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NORDICHI Tables of Contents: 020406081012142000

Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Note:Making Sense Through Design
Editors:Thomas Pederson; Lone Malmborg; Giullio Jaccuci; Kasper Hornbæk
Location:Copenhagen, Denmark
Dates:2012-Oct-14 to 2012-Oct-17
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1482-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: NORDICHI12
Papers:117
Pages:816
Links:Conference Website
  1. Design practice
  2. Mobile
  3. Living history
  4. Tangible
  5. Business and context
  6. Design and the works
  7. Creating and engaging
  8. Location-based interaction
  9. Public and urban spaces
  10. Images of users
  11. Privacy, security, and trust
  12. Usability and experience
  13. Design and collaboration
  14. Haptics and touch
  15. Dolls, dance, and fire
  16. Life on the internet
  17. Theories and foundations
  18. Spatial and search
  19. Innovative interface design
  20. Categorizing and adapting
  21. Touch, visualization, and input
  22. @home
  23. Rural and global communication
  24. Design materials (and some sex)
  25. Usability evaluation in context
  26. The social life
  27. Design cases: sound and social experience
  28. Demos
  29. Posters

Design practice

Digital originals: reproduction as a space for design BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Mark Blythe; Jo Briggs; Patrick Olivier; Jonathan Hook
This paper reports findings from a qualitative study of a group of artists in the North of England. It focuses on the impact of digital technology on their printmaking and wider art practice. Four major themes emerge: apprenticeship, networks, authenticity and commodification. Each of the artists describes a long process of educational and professional apprenticeship. They reflect in detail on the value of networks of support not only in generating contacts for potential professional development but also in affirming their identity as an artist. Current practices around the production of Giclée prints are considered in detail and related to more general problems of what constitutes authentic work and the problems of commodification. After reporting findings from the qualitative study the paper presents initial concept design work around the notion of a "slow print". It also discusses an experience prototype that reveals rather than conceals digital practice. It considers the notion of an original as a social practice and positions reproduction as a space for design.
Attention to detail: annotations of a design process BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Nadine Jarvis; David Cameron; Andy Boucher
This paper takes the form of a photo essay that exposes the design process at a level of detail seldom found in traditional academic publications. With this format we document the development of a set of devices for exploring the microclimate of the home, with the intention of advancing current approaches to communicating (and understanding) practice-based research.
How to design for transformation of behavior through interactive materiality BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Jelle Stienstra; Miguel Bruns Alonso; Stephan Wensveen; Stoffel Kuenen
This paper presents a design approach tackling the transformation of behavior through 'interactive materiality' from a phenomenological perspective. It builds upon the Interaction Frogger framework that couples action to reaction for intuitive mapping in intelligent product interaction. Through the discussion of two research-through-design cases, the augmented speed-skate experience and affective pen, it highlights the opportunities for design of an action-perception loop. Consequently, an approach is suggested that defines three steps to be incorporated in the design process: affirming and appreciating current behavior; designing continuous mapping for transformation; and fine-tuning sensitivities in the interactive materiality. Thereby, it discusses how behavior transformation through interactive materiality derived from a theoretical level, can contribute to design knowledge on the implementation level. The aim of this paper is to inspire design-thinking to shift from the cognitive approach of persuasion, to a meaningful and embodied mechanism respecting all human skills, by providing practical insights for designers.

Mobile

MobiMed: comparing object identification techniques on smartphones BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Andreas Möller; Stefan Diewald; Luis Roalter; Matthias Kranz
With physical mobile interaction techniques, digital devices can make use of real-world objects in order to interact with them. In this paper, we evaluate and compare state-of-the-art interaction methods in an extensive survey with 149 participants and in a lab study with 16 participants regarding efficiency, utility and usability. Besides radio communication and fiducial markers, we consider visual feature recognition, reflecting the latest technical expertise in object identification. We conceived MobiMed, a medication package identifier implementing four interaction paradigms: pointing, scanning, touching and text search.
   We identified both measured and perceived advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods and gained fruitful feedback from participants regarding possible use cases for MobiMed. Touching and scanning were evaluated as fastest in the lab study and ranked first in user satisfaction. The strength of visual search is that objects need not be augmented, opening up physical mobile interaction as demonstrated in MobiMed for further fields of application.
Price tags, maps, recipes: mobile phone photos for functional purposes BIBAFull-Text 41-44
  Jonna Häkkilä; Jussi Huhtala; Ari-Heikki Sarjanoja; Albrecht Schmidt
Cameras have become an integral part of mobile phones, providing similar capabilities than low-end consumer cameras. Cameraphones have emerged to cover versatile use contexts and have become an effective tool for ubiquitous capture. In this paper, we report research that investigates motivations and practices in taking photos for functional purposes. Our findings reveal that users have commonly and broadly adopted practices where cameraphones are used for functional photography. Major cases include taking photos as a memory aid or to secure evidence. The capability to take photos, ad hoc and without preparation or planning, is the key reason for this practice. Our data suggests that use cases spread over a large variety of domains and are entwined with users' everyday tasks.
Understanding impacts of hidden interfaces on mobile phone user experience BIBAFull-Text 45-48
  Moon-Hwan Lee; Da-Hoon Kim; Hyun-Jeong Kim; Tek-Jin Nam
This paper describes hidden interfaces as an important feature of touch screen based mobile phones and explores their impacts in user experience. Six sessions of focus group study were conducted to identify some patterns of how people explore and use hidden interfaces of mobile phones depending on their motivations -- either passive or active. Then values of the hidden interfaces were further discussed from utilitarian (efficient control at cost of low cognitive load), emotional (engagement and attachment), and social perspectives (elatedness & sense of community). We expect these findings to contribute to understanding the impacts of hidden interfaces more systematically to be applied to design of interactive products.
How bad is good enough?: exploring mobile video quality trade-offs for bandwidth-constrained consumers BIBAFull-Text 49-58
  Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch; Jonathan Donner; Edward Cutrell
In developing countries, many would-be mobile internet users perceive downloadable video content as too expensive. Aggressively degrading this video could reduce its file size and therefore its cost. The studies presented here explore extreme cases of this quality/cost trade-off for mobile phone users in urban India. A series of online studies tested the effects of manipulating a video's content, bit rate, frame rate, and audio quality on quality ratings and enjoyment. Results show that video quality and thus file size can be greatly reduced with relatively little decrease in these outcomes. A field experiment with low-income users in urban India explored consumers' choices when presented with a trade-off between video quantity and quality and found that nearly one-third selected a lower quality video for the benefit of more video content. Results suggest that offering lower-quality videos to bandwidth-constrained users could provide monetary savings with only minimal reduction in consumer satisfaction.

Living history

M-dimensions: a framework for evaluating and comparing interactive installations in museums BIBAFull-Text 59-68
  Lígia Gonçalves; Pedro Campos; Margarida Sousa
Designing and evaluating digital interactive experiences for museums requires scrupulous attention to every aspect that contributes to an engaging and rich learning experience. The evaluation of interactive installations in museums is a very demanding endeavor due to the intersection of multiple research fields, such as human computer interaction, design and multimedia, museum studies, audience research, etc.
   In this paper we introduce a novel framework with ten dimensions for guiding the design and evaluation of interactive installations, specifically tailored to museums. The conception of the framework was based on current usability evaluation methods and principles as well as museology literature. It was then iteratively refined and finally validated with and a long-term study about interactivity in all the interactive museums of a specific geographic region.
   The results obtained emphasize the importance of adopting the proposed framework for future research on interactive museums evaluation.
Designing for meaningful visitor engagement at a living history museum BIBAFull-Text 69-78
  Luigina Ciolfi; Marc McLoughlin
This paper presents an interactive installation designed to facilitate and support visitor engagement in a living history museum. Little research thus far has explored how interaction design can bring added value to living history museums, although they present great potential for participation, interactivity and engagement. We discuss the design rationale for the prototype installation we have developed for a living history museum called Bunratty Folk Park, and present exemplars of empirical data showing how the system merged into the site facilitating an engaging experience for a particular category of visitors.
Composition of situational interactive spaces by end users: a case for cultural heritage BIBAFull-Text 79-88
  C. Ardito; M. F. Costabile; G. Desolda; M. Matera; A. Piccinno; M. Picozzi
An emerging need to make software systems flexible to increase their ability to support a large variety of tasks is highlighted in recent works published in the literature. The idea is to replace fixed, pre-packaged applications with elastic composition environments that, thanks to a separation among data, functions and presentations, make interactive environments "emerge" at run-time based on composition actions performed by end users. In this paper we address this need and propose a reference architecture, based on mashup technologies, that allows the end users, not necessarily experts of technologies, to extract contents from heterogeneous sources and compose Personal Information Spaces (PISs) that satisfy their situational information needs and that can be pervasively executed on different devices. The flexibility that this architecture can offer is beneficial in several application domains and it is here demonstrated for a specific context in Cultural Heritage (CH). A prototype supporting the creation and use of PISs has been developed. The results of a formative evaluation session, in which we observed real users (e.g., guides of an archeological park) using the prototype, are also reported. They provide indications of some drawbacks that have to be overcome in order to make composition technologies an actual tool for end users.

Tangible

Making sense of co-creative tangibles through the concept of familiarity BIBAFull-Text 89-98
  Jo Herstad; Harald Holone
This paper address Universal Design and Tangible Interaction through the concept of familiarity. Co-creative tangibles are designed and evaluated in the RHYME project, where the goal is to improve health and well being for children with severe disabilities through music and physical interaction. The main contribution of this paper is to make sense of Universal Design of co-creative tangibles through the concept of familiarity. Familiarity is described by engagement, understanding and an intimate or close relationship between the user and the technology. We propose familiarity as a concept for understanding and developing Tangible Interaction solutions for all.
Tangible vs. virtual representations: when tangibles benefit the training of spatial skills BIBAFull-Text 99-108
  Sébastien Cuendet; Engin Bumbacher; Pierre Dillenbourg
Tangible user interfaces (TUIs) have been the focus of much attention in the HCI and learning communities because of their many potential benefits for learning. However, there have recently been debates about whether TUIs can actually increase learning outcomes and if so, under which conditions. In this article, we investigate the effect of object representation (physical vs. virtual) on learning in the domain of spatial skills. We ran a comparative study with 46 participants to measure the effects of the object representation on the ability to establish a link between 2D and 3D representations of an object. The participants were split into two conditions: in the first one, the 3D representation of the object was virtual; in the second one, it was tangible. Findings show that in both conditions the TUI led to a significant improvement of the spatial skills. The learning outcomes were not different between the two conditions, but the performance during the activities was significantly higher when using the tangible representation as opposed to the virtual one, and even more so in for difficult cases.
Tangible 3D tabletops: combining tangible tabletop interaction and 3D projection BIBAFull-Text 109-118
  Peter Dalsgaard; Kim Halskov
In this paper we present the tangible 3D tabletop and discuss the design potential of this novel interface. The tangible 3D tabletop combines tangible tabletop interaction with 3D projection in such a way that the tangible objects may be augmented with visual material corresponding to their physical shapes, positions, and orientation on the tabletop. In practice, this means that both the tabletop and the tangibles can serve as displays. We present the basic design principles for this interface, particularly concerning the interplay between 2D on the tabletop and 3D for the tangibles, and present examples of how this kind of interface might be used in the domain of maps and geolocalized data. We then discuss three central design considerations concerning 1) the combination and connection of content and functions of the tangibles and tabletop surface, 2) the use of tangibles as dynamic displays and input devices, and 3) the visual effects facilitated by the combination of the 2D tabletop surface and the 3D tangibles.

Business and context

Collect and map it all: the artifact map, a tool for complex context analysis BIBAFull-Text 119-128
  Steffi Beckhaus; Senana Lucia Brugger; Katharina Wolter
We have developed the Artifact Map as a tool for context analysis. In a first step, this tool supports and structures the early process of, "hunting for stories" by collecting, describing and mapping all artifacts on a floor map as an anchor. Subsequently, this visible, tangible surrogate paper context is collaboratively extended and used in interviews. Doing so, users are aided in making tacit knowledge explicit, analyzing and reflecting creatively about all aspects of their workaday world. Preparing and working with the Artifact map helps to immerse quickly in a complex context, to find interesting research and design questions, and to establish a common language. Collaborative, social and work processes are jointly sketched on the map, later visually informing further design. Preparing and working with the Artifact Map is both a structured analysis process and an exploratory ethnographic method, with potential to reveal hidden issues that a normal rapid analysis would not disclose. This paper describes the preparation, use, and method in detail. We also report on our results using the Artifact Map to improve our understanding of the context of a vessel traffic center.
Interactive pinball business BIBAFull-Text 129-138
  Jacob Buur; Sune Gudiksen
Interaction design expands into new fields. Interaction design and business model innovation is a promising meeting of disciplines: Many businesses see the need to rethink their ways of doing business, and, as business models pose highly dynamic and interactive problems, interaction design has much to offer. This paper compares 'tangible business models' in the form of pinball-like contraptions, designed by interaction design students with those developed by groups of professionals around concrete business issues. We will show how the interactive models encourage business people to play with hypotheses and experiment with scenarios as a way of innovating their business models, and why this is so.
How to make agile UX work more efficient: management and sales perspectives BIBAFull-Text 139-148
  Kati Kuusinen; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
Many companies have been conducting their software development activities using Agile methods for years; however, in many cases the management and sales processes of these companies are still run in a more traditional way. This can cause clashes between development and management; and especially in terms of user experience specialists, who are often operating in between these organizations.
   This paper describes the present state of user experience work in development and sales processes in a large, globally-operating IT service company. The data were gathered via an online survey (with 67 respondents) and 17 theme interviews. The study indicates that although the user experience approach is well established inside the organization, the impact of this approach is limited by mismatching sales and management practices and processes, which are, in many cases, working in more traditional ways. In specific, the business model in sales was seen to hinder user experience work.

Design and the works

Bringing the mobile context into industrial design and development BIBAFull-Text 149-152
  Charlotte Magnusson; Andreas Larsson; Anders Warell; Håkan Eftring; Per-Olof Hedvall
In this paper we discuss the dynamic nature of mobile usage, and how this impacts on design and evaluation, particularly in an industrial setting. We argue that current industry oriented design tools need to be extended to cater more effectively to the highly dynamic and context-dependent nature of mobile usage -- we suggest more focus should be put on doing instead of on being. In order to achieve this we suggest a lightweight design/insight tool developed to suit industrial practice: context cards. These cards allow designers, developers, and usability experts to perform lightweight explorations of the consequences of a range of mobile situations.
Assessing lag perception in electronic sketching BIBAFull-Text 153-161
  Ugo Braga Sangiorgi; Vivian Genaro Motti; François Beuvens; Jean Vanderdonckt
Electronic sketching has received a recurrence of interest over the years and again nowadays within the mobile web context, where there are diverse devices, operating systems and browsers to be considered. Multi-platform (e.g. web-based) sketching systems can be constructed to allow users to sketch on their device of preference. However, web applications do not always perform equally on all devices, and this is a critical issue, especially for applications that require instant visual feedback such as sketch-based systems. This paper describes a user study conducted to identify the most appropriate response rates (expressed in frames per second) for end users while sketching. The results are expected to guide stakeholders in defining response parameters for sketching applications on the web by showing intervals that are accepted, tolerated, and rejected by end users.
How designers can make sense of qualitative research findings: a case study BIBAFull-Text 162-165
  Thomas Meneweger; Petra Sundström; Marianna Obrist; Manfred Tscheligi
How to communicate qualitative research findings so that they make sense, become useful and manage to inspire designers is still an issue in HCI. There is a need for methods and tools supporting this transfer of knowledge and stimulate design thinking. But before we can form methods and tools we need carefully presented case studies to help us shape these methods and tools. In this paper we present how we made use of the extreme characters method to communicate the essence of a high-level typology formed from eight narrative interviews on the meaning of home. We describe how applying this method enabled a group of eight workshop participants, unfamiliar with the typology, to use the typology to generate a range of innovative design features and open up new design spaces.
Dude, where's my car?: in-situ evaluation of a tactile car finder BIBAFull-Text 166-169
  Martin Pielot; Wilko Heuten; Stephan Zerhusen; Susanne Boll
We present an in-the-large, in-situ study of a "car finder" application for mobile phones. The interface is an instance of the magic wand metaphor, i.e. the mobile phone vibrates when it points in the direction of the stored location (e.g. the car). The rationale of using tactile feedback is that visual interfaces may not be ideal when the application is used on the move, since its users may easily become distracted. To investigate if users would use tactile feedback and whether it can lower distraction and is accepted, we published the application for free on Google Play. We collected anonymous usage data between July 2011 and July 2012. We provide evidence that tactile feedback was used about half of the time and can lower the users' distraction.

Creating and engaging

I would DiYSE for it!: a manifesto for do-it-yourself internet-of-things creation BIBAFull-Text 170-179
  Dries De Roeck; Karin Slegers; Johan Criel; Marc Godon; Laurence Claeys; Katriina Kilpi; An Jacobs
This paper presents a manifesto directed at developers and designers of internet-of-things creation platforms. Currently, most existing creation platforms are tailored to specific types of end-users, mostly people with a substantial background in or affinity with technology. The thirteen items presented in the manifesto however, resulted from several user studies including non-technical users, and highlight aspects that should be taken into account in order to open up internet-of-things creation to a wider audience. To reach out and involve more people in internet-of-things creation, a relation is made to the social phenomenon of do-it-yourself, which provides valuable insights into how society can be encouraged to get involved in creation activities. Most importantly, the manifesto aims at providing a framework for do-it-yourself systems enabling non-technical users to create internet-of-things applications.
Designing for, with or within: 1st, 2nd and 3rd person points of view on designing for systems BIBAFull-Text 180-188
  O. Tomico; V. O. Winthagen; M. M. G. van Heist
As society is constantly changing and crises emerge, opportunities to develop society arise. A series of technology developments are coming from the research field. But research needs to be brought into practice. Designers can go from a vision to the making. This article presents a journey between three points of view on systems design by means of three iterations from a project done on creating rural energy in India. It started with a design approach 'from brief to production', based on technological opportunities, followed by a co-design approach. Without success (approach one was lacking insightful values behind the project and the other did not stimulate ownership of the design challenge by the stakeholders), a third point of view combined research valorization and Base of the Pyramid (BoP) entrepreneurship into design action. Reflections on outcome helped to analyze the multiple roles; the designer had to become the system and being it, enable stakeholders to build around it.
Talking it further: from feelings and memories to civic discussions in and about places BIBAFull-Text 189-198
  Matthias Korn; Jon Back
Civic engagement systems to date frequently focus on purely rational aspects of deliberation void of emotions. In order to empower youth in a largely immigrant and lower-income neighborhood, we designed a location-based storytelling and story experiencing system for web-enabled mobile phones. The system is based on a novel concept of pervasive play where stories emerge and develop on several dimensions -- most notably for our design a geographical one. This system functions as a research instrument in this paper. Through a qualitative analysis of the comments made through the system, we find (1) memories, feelings, and attitudes to be prime means of expression for youth, (2) the expression of such personal emotions leading to civic discussions, and (3) such discussions expanding over geographic areas in the neighborhood. Consequently, we argue for an approach to locative civic engagement systems that takes a vantage point in youth's emotions rather than a very rational and dry approach to deliberation.

Location-based interaction

Shaking the dead: multimodal location based experiences for un-stewarded archaeological sites BIBAFull-Text 199-208
  David McGookin; Yolanda Vazquez-Alvarez; Stephen Brewster; Joanna Bergstrom-Lehtovirta
We consider how visits to un-stewarded historical and archaeological sites -- those that are unstaffed and have few visible archaeological remains -- can be augmented with multimodal interaction to create more engaging experiences. We developed and evaluated a mobile application that allowed multimodal exploration of a rural Roman fort. Sixteen primary school children used the application to explore the fort. Issues, including the influence of visual remains, were identified and compared with findings from a second study with eight users at a separate site. From these, we determined key design implications around the importance of physical space, group work and interaction with the auditory data.
Checkpoints, hotspots and standalones: placing smart services over time and place BIBAFull-Text 209-218
  Minna Kynsilehto; Thomas Olsson
From the user's point of view Ubicomp and smart environments have been researched especially in the home setting. Nevertheless, papers discussing the relationship of situated interaction and context are few. Effect of context on interaction has been mostly investigated in the mobile setting. To work towards filling this gap, this paper presents a set of interaction profiles for digital services placed in an environment. The main focus of this paper is on deployment of interaction with various smart services in various indoor places. Motivation for this study stems from the need to understand interaction in and with the environment in order to better design smart environments. To this end we analyzed 30 hand-drawn maps of three different indoor spaces with user designed smart service placements and interactions. The results indicate how multi-level, structural, activity and attention data can be combined in interaction profiles. Interaction profiles found in this work are checkpoint, hotspot, standalone, remote and object, which each represent a unique combination of physical structure, service content and preferred interaction method. These profiles and cognitive map data can be used to support smart environment design.
Collecting location-based voice messages on a TalkingBadge BIBAFull-Text 219-227
  John Paulin Hansen; Arne John Glenstrup; Wang Wusheng; Li Weiping; Wu Zhonghai
This paper presents three experiments to explore the feasibility of location-based voice messaging. We first compared three methods for collecting synthetic speech messages located in a room, namely PIN code entry, barcode scanning and automatic detection with a Bluetooth antenna. In addition to being very reliable, Bluetooth detection was significantly faster than PIN code entry and barcode scanning. We then examined detection times and errors in an open five floor building with antennas located densely. This confirmed that Bluetooth is fast enough to catch people walking through a zone and specific enough to distinguish between zones located just 20 meters apart. Finally, we played digitized voice messages to 11 participants walking into a zone. They received most of the messages well, but a majority of their comments were negative, expressing concerns for the potential infringement of privacy. We conclude that location specific audio messaging works from a technical perspective, but requires careful consideration of social comfort.

Public and urban spaces

Bannerbattle: introducing crowd experience to interaction design BIBAFull-Text 228-237
  Rune Veerasawmy; Ole Sejer Iversen
We introduce crowd experience as an emergent field in interaction design research. Crowds as social phenomena are already well-established as a research theme in sociology and social psychology. However, the understanding of crowds as users of technology is so far unexplored. Based on the existing literature on crowd behavior, we identify three distinct qualities of crowd experience, which we introduce to interaction design: imitation, emergence, and self-organization. These three qualities informed the design of the research prototype, BannerBattle, which is an interactive display to support crowd experiences at football stadiums. Based on findings in the case study, we discuss how crowd theory complements and challenges existing experience-centered design approaches. We suggest that crowd theory is an important resource when designing technology to support crowd experiences. Moreover, a focus on crowd experience may nuance and expand the already well-established field of experience-centered design research.
Exploring the design of hybrid interfaces for augmented posters in public spaces BIBAFull-Text 238-246
  Jens Grubert; Raphaël Grasset; Gerhard Reitmayr
The use of Augmented Reality for overlaying visual information on print media like street posters has become widespread over the last few years. While this user interface metaphor represents an instance of cross-media information spaces the specific context of its use has not yet been carefully studied, resulting in productions generally relying on trial-and-error approaches. In this paper, we explicitly consider mobile contexts in the consumption of augmented print media. We explore the design space of hybrid user interfaces for augmented posters and describe different case studies to validate our approach. Outcomes of this work inform the design of future interfaces for publicly accessible augmented print media in mobile contexts.
No cure for curiosity: linking physical and digital urban layers BIBAFull-Text 247-256
  Jan Seeburger
Although mobile phones are often used in public urban places to interact with one's geographically dispersed social circle, they can also facilitate interactions with people in the same public urban space. The PlaceTagz study investigates how physical artefacts in public urban places can be utilised and combined with mobile phone technologies to facilitate interactions. Printed on stickers, PlaceTagz are QR codes linking to a digital message board enabling collocated users to interact with each other over time resulting in a place-based digital memory. This exploratory project set out to investigate if and how PlaceTagz are used by urban dwellers in a real world deployment. We present findings from analysing content received through PlaceTagz and interview data from application users. QR codes, which do not contain any contextual information, piqued the curiosity of users wondering about the embedded link's destination and provoked comments in regards to people, place and technology.

Images of users

Outliers in usability testing: how to treat usability problems found for only one test participant? BIBAFull-Text 257-260
  Asbjørn Følstad; Effie Lai-Chong Law; Kasper Hornbæk
In usability testing, usability problems are often found for only one test participant. The literature does not help in deciding whether such single-user problems should be accepted or rejected as usability problems. To help us understand how such decisions are made in practical usability testing, 89 practitioners described how they dealt with single-user problems in their latest usability test. Single-user problems was accepted, rejected, or reported as outliers. This decision depended on problem severity, participant profile, sample size, and judgments on whether the problem is an artifact of the test situation.
The usability expert's fear of agility: an empirical study of global trends and emerging practices BIBAFull-Text 261-264
  Lene Nielsen; Sabine Madsen
This paper contributes to the HCI literature on usability practice with insights about the empirical challenges and global emerging practices caused by the advent of agile software development (ASD). In the paper we report from a worldwide study involving 12 usability professionals from 12 different countries. The findings show that the usability professionals share a forced development and innovation in their practice that stem from their clients' adoption and use of ASD methods. The ASD methods challenge the way usability testing is performed, the abilities of the usability expert, the usability deliverables, and the experts' assumptions about the importance of validity.
Using correspondence analysis to monitor the persona segmentation process BIBAFull-Text 265-274
  Lieve Laporte; Karin Slegers; Dirk De Grooff
Persona segmentation is the first phase of the persona method. It can be defined as the process of creating representative groups of similar users. Since the origin of the persona technique, both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used to create persona segments. While the qualitative approach has been criticized because of its lack of accuracy in creating persona segments, application of quantitative methods seems to be suffering from the same problem, due to inconsiderate application of statistical techniques. In this paper, we present Correspondence Analysis, an exploratory data technique, as an alternative quantitative persona segmentation method. We demonstrate that this method is appropriate to create useful persona profiles, and, additionally, it can aid in carefully monitoring the segmentation process.
Assessing ICT user groups BIBAFull-Text 275-283
  Benjamin Weiss; Ina Wechsung; Stefanie Marquardt
A questionnaire to assess attitude towards information and communication technology (ICT) and experience with it is developed and evaluated. With 30 items user attributes are collected on six factors. With this questionnaire, individual users can be clustered in accordance with an existing ICT taxonomy. A revised version is proposed after the validation of the first questionnaire. This screening instrument is meant to complement existing methods of assessing competency with technology. Furthermore, the possibility to classify users within the ICT taxonomy provides additional means to analyze data from interaction experiments and to screen prospective participants for usability tests and scientific experiments.

Privacy, security, and trust

Too much information!: user attitudes towards smartphone sharing BIBAFull-Text 284-287
  Alina Hang; Emanuel von Zezschwitz; Alexander De Luca; Heinrich Hussmann
Modern smartphones carry a huge amount of sensitive data. This includes personal information, business information or account information of various online services. In a situation where sharing the device with another person is unavoidable, this data might be in danger. In this paper, we present insights into up-to-date mobile device sharing behavior. We analyzed which data people are concerned of, which data people are willing to share and with whom people would share their device. Our results are based on the findings of a focus group and a user study. Based on those, we derived design implications, which can guide or help with the development of privacy-respectful sharing concepts for smartphones.
Human-to-human interfaces for remote service kiosks: the potential of audiovisual communication BIBAFull-Text 288-297
  Anna-Liisa Syrjänen; Vesa Sihvola; Kari Kuutti; Raisa Vilmunen
Face-to-face service, implemented as a fully automatic remote self-service, is a common way to digitalize public and private services. Continually diversifying user groups have repeatedly challenged this strategy and the user-centeredness in the systems design. Interface personalization has been used to improve web services but service production still suffers from complex interaction processes, trust, and security problems. One solution for the problems would be a human-to-human interface-based remote system via the Internet. When designed to utilize audiovisual communication in the online interaction of real people, a kiosk interface remains simple, enables the personalization of the actual customer service with the trust, security, and ease of use ensuing from the need of the service and the individual facilitating the interaction.
Of unkempt hair, dirty shirts and smiling faces: capturing behind the mobile camera BIBAFull-Text 298-307
  Florian Güldenpfennig; Wolfgang Reitberger; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
What would it be like, if every photo could be turned around to reveal its photographer in the moment of image capture? In this paper we report on a new camera phone application BehindTheCamera (BTC). In contrast to traditional photography, BTC employs both front and rear cameras to capture not only the target of interest, but also the photographer or scene behind the camera. We conducted an exploratory study with 8 participants over 10 months to reveal usage patterns and possible benefits for the user. A thematic analysis of the BTC images suggested seven salient categories of use. Our findings were substantiated by in-depth interviews and later review of images with the participants to capture their experience with BTC. The findings point to the value of BTC for supporting creativity, play, and capturing the interplay of photographer and motif for later rich reflection.

Usability and experience

Exploitation of heuristics for virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 308-317
  Ebba Thora Hvannberg; Gyda Halldórsdóttir; Jan Rudinsky
Although generic usability heuristics lists have been popular with researchers and practitioners, emerging new technologies have called for more specific heuristics. One of these heuristics was proposed by Sutcliffe and Gault in 2004 [37]. This paper examines research which has cited these heuristics with the aim to see how it has been exploited. The results showed that a fifth of the papers citing the heuristics have used the heuristics fully or partly, and that researchers have adapted it to their current needs. Following this result we proposed that a patchwork of heuristics might be more useful than a single list. We evaluated a crisis management training simulator using the virtual reality heuristics and discussed how the outcome of the evaluation fitted the patchwork.
Evocative of experience: crafting cross-cultural digital narratives through stories and portraits BIBAFull-Text 318-321
  Rachel Clarke; Pete Wright
Storytelling has become a notable part of HCI research on experience, not only as a method of inquiry but also as a focus to design interaction. Much of this work takes for granted that spoken or written stories are an accessible way to engage users in reflecting on and recounting their experiences. This paper outlines exploratory workshops conducted to inquire into cross-cultural stories with vulnerable women. Taking a narrative inquiry approach we co-created digital stories and digital portraits with a group highlighting different perspectives of women's experiences over time. The approach underlined the importance of crafting and listening to stories as evocative, imaginative responses to rather than representative of experience. The paper is a report of a situated adaptation of experience-centred design methods for working sensitively with users on stories.
Why do I like it?: investigating the product-specificity of user experience BIBAFull-Text 322-330
  Alice Gross; Sara Bongartz
The concept of user experience (UX) has had a warm welcome in the research community since its introduction almost two decades ago. Still, there is no consensus on a unified definition of the concept nor is there agreement on how to best measure UX. In this paper, we argue that UX is context-dependent and most of all product-dependent in its nature. Accordingly, using the CUE model by Mahlke and Thüring [26], we hypothesized that the impact of perceived product attributes and emotional reactions on UX vary among different product types. We report on a study that showed these specific differences in the composition and impact of UX components, depending on product type. The outcome of the study lays ground for a product specific understanding and assessment of UX.

Design and collaboration

IdeaVis: a hybrid workspace and interactive visualization for paper-based collaborative sketching sessions BIBAFull-Text 331-340
  Florian Geyer; Jochen Budzinski; Harald Reiterer
In this paper we describe IdeaVis, a novel approach for supporting co-located sketching sessions. Our system is based on digital pen & paper for augmenting the traditional paper-based workflows of sketching sessions. An additional focus & context visualization is used to support creative facilitators in exploring and examining the design activity, thereby increasing awareness over inhibitors that may impede the success of such sessions. The general applicability of our approach was confirmed in a user study with creative professionals. We conclude that live design activity visualizations can provide benefits for controlling typical inhibitors of creative group work without the need to change traditional workflows.
Interaction design in a complex context: medical multi-disciplinary team meetings BIBAFull-Text 341-350
  Oscar Frykholm; Marcus Nilsson; Kristina Groth; Alexander Yngling
In order to improve collaboration on, and visualisation of, patient information in medical multi-disciplinary team meetings, we have developed a system that presents information from different medical systems to be used as a support for the decision process. Based on field studies, we have implemented a high-fidelity prototype on tablet-sized displays, and tested it in a realistic setting. Our evaluation proved that more patient information can efficiently be displayed to all meeting participants, compared to the current situation. Interaction with the information, on the other hand, proved to be a complicated activity that needs careful design considerations; it should ultimately be based on what roles the meeting participants have, and what tasks they should complete. Medical decision-making is a complex area, and conducting interaction design in this area proved complex too. We foresee a great opportunity to improve medical work, by introducing collaborative tools and visualisation of medical data, but it requires that interaction design becomes a natural part of medical work.
Workspace configurations: setting the stage for remote collaboration on physical tasks BIBAFull-Text 351-360
  Leonardo Giusti; Kotval Xerxes; Amelia Schladow; Nicholas Wallen; Francis Zane; Federico Casalegno
In this paper, we are interested in understanding how cutting-edge mobile technologies can be used to create advanced services for remote assistance, particularly in the execution of physical tasks. To explore this topic, we conducted a pilot study to observe: (1) how a user and a remote expert configure handheld devices to set an appropriate "stage" for collaboration; (2) what behaviors and strategies they adopt to ground the communication process in an efficient way. This investigation led to the generation of a conceptual framework to drive the design of future applications in this field, going beyond the state-of-the-art in video-conference software. In this framework, we have identified a set of what we call "stage set-ups" defined by specific configurations of connected devices, and aimed at supporting different collaborative situations.

Haptics and touch

Haptically augmented remote speech communication: a study of user practices and experiences BIBAFull-Text 361-369
  Katja Suhonen; Sebastian Müller; Jussi Rantala; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Roope Raisamo; Vuokko Lantz
Haptic technology provides a channel for interpersonal communication through the sense of touch. In the development of novel haptic communication devices, it is essential to explore people's use behaviors and perceptions of such a communication channel. To this end, we conducted a laboratory study on haptically augmented remote interpersonal communication. Participant pairs tested a communication system that allowed them to send squeezing and thermal feedback to each other's forearm during speech discussion. We explored the use practices and user experience of this setup and compared it to traditional speech-only communication. The findings indicate that squeezing was experienced as a more versatile and immediate type of feedback than thermal feedback. Warm and cold were on the other hand useful for communicating positive and negative meanings. Compared to speech-only communication, the added haptic modality allowed conveying emphases, emotions, and touches related to the discussion, and increased the feeling of closeness between the pairs.
An experimental comparison of touch interaction on vertical and horizontal surfaces BIBAFull-Text 370-379
  Esben Warming Pedersen; Kasper Hornbæk
Touch input has been extensively studied. The influence of display orientation on users' performance and satisfaction, however, is not well understood. In an experiment, we manipulate the orientation of multi-touch surfaces to study how 16 participants tap and drag. To analyze if and when participants switch hands or interact bimanually, we track the hands of the participants. Results show that orientation impacts both performance and error rates. Tapping was performed 5% faster on the vertical surface, whereas dragging was performed 5% faster and with fewer errors on the horizontal surface. Participants used their right hand more when dragging (85% of the trials) than when tapping (63% of the trials), but rarely used bimanual interaction. The vertical surface was perceived as more physically demanding to use than the horizontal surface. We conclude by discussing some open questions in understanding the relation between display orientation and touch.
Coupling gestures with tactile feedback: a comparative user study BIBAFull-Text 380-387
  Grégoire Lefebvre; Emmanuelle Boyer; Sophie Zijp-Rouzier
This paper sheds some new light on an experimental evaluation in the field of tactile feedback generation on Smartphone. Tactile feedback on current mobile devices is actually limited therefore we explore using dynamic tactile feedback to improve gesture provision. The main objective is to better understand issues related to touch interactions coupled with tactile feedback. We investigate three dynamic models based on gesture properties in a formal experiment with 24 participants. A fourth uniform feedback model is used as a decoy model. We use a model based on the tension of a spring, a model based on the torque force of a knob and a model based on the gesture curvature. The results evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of each tactile feedback model in an initial reproduction task of reference shapes. The experiment shows dynamic feedback models have some effects on the complexity and the type of gesture. Coupling tactile feedback during user interactions offers good guidance and even more when the tactile model uses the kinetic properties of the user gestures. The subjective evaluations show that the preferred tactile feedback model by the user is the tension of a spring. This pilot evaluation may serve as a reference for future researches in touch based interfaces.

Dolls, dance, and fire

Towards doll based design: framework, guidelines and research potentials BIBAFull-Text 388-397
  Christina Jakobsen
Users are represented for many purposes and take many forms in design. This paper is concerned with potentials of representing users and use via dolls and doll play. The contribution of the paper serves as steppingstone for further investigations of Doll based design.
   The paper introduces a conceptual framework which offers design research a vocabulary for understanding and articulating two central aspects of Doll based design: perspective taking and role taking. The framework is developed through a case study and theoretical investigation in the fields of Psychology and Play theory.
   Based on the framework and case study, practitioners are offered two basic guidelines which support the initiation and continuing progress of Doll based design: endow the doll with a motive and be an empathetic facilitator. Moreover research potentials, based on the case and framework, highlight interesting future work.
Dance-inspired technology, technology-inspired dance BIBAFull-Text 398-407
  Berto Gonzalez; Erin Carroll; Celine Latulipe
The design of interactive dance is a challenging endeavor because both dance and computing are in themselves full of complexity, thus to create a cohesive union of the two involves much trial and error and a mutual disciplinary understanding. Since interactive dance is a performing art, technologists working as designers must consider how all of the parts -- choreography, media, interactivity -- are integrated to inform the overall gestalt and intent of the piece. To this end, we offer five design principles for making interactive dance: Connected Kinetics, Augmented Expression, Aesthetic Harmony, Interactive Build, and Integrated Process. These design principles have emerged from our practice-based research in collaboratively producing six different interactive dance pieces over the past four years.
Digital art, HCI and environmental awareness evaluating play with fire BIBAFull-Text 408-417
  Mónica Mendes; Pedro Ângelo; Valentina Nisi; Nuno Correia
Play with Fire (PWF) is an interactive installation challenging its participants to ignite generative fires over live streaming video of forests. The installation is designed to raise awareness towards sustainability issues such as climate change and forest fires. PWF initially presents its audience with a mashup of forest fire news, followed by playful interaction with fire and forests through a gestural interface. Finally, it connects to its audience mobile phones granting access to a user specific web application depicting the forest they burnt, regenerating in real-time. The forest will take from some months to years to revolve to its original state, depending on the user's performance. In this paper we address the problem of evaluating whether environmental awareness can be achieved through such a controversial installation, and approach the challenges and benefits of using HCI techniques in Digital Arts. Furthermore, we describe the evaluation of PWF in four different contexts and present preliminary results.

Life on the internet

On the brink of adulthood: a qualitative study of adolescent engagement with the internet BIBAFull-Text 418-427
  Marianne Kinnula; Netta Iivari; Tuula Ijäs
The Internet is one of the central media technologies that define technological change and has impact on lives of adolescents who are a significant Internet user group. Many of the earlier studies of adolescents' Internet use are quantitative, whereas this qualitative study gives voice to the adolescents themselves. The study provides a glimpse into the life of the young Finnish people on the brink of adulthood, in transition state, outlining some specific aspects concerning their engagement with the Internet. These adolescents are active and competent users who rely on divergent 'genres of participation' during their Internet use. Their Internet use also reveals some fascinating aspects that can be connected with 'becoming an adult'. They are not only 'hanging out' and 'messing around' in the Internet, but carry out serious business, too. The study provides also insights for interaction designers ideating Internet based applications and services.
Crystallizations in the blizzard: contrasting informal emergency collaboration in Facebook groups BIBAFull-Text 428-437
  Andreas Birkbak
This paper presents a comparative case study of improvised social media use in response to an emergency situation. The study focuses on a severe blizzard on the island of Bornholm, Denmark, which left hundreds snowbound for more than a week. Within a period of 10 days, two public Facebook groups showed a burst of intense activity. Combining content analysis of these online interactions and interviews with group members and authorities on Bornholm, the study demonstrates how divergent perspectives on the blizzard were collectively articulated in these two groups. While the members of one group self-organized to support each other in response to feeling overlooked by public authorities, the other group saw the snowstorm as an exciting spectacle. While the widely used notion of altruistic communities explain some of the activity in the groups, the concept does not capture how emergent groups construct emergencies in diverging ways. The analysis demonstrates how an entanglement of social and physical contexts influenced user adaptation of the Facebook platform. These dynamics must be recognized and understood better in order to design information technology that aids emergent groups in future emergencies.
Reflections on norm-critical design efforts in online youth counselling BIBAFull-Text 438-447
  Sofia Lundmark; Maria Normark
We explore social norms embedded in interaction design, how different identity roles are made relevant during a specific design project and how norm-critical efforts are made by different actors during this design process. We have studied the development of the Swedish National Youth Counselling site to illustrate how interaction design may construct meaning, norms and values in design. We present an ethnographic study, the development of the Love Animation. Examples are shown in which interaction design unintentionally discourages the purpose of the intended message which suggests that there is a need for further understanding of how the content and the interaction design relates to each other. Using Science and Technology theories, the research join the emergent critical tradition in HCI and a critical perspective on technology as a co-constructing agent is applied.

Theories and foundations

Dynamics in artifact ecologies BIBAFull-Text 448-457
  Susanne Bødker; Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose
We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics.
How interactive artifacts "change" over time: a visual analysis BIBAFull-Text 458-467
  Chung-Ching Huang; Erik Stolterman
Not only are people or contexts subject to change in the trajectory of artifact use, many interactive products or systems themselves also change over time. Joining the trend of longitudinal studies of user experience with cognitive, behavioral, social or historical perspectives, we propose an artifact-centered temporal approach for analyzing interactive artifacts over time. In this paper we introduce one way to analyze an interaction from a temporal perspective, and how to represent changes over time in a visual way. We present a form of visual diagrams focusing on temporal changes of functions, interfaces and goals. Examples of these diagrams are developed and discussed. We reflect on the use of visual analysis as a tool for developing a better understanding of artifacts and their use over time, and discuss the limitation, advantage, and implications of the proposed visual analysis method. We conclude with the call that, when imagining future use of interactive systems, designers can gain valuable insights by methodologically examine how interactive artifacts change over time.
Values-led participatory design: mediating the emergence of values BIBAFull-Text 468-477
  Ole Sejer Iversen; Tuck W. Leong
There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design (PD). One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. This paper focuses solely upon this emergence phase, illustrating how we can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. We do this by drawing upon a PD case where digital technology was designed to support the experiences of young adults with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. This case allows us to describe how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry (not to explicate how we can work with such young adults in PD). By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process, we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can potentially enrich and further the values-led PD tradition.

Spatial and search

Effects of visual cues on the complicated search task BIBAFull-Text 478-485
  Keiji Ogata; Yasuhiro Seya; Katsumi Watanabe; Tohru Ifukube
To locate relevant information within an vast array of potentially irrelevant information, a graphical user interface supported by visual navigation search cues may be useful. Because few studies have reported effects of visual cues in complicated workplace conditions, this study examined effects of valid/invalid cues on performance in a search task that simulated central monitoring task. Reaction times (RTs) to targets were measured for valid/invalid cues relative to no-cue conditions. Results indicated that cost (increment of RT by the invalid cue) is less than benefit (decrement of RT by the valid cue). Subsequently, to examine effects of cues in a perception/cognition phase, rates of correct answers were measured by eliminating an action phase of the search task. Results reveal the benefit (higher rate of correct answers in the valid cue condition than in the no-cue condition) was greater than the cost (lower rate of correct answers in the invalid cue condition than in the no-cue condition). Additionally, eye movement data indicated that onset times of eye fixation to a cued button were concentrated within 200-300ms regardless of cue condition. Together, results suggest that in a complicated search situation, such as a central control system, the costs for relying on invalid cues can be expressed as 1/d, with d as the number of candidates of search. This implies that as d increases the usefulness of a predictive (valid) cue increases.
Visualize your spatial experience (VYSE): a method and a case study in an exhibition center BIBAFull-Text 486-495
  Petri Saarinen; Timo Partala; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
When designing ubiquitous technology applications for an existing physical environment using a user-centered design process, an important challenge is to understand how the target space is experienced by its users. In this paper, we propose Visualize Your Spatial Experience (VYSE), a method for studying spatial experiences. VYSE leans on visual methods such as coloring and drawing on a map by the users of the space. In addition, interviews are used to elicit details of the user experiences. VYSE was tested in a study of spatial and navigation experiences of exhibition center visitors (N = 14). With the method, it was possible to capture variations in the visitors' experiences systematically in relation to the different locations of the target environment. The results showed that exhibits and physical properties of the space were the two most prominent factors affecting the exhibition experiences.
Harnessing the benefits of bimanual and multi-finger input for supporting grouping tasks on interactive tabletops BIBAFull-Text 496-499
  Florian Geyer; Anita Höchtl; Harald Reiterer
In this paper we describe an experimental study investigating the use of bimanual and multi-finger input for grouping items spatially on a tabletop interface. In a single-user setup, we compared two typical interaction techniques supporting this task. We studied the grouping and regrouping performance in general and the use of bimanual and multi-finger input in particular. Our results show that the traditional container concept may not be an adequate fit for interactive tabletops. Rather, we demonstrate that informal and organic spatial metaphors are able to harness more benefits of multi-finger and bimanual interaction. We conclude with recommendations for the design of grouping techniques on interactive surfaces.
Modeling vibrotactile detection by logistic regression BIBAFull-Text 500-503
  Hans Jørgen Andersen; Ann Morrison; Lars Knudsen
In this study we introduce logistic regression as a method for modeling, in this case the user's detection rate, to more easily show cross-effecting factors, necessary in order to design an adaptive system. Previously such effects have been investigated by a variety of linear regression type methods but these are not well suited for developing adaptive systems. We investigate the method on a qualitative and quantitative dataset with ages spanning from seven to 79 years under indoor and outdoor experimental settings. The results show that the method is indeed a suitable candidate for quantification of, in this instance vibrotactile information, and for the future design of user-adaptive vibrotactile displays. More generally the model shows potential for designing a variety of adaptive systems.

Innovative interface design

The interaction space of a multi-device, multi-user music experience BIBAFull-Text 504-513
  Henrik Sørensen; Jesper Kjeldskov
The increasing interoperability between electronic devices in our everyday life offers great opportunities for ubiquitous computing in non-work settings. There are however aspects of the interaction space of interconnected devices, that we do not yet fully understand. This prohibits us from utilizing the full potential of the devices and the digital ecosystems emerging around them. We have explored the interaction space created around multi-device systems in a non-work setting, by developing a functional prototype of a multi-device music player and evaluating it in three different real-life contexts. The evaluations had a total running time of 12 hours and involved approximately 60 test-persons. Qualitative results collected throughout the evaluations provide insight into issues regarding interaction design of multi-device systems with multiple simultaneous users. Through a discussion of the results we point out areas of interest and design issues, revealed during the evaluations.
Aerial tunes: exploring interaction qualities of mid-air displays BIBAFull-Text 514-523
  Tobias Alrøe; Jonas Grann; Erik Grönvall; Marianne Graves Petersen; Jesper L. Rasmussen
New types of interfaces are emerging in the form of shape changing and mid-air interfaces. However, little is known about how such interfaces are experienced and explored over time. This paper presents Aerial Tunes, a collaborative, tangible interface, based on balls hovering in mid-air, which can be manipulated individually, or collaboratively to explore and experiment with an ambient soundscape. We describe the design of Aerial Tunes and the technical challenges in constructing the prototype, Aerial Tunes exemplify how systems can be designed to support aesthetic experiences and promote enjoyment and excitement through a seemingly magical and unstable display, supporting explorative and tangible interaction coupled with sound feedback. Based on a four-week field study of the prototype at a public main library, we report how people experienced, investigated, interpreted and explored this interface. We describe the design intentions and qualities, which served to invite for exploration and resulted in multiple and diverse interpretations.
User requirements and design guidelines for digital restaurant menus BIBAFull-Text 524-533
  Pascal Lessel; Matthias Böhmer; Alexander Kröner; Antonio Krüger
Digital media have reached the domain of gastronomy, starting with printed restaurant menus being replaced by digital menus. While these allow for enriching a guest's stay in a restaurant, there is risk that the additional information offer might also overwhelm the guest. In this paper we present three studies on design aspects of digital restaurant menus. We conducted an online survey concerning guests' perceptions of paper-based menus and their expectations to digital menus. We conducted semi-structured interviews with employees of a restaurant to learn about their views and requirements and discussed with an owner of a fine dining restaurant potential uses of a digital menu. Subsequently, we built a prototype and evaluated it with a specific target audience. This study provided us with additional insights into user interface (UI) aspects. From our findings we distilled and contribute guidelines for designing digital restaurant menus.

Categorizing and adapting

Interaction issues in computer aided semantic annotation of multimedia BIBAFull-Text 534-543
  Chris Bowers; Russell Beale; Will Byrne; Chris Creed; Charlie Pinder; Robert Hendley
The CASAM project aims to provide a tool for more efficient and effective annotation of multimedia documents through collaboration between a user and a system performing an automated analysis of the media content. A critical part of the project is to develop a user interface which supports both the user and the system working co-operatively and asynchronously. In this paper we discuss the work undertaken, the proposed user interface and underlying interaction issues which drove its development.
Increasing the user's attention on the web: using implicit interaction based on gaze behavior to tailor content BIBAFull-Text 544-553
  Florian Alt; Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Albrecht Schmidt; Julian Mennenöh
The World Wide Web has evolved into a widely used interactive application platform, providing information, products, and services. With eye trackers we envision that gaze information as an additional input channel can be used in the future to adapt and tailor web content (e.g., news, information, ads) towards the users' attention as they implicitly interact with web pages. We present a novel approach, which allows web content to be customized on-the-fly based on the user's gaze behavior (dwell time, duration of fixations, and number of fixations). Our system analyzes the gaze path on a page and uses this information to create adaptive content on subsequent pages. As a proof-of-concept we report on a case study with 12 participants. We presented them both randomly chosen content (baseline) as well as content chosen based on their gaze-behavior. We found a significant increase of attention towards the adapted content and evidence for changes in the user attitude based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model.
VisualizIR: a game for identifying and categorizing relevant text in documents BIBAFull-Text 554-557
  Christopher G. Harris
In this paper, we introduce VisualizIR, a game where players identify relevant document terms that match predefined categories. VisualizIR evaluates players on accuracy, recall, and precision against an established gold standard, a pooled consensus of judgments made by other players, or a weighted combination of the two. The annotated document can then viewed by any XML-compatible browser, allowing for quick identification of terms in the document related to each category. Here we describe some of the playability design tradeoffs made during the game's development, as well as our findings from two experiments conducted using VisualizIR output.

Touch, visualization, and input

An exploratory study of how abundant display space may support data analysis BIBAFull-Text 558-567
  Søren Knudsen; Mikkel Rønne Jakobsen; Kasper Hornbæk
Large, high-resolution displays offer new opportunities for visualizing and interacting with data. However, interaction techniques for such displays mostly support window manipulation and pointing, ignoring many activities involved in data analysis. We report on 11 workshops with data analysts from various fields, including artistic photography, phone log analysis, astrophysics, and health care policy. Analysts were asked to walk through recent tasks using actual data on a large whiteboard, imagining it to be a large display. From the resulting comments and a video analysis of behavior in the workshops, we generate ideas for new interaction techniques for large displays. These ideas include supporting sequences of visualizations with backtracking and fluid exploration of alternatives; using distance to the display to change visualizations; and fixing variables and data sets on the display or relative to the user.
FittsTilt: the application of Fitts' law to tilt-based interaction BIBAFull-Text 568-577
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Robert J. Teather
We evaluated tilt as an input method for devices with built-in accelerometers, such as touchscreen phones and tablet computers. The evaluation was empirical and experimental. Sixteen participants performed a tilt-based position-select task, similar to the multi-directional Fitts' law task in ISO 9241-9. Four levels of tilt gain (25, 50, 100, and 200) and two selection modes (first-entry and 500 ms dwell) were used. Movement times were lowest with tilt gain = 50 and first-entry selection. Maximum tilt angles ranged from about 2° to 13°, depending on condition. Tilt as an input primitive is shown to conform to Fitts' law. Throughput is low, however, about 2.3 bits/s for first-entry and 1.2 bits/s for dwell.
Enhanced feed-forward for a user aware multi-touch device BIBAFull-Text 578-586
  Georg Freitag; Michael Tränkner; Markus Wacker
Common multi-touch devices guide the user with feedback visualization during or after a registered interaction. Feed-forward techniques are less frequently used or not common at all. Our approach aims at a continuous process in which the system is aware of the users before, during, and after an explicit interaction takes place. This opens up the possibility for novel scenarios of user centered applications. Our setup utilizes Microsofts's depth-camera Kinect to collect the user's posture data in combination with a multi-touch device. This is a low cost and easy to install approach for collecting detailed information about the people and their position in close proximity of a multi-touch table as well as the location of their physical contact. Based on this information, we propose five phases of interaction and analyze the sequence of input during a typical workflow. Eight application concepts show the relevance of these phases using appropriate forms of visualization and we evaluated three of those concepts in a user-study.

@home

Personalised eco-feedback as a design technique for motivating energy saving behaviour at home BIBAFull-Text 587-596
  Petromil Petkov; Suparna Goswami; Felix Köbler; Helmut Krcmar
In recent years, interaction designers have actively started addressing sustainability as a research topic. More specifically, persuasive applications, which aim at promoting pro-environmental behaviour, such as energy saving have been of growing interest in multiple research disciplines. Driven by the proliferation of smart meters and energy monitors as well as the rise of social media, researchers and designers of persuasive applications have developed a wide range of design solutions that address this issue. The majority of them, however, provide the same information to users irrespective of differences in their environmental concerns and different motivations to conserve energy. Our research addresses this gap. We design mock-up screens that provide feedback catering towards different pro-environmental values and concerns and ask users to evaluate them in a survey setting. The research aims at understanding what feedback different people find relevant and therefore attempts to bridge the gap between environmental psychology and HCI. At the same time it provides insights for the design of personalised eco-feedback related to energy consumption.
Unboxing the tools for physical rehabilitation: embracing the difference between the clinic and home BIBAFull-Text 597-606
  Naveen Bagalkot; Tomas Sokoler
An ever-growing body of research concerns the design of tools for rehabilitation integrating digital technology in support of an increased rehabilitee/patient compliance with prescribed treatment (e.g. physical exercises) when at home. Further, recent work urge for a consideration of the difference between the clinic and home environments in the design of such tools. We present three design explorations helping us reflect, by example, on how to embrace this difference. We take an embodied interaction perspective when suggesting how our designs can take advantage of the home as a rich social and material setting in which the acts of self-monitoring, self-articulation, and social scaffolding are carried out. We thereby, in line with more recent work, challenge the hitherto dominant leitmotif of home as a mere extension of the clinic, and the notion that rehabilitation tools, prescriptions and routines can simply be boxed and shipped from clinic to home.
Designing to support prescribed home exercises: understanding the needs of physiotherapy patients BIBAFull-Text 607-616
  Hitee Chandra; Ian Oakley; Hugo Silva
Musculoskeletal disorders are a globally significant health problem affecting millions. Physiotherapy, including prescribed exercises performed independently by patients in their homes, is a key treatment for many sufferers. However, many patients fail to complete home exercises, prolonging recovery periods or accelerating decline. Pervasive health technologies, capable of monitoring users in their homes, are ideally suited to address this problem. This paper describes user research with a group of three physiotherapists and eleven current physiotherapy patients to understand the problems and user needs underlying non-compliance with home exercise regimes. The research adopted a speed dating approach and culminated with six insights and design recommendations relating to the form and type of feedback that should be used in such systems, to how scheduling and therapist-patient communication systems should be designed and to the role of privacy.

Rural and global communication

Understanding group communication in rural India BIBAFull-Text 617-626
  Sarita Seshagiri; Milind V. Kaduskar; Pratibha Bhaskaran
In this paper, we present our study that was based on group exercises undertaken in an Indian village. We wanted to understand how co-located and non co-located groups communicate with each other, such that a technology solution best suited to the context and needs of rural Indian users are developed. We highlight our findings and suggest some design avenues. One of our findings was a strong preference for proximate group experience with aural and visual cues. The study enabled identifying guidelines to design a rural-India group communication solution. Supporting the formation of subgroups to increase efficiency of discussion emerged as an important aspect. Moreover, existence of an additional channel for communication through non-verbal cues such as gestures, facial expressions and body language was discovered to have an important bearing on a satisfactory communication experience in a group.
Homestead creator: a tool for indigenous designers BIBAFull-Text 627-630
  Kasper Rodil; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Kasper L. Jensen; Matthias Rehm
The article presents in-situ findings of introducing a tablet prototype, with touch interaction and 3D graphical visualizations, to empower knowledgeable village elders in Namibia to locally re-create a 3D graphical context for previously recorded video clips of indigenous practices and narratives. Findings indicate that tablets enable those indigenous users to partake in design sessions more equally than with laptops and other input devices. Through a GUI design example we illuminate the unique opportunities and challenges in designing in the space where cultures meet.
Tapping into local lore: toward scalable local mapping and tagging for rural Africa using mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 631-634
  Kasper L. Jensen; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Kasper Rodil
In this paper we present a context-aware tool designed for mapping and tagging objects and places of importance to rural communities using sensor-enabled mobile devices. These data sets comprise comprehensive models of specific environments which we use for creating interactive visualized knowledge sharing platforms for indigenous knowledge in Southern Africa. The tool was originally created for researchers to efficiently capture large amounts of data in the field, but we realized that true scalability of the approach would only be attained when including local users. The tool has been through multiple design iterations and in-situ evaluations across several locations in Namibia, and this paper presents findings from our research into the feasibility and effectiveness of the tool to capture meaningful localized data in an efficient and scalable way. From this we conclude that it is very promising when used by trained researchers, but that the interface will need to be significantly redesigned and appropriated for local community members.
Combating rural child malnutrition through inexpensive mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 635-644
  Indrani Medhi; Mohit Jain; Anuj Tewari; Mohini Bhavsar; Michael Matheke-Fischer; Edward Cutrell
Most organizations in the developing world still rely on paper for record keeping, giving rise to many problems in aggregation, storage, transmission and analysis of data. Errors and time delays associated with paper data are particularly problematic in the domain of healthcare. We present a case study of CommCare, a low-cost mobile phone data collection solution deployed to enhance the paper-based record management system of a non-profit organization working in prevention of child malnutrition in rural central India. Through a three-month unsupervised field trial with ten rural health workers we report data management gains in terms of data quality, completeness and timeliness for 836 recorded patient cases, and demonstrate strong preference of the system by health workers. We found that the motivation for use and acceptance of the system was tied to respect and social power in local communities associated with using the device, as well as non-work-related uses of the phone.

Design materials (and some sex)

Digital form and materiality: propositions for a new approach to interaction design research BIBAFull-Text 645-654
  Heekyoung Jung; Erik Stolterman
Advanced information and interaction technology pervades everyday life, introducing new forms and meanings of computer applications beyond desktop computers -- from varying types of digital devices to interactive fashion and architecture. Motivated by the notion of digital technology as a material for interaction design, this research aims to develop a theoretical foundation to create and critique digital artifacts in the context of interaction design and HCI research. Specifically we conceptualize digital form and materiality as two reciprocal aspects of digital artifact based on the perspectives from relevant disciplines including design, arts, craft, material culture and philosophy of technology. The conceptualization emphasizes the process of making, personal meanings, and socio-cultural values of digital artifacts, constructing a new theoretical framework for exploratory and critical research approaches. In the end we discuss a proposal for form-driven interaction design research as a new approach to HCI with its focus on form and materiality aspects of digital artifacts based on the reflection on our theoretical propositions.
Designing (for) desire: a critical study of technosexuality in HCI BIBAFull-Text 655-664
  Gopinaath Kannabiran; Shaowen Bardzell; Jeffrey Bardzell
This work builds upon recent work investigating erotic life and HCI, taking seriously the influences of interaction design on our sexual wellbeing. In the present work, we critically analyze the ways that system design choices and emergent social behavior constitute an erotic social media platform and its concomitant expressions of desire. The site is called I Just Made Love, and it is used to share people's "love making" experience with others. We draw from continental cultural theory to analyze how the system and its users form arrangements of agency, which in turn lead to particular configurations of performed sexual desire. Based on our analysis, we argue that technosexuality is not just about using technology to fulfill an existing desire, but rather that novel forms of sexual desire come into practice because of particular constellations of design choices and social behaviors.
The productive role of material design artefacts in participatory design events BIBAFull-Text 665-674
  Nicolai Brodersen Hansen; Peter Dalsgaard
Physical design artefacts are employed in a wide range of participatory design events, yet there are few comprehensive discussions of the properties and qualities of them in the literature of the field. In this paper, we examine the productive role of material design artefacts in participatory design events. First, we offer a theoretical foundation for understanding material artefacts in design, based on pragmatist philosophy. Then, we employ this theoretical perspective to analyse a case in which a range of physical design materials was employed to envision and explore a projected building, the "Urban Media Space" a new library in Aarhus, Denmark. Drawing on examples from this case, we define a series of design considerations for employing material design artefacts in collaborative design events. Our contribution is valuable both in advancing the theoretical standpoint of interaction design in general, and in allowing participatory design practitioners to reflect on their use of material design artefacts when involving users.

Usability evaluation in context

User interviews revisited: identifying user positions and system interpretations BIBAFull-Text 675-682
  Eeva Raita
Throughout the history of HCI, interviews have been utilized for collecting users' subjective evaluations of interactive technology. This paper raises the issue that these interviews are often deployed in a manner overlooking two aspects of evaluation: the relative positions from which the system is evaluated and the interviewees' interpretations of the system. In the study, 14 users of a new information system were asked to evaluate provocative claims about the system's usability. The analyses of their responses reveal two sources of variation: what is being evaluated and who is evaluating it. Interviewees evaluated the system's usability from five user positions: end user, supervisor, organization's representative, co-developer, and outsider. Also, four "faces" of the system were interpreted: UI, utility, communication medium, and unknown entity. These findings are employed for drawing of broader conclusions about the system and its use, and procedures for improving user interviews in HCI are presented.
Introducing usability activities into open source software development projects: a participative approach BIBAFull-Text 683-692
  Mikko Rajanen; Netta Iivari; Eino Keskitalo
Usability is an important quality characteristic of software products and information systems. Different approaches for introducing usability activities into open source software (OSS) development have not yet been fully evaluated. This paper experiments with the introduction of usability activities into OSS development through a participative approach. An empirical case study was carried out in a game development OSS project. The results of this study suggest that it is beneficial to introduce usability activities into OSS development through the participative approach. In the participative approach the usability experts become recognized part of the development community through adapting their ways of work into the culture of the OSS project and submitting code patches. This participative approach had a clear impact in the case project as seen in changes in the user interface and in improved usability. The challenge of adapting usability and OSS development philosophies and practices should, however, be researched further.
Joint implicit alignment work of interaction designers and software developers BIBAFull-Text 693-702
  Judith M. Brown; Gitte Lindgaard; Robert Biddle
Collaboration is an important aspect of software creation work. In field studies of 8 teams in the early stages of novel project work at 8 organizations we focused on understanding collaborative work from the perspective of both the interaction designer and the developer. We found designer-developer collaborations, often occurring in the context of team collaborations, were extensive. While some collaborations were directed towards explicit alignment work, such as prioritizing tasks, we have studied implicit alignment work, which constitutes a larger part of the overall alignment work. The form of this work varied in some respects, but in general designer-developer interactions directed towards implicit alignment were remarkably similar. Our model shows how implicit alignment work is jointly achieved; we derived it from an extensive analysis of videos of 13 collaborative events, and verified it with our observation notes and interviews. The model is applicable to a wide variety of software creation settings, including agile and non-agile teams. Our analysis shows the implications of our observations of implicit alignment work, and we conclude organizations should take practical steps to support it, as is frequently done for explicit alignment work.

The social life

I heard you were on Facebook: linking awareness systems to online social networking BIBAFull-Text 703-706
  Stefan Veen; Thomas Visser; David V. Keyson
Awareness systems have shown to be an effective channel for supporting social relationships. Prototype systems that support communication with intimate relationships are typically stand-alone systems. This paper describes the design of an awareness system that is linked to an online social network, allowing users to reach a broader network of friends and acquaintances when using the system. The system enables posting sound bites from daily life to one's Facebook wall. The user may record them actively, or they may let the system randomly capture environmental sounds. A final prototype was evaluated with three small friend-networks. Results support the expectation that the linked awareness devices on a social network, enhances social awareness beyond a network of physical devices. The paper further presents design insights for the development of the link between awareness systems and existing online social networks.
Interrupting or not: exploring the effect of social context on interrupters' decision making BIBAFull-Text 707-710
  Rikard Harr; Victor Kaptelinin
In recent decades technology-induced interruptions emerged as a key object of study in HCI and CSCW research, but until recently the social dimension of interruptions has been relatively neglected. The focus of existing research on interruptions has been mostly on their direct effects on the persons whose activities are interrupted. Arguably, however, it is also necessary to take into account the "ripple effect" of interruptions, that is, indirect consequences of interruptions within the social context of an activity, to properly understand interrupting behavior and provide advanced technological support for handling interruptions. This paper reports an empirical study, in which we examine a set of facets of the social context of interruptions, which we identified in a previous conceptual analysis. The results suggest that people do take into account various facets of the social context when making decisions about whether or not it is appropriate to interrupt another person.
Changing my life one step at a time: using the twelve step program as design inspiration for long term lifestyle change BIBAFull-Text 711-720
  Stina Nylander
To explore how people manage and maintain life style change, we conducted interviews with eight members of different Twelve Step Fellowships with 2-23 years of recovery about how they maintain and develop their recovery in everyday life. They reported how identification, sharing, and routines are keys to recovery. Our lessons for design concerns how these concepts support recovery in a long term perspective: Sharing to contribute in a broader sense to the fellowship and to serve as an example for fellow members created motivation even after 20 years of recovery; reflecting over routines in recovery was essential since life is constantly changing and routines need to fit into everyday life; concrete gestures were helpful for some of the abstract parts of the recovery work, such as letting go of troubling issues. Design aimed to support maintenance of lifestyle change needs to open up for ways of sharing that allow users to contribute their experiences in ways that create motivation, and support users in reflecting over their routines rather than prompting them on what to do.
Automatic on-device filtering of social networking feeds BIBAFull-Text 721-730
  Mikko Honkala; Yanqing Cui
Many people follow social networking services and find it difficult to locate essential content on mobile devices. Automatic filtering of the feeds is one solution to this problem. A system learns a model for each user, based on metadata (e.g., content types and contacts) and click histories for old feed items, predicts the click probability for incoming items, and automatically filters out less important ones. In this study, we implemented several alternative automatic filtering systems and evaluate their offline accuracy and user acceptance. 40 users completed the evaluation in a field study. Two main findings emerge from the study. Firstly, PageRank and Bayesian predictors are valid methods; an ensemble predictor combining the two further improves the prediction accuracy. Secondly, people show high acceptance of the automatic filtering function. The participants using the filtering function found it easier to access interesting content than did the participants without the filtering. On average, they also felt greater sense of control, due to the reduced feed volume.

Design cases: sound and social experience

Musical viruses for graceful seduction BIBAFull-Text 731-735
  Ambra Trotto; Michele Tittarelli
The +++ Wearable Player is a result of the application of the Rights through Making approach in designing wearables. This approach aims at designing systems, whose use empowers people towards the materialization of values (e.g. human rights). The +++ Wearable Player system elaborates on the previous project Sound Experience, and introduces the concept of viral music exchange as a motivating factor in the context of social health. This paper describes the morphological genesis, the functional aspects and how they have been implemented in a fully working experienceable prototype. The design process and its outcomes are illustrated, in the framework of the "changing behaviour" design trend.
Mo. shared music, shared moment BIBAFull-Text 736-741
  Eva Lenz; Sarah Diefenbach; Marc Hassenzahl; Sébastien Lienhard
Music incorporates extensive social functions, with joint listening being a central part of it. Interestingly, existing technology rarely addresses the specific requirements for creating a shared music experience. The present design case presents Mo, a music player addressing social and emotional aspects of joint music listening. Based on insights from an interview study, Mo particularly supports the social phenomena of sharing music, influencing music and music functioning as a souvenir. In line with the experience design approach, the actual object of design was the shared music experience. Functionality, interaction and presentation were aligned with that experience.
Ekkomaten: an auditory interface to the 18th century city of Aarhus BIBAFull-Text 742-745
  Ditte Amund Basballe; Morten Breinbjerg; Jonas Fritsch
In this paper we describe the design of and concept behind the interactive urban installation Ekkomaten. Ekkomaten was designed for an 18th century festival that took place in Aarhus, Denmark in March 2012. The installation functions as a listening device that can supposedly capture and play echoes from the past. The idea behind Ekkomaten is to provide an auditory interface that explores the use of sound to document and shape the perception of a particular location. By operating the physical machine people can uncover site-specific echoes in the form of 'auditory tableaux's that are inspired by historical events dramatized as radio plays. Through its physical design inspired by 18th century phantasy machines and pre-radar listening devices, Ekkomaten engages people affectively in the interaction with the hidden stories of the city.
Squeeze me: gently please BIBAFull-Text 746-750
  Jelle Stienstra; Patrizia Marti
This paper presents the Squeeze Me, a research-through-design case that explores the emergence of empathic behavior between human and machine by sparking an expression-rich relation. The Squeeze Me is a squeezable device used to grab attention from a robot, providing ground for expressive values to be shared. The expressions exerted on the mediating device by the human are mapped to expressive behaviors of the robot in the modality of motion in forthcoming interaction. We propose a double-layered interaction paradigm in achieving natural and socially acceptable synthesis. Firstly, a direct mapping, inherently exhibiting a natural relationship. Secondly, an amplifying and reductive mapping to construct a personalizing relationship through vivid and lively interactions fed by the intentions of the robot as well as the user. The design case serves to explore consequences of a phenomenological approach on the constitution of empathy in the fields of human and robot interaction. With this work we intend to inspire design engineering to shift from representational and discrete to rich, continuous-sustained and other embodied mechanisms for interaction when targeting empathic behavior to emerge.
The value of things: cultural context in the design of digital materiality BIBAFull-Text 751-756
  Mareike Glöss
With the diffusion of computing in all areas of everyday life comes a need for re-thinking the design process in order to account for the changing meaning of digital technologies. This paper argues that there is a need to factor the cultural value that digital artifacts get assigned by users into the design process. Therefore a theoretical framework is developed that builds on phenomenology and Bourdieu's concept of habitus. Main objective is thereby to connect the individual experience with a cultural context and connect micro- and macro-perspective. This framework then builds the foundation for a model that accounts for the heterogeneity of values that artifacts get assigned.
Revealing the news: how online news changes without you noticing BIBAFull-Text 757-760
  John Fass; Angus Main
This paper describes an ongoing design project relating to online news and how alterations to news stories are hidden from the reader. As the delivery and consumption of news content online continues to overtake other channels in reader numbers and market penetration, so methods of transparency and reliability developed over centuries continue also to be tested by digital media. We have carried out content analysis on existing stories and developed low fidelity prototypes and an interaction model to test the design approach. The outcomes are in production and will result in a digital artifact that reveals editorial changes to news items. The implications of the project relate to the wider question of news truth-telling, trust and online news credibility.
Expressive stress relievers BIBAFull-Text 761-764
  Miguel Bruns Alonso; Michel Varkevisser; David V. Keyson
In this paper we describe three tangible interfaces that recognize stress by how they are manipulated and provide tactile feedback to support stress reduction. They were developed following a research through design methodology, in an iterative process of observing behavior, building prototypes, and evaluating them in their context. The three interactive prototypes named Squeeze-it, Marmoro, and Wigo measure squeezing, and two types of rolling behavior respectively. Goal of this project was to evaluate in a quick and informal way what types of relaxing feedback are best suited for different behavioral expressions of stress.

Demos

Cursor dynamics: aesthetic exploration of the bubble cursor BIBAFull-Text 765-766
  Robert Fraher
This demonstration involves two interactive prototypes that explore how rich media (e.g., animation, sound) and keyboard interaction can be used to aesthetically enhance an unconventional interaction technique known as a bubble cursor [3]. The project's methodology can be understood as design exploration research [2]. The theoretical framework used to guide the investigation involves Barry's [1] neurological model of perceptual aesthetics and Laurel's [5] Computers as Theatre paradigm. The purpose of the demonstration is to spur dialogue and gather feedback to inform future research.
Demonstrating idAnimate: a multi-touch system for sketching and rapidly manipulating animations BIBAFull-Text 767-768
  Javier Quevedo-Fernández; J. B. O. S Martens
This demonstration presents idAnimate, a multi-touch application for sketching animations. Thanks to the affordances provided by multitouch interfaces, idAnimate yields a novel, intuitive and easy to use animation technique named transformation-by-example, that allows users to author animations in minimal time. This is achieved by transforming objects through commonly accepted multi-touch gestures (pan, pinch and rotation) while the system records and time-stamps the changes over time. Building complex animations is achieved through incrementally building sequences of transformations. In addition, objects may have multiple visual states that can be changed dynamically over time and combined with the transformations.
DrawUX: web-based research tool for long-term user experience evaluation BIBAFull-Text 769-770
  Jari Varsaluoma; Ville Kentta
DrawUX is a web-based research tool for retrospective long-term user experience evaluation especially in remote studies. Users sketch a curve and add text comments to report how their experience on a product or service has changed during the time of use. DrawUX provides both quantitative and qualitative data about users' experiences during a long-term use of a product or service.
TalkingBadge demo BIBAFull-Text 771-772
  John Paulin Hansen; Wang Wusheng; Irina Shklovski
TalkingBadge is a Bluetooth platform for indoor location-based audio messaging, supporting zone-specific information retrieval and one-way text-to-speech paging via smartphones or a TalkingBadge piece of hardware that the user might carry with them. When people walk through a zone covering a few to fifty meters they can listen to short audio messages sent to them. The platform provides zone-based tracking in a low-cost fashion, which makes large-scale in-door deployment feasible for a range of locations, including airports, shopping malls and hospitals.
Demo of gaze controlled flying BIBAFull-Text 773-774
  Alexandre Alapetite; John Paulin Hansen; I. Scott MacKenzie
Development of a control paradigm for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is a new challenge to HCI. The demo explores how to use gaze as input for locomotion in 3D. A low-cost drone will be controlled by tracking user's point of regard (gaze) on a live video stream from the UAV.
Towards teaching analytics: communication and negotiation tool (CoNeTo) BIBAFull-Text 775-776
  Ravi Vatrapu; Usman Tanveer; Abid Hussain
In this paper, we present a short description of CoNeTo, a web-based collaborative application that facilitates the communication and negotiation of students' learning activities and inferences about their knowledge states, skill levels, and aptitudes as part of the next-tell EU project (www.next-tell-eu) that is developing methods and tools for technology enhanced formative assessment and pedagogical decision-making. System description, use cases, and an annotated screenshot of CoNeTo are presented. The paper concludes with an outline of future work on the research and development of CoNeTo.
Beat Haiku: interactive poetry application BIBAFull-Text 777-778
  Ingi Helgason
This application invites the user to create short Haiku poems by selecting and arranging words that are displayed onscreen. The web-based application is presented on a touchscreen, and displays a constantly refreshing pool of words taken from the large collection of Haiku poems written by Jack Kerouac in the 1950s. Once the user has created a new Haiku, it is added to the pool of user-created poems, and information is then displayed about Kerouac's approach to the Haiku form of poetry. The research aim of this project is to explore design approaches that attract interest and then sustain engagement with publicly sited systems, using the themes of "emotional intelligence" and "independent agency". To this end, two versions of the application have been created, each demonstrating a variation on the design approach, enabling comparative user studies to be carried out.
Visualising the fragmentation of knowledge work BIBAFull-Text 779-780
  Viktoria Pammer; Stefan Edler; Hermann Stern
Severe task switching is in general understood to create stress for knowledge workers and to undermine overall work efficiency. With this in mind, we have developed a time-tracking app that captures window focus switches. A timeline visualisation inspired by the Windows disk defragmentation programs visualises the knowledge workers' time and makes clear at a single glance the fragmentation of worktime. Such a visualisation makes knowledge workers (painfully) aware of the extent of their worktime fragmentation.
Introducing tempest, a modular platform for in situ data collection BIBAFull-Text 781-782
  Nikolaos Batalas; Panos Markopoulos
In this paper we present Tempest, a tool for conducting studies that rely on in situ data collection, such as the Experience Sampling and Diary methods. It implements a modular architecture and relies on interchangeable parts to allow for increased suitability for multiple purposes and long-term reliability. Tempest focuses on ease of use and deployment, and on making use of participants' own devices.

Posters

Capturing seniors' requirements for assistive robots by the use of attention cards BIBAFull-Text 783-784
  Susanne Frennert; Britt Östlund; Håkan Eftring
This paper describes and reflects upon a senior-oriented participatory design methodology that facilitates communication, attention and creativity. Previous research indicates that seniors tend to lose focus and start cross talking during workshops, which results in broad and superficial findings. However, our workshop methodology indicates that the use of attention cards helps the seniors to stay focused by visualizing concrete first person narrative scenarios. This paper does not describe the findings of the workshop. Instead, we use our experience to propose ways in which the process of eliciting user requirements for novel technologies from old users with no prior experience of the technology in question can be made.
Accessing IT: a curricular approach for girls BIBAFull-Text 785-786
  Anne Weibert; Thomas von Rekowski; Laura Festl
Learning settings, methods as well as the lessons' contents in schools in Germany have undergone significant changes over the years, developing towards a more gender oriented way of teaching. Yet, the significant gap between girls' and boys' participation in computer science remains. Based on a qualitative study among female teenage students and their teachers in Germany, we have developed and put into practice a curriculum taking the girls' assessment of and access to both computer science and professional activity in the IT domain into account.
Maintaining proper conditions in quiet study rooms with ambient influence BIBAFull-Text 787-788
  Pawel Wozniak; Andrzej Romanowski; Filip Proborszcz; Martyna Borkowska; Dominik Stozek; Bartosz Koczorowicz
This paper focuses on a context-specific study of how interactive systems can affect human behaviours. In the subRosa project, we employed ambient display technology in order to foster proper learning conditions in a dedicated study room. SubRosa was evaluated through two proof-of-concept studies performed using a high-fidelity prototype. Besides proposing a system, we address a problem present in the study environment at our university. That is, due to a recent influx of new students, noise levels in a room designated for quiet study have become excessive. subRosa is aimed at making this space more education-friendly. The system will now be subject to a longer experience study that will determine its actual impact on the working environment. Furthermore, the studies will aim at determining the properties of an ambient display that are required to affect user behaviours.
Shift 'n' touch: combining Wii Balance Board and Cubtile BIBAFull-Text 789-790
  Frederic Kerber; Pascal Lessel; Florian Daiber; Antonio Krüger
Combining input devices opens up new possibilities for interaction. We have investigated a Nintendo Wii Balance Board which allows foot input through weight-shifting together with an Immersion Cubtile which is a 3D multi-touch device. We have developed a framework that allows a mapping of inputs from both devices to output actions simulating keyboard strokes as well as mouse clicks and movements. Thus, with this setup, existing computer applications can be controlled. Exemplarily, a first-person shooter was used as a starting point for investigating this new device combination.
A wearable kids' health monitoring system on smartphone BIBAFull-Text 791-792
  Shahram Jalaliniya; Thomas Pederson
Nowadays, several commercial and academic studies are available to measure and monitor health level of people. However, most of these applications have encountered many challenges to be used pervasively. In this paper, we have examined some of the practical challenges in developing and using health-monitoring systems through designing, developing and evaluating a simple wearable mobile system for kids. The project started with a survey among parents to understand user requirements, also we interviewed a doctor as a domain expert, and finally a wearable prototype of the system was developed and evaluated. Our finding shows that while putting the sensors on the most appropriate places of the body increases quality of physiological measurements, it would lead to decrease acceptability of these devices for children, e.x. children do not accept to put a temperature sensor in their ear for a long time. In this project, we have built an acceptable device for kids, but at the same time we have used data analysis methods such as removing outliers, smoothing data and using domain experts' knowledge to improve reliability of the system results.
A visualization toolkit for transportation simulation systems BIBAFull-Text 793-794
  Banafsheh Hajinasab; Paul Davidsson; Jonas Löwgren; Jan A. Persson
In this work, we investigate how visualization techniques could address the challenges of transportation simulation data analysis in order to facilitate the decision-making process for transportation simulation users. For this purpose, we have applied the visualization methods in a real implemented agent-based transportation simulator called TAPAS as a case. We have analyzed the visualization related requirements of users using a user-centric approach and an interactive visualization toolkit has been designed and developed based on the identified requirements. This paper presents a description of the visualization toolkit which will be used to investigate how the actors in a transport chain are expected to act when different types of governmental control policies are applied, such as, fuel taxes, road tolls, vehicle taxes and requirements on vehicles.
NeuroPad: use cases for a mobile physiological interface BIBAFull-Text 795-796
  Denys J. C. Matthies; Jan-Niklas Antons; Frank Heidmann; Reto Wettach; Robert Schleicher
Being engaged with real-world tasks -- when hands are busy -- also means not being able to use mobile devices. Trying to overcome this problem we present NeuroPad, an iPad-application that connects a commercially available low-cost neuro headset with an iPad. The read physiological signals are used for controlling different functionalities in a touchless manner. The implemented use-cases include simple interactions with a virtual toy, a browser "boss button" activated by eye winks, and head movements to control a music player. The prototype intends to exemplify the usage of such interfaces as an additional input modality in the context of mobility beyond a mere gaming purpose, while pointing out limitations of the current device like the limited data quality.
Usability testing in real context of use: the user-triggered usability testing BIBAFull-Text 797-798
  Janne Pitkänen; Matti Pitkäranta; Marko Nieminen
In this description we shortly introduce the method for user-triggered usability testing for capturing user experiences which are critical to usability in real context of use. A dedicated device called UXblackbox has been implemented for a desktop computer environment. The device saves the time information on user-initiated triggers and captures the user interface context from the computer and records the critical events of use during the usability test session. This recording is analyzed by a usability expert in order to find usability issues. In the poster we will illustrate the method in general and explain the work on using the method with practical considerations.
MoCCha: a mobile campus app for analyzing user behavior in the field BIBAFull-Text 799-800
  Tilo Westermann; Sebastian Möller
In this paper, we present MoCCha, a mobile campus application used not only as a subject of research, but as a research platform for a number of scientific disciplines. Using apps that are available from mobile application stores enables studying user behavior in the field with the aim for ecological validity that human-subject studies in lab environments are potentially missing.
Unobtrusively reminding users of upcoming tasks with ambient light: ambient timer BIBAFull-Text 801-802
  Heiko Müller; Martin Pielot; Wilko Heuten; Anastasia Kazakova; Susanne Boll
In this paper we describe the "Ambient Timer", a tool to assist users in task switching in an office context. We use ambient light to notify users in an unobtrusive way that they have to finish one task and get on to the next one. We have created a prototype and have evaluated it in a lab study with seven participants. Results of our pilot study suggest for potential for exploring the design space further. Overall, participants response to our prototype was positive. A long-term evaluation in the wild" should be conducted to further explore the utility of this ambient light display.
The influence of banner placement and navigation style on the recognition of advertisement banners BIBAFull-Text 803-804
  Silvia Heinz; Elisa D. Mekler
This pre-study examined the influence of navigation style (aimless browsing vs. goal oriented information search) and banner placement (bottom vs. top of the page) on recall and recognition of online advertisements. A sample of 83 undergraduate students was randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Subjects were asked to either browse an online shop for jackets or search specific pieces of clothing. Results indicate that navigation style, but not banner placement influences recognition and recall. Further research should look into more subtle differences in navigation style and eye-tracking data could reveal additional insights.
Twasebook: a "crowdsourced phrasebook" for language learners using Twitter BIBAFull-Text 805-806
  Graeme W. Coleman; Nick A. Hine
We present Twasebook, a web application aimed at learners of foreign languages. Based on a learner's search terms, Twasebook identifies relevant status updates from Twitter in the learner's target language(s) as examples of everyday vocabulary. Twasebook therefore represents a proof of concept application designed to explore the feasibility of utilizing the vast amounts of open content generated by social networking tools within the context of language learning. In this paper, we present the motivation behind Twasebook, a brief description of how the application works, and our plans for future development.
Pointing and speech: comparison of various voice commands BIBAFull-Text 807-808
  Monika Elepfandt
This poster presents an experiment that was conducted to investigate pointing combined with voice commands. Three different voice commands are compared with each other during a simple task where subjects had to drag & drop, rotate and resize objects. It turned out that shorter voice commands were more preferred by the subjects than voice commands that were equivalent to human-human communication.
Linking objective web-design factors to facets of subjective aesthetic perception BIBAFull-Text 809-810
  Mirjam Seckler; Alexandre N. Tuch
The present study examined how objective design factors of a website such as bilateral symmetry, color hue, color saturation, and color brightness can be linked to different facets of subjective aesthetic perception. Our results from multiple online studies suggest that each design factor affects the facets of the Visual Aesthetics of Website Inventory [4] in a different way. Our findings may help designers to systematically target specific facets of visual aesthetics.
Motor learning in a mixed reality environment BIBAFull-Text 811-812
  Alexandru Dancu
The traditional method for acquiring a motor skill is to focus on ones limbs while performing the movement. A theory of motor learning validated during the last ten years is contradicting the traditional method. The new theory states that it is more beneficial to focus on external markers outside the human body and predicts acquiring the motor skill better and faster. Using a mixed reality environment, we tested if the new motor learning approach is also valid using a virtual trainer and virtual markers.
HODI: habitus of design inspiration BIBAFull-Text 813-814
  Ozge Subasi; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
Despite the need of involving users in design decisions, participants cannot always easily follow and contribute to design. Democratizing design decisions is not easy due to the missing connections between the background information and how this is reflected to design practice. Habitus of design inspiration (HODI) is a design presentation technique, presented with an example use process that deals with this issue. It visually connects design rationale to design artefact. HODI is useful to for both designer -- designer and designer -- non-designer communications. Making the sources visible and available for reflection can help better communication and co-design of the solutions and support documentation practices in design practices. It can be used for opening up ideas to both designer and non-designer communities, negotiating and debating design decisions and structuring and focussing discussions.
What else and where else: two worthwhile questions for an information interface BIBAFull-Text 815-816
  Aran Lunzer; Yoshiki Ohshima
We make a case for widespread support, in interfaces for retrieving and laying out information items, for two simple operations on the items being displayed. The operations are predicated on the fact that the calculations determining how items should be laid out, for example into a ranking, are often highly sensitive to criteria that, for a given application, are somewhat arbitrary. Subtly different criteria can lead to dramatically different results. Our suggestion is to support users in understanding such differences among multiple result displays, with a 'What else?' operation that shows which items appear in a given location in any of those displays, and conversely a 'Where else?' that shows other locations where a given item can appear.