prototype themselves. Furthermore a short video-film will give examples of nurses producing video-films, discussing the video-films, and using the PDA prototype.
Ozlab: a simple demonstration tool for prototyping interactivity BIBAFull-Text 295-296
  John Soren Pettersson; Joe Siponen
A system for testing interaction design without the need for programming is described. This technique has the advantage of paper prototying allowing for rapid prototyping. In the same time it makes a prototype look real why it is possible to test the prototype as if it were a functioning piece of software.

Aesthetic artefacts

SpringFlow: a digital spring-sign BIBAFull-Text 297-298
  Charlotte Axelsson; Eva Eriksson; Daniel Lindros; Marie Mattsson
We present SpringFlow, a digital Spring-sign, which, from February to May, changes its characteristics to indicate how far gone spring is. With the aid of our Spring-sign, you navigate through time just like you would with a calendar. Its construction resembles a hollow ball, while the appearance of it depends on the users interactions. By tilting it, changes in sound, light, heat and cold will be produced. Based upon prior work in ubiquitous computing, SpringFlow incorporates old techniques to create something new. This paper describes the components, interaction, implementation, conceptual approach, but most of all the aesthetics.
BeatCatch: visual and tactile rhythm box BIBAFull-Text 299-302
  Linus Rydberg; Johan Sandsjo
BeatCatch is a high-level input device for creating and exploring rhythms. The focus of this work is on the expression and aesthetics of the interaction design, the level of control of the output perceived by the user and the width of the user group, stretching from novices to professionals. The BeatCatch prototype is made as an interactive metronome, which gives audile, visual and tactile feedback.
The iron horse: a sound ride BIBAFull-Text 303-306
  Hanna Landin; Sus Lundgren; Johannes Prison
The Iron Horse combines modern technology with a childhood dream. It's a bike -- but its sounds like a horse. By biking at different speeds, one can get it to walk, trot or gallop. Sometimes it snorts, and it greets its owner and other iron horses with a neigh. In the project, we explored how to transfer the auditive expressions of horses into the art of cycling using computational technology, to stretch the boundaries of riding, cycling and interaction design. The technology should be an inspiration for the cyclist's fantasy; turning the playground into a jumping track, the way to school into a race, and the cycle path into a piece of the prairie.

Keynotes

Where is the HUMAN in HCI?: from reaction to anticipation BIBFull-Text 307
  Mihai Nadin
Enabling communication BIBFull-Text 309
  Bodil Jonsson
Industrial interaction or interactive industrial: the merging of design disciplines BIBFull-Text 311-312
  Turkka Keinonen