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NORDICHI Tables of Contents: 020406081012142000

Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2006 Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Note:Changing Roles
Editors:Anders I. Morch; Konrad Morgan; Tone Bratteteig; Gautam Ghosh; Dag Svanaes
Location:Oslo, Norway
Dates:2006-Oct-14 to 2006-Oct-18
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-325-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: NORDICHI06
Links:Conference Home Page
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When second wave HCI meets third wave challenges BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Susanne Bødker
This paper surveys the current status of second generation HCI theory, faced with the challenges brought to HCI by the so-called third wave. In the third wave, the use context and application types are broadened, and intermixed, relative to the focus of the second wave on work. Technology spreads from the workplace to our homes and everyday lives and culture. Using these challenges the paper specifically addresses the topics of multiplicity, context, boundaries, experience and participation in order to discuss where second wave theory and conceptions can still be positioned to make a contribution as part of the maturing of our handling of the challenges brought on by the third wave.


Tac-tiles: multimodal pie charts for visually impaired users BIBAFull-Text 9-18
  Steven A. Wall; Stephen A. Brewster
Tac-tiles is an accessible interface that allows visually impaired users to browse graphical information using tactile and audio feedback. The system uses a graphics tablet which is augmented with a tangible overlay tile to guide user exploration. Dynamic feedback is provided by a tactile pin-array at the fingertips, and through speech/non-speech audio cues. In designing the system, we seek to preserve the affordances and metaphors of traditional, low-tech teaching media for the blind, and combine this with the benefits of a digital representation. Traditional tangible media allow rapid, non-sequential access to data, promote easy and unambiguous access to resources such as axes and gridlines, allow the use of external memory, and preserve visual conventions, thus promoting collaboration with sighted colleagues. A prototype system was evaluated with visually impaired users, and recommendations for multimodal design were derived.
An empirical evaluation of undo mechanisms BIBAFull-Text 19-27
  Aaron G. Cass; Chris S. T. Fernandes; Andrew Polidore
While various models of undo have been proposed over the years, no empirical study has yet been done to discover which model of undo most closely aligns with what users expect an undo command should do. In this paper, we discuss the results of such a study that compares the ubiquitous linear undo model with two variations of selective undo: script selective and cascading selective. Unlike the script model, cascading selective undo takes into account dependencies between user actions. Our study shows that, for the application studied, when a user is asked to perform undo in the absence of any guidance, the user will tend to gravitate toward an undo mechanism that uses existing dependencies between user actions. Specifically, we show that subjects prefer the dependency-aware aspects of cascading undo over either linear or script selective undo.
Evaluating touching and pointing with a mobile terminal for physical browsing BIBAFull-Text 28-37
  Pasi Valkkynen; Marketta Niemela; Timo Tuomisto
Physical browsing is a user interaction paradigm in which the user interacts with physical objects by using a mobile terminal to select the object for some action. The objects contain links to digital services and information related to the objects. The links are implemented with tags that are readable by the mobile terminal. We have built a system that supports selecting objects for interaction by touching and pointing at them. Our physical browsing system emulates passive sensor-equipped long-range RFID tags and a mobile terminal equipped with an RFID reader. We have compared different system configurations for touching and pointing. Additionally, we have evaluated other parameters of physical selection, such as conditions for choice of selection method. In our evaluation of the system, we found touching and pointing to be useful and complementary methods for selecting an object for interaction.
Management perspectives on usability in a public authority: a case study BIBAFull-Text 38-47
  Asa Cajander; Jan Gulliksen; Inger Boivie
In trying to understand the problem of poor usability in computer-supported work, this article looks at management and their perspective on usability in a public authority. What are their underlying basic values, assumptions and attitudes? Why do managers interpret usability as they do, and what are the consequences for the organization and for usability? The empirical basis is an interpretive case study where 19 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Results indicate that usability is interpreted differently, depending on the formal roles of informants. Furthermore, a majority of the informants express personal, but limited, responsibility for usability. Moreover, we found that basic values are based on an instrumental view of work where efficiency and economy are important constituents. We identified that even though users participate in IT development, they have no formal responsibility or authority. They have become IT workers in that they perform highly technical tasks such as integral testing.
The appropriateness of Swedish municipality web site designs BIBAFull-Text 48-57
  Emma Eliason; Jonas Lundberg
In this paper, the results of a front-page genre analysis of 290 Swedish municipality Web sites are presented, and the appropriateness of the identified design solutions are discussed. Seven municipality Web site genres are identified: notice-board, newspaper, brochure, promotion, commercial, portal, and filter. We discuss how the municipality genres are related to each other, and to other genres, as mix-genres or subgenres. We conclude that the genres differ widely in terms of form, dominating content, action possibilities, purposes, and user groups and roles. This paper provides design examples of what qualities the different genres might bring, and thereby, gives an opportunity for designers and procurers to learn from previous designs. The paper contributes both by providing an analysis of a genre central to society, and by showing how a genre analysis reveals implicit values regarding the user and the task, mediated in the genres of municipality Web sites.
An evaluation of sticky and force enhanced targets in multi target situations BIBAFull-Text 58-67
  David Ahlstrom; Martin Hitz; Gerhard Leitner
In this paper we explore the usage of "force fields" in order to facilitate the computer user during pointing tasks. The first study shows that pointing time can be reduced by enhancing a pointing target with an invisible force field that warps the screen cursor toward the target center. The application of force fields is further supported in that we show how performance of force enhanced pointing can be predicted by using Fitts' law and a force adjusted index of difficulty. In the second study, the force field technique is compared with the "sticky target" technique [20] in two realistic pointing situations which involve several closely placed targets. The results show that the force fields improve pointing performance and that the sticky target technique does not.
Variability of throughput in pointing device tests: button-up or button-down? BIBAFull-Text 68-77
  Poika Isokoski
Object selection and activation in graphical user interfaces is usually connected to the changes in the state of the buttons on the mouse. In input device testing the position of the mouse cursor at the time of button-down or button-up events is used. We measured the effect the choice of event has on throughput in a standard Fitts' paradigm pointing device test. 12 participants used two mice with button-down and button-up events as the target selection trigger. Button-down events produced 0.2 bps higher throughput than button-up events. Because of this, it is important to choose the relevant event to be used in pointing device tests and to report the choice along with the results. Otherwise results may be misleading and inter-study comparisons of throughput values may be inaccurate.
Unipad: single stroke text entry with language-based acceleration BIBAFull-Text 78-85
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Javier Chen; Aleks Oniszczak
A stylus-based text entry technique called Unipad is presented. Unipad combines single-stroke text input with language-based acceleration techniques, including word completion, suffix completion, and frequent word prompting. In a study with ten participants, entry rates averaged 11.6 wpm with 0.90% errors after two hours of practice. In follow-on sessions to establish the expert potential, four users entered "the quick brown fox" phrase repeatedly for four blocks of 15 minutes each. Average rates on the last block ranged from 17.1 to 35.1 wpm, with peak rates reaching 48 wpm.
A research process for designing ubiquitous social experiences BIBAFull-Text 86-95
  Yanna Vogiazou; Josephine Reid; Bas Raijmakers; Marc Eisenstadt
This paper investigates a research process focusing on the unpredictable collective and individual user behaviours which can emerge in ubiquitous social games. The fundamental premise of our research is that emergent interactions can both enrich the user experience and inform the design process of ubiquitous social applications, revealing creative opportunities. Rather than a side effect from the deployment of an innovative technology, emergence becomes the focal point of investigation of the paper. In light of the proposed design research process, we present the emergent phenomena observed in three mixed reality game applications and reflect on what we learned.
Active surfaces: a novel concept for end-user composition BIBAFull-Text 96-104
  Erik Gronvall; Patrizia Marti; Alessandro Pollini; Alessia Rullo
This paper describes the design process of a modular system for supporting physical and cognitive rehabilitation in the swimming pool. In such an environment, the therapist is called to creatively adapt rehabilitation protocols to the enhanced ability of the patients, often reacting to emerging behaviours enabled by the water. Therefore a strong technological requirement for such environment is to develop a modular system that can be configured and modified "on the fly" during the activity, exploiting the therapeutic properties of the water. To satisfy such a requirement the system of Active Surfaces has been developed. It consists of a number of position aware floating units, called tiles, able to communicate each other and to provide visual, acoustic and tactile feedback. By combining the different tiles the therapist can easily configure the dedicated tasks for the various typology of patients. The concept has been developed following the Palpable Computing approach, an innovative design paradigm complementing key features of ambient computing, such as invisibility and end-user composition of devices, with dual features (e.g., visibility and decomposition) that enable users to navigate, configure and influence the computing system.
User sketches: a quick, inexpensive, and effective way to elicit more reflective user feedback BIBAFull-Text 105-114
  Maryam Tohidi; William Buxton; Ronald Baecker; Abigail Sellen
Our aim is to introduce techniques that allow for active involvement of users throughout the design process, starting with the very early stages of ideation and exploration. The approach discussed in this study augments conventional usability testing with a user sketching component. We found that enabling users to sketch their ideas facilitated reflection, and provided a rich medium for discovery and communication of design ideas. We believe that this technique has the potential to complement usability testing in general, in order to generate "reflective" as opposed to purely "reactive" user feedback.
Augmenting refrigerator magnets: why less is sometimes more BIBAFull-Text 115-124
  Alex S. Taylor; Laurel Swan; Rachel Eardley; Abigail Sellen; Steve Hodges; Ken Wood
In this paper we present a number of augmented refrigerator magnet concepts. The concepts are shown to be derived from previous research into the everyday use of fridge surfaces. Three broadly encompassing practices have been addressed through the concepts: (i) organization/planning in households; (ii) reminding; and (iii) methods household members use to assign ownership to particular tasks, activities and artifacts. Particular emphasis is given to a design approach that aims to build on the simplicity of magnets so that each of the concepts offers a basic, simple to operate function. The concepts, and our use of what we call this less is more design sensibility are examined using a low-fidelity prototyping exercise. The results of this preliminary work suggest that the concepts have the potential to be easily incorporated into household routines and that the design of simple functioning devices lends itself to this.
Interaction techniques for using handhelds and PCs together in a clinical setting BIBAFull-Text 125-134
  Ole Andre Alsos; Dag Svanaes
In the present study we compare interaction techniques for using handheld devices together with stationary displays in a hospital setting. A set of prototype implementations were developed and tested for a pre-surgery scenario with pairs of physicians and patients. The participants were asked to rank the interaction techniques in order of preference. The results show highest ranking for a distributed user interface where the GUI elements reside on the handheld and where the stationary display is used for showing media content. An analysis of the factors affecting the usability shows that in addition to GUI usability, the interaction techniques were ranked based on ergonomic and social factors specific to the use situation. The latter include the physicality of the patient bed and how computing devices potentially interrupt the face-to-face communication between physician and patient. The study illustrates how the usability of interaction techniques for ubiquitous computing is affected by the ergonomic and social factors of each specific use context.
Interacting with embodied agents that can see: how vision-enabled agents can assist in spatial tasks BIBAFull-Text 135-144
  Arjan Geven; Johann Schrammel; Manfred Tscheligi
In this paper, we describe user experiences with a system equipped with cognitive vision that interacts with the user in the context of personal assistance in the office. A cognitive vision computer can see the user and user responses and react to situations that happen in the environment, crossing the boundary between the virtual and the physical world. How should such a seeing computer interact with its users? Three different interface styles -- a traditional GUI, a cartoon-like embodied agent and a realistic embodied agent -- are tested in two tasks where users are actively observed by a (simulated) cognitive vision system. The system assists them in problem solving. Both the non-embodied and the embodied interaction styles offer the user certain advantages and the pros and cons based on the experiment results are discussed in terms of performance, intelligence, trust, comfort, and social presence.
SoundBar: exploiting multiple views in multimodal graph browsing BIBAFull-Text 145-154
  David K. McGookin; Stephen A. Brewster
In this paper we discuss why access to mathematical graphs is problematic for visually impaired people. By a review of graph understanding theory and interviews with visually impaired users, we explain why current non-visual representations are unlikely to provide effective access to graphs. We propose the use of multiple views of the graph, each providing quick access to specific information as a way to improve graph usability. We then introduce a specific multiple view system to improve access to bar graphs called SoundBar which provides an additional quick audio overview of the graph. An evaluation of SoundBar revealed that additional views significantly increased accuracy and reduced time taken in a question answering task.
Interactive 3D sonification for the exploration of city maps BIBAFull-Text 155-164
  Wilko Heuten; Daniel Wichmann; Susanne Boll
Blind or visually impaired people usually do not leave their homes without any assistance, in order to visit unknown cities or places. One reason for this dilemma is, that it is hardly possible for them to gain a non-visual overview about the new place, its landmarks and geographic entities already at home. Sighted people can use a printed or digital map to perform this task. Existing haptic and acoustic approaches today do not provide an economic way to mediate the understanding of a map and relations between objects like distance, direction, and object size. We are providing an interactive three-dimensional sonification interface to explore city maps. A blind person can build a mental model of an area's structure by virtually exploring an auditory map at home. Geographic objects and landmarks are presented by sound areas, which are placed within a sound room. Each type of object is associated with a different sound and can therefore be identified. By investigating the auditory map, the user perceives an idea of the various objects, their directions and relative distances. First user tests show, that users are able to reproduce a sonified city map, which comes close to the original visual city map. With our approach exploring a map with non-speech sound areas provide a new user interface metaphor that offers its potential not only for blind and visually impaired persons but also to applications for sighted persons.
Designing worth is worth designing BIBAFull-Text 165-174
  Gilbert Cockton
Value is a unifying concept for design. The intended value of digital artefacts provides a focus for field research, design and evaluation, as well as common ground with project sponsors, future users, and other stakeholders. The challenge lies in operationalising value to create a well-defined, well-understood and manageable development process. This requires a clear definition and strong understanding of the nature of value as a human motivator. It further requires this understanding to be transformed into methods and techniques within a development framework that supports a focus on value from the initial identification of product opportunities to the installation and operation of digital products and services. This paper revisits the logic and evolution of value-centred design, and then renames it to the near synonym of worth-centred to avoid confusion (especially 'value' vs. 'values') and distracting associations of the word 'value'. It locates worth in arenas of individual and collective discourses which scope different human perspectives on value. Finally, it relates worth to an evolving development framework.
A new role for anthropology?: rewriting "context" and "analysis" in HCI research BIBAFull-Text 175-184
  Minna Rasanen; James M. Nyce
In this paper we want to reconsider the role anthropology (both its theory and methods) can play within HCI research. One of the areas anthropologists can contribute to here is to rethink the notion of social context where technology is used. Context is usually equated with the immediate activities such as work tasks, when and by whom the task is performed. This tends to under represent some fundamental aspects of social life, like culture and history. In this paper, we want to open up a discussion about what context means in HCI and to emphasize socio-structural and historical aspects of the term. We will suggest a more inclusive analytic way that able the HCI community to make "better" sense of use situation. An example of technology use in a workplace will be given to demonstrate the yields this kind of theoretical framework can bring into HCI.
Understanding the work of an HCI practitioner BIBAFull-Text 185-194
  Netta Iivari
Users should be involved in the development of information technology (IT) artifacts. However, this is challenging, especially in product development context, in which Human Computer Interaction (HCI) practitioners tend to be hired to 'represent the users' in the development. However, also their work has proven to be challenging. This paper analyzes their work by utilizing a metaphor of IT artifacts as texts and their development as writing. It is assumed that during writing the IT artifact texts 'users are configured'. HCI practitioners are to contribute to the 'configuration of the user'. However, divergent roles are assigned to these practitioners, both in theory and in practice. Therefore, both theoretical and empirical analyses of the work of the HCI practitioners are carried out, and implications both for theory and practice are discussed. Particularly the semiotic approach introduced in this paper and its implications on HCI theory are reflected on.
Systematic evaluation of e-learning systems: an experimental validation BIBAFull-Text 195-202
  C. Ardito; M. F. Costabile; A. De Angeli; R. Lanzilotti
The evaluation of e-learning applications deserves special attention and evaluators need effective methodologies and appropriate guidelines to perform their task. We have proposed a methodology, called eLSE (e-Learning Systematic Evaluation), which combines a specific inspection technique with user-testing. This inspection aims at allowing inspectors that may not have a wide experience in evaluating e-learning systems to perform accurate evaluations. It is based on the use of evaluation patterns, called Abstract Tasks (ATs), which precisely describe the activities to be performed during inspection. For this reason, it is called AT inspection. In this paper, we present an empirical validation of the AT inspection technique: three groups of novice inspectors evaluated a commercial e-learning system applying the AT inspection, the heuristic inspection, or user-testing. Results have shown an advantage of the AT inspection over the other two usability evaluation methods, demonstrating that Abstract Tasks are effective and efficient tools to drive evaluators and improve their performance. Important methodological considerations on the reliability of usability evaluation techniques are discussed.
User-centred evaluation of an e-learning repository BIBAFull-Text 203-211
  Giorgio Venturi; Nik Bessis
The aim of this paper is to reflect on the evaluation of DELTA, a distributed learning resources repository. We employed scenarios and claims analysis techniques so as to derive assessable evaluation goals. These goals were related to three quality dimensions: quality of use, pedagogical effectiveness and acceptability for the end-users. We employed a set of six quantitative and qualitative research methods and triangulated the results obtained. The results demonstrate that DELTA met around half of the evaluation goals. This project was an opportunity to reflect on the degree of fitness for purpose of our methods. Two of the qualitative methods employed (user diaries and pedagogy workshop) were particularly effective in the triangulation process.
CHIC - a pluggable solution for community help in context BIBAFull-Text 212-221
  Gunnar Stevens; Torben Wiedenhofer
Online "Helps" must capture the problem of decontextualisation. In the literature the following three methods are presented to bridge the gap between the user's problem situation and the provided help: using methods of the information retrieval, computer mediated communication and techniques of context awareness.
   Focusing on professional help only is a drawback most help systems research have today. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents how the different help methods can be combined with the concepts of community based help systems by using Wikis. We will argue that the next big step is to integrate Wikis into the applications so that there is a more seamless transition between the use context and using the Wiki as a Help System.
   In order to prove our concept, we designed a CHiC (Community Help in Context) prototype based on Eclipse, and use it in a rich client for a Groupware-System.
System designer assessments of role play as a design method: a qualitative study BIBAFull-Text 222-231
  Gry Seland
In this paper we present a system designer perspective on advantages, limitations and applicability of role play as a system development method. The empirical material is obtained through discussions, interviews and written comments from 62 system designers who have taken part in one of seven workshops on role play in the period 2002 to 2005. The system designers included system developers, organizational developers, interaction designers, and computer science students. The study shows that role play is perceived as useful for (i) making end users active participants in the development process, (ii) creating a focus on user needs, (iii) fast idea creation in early phases of a project, and (iv) enhancing the developers' understanding of the future context-of-use. However, role play is not perceived as sufficient to create an overall understanding of a system.
Exploratory prototypes for video: interpreting PD for a complexly disabled participant BIBAFull-Text 232-241
  Cian O'Connor; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Malcolm Buchannan-Dick; James McKeown
Participatory Design (PD) seeks to involve the end users in all aspects of the design process. However, when working with participants with severe disabilities, communication problems can make it difficult to involve the user. In this paper we discuss an attempt to adapt PD approaches to design video tools for a man with severe physical and speech disabilities. To help us understand his requirements, we built simple exploratory prototypes that would allow him to explore the possibilities of video, and allow us to understand what his requirements are. We discuss how successfully we believe the use of these prototypes address the challenges of using a PD philosophy with James, the methodological challenges that we discovered working with James and discuss future methodological improvements.
Designing familiar open surfaces BIBAFull-Text 242-251
  Kristina Höök
While participatory design makes end-users part of the design process, we might also want the resulting system to be open for interpretation, appropriation and change over time to reflect its usage. But how can we design for appropriation? We need to strike a good balance between making the user an active co-constructor of system functionality versus making a too strong, interpretative design that does it all for the user thereby inhibiting their own creative use of the system. Through revisiting five systems in which appropriation has happened both within and outside the intended use, we are going to show how it can be possible to design with open surfaces. These open surfaces have to be such that users can fill them with their own interpretation and content, they should be familiar to the user, resonating with their real world practice and understanding, thereby shaping its use.
Being and mixing: designing interactive soundscapes BIBAFull-Text 252-261
  Petter Alexanderson; Konrad Tollmar
This paper describes a study of the auditory environment in a chemical factory, and how a group of process operators ascribe meaning to a selection of sound clips from their daily work environment. We argue for a design-oriented phenomenological approach to soundscape studies, and suggest an approach based on an exploration of how already occurring sounds are used. This knowledge will be used to inform the design of new useful auditory environments. Our study shows that the richness of the auditory environment is a crucial aspect of the distributed work environment. An important part of the design process is the operator's contribution to the concepts suggested. From design workshops several design concepts aiming to explore and test different approaches for making sound affordances available have been developed. This has led us to a new understanding of how interactive soundscapes enable distributed awareness -- what we refer to as 'Being and Mixing'.
More than meets the eye: an exploratory study of context photography BIBAFull-Text 262-271
  Maria Hakansson; Lalya Gaye; Sara Ljungblad; Lars Erik Holmquist
In context photography, sensors gather real-time context information, which visually affects a photograph as it is taken. We have implemented a prototype running on standard camera phones. It uses sound and movement as context information and a set of custom-made computer graphics effects which affect images in real time. To investigate how people would receive the concept, we conducted an exploratory user study with seven participants using context cameras for a six-week period. The study provided insights into how such a camera is perceived and used, revealing the emergence of new goals, expectations, aesthetics and practice in taking pictures.
It's worth the hassle!: the added value of evaluating the usability of mobile systems in the field BIBAFull-Text 272-280
  Christian Monrad Nielsen; Michael Overgaard; Michael Bach Pedersen; Jan Stage; Sigge Stenild
The distinction between field and laboratory is classical in research methodology. In human-computer interaction, and in usability evaluation in particular, it has been a controversial topic for several years. The advent of mobile devices has revived this topic. Empirical studies that compare evaluations in the two settings are beginning to appear, but they provide very different results. This paper presents results from an experimental comparison of a field-based and a lab-based usability evaluation of a mobile system. The two evaluations were conducted in exactly the same way. The conclusion is that it is definitely worth the hassle to conduct usability evaluations in the field. In the field-based evaluation we identified significantly more usability problems and this setting revealed problems with interaction style and cognitive load that were not identified in the laboratory.
Classification of usability problems (CUP) scheme: augmentation and exploitation BIBAFull-Text 281-290
  Sigurbjorg Groa Vilbergsdottir; Ebba Thora Hvannberg; Effie Lai-Chong Law
Existing defect classification schemes are mainly used to characterize software defects. A few of them are specifically applicable to usability problems, but they have not been validated and their reliability has been assessed in a limited way. The aim of this study is to evaluate comprehensively the Classification Usability Problems (CUP) scheme. First, the reliability was evaluated with raters of different levels of expertise and experience in using CUP. Second, the acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire. Third, the validity was assessed with developers in a field study. Results show that some form of training is required for inexperienced evaluators to exploit CUP fully, but a simplified version of CUP may still be useful for developers and usability practitioners. The evaluation framework employed proved effective for revising CUP and may be applied to validate other related schemes.
Comparative analysis of high- and low-fidelity prototypes for more valid usability evaluations of mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 291-300
  Youn-kyung Lim; Apurva Pangam; Subashini Periyasami; Shweta Aneja
Validation of low-fidelity prototyping test results is difficult because we cannot claim whether the results are the effect of the prototype itself or the essence of the design concept we try to evaluate. However, it will cost too much if we implement a fully functional prototype for more valid evaluation. In this research, we provide a qualitative and reflective analysis of usability evaluations of a text messaging functionality of a mobile phone by comparing three types of prototyping techniques -- paper-based and computer-based and fully functional prototype. This analysis led us to realize how significantly the unique characteristics of each different prototype affect the usability evaluation in different ways. We identify what characteristics of each prototype causes the differences in finding usability problems, and then suggest key considerations for designing more valid low-fidelity prototypes based on this analysis.
Collaborative articulation in healthcare settings: towards increased visibility, negotiation and mutual understanding BIBAFull-Text 301-310
  Per-Anders Hillgren; Per Linde
As digital media are becoming more and more ubiquitous in our environments, it has the potential to capture and mediate situated information expressing the embedded nature of practice. Within healthcare settings, such information is often important for patients' learning about diseases or injuries as well as their own engagement in rehabilitation and treatment. It is possible to design the necessary interaction around digital media in such a way that it becomes part of a collaborative articulation in consultations, hence increasing the degree of patient participation. This paper reports on two interrelated projects exploring how this can be achieved within the domain of hand surgery rehabilitation. Our aim is to contribute to patients' possibilities to learn about the injury and the recovery process. Furthermore we seek to contribute to the field of human-computer interaction by showing how physical forms and explicit interaction can facilitate collaborative articulation processes.
Video storytelling as mediation of organizational learning BIBAFull-Text 311-320
  Cecilia Katzeff; Vanessa Ware
Stories help us structure our perception of a complex reality. Stories told in a workplace context also help to preserve knowledge of the organization, which is especially important in temporary, but reoccurring organizations. This paper presents an approach of dealing with the problem of digitally mediating learning in such an organization. We present an ethnographic study of a festival organization, in which we view workplace learning in terms of communities of practice [17]. Then, we report the design of a video storytelling booth and a user study of this in a natural setting. Finally, we discuss the role it plays in the context of the festival organization. The purpose of the video storytelling booth is to make volunteer festival workers' roles visible by recording personal accounts of their work within the organization on video. The analysis of video clips produced by festival workers partly confirm features of the organization identified in the ethnographic study, but they also add further dimensions to the image of the festival organization.
Selecting and evoking innovators: combining democracy and creativity BIBAFull-Text 321-330
  Anne Marie Kanstrup; Ellen Christiansen
The practical undertaking of selecting users to work as innovators and of evoking their creative potential is crucial, but underexposed in the literature on user involvement in design. This paper reports findings from a recent case of user-driven innovation, the FEEDBACK-project, where the authors prepared for and conducted selection of and collaboration with innovators. The outcome was successful in the sense that the innovators produced excellent foundation for conceptual interaction design by creating mock-ups and explanations incarnating their preferences, attitudes and habits. By referring to theories of learning we try to explain how our way of working with selection and evoking of innovators has contributed to this positive result and how our approach to user-driven innovation can be regarded as a way to combine democracy and creativity in design.
Real life experiences with experience design BIBAFull-Text 331-340
  Peter Dalsgard; Kim Halskov
Experience Design is an emergent field of study, and various approaches to the field abound. In this paper, we take a pragmatic approach to identifying key aspects of an experience design process, by reporting on a project involving the design of experience-oriented applications of interactive technologies for knowledge dissemination and marketing, in cooperation with public institutions and businesses. We argue that collaborative formulation of core design intentions and values is a valuable instrument in guiding experience design processes, and present three cases from this project, two of which resulted in interactive installations. The case installations range from walk-up-and-use consoles, to immersive, responsive, environments based on bodily interaction. We compare the installations, and discuss the interrelations between the resulting interfaces and the intentions for creating the installations, the core values established to guide the design process and the intended use contexts. We argue that the installations present a broad spectrum of experience design installations that can assist designers in understanding the relations between core values, intentions, use context and interface in the design of experience-oriented interactive installations.
Design rationale: the rationale and the barriers BIBAFull-Text 341-350
  John Horner; Michael E. Atwood
One goal of design rationale systems is to support designers by providing a means to record and communicate the argumentation and reasoning behind the design process. However, there are several inherent limitations to developing systems that effectively capture and utilize design rationale. The dynamic and contextual nature of design and our inability to exhaustively analyze all possible design issues results in cognitive, capture, retrieval, and usage limitations. In addition, there are the organizational limitations that ensue when systems are deployed. In this paper we analyze these issues in terms of current perspectives in design theory and describe the implications to design research. We discuss the barriers to effective design rationale in terms of three major goals: reflection, communication, and analysis of design processes. We then suggest alternate means to achieve these goals that can be used with or instead of design rationale systems.
Exploring the space of near-future design with children BIBAFull-Text 351-360
  Mark Stringer; Eric Harris; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
This paper describes a series of user-centred design sessions conducted with children of varying ages to explore near-future applications of sensor-based technologies. We explain how a review of each session resulted in redesign of the activity and the identification of modifiable aspects of the design process, that when changed, result in richer understandings of possible applications and underlying values. From this we identify modifiable aspects: problem statement, ideation, technology introduction and outputs. We discuss the potential advantages of a "saltationist" (one that jumps around) approach to an exploration of the space of design activities as opposed to a more incremental and evolutionary approach.
Bluebells: a design method for child-centred product development BIBAFull-Text 361-368
  S. Rebecca Kelly; Emanuela Mazzone; Matthew Horton; Janet C. Read
This paper presents Bluebells, a design method that balances child-centred design with expert design in a progressive approach that marries the best of both disciplines. The method is described in the context of a museum technologies project. Bluebells comprises several new design techniques; these are evaluated and discussed in the paper. The authors conclude with guidelines for future use of the Bluebells method including the importance of providing a context for design partners and allowing them to express their ideas in ways they are comfortable with.

Short Papers

Midwives experiences of using HMD in ultrasound scan BIBAFull-Text 369-372
  Juha Havukumpu; Pia Vahakangas; Eija Gronroos; Jukka Hakkinen
The head-mounted displays have been tested in various fields in medicine. According to some results, using a head-mounted display makes medical operations faster, more effective and accurate than using a conventional table display. In this study we wanted to find out midwives experiences of using a head-mounted display in an ultrasound scan. Our preliminary result shows that head-mounted display in ultrasound scan could work better than conventional method. We also noticed that midwives who got higher scores of diffusion of innovation scale have a tendency to like head-mounted displays more than those who got lower scores.
Where to, Roberta?: reflecting on the role of technology in assisted living BIBAFull-Text 373-376
  Stinne Aalokke Ballegaard; Jonathan Bunde-Pedersen; Jakob E. Bardram
This paper reports on a study of a newly developed system for assisted living, which was implemented in the homes of seven elderly residents. Based on these findings we point out three fundamental issues that will enrich and improve the use of technology for assisted living in the home. Firstly, we argue that the technology must co-evolve with the elderly people as their needs change, thereby building on an existing familiarity with a given system or artifact. Secondly, we argue that there is a need to seriously take into account the qualities of the domestic setting in both design and deployment, and that social as well as clinical aspects must be considered when designing for assisted living. Thirdly, we argue that technology must be much easier to deploy, use and comprehend for the elder users. We then outline our future work on developing technology for assisted living.
On the relative importance of privacy guidelines for ambient health care BIBAFull-Text 377-380
  Evelien van de Garde-Perik; Panos Markopoulos; Boris de Ruyter
We present an empirical study regarding the relative importance of complying with privacy related guidelines in the context of a Health Monitoring System. Participants were confronted with text scenarios describing privacy related aspects of a health monitoring service for daily use at home. Participants assessed the relative importance to them of simplified variants of the OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines for the protection of personal data. The guidelines that relate to Insight and Openness were most valued. The guidelines relating to Modification and Data Quality were valued least by most participants in this context. Methodological challenges were encountered on the way, which reveal the complexity of conducting empirical investigations of privacy aspects of human-computer interaction.
Exploring gender differences in perceptions of 3D telepresence collaboration technology: an example from emergency medical care BIBAFull-Text 381-384
  Hanna Maurin; Diane H. Sonnenwald; Bruce Cairns; James E. Manning; Eugene B. Freid; Henry Fuchs
Previous research on gender differences and collaboration technology illustrate the need to investigate gender issues as early as possible in the development cycle in order to avoid any negative consequences the technology may impose. Therefore we are investigating the potential of 3D telepresence technology now when only a proof-of-concept demonstration of the technology exists. We conducted a controlled lab study using a post-test design in which male and female paramedics diagnosed and treated a trauma victim (a computerized mannequin) in collaboration with a physician via 2D video or a 3D proxy. The results show several gender differences that imply male paramedics may inherently receive more benefits from use of the 3D telepresence technology than female paramedics.
Usability factors of 3D criminal archive in an augmented reality environment BIBAFull-Text 385-388
  Fredrik Sundt Breien; Ingerid Rodseth
The CrimAR application is a system using augmented reality technology and tangible interaction in presenting criminals in 3D. CrimAR allows a flexible and natural means for inspection by witnesses in the process of suspect recognition. To identify usability factors in interacting with the 3D models and to discover features and further areas of usage in criminal investigation, we conducted a usability evaluation consulting experts on both 3D interface design, and criminal investigation. The CrimAR application was very positively received by both group, and is on a whole considered a significant contribution in simplifying and improving the process of recognition. Three usability problems are identified, with solutions. Two new features deemed necessary by the investigators are introduced, and two other areas of usage in criminal investigation are proposed. A schedule for implementation and further testing of these various components are presented.
Spheres of collaboration: people, space and technology in co-located meetings BIBAFull-Text 389-392
  Carljohan Orre; Christopher Paul Middup
In this paper we present results from the case studies of two homecare groups that have recently adopted the same workflow system. From these, we present evidence that the physical layout of the meeting space can generate spheres of collaboration that influence interaction between team members, the technology and each other. This paper contributes to the CHI literature by presenting case study evidence of technological implementations in a co-located environment that have affected social spaces to create different spheres of collaboration.
Involvement and presence in digital gaming BIBAFull-Text 393-396
  Jari Takatalo; Jukka Hakkinen; Jeppe Komulainen; Heikki Sarkela; Gote Nyman
This study introduces a psychological measurement model for analyzing involvement and presence in digital game context. These two constructs are both theoretically and methodologically well developed in their own fields. The components forming these two constructs are psychologically relevant to our understanding of the evolvement of a user experience in digital gaming. The measurement model is tested with a large data (n=2182) collected from a web-based questionnaire and laboratory experiments among PC and console players. The results show that these two psychological constructs can be extracted from interactive game environments. It is also shown that involvement and presence are different dimensions of a larger psychological entity that describes the way the players adapt themselves psychologically into a game-world.
Information overload: why some people seem to suffer more than others BIBAFull-Text 397-400
  Ruud Janssen; Henk de Poot
We studied information overload among senior managers in an industrial company. We used the critical incident collection technique to gather specific examples of information overload and coping strategies. We then used textual interpretation and the affinity diagram technique to interpret the interviews and to categorize our respondents, the critical incidents they described, and the coping strategies they mentioned. Our results show that the extent to which people suffer from information overload is closely related to the strategies they use to deal with it.
Personal and private calendar interfaces support private patterns: diaries, relations, emotional expressions BIBAFull-Text 401-404
  Martin Tomitsch; Thomas Grechenig; Pia Wascher
This paper yields new insights into the emotional value of personal calendars for their users and explores their habits. Using an ethnographic approach we collected data about personal scheduling and revealed highly interesting aspects that are particular valid for private calendars. Interestingly, we found that users still prefer paper calendars although they have access to PDAs and desktop interfaces. One of the main reasons for this is that the calendar represents an integrated all-in-one tool, and the properties of paper support this functionality more efficient than rigid digital calendars. We further observed that calendars have an important emotional value to their users, recording states of relations and emotional expressions like diaries. Based on our results we raise broad issues for the design of calendars that exploit the potential of advanced technology.
The expanding focus of HCI: case culture BIBAFull-Text 405-408
  Minna Kamppuri; Roman Bednarik; Markku Tukiainen
The focus of the research in human-computer interaction (HCI) continues to expand. One example of this is the growing interest in national and ethnic culture as a research topic. In this review, we examine the emerging field of cultural HCI by systematically analysing culture-related literature from five major HCI forums and past sixteen years. We focus on research methodology, technologies and cultures covered, theoretical underpinnings and referencing practices. We also discuss problems found on the basis of the review and provide perspectives on the future research into cultural issues.
Personal customisation of mobile phones: a case study BIBAFull-Text 409-412
  Jonna Hakkila; Craig Chatfield
Mobile phones are highly personal, customisable mobile computing devices that allow users to precisely control how they interact with the device and their environment. This paper examines the process of customisation and seeks to identify how this customisation can be improved as the rate of adoption of new phones increases. We present a user case study of how 60 mobile phone users personalised their mobile phones during the first few weeks of ownership, and how they perceived different personalisation methods.
Balancing work, life and other concerns: a study of mobile technology use by Australian freelancers BIBAFull-Text 413-416
  Kirsten Sadler; Toni Robertson; Melanie Kan; Penny Hagen
In this paper we present initial findings from an empirical study of the mobile technology use and mobile work practices of freelancers in the domain of Film and Television. Our findings demonstrate that mobile phones were primarily used to manage other personal activities and concerns unrelated to the local work. They were used only intermittently to support local practice when that practice itself moved away from fixed resources. The fact that people were consistently using their mobile phones at work to attend to other concerns is an important feature of mobile technology use. This personal aspect of use in the work context has been largely overlooked within the Mobile HCI literature. In particular, our findings reveal the ways in which freelancers manage the blurring of contexts that is facilitated by mobile phones. We consider implications of these findings for the ways in which we currently talk and think about mobile technology use within Mobile HCI.
How HCI-practitioners want to evaluate their own practice BIBAFull-Text 417-420
  Asbjorn Folstad; Ida Bark; Jan Gulliksen
How do individual HCI-practitioners evaluate their own work practice? And how would they like to evaluate it? Answers to these questions will give new knowledge on the state-of-the-practice in this area, and provide insight for researchers trying to improve practitioners' ability to evaluate their development project activities. The questions were investigated through questionnaire survey responses of 179 HCI-practitioners from the Nordic countries. It was found that the general maturity for evaluation of own practice were fairly high. However, the results indicate that HCI-practitioners tend not to evaluate their practice with regard to its impact on the development team and project leader; which may be counter productive to the downstream utility of HCI activities. Presentation of ongoing development of evaluation procedures, based on the results, will be included in the talk at NordiCHI 2006.
Embodied and enacted: the Janus faces of structure-of-use BIBAFull-Text 421-424
  Ivo Widjaja; Sandrine Balbo
In this paper, we introduce two sides of structure pertinent to the design and use of an artifact: embodied structure and enacted structure. We then locate these concepts in both historical and contemporary examples: the game of chess, the development of the rule of the road, and the implementation of an information technology artifact within a particular organization. The significance of our attempt is two fold. Firstly, it provides an alternative analytical view in examining the structures within interaction between an artifact and its users. Secondly, it calls for consideration of these two structures when designing an artifact.
Blogging by the dead BIBAFull-Text 425-428
  Anders Hall; Dragan Bosevski; Reinell Larkin
In this article we present a concept for a ubiquitous service that allows memories to be saved and stored during an individual's lifetime, and later, after death, for those memories to be published and experienced at the specific geographic location where they were created. We call this concept Blogging by the Dead. The proposed technical solution for publishing memories at a specific geographic location is based on current existing technologies, and consists of a cross between GPS systems, mobile Internet, and fixed Internet. Through the concept of Blogging by the Dead we explore ways to combine modern technology with century old habits at the end of life.
Question-based authentication using context data BIBAFull-Text 429-432
  Ann Nosseir; Richard Connor; Crawford Revie; Sotirios Terzis
In everyday life there are low risk situations where resources normally need to be protected and thus access to them controlled, but at the same time the implications of occasional unauthorized access are not severe. In these situations using an authentication technique that is expensive or requires significant effort from the user may not be justified. In this paper, we introduce a question-based authentication scheme appropriate for low risk situations. The scheme utilizes the context data already collected within a smart environment to generate the questions. Despite, the limited capabilities of the smart environment used in this experiment our preliminary study shows that using simple questions based on workplace events it is possible to discriminate between genuine users and impostors.
Machinima prototyping: an approach to evaluation BIBAFull-Text 433-436
  Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell; Christian Briggs; Kevin Makice; William Ryan; Matt Weldon
Video prototyping is an established technique in HCI, often used early in the design process to show the context in which a particular interface might be used. Unfortunately, even with falling costs, video production is expensive and demands many tangible resources. Machinima appears poised to offer a new approach to video prototyping. To understand how well machinima serves this need today, and to discover insights about how future machinima platform designs might support this approach, we categorize and evaluate a number of machinima platforms for video prototyping.
Modified contextual design as a field evaluation method BIBAFull-Text 437-440
  Sharon McDonald; Kelly Monahan; Gilbert Cockton
Downstream utility is a critical success factor for usability evaluation methods, in terms of the extent to which they can deliver value. In this paper we argue that field methods can significantly improve downstream utility through the added value they provide in terms of the range of usability problems they uncover and the contextual information they yield on user difficulties and their causal explanations. By way of an example we describe our experience of applying an adaptation of Rapid Contextual Design called Rapid Contextual Evaluation in a small scale field evaluation of a course administration system.
Affordances and constraints in screen-based musical instruments BIBAFull-Text 441-444
  Thor Magnusson
The ixi software is an ongoing interdisciplinary research project. It focuses on the creation of screen-based interfaces as digital musical instruments. The notion of situated cognition is of particular interest as our findings are that an interface always contains compositional ideologies or mental models of musical intentions. The research involves the study of the determining nature of interfaces when used as tools for creative expression. This paper describes the problems of computer music in terms of HCI and discusses our findings in relation to affordances and constraints in screen-based digital instruments.
SpiraList: a compact visualization technique for one-handed interaction with large lists on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 445-448
  Stephane Huot; Eric Lecolinet
This paper presents SpiraList, a focus+context visualization technique for interacting with large lists on handheld devices. SpiraList has been specifically designed to fit the constraints of small tactile screens. It provides a global view of large lists by way of a compact layout based on a spiral representation. Its design also allows for direct interaction with fingers. The combination of this compact layout and one-handed interaction makes SpiraList particularly suitable for mobility.
Children's phrase set for text input method evaluations BIBAFull-Text 449-452
  Akiyo Kano; Janet C. Read; Alan Dix
This paper investigates the suitability of current phrase sets available in HCI for use with children in text entry experiments. It first examines the use of phrase sets within text input method evaluation, and suggests several reasons why the currently available phrase sets may not be suitable for use with children. A new phrase set, containing 500 phrases which have been taken from children's books, is presented. A study that compared the adult focused phrase set with the new children's phrase set is described. This study concludes that the new phrase set is suitable for use with children and, given that results with the two phrase sets were similar, the study adds validity to the existing adult phrase set.
One-dimensional force feedback slider: going from an analogue to a digital platform BIBAFull-Text 453-456
  Ali Shahrokni; Julio Jenaro; Tomas Gustafsson; Andreas Vinnberg; Johan Sandsjo; Morten Fjeld
This paper examines the use of motorized physical sliders with position and force as input and output parameters for tangible human computer interaction. Firstly, we present an analogue platform. It was used to realize two proof-of-concept applications: one for learning system dynamics as part of physics education and the second for interaction with music loops. Based on the insight gained with the analogue platform and the two applications, we took the first steps towards a digital platform, also presented here. More generally, the paper presents so-called haptic modes, which may be generated using force feedback control of motorized sliders. The paper also presents parts of the underlying software and hardware which was designed and realized as part of this project.
The FaceReader: measuring instant fun of use BIBAFull-Text 457-460
  Bieke Zaman; Tara Shrimpton-Smith
Recently, more and more attention has been paid to emotions in the domain of Human-Computer Interaction. When evaluating a product, one can no longer ignore the emotions a product induces. This paper examines the value of a new instrument to measure emotions: the FaceReader. We will assess the extent to which the FaceReader is useful when conducting usability evaluations. To do this, we will compare the data gained from the FaceReader with two other sources: user questionnaires and researcher's loggings. Preliminary analysis shows that the FaceReader is an effective tool to measure instant emotions and fun of use. However, a combination of the FaceReader with another observation method (e.g. researcher's loggings) is necessary. As regards the user questionnaire, our results indicate that it is rather a reflection of the content of the application or the outcome of a task, than a correct self-reflection of how the user felt when accomplishing the task.
Comparing voice chat and text chat in a communication tool for interactive television BIBAFull-Text 461-464
  David Geerts
Talking during the course of a television program is something that has been done almost since the introduction of the television in the household, and is one of the most important social uses of television. Interactive television extends this concept beyond the family household, making it possible to talk with family and friends at remote households. This particular study looks at two modes of communication, more specifically voice chat and text chat, and what the advantages and disadvantages are of these systems when communicating while watching television. The results show that voice chat is considered more natural and direct, and makes it easier to keep on following the program. Text chat is more preferred by younger users and users having more experience with chatting on computers, and is therefore interesting to use in interactive services specifically aimed at youngsters. In both cases, our study shows that such systems should be carefully designed to divide attention between watching and communicating in such a way that distraction from the television program is minimized.
Touch&Type: a novel pointing device for notebook computers BIBAFull-Text 465-468
  W. Fallot-Burghardt; M. Fjeld; C. Speirs; S. Ziegenspeck; H. Krueger; T. Laubli
The widespread use of the mouse as an input device for notebook computers indicates that many users are reluctant to use alternative built-in pointing devices. We present a novel input method called Touch&Type which is meant to overcome some of the drawbacks encountered with conventional built-it pointing devices. Touch&Type combines a conventional keyboard with an extended touch pad whereby the touch pad's sensitive area is formed by the surface of the keys themselves and thus can be made as large as the whole key area. A comparative study of pointing operation is presented with a Touch&Type prototype in comparison with the mouse and the conventional touch pad. While the mouse outperformed its two counterparts, Touch&Type was found to be superior to the conventional touch pad (after a short learning period) with a confidence level of 73%. The study investigated pointing operation only, not taking homing time into account.
Crossmodal spatial location: initial experiments BIBAFull-Text 469-472
  Eve Hoggan; Stephen Brewster
This paper describes an alternative form of interaction for mobile devices using crossmodal output. The aim of our work is to investigate the equivalence of audio and tactile displays so that the same messages can be presented in one form or another. Initial experiments show that spatial location can be perceived as equivalent in both the auditory and tactile modalities Results show that participants are able to map presented 3D audio positions to tactile body positions on the waist most effectively when mobile and that there are significantly more errors made when using the ankle or wrist. This paper compares the results from both a static and mobile experiment on crossmodal spatial location and outlines the most effective ways to use this crossmodal output in a mobile context.
How ordinary internet users can have a chance to influence privacy policies BIBAFull-Text 473-476
  John Soren Pettersson; Simone Fischer-Hubner; Marco Casassa Mont; Siani Pearson
By 'Obligation Management' we refer to the definition, automated enforcement, and monitoring of privacy obligation policies. Privacy policies are nowadays found on most organisations' web pages, especially when data is directly collected from the user/customer. The paper demonstrates how users can influence rather than merely accept a privacy policy, and further relates this to the larger framework within which policy compliance should be discussed. Four problem areas are identified (from design studies and user tests with paper and computer-based mock-ups): trustworthiness, enterprise perspective, phrases, and obligation setting relative to data or data collection purpose.
Supporting 3D window manipulation with a yawing mouse BIBAFull-Text 477-480
  Rodrigo Almeida; Pierre Cubaud
We present an interaction technique based on a yawing mouse (a device that senses the yaw orientation), designed for integral manipulation of 3D desktop windows in a three degrees-of-freedom space. We describe the construction of a prototype. A pilot study is conducted in order to investigate the performance gain expected with the yawing mouse. We then discuss some aspects of the form factors of devices intended to this kind of task.

Industrial Experience Reports

Usability achievements based on UI framework with screen categories and state transition diagrams BIBAFull-Text 481-482
  Anita Kvamme
This report sums up experiences based on a UI framework that has been continuously used for six years during a set of software project related to the same legacy system.
   When specifying a screen related to a rich client application it seems impossible to describe all "screen situations" that may occur. This case study shows that by including screen categories with State Transition Diagrams (STDs) into the UI framework, it is possible to describe a complete screen specification in an effective manner.
   In addition, this report point out the importance of developing wrapped UI components that are strongly related to the UI standard and the UI design templates.
Using historical data to guide user interface evolution BIBAFull-Text 483-484
  Stanislaw Osinski
In this paper we show how historical data, such as existing domain-specific databases or access logs, can be used to guide user interface design. We show how we employed such data in the process of improving usability of a web application used each year by over 40,000 16-year-olds to apply to senior high schools in various Polish cities.
Aligning user centered design activities with established software development practices BIBAFull-Text 485-486
  Karsten Nebe; Lennart Grotzbach
The authors will present their experiences gathered by implementing a User Centered Design (UCD) Process in an existing product development lifecycle within the complex setting of a large healthcare software company.
   This experience report will highlight how the authors succeeded to tie UCD practices to the existing software development cycle using use cases as a tool for requirement identification and capture.
Progressive usability reviews exploiting time zone differences BIBAFull-Text 487-488
  John Rugelbak; Craig Norman
This paper focuses on the user centric development process employed and jointly developed by Emotum (Australia) and Telenor (Norway). Key concepts and synergies are discussed that exploit the benefits of time zone differences in relation to the iterative design & development process.
A case study of Vinmonopolet.no: faceted search and navigation for e-commerce BIBAFull-Text 489-490
  Ingrid Tofte; Karl Johan Saeth; Kristin Jansson
Vinmonopolet.no is the first Norwegian retail website making use of faceted search and navigation to let customers easily access a vast collection of products and editorial information. This case study presents the customer centered design solution employed in the new e-commerce website for Vinmonopolet. After the launch on March 1 2006, the number of orders and the number of visitors has increased by 30%.
Applying usability engineering in ABB BIBAFull-Text 491-492
  Siri Breen; Torgeir Enkerud; Kristoffer Husoy
This paper reports experiences from applying simple and flexible usability engineering methods to projects in a large multinational organization. The field of industrial control has traditionally been resistant to employing usability methods due to perceived complexity, difficulties in applying to the wide diversity of project types and low reward. In such an environment, it is difficult to perform thorough, state-of-the-art usability engineering methodologies, as the deadlines, requirements and demands of the development projects are too rigid. As an alternative, this paper presents how a simple and flexible usability engineering model that does not require much effort or cost has been applied to three fundamentally different projects and has proven to yield positive results.
Design case InfraCAM BIBAFull-Text 493-494
  Bengt Goransson
This is a design case covering the user-centered design of a new generation of an easy-to-use handheld infrared camera.
Designing for a moving target BIBAFull-Text 495-496
  Fredrik Matheson
The low cost of change in web service development makes it possible to continually release new and improved versions of the service to users who can respond to changes and offer suggestions, creating a feedback loop cycle. This paper shares experiences building services in agile projects and suggests initially releasing a simple, valuable service to users and starting the feedback loop to evolve the service towards greater value.


3D visualization of integrated process information BIBAFull-Text 497-498
  Kristoffer Husoy; Charlotte Skourup
Industrial plants are complex and consist of a large number of components. Human operators are responsible for operating these processes. Operators use the interface daily and strongly depend on information from the system and the possibilities to execute control commands in the system. This interactive demonstration uses a 3D process model of the plant area as the user interface for control systems. This interface supports extended information integration and remote collaboration.
Tabletop interaction: research alert BIBAFull-Text 499-500
  Wolfgang Mahr; Richard Carlsson; Jonas Fredriksson; Olivier Maul; Morten Fjeld
At the t2i Lab we focus on tangible user interfaces (TUIs) to advance and improve the user experience in computer supported learning and problem solving. By directly interacting with physical controls, complex concepts such as the chemistry of a molecule, dynamics of physics, or the rules of a market may be more easily understood. Through their capacity to closely track user actions TUIs may offer more direct interaction. Several disciplines are involved in tabletop interaction, such as gesture-based interaction, social protocols, haptic rendering, tracking-, and display-hardware. This demo paper presents the two projects Augmented Chemistry (AC) and eMotion. AC is a combination of TUIs and computer graphics for organic chemistry education with a focus on concepts like the octet rule and tetrahedrons. eMotion focuses on bridging the gap between computers and human emotions by enabling computers to estimate their users' emotions by evaluating their mouse motions.