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NORDICHI Tables of Contents: 020406081012142000

Proceedings of the First Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2000 Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Note:Design vs. Design
Editors:Jan Gulliksen; Ann Lantz; Lars Oestreicher; Kerstin Severinson Eklundh
Location:Stockholm, Sweden
Dates:2000-Oct-23 to 2000-Oct-25
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:hcibib: NORDICHI2000
Papers:66
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Keynotes
  2. Session 1: Information Technology and Learning
  3. Session 2: Usability, Users and Visitors
  4. Session 3: Mobile devices
  5. Session 4: Ubiquitous Computing and Mobile Interaction
  6. Session 5: Field work
  7. Session 6: Exploring New Frontiers of Interaction (Short Papers)
  8. Session 7: Usability and User Centered Design (Short papers)
  9. Session 8: User Studies of Accessibility
  10. Session 9: Visualisation and Aesthetics
  11. Session 10: Information Management
  12. Session 11: Empathy, Learning and User Experiences (Short papers)
  13. Session 12: Input Techniques and Mobile Interaction (Short papers)
  14. Demonstrations
  15. Posters

Keynotes

Cooperative Design Perspectives on 20 years with "the Scandinavian IT Design Model" BIBA
  Susanne Bødker; Pelle Ehn; Dan Sjogren; Yngve Sundblad
The authors were all involved in the 'seminal' Utopia project, 1981-85, where Co-operative Design methodology, involving users very early in the design process, had an early development and application in the use of computers.
CHI and Human Thinking BIBAK
  Peter Naur
Descriptions of the human mental activity found in current CHI literature are found to suffer from defects derived from behaviorist psychology. A case of alternative description, building on classical, introspective psychology, is shown to present insight highly relevant to the design of human-computer interfaces. The view of introspective psychology is characterized by the jumping-octopus metaphor of the state of consciousness, the site-of-buildings metaphor of a person's insights, and the splashes-over-the-waves metaphor of a person's verbal utterances. Introspective psychology indicates the importance to CHI of habit, of inattentive operation of equipment, of individuality of imagery, and of individuality of perception of description forms.
Keywords: Psychology, behaviorism, stream of thought, association, concept, habit, perception, imagery
If IT Can't be Used by All, We Won't Buy ITAccessibility as a criterion for supplier selection BIBAK
  Knut Nordbye; Clas Thoren
In procurements of information and communication technology, accessibility should be a criterion for awarding of contracts. The products and services to be procured should be required to satisfy a set of accessibility criteria. Requirements on the supplier's technical capacity should include knowledge of and an organisation assigned for accessibility issues. This paper gives recommendations on supplier requirements. The paper is based on the results of the EU project ACCENT.
Keywords: Accessibility, procurement, supplier selection
Cooperative Design and Personal Utopias: Opportunities and Challenges for Nordic CHI in a Networked World BIBA
  Jonathan Grudin
For better and worse, the spread of trade and culture is diminishing regional differences. We move slowly toward a global consensus on basic human rights, we move more rapidly toward a consensus on fast-food restaurants and shopping malls. The fact that these trends are probably irreversible makes it more important to establish and create an accessible record of the diversity that exists now, to make it part of the practice that is carried forward.
   NordiCHI has a singular opportunity to contribute in this way to the field of human-computer interaction. The Nordic countries have a long history of information system design, development, and use. Some digital technologies are more widely used here than anywhere else in the world. In addition, without ignoring the differences among the five countries, there is an unusual degree of cultural homogeneity. The voices in a Nordic gathering are varied, but together they produce a distinct and unique contribution to the international discussion.

Session 1: Information Technology and Learning

From Action Research to Dialogue design - Mutual Learning as a Guiding Principle BIBAK
  Lone Dirckinck-Holmfeld; Janni Nielsen; Oluf Danielsen
The paper reports on a large European R&D project on Multimedia And Network In Collaborative Research And Learning (MANICORAL). The project was based on Dialogue Design (DD), which lies within a frame of Action Research and Participatory Design. Action Research is seen as the historical basis for two developments: Participatory Design and Dialogue Research. Participatory Design has focused on research within working life: professional resource building and development of alternative technologies, where Dialogue Research has focused on living conditions: participatory research and proactive technology assessment. In Dialogue Design, these two strands are brought together. However, Dialogue Design differs in a number of essential aspects. In Dialogue Design, the principal object is mutual learning; focus is on the working life of high resource groups developing parts of the technologies themselves. The methods applied and the role of the HCI-researcher as mediator who creates a forum for dialogue are introduced and reflected upon and Dialogue Design is discussed within the theoretical concepts of communication and learning.
Keywords: Dialogue Design, action research, participatory design, communication, learning, CSCW
On-Line Reviewing with Change Representation Tools BIBAK
  Hee-Cheol (Ezra) Kim
Change representation concerns how to present changes of text in writing tools. The Reviewer-Initiative (RI) model of collaborative writing means that the reviewer revises on-line documents as suggestion of further revision, and the writer later either accepts or rejects each suggested change. This paper reports a laboratory study that investigates how people use tools for change representation under the RI setting. Reviewers made most revisions at a low level. Paper documents were not used so often. They felt that the commenting function should be used to complement the limitation of suggestions by change representation alone. Sense of hurting or being hurt, which can be caused by direct on-line revision, was little. Reviewers' difficulty of formulating words was not a great burden, and the process of accepting or rejecting each suggested change was not a hard decision-making to the writers. There was no significant difference between the RI on-line reviewing model and the traditional one with respect to writers' sense of help from reviewers, and reviewers' understanding of text.
Keywords: Change representation, collaborative writing, commenting function, on-line document, paper, reviewing
The Design of Interactive Media for Learners in an Organisational Setting - The State of the Art BIBAK
  Cecilia Katzeff
This paper points to the problem of incorporating theoretical learning concepts into the design of interactive learning media. It reviews some theoretical accounts for the nature of learning, how the learning process may be facilitated by instructional design, and some approaches to the design of software incorporating ideas from instructional and user centred design. Finally, it points to some future directions in research of IT-supported learning.
Keywords: Interactive media, IT-supported learning, e-learning, constructivist theory, instructional design, learner-centred-design

Session 2: Usability, Users and Visitors

Visitor Oriented Design: Three Studies of Visitor Accommodation and a Call for Action BIBAK
  Anders Hedman
This paper proposes and describes a visitor-oriented perspective emphasizing the unique needs of visitors of digital environments in contrast to the user-oriented perspective that emphasizes the needs of users. To do so the term accommodation is introduced in a technical sense and given a brief explanation. Results are also reported from three explorative studies of desktop virtual reality environments. In these studies the visitor-oriented perspective was adopted and allowed for analyzing how subjects perceived the environments as places rather than artifacts for use. In comparison to a web site, it was found that even a rudimentary virtual reality environment can have a positive impact on visitor regard for information content. Implementing teleports increased the efficiency of one test environment but it was not found to have a positive effect on user attitudes to the environment. Many subjects felt that first the environments was sterile. Another common complaint was about the amount of walking required in the first environment. Five suggestions are given for building desktop virtual reality environments that are better received by visitors. In closing, the visitor-oriented perspective presented here is briefly discussed in relation to Terry Winograd's writings on software inhabitants.
Keywords: Digital environments, visitor-oriented design, accommodation, user-orientation, usability, design guidelines
Usability Testing of Interactive Multimedia Services BIBAK
  Ebba Thora Hvannberg; Marta Kristin Larusdottir
Interactive multimedia services, such as video-on-demand offered to the public at home need to be tested carefully for usability. The environment as well as users is heterogeneous and they use different input and output devices than with a personal computer. User Interface designers need to learn more about the users, their environment and the hindrances they encounter. Two service trials were conducted where thirty families had access to video-on-demand, news-on-demand and worldwide web services for three months. The users had access to the services via a set-top-box connected to a television or via a personal computer. The paper describes how three methods: logging, thinking-aloud and questionnaires were applied as well as their results. Finally, the experiences from using the methods are discussed.
Keywords: Usability tests, interactive services, multimedia, home, high-speed network, thinking-aloud, access logs, interviews.
Studying Users for Developing Usable and Useful Products BIBAK
  Sari Kujala; Martti Mantyla
This article presents a framework for studying users in order to support designers in constructing usable and useful consumer products. The framework is aimed at designing consumer products for which users cannot be specified in advance, long lasting observations of users are difficult or impossible to arrange, and the time frames available are short. We discuss what kind of end user information is needed, how to gather it, and how to transfer the results to designers. We applied the developed framework in a case study and found that it is capable of providing a reasonable depth of knowledge in a short time frame with low costs. Comments from designers indicate that the methods give concrete input to design work, such as the necessary feature composition users need. Finally, we draw out a number of lessons learned.
Keywords: User-centred design, user study methods, user requirements, consumer products

Session 3: Mobile devices

Designing for Mobility: an Integration Approach to Support Mobile Technologies BIBAK
  Christina Nielsen; Astrid Sondergaard
Based on an empirical study of a wastewater treatment plant we present an integrated prototype for PCs and PDAs. It supports getting an overview of the wastewater treatment process and making system information available in the environment outside the control room. The prototype is build on the understanding that support for mobile work must be realised through a combination of different technologies enabling users to meet the changing demands in a work situation. With the design we seek to reflect the position of the mobile device in the existing 'web of technology' and show how the concept of integration can be a driving force in design, allowing us to see heterogeneous devices as parts of a whole rather than independent entities. Furthermore, the prototype challenges the notion of working 'anytime, anywhere', which is presented as an ideal by many (communication)-technology companies today.
Keywords: Mobile computing, mobility, distributed work, integration, user interface design, "web of technology"
DeskPanel - A Proximity-Based Information Panel for Locally Mobile Staff BIBAK
  Per Dahlberg; Johan Sanneblad
DeskPanel is a proximity-based information panel helping locally mobile people to quickly get an overview of centrally stored information, such as e-mails and tasks. According to user trials, DeskPanel has the potential of being a useful tool for mobile staff. This paper outlines the rationale, design, implementation and user trial of the system.
Keywords: Local mobility, Mobile devices, Ubiquitous computing

Session 4: Ubiquitous Computing and Mobile Interaction

mCAT - a Method for Co-ordination Across Technologies BIBAK
  Kari Hamnes; Silja Nyhus
In this paper, we discuss the general problem of developing user interfaces in a multiple-UI paradigm, accentuated by the latest developments in mobile and handheld interaction and new interaction technologies. The review section discusses the specific problem of consistency across alternative user interfaces (using different interaction technologies) for the same application. Having identified the need for a method for co-ordinating user interfaces across interaction technologies, a set of interviews and a case study are used to identify further requirements and to derive a first-pass evaluation method. The mCAT method (method for C o-ordination A cross T echnologies) uses consistency analysis as a tool for co-ordinating alternative user interfaces across interaction technologies. Finally, the paper discusses preliminary results and outlines future work to evaluate and further develop the mCAT method.
Keywords: Multiple-UI development, handheld interaction, mobile devices, PDA, consistency
The Effect of Mental Models Guiding Users' Action in Mobile Phone Answering Situations BIBAK
  Kati Hyyppa Sakari Tamminen; Ismo Hautala; Lauri Repokari
This study was interested in the answering keys of a mobile phone, especially the SEND key. The goal of this study was to find out how the mental model of a certain kind of mobile phone keypad affects behaviour in a situation where a user has to answer calls with previously unknown mobile phones. In this study the participant's task was to answer calls while performing an attention consuming secondary task. Three different kind of phones were used and the location and the amount of perceptual information provided by the answering keys varied in each phone. It was predicted that errors would occur if the layout of the answering keys was not consistent with the participants mental model. The results of the two main user groups supported this hypothesis. It can be concluded that users' pre-existing mental models concerning keypad can be quite strong and should be taken into account when designing the function keys of a mobile phone.
Keywords: Mobile phone, SEND and END keys, keypad layout, mental model
An Action Control but no Action: Users Dismiss Single-Handed Navigation on PDAs BIBAK
  Magnus Jacobsson; Mikael Goldstein; Mikael Anneroth; Jost Werdenhoff; Didier Chincholle
Many PDAs have controls designed to be used by the hand holding the device. If employed to a greater extent, these controls could enable single-handed navigation. To explore this, we implemented a prototype, PowerView, on the Casio Cassiopeia E-11 and evaluated it for usability against the standard (Windows CE) application bundle of the device using 16 subjects in a repeated-measurement design with seven information retrieval tasks. Subjects systematically dismissed single-handed navigation even when exposed to a condition where two-handed navigation was strenuous: standing, holding a cordless phone while simultaneously using the Cassiopeia. Neither effectiveness, efficiency, optimum path choice, mental workload ratings nor attitudes differed significantly between interfaces. Possible reasons for the results, including observed Einstellung effects, are discussed.
Keywords: Personal Digital Assistant, Einstellung, Mechanization, interface design, usability evaluation, usage, single-handed navigation, information visualization, information linking, Action Control.

Session 5: Field work

Ethnographic Fieldwork under Industrial Constraints: Towards Design-in-Context BIBAK
  Werner Sperschneider; Kirsten Bagger
In this paper, we discuss ethnographic fieldwork as a research technique for user centred design in the industry. We take a look at the original meaning of fieldwork in ethnography, and discuss how ethnographically inspired fieldwork can enrich research and data gathering in a participatory design setting.
   The ethnographer in his field seeks to 'go native'. But in an industrial setting there is neither time nor resources for prolonged engagement with users. Is there a 'quick and dirty' version of 'going native'?
   We present five cases of video based research techniques from our own practice as examples of a participant observation research strategy, and discuss how it is possible to move beyond observation.
   The ethnographer seeks to understand the world as it is. The designer wants to change it through introducing new products. Is there a way to study the changes to come? Of involving users in design in their own work context?
   We will introduce what we have termed 'Design-in-Context' through two cases of user involvement.
Keywords: Participatory design, design-in-context, field study, ethnographic fieldwork
The Personal Bucket Organizer: Supporting Spatially Distributed Interaction on a Waste Water Plant BIBAK
  Tomas Sokoler; Thomas Binder; Jorn Nilsson; Nina Wetcke
The work of process plant operators involves continuously shifting between interaction with physical objects distributed throughout the plant and interaction with the digital representations of these same objects. These shifts between interaction domains are poorly supported by the centralized control room structure usually applied in process plants. We describe a system designed to smooth the transition between the two domains of interaction. The "Personal Bucket Organizer" system is designed to support flexible and spatially distributed interaction with the plant through the use of a custom built handheld personal device hereafter named the Pucketizer. The Pucketizer design introduces the use of a Bucket metaphor as its organizing principle. The Pucketizer enables the user to, while walking around on the plant, a) establish digital links to objects on the plant, b) Audio annotate objects on the plant, c) Monitor the state of objects on the plant. The Pucketizer was designed with the active participation of operators working on a local waste water plant.
Keywords: Spatially Distributed User Interfaces, Augmented Reality, Ubiquitous Computing, Mobile Computing, Work Oriented Design
Localisation, Orientation and Recognition of Alarms: A Comparison between Three Alarm Systems in Use BIBAK
  Marcus Sanchez Svensson; Hans Tap; Astrid Selling Sjoberg
This paper documents a study at three dialysis departments on the use of different alarm systems. The design of the alarm systems is to some extent in line with the visions of augmented reality and ubiquitous computing. Our study has raised a range of questions which we think are relevant for the research on how to embed technology in users' environment. We will address how the properties of the specific alarm systems, concerted in the local physical environment of the dialysis department, affords the localisation, orientation and recognition of alarms. In this paper, localisation is about the ways in which the nurses exactly locate where the alarm comes from and orientation is how the nurses orientate themselves towards the alarm in a more imprecise way. Recognition is about how the nurses notice that there is an alarm in the first place and if there are multiple alarms.
Keywords: Localisation, orientation, recognition, alarm system, dialysis department, ubiquitous computing, computer augmented environments

Session 6: Exploring New Frontiers of Interaction (Short Papers)

View vs. Overview - Visualizing Hierarchical Data in Desktop Virtual Reality BIBA
  David K. Modjeska
Despite the popularity of 3D environments and the high degree of engagement that they seem to provide, empirical validation of their benefits for task performance remain elusive. For future design, perhaps a solution would be to develop a prototype that combines the engagement of flythrough with the efficiency of map-view? As VR hardware improves and decreases in cost, new possibilities will certainly arise. The study of methods to improve task efficiency and enjoyment in this domain is an exciting new area for research and development. This paper demonstrates that different desktop VR designs show significant differences in performance and enjoyment, and that the use of 3D environments may not always be beneficial.
Every Object Tells a Story: Physical Interfaces for Digital Storytelling BIBAK
  Lars Erik Holmquist; Magnus Helander; Steve Dixon
We have designed a novel interface for interactive storytelling, where users manipulate physical objects to access various portions of a narrative. The story is designed so that the physical artefacts play meaningful parts in the narrative, thus blurring the line between story and interface. In informal tests and demonstrations users found the interaction easy to understand, thus indicating this could be a promising way to increase user involvement in interactive narrative.
Keywords: Interactive narrative, tangible interfaces, multimedia
Contextual Virtual Reality Prototyping: Co-operative User-Centered Design Using Distributed Simulations BIBA
  Tony Manninen
The Contextual Virtual Reality Prototyping with the corresponding demonstration indicates that there is true potential in a game engine such as Unreal - even for completely different markets than the traditional network games. All the tools of the application are integrated in the same package, so it requires small effort to create prototypes such as the one described in this paper. Furthermore, the increasingly important multiplayer aspect makes it is possible to test how several simultaneous users would use the product in a specific place, when interacting with the world and with each other.
   The Contextual VRP provides the designers a way to enlarge their field-of-vision by adding the use environment and context to the prototypes. With the proposed approach, the product can be tried out and demonstrated in the corresponding environment that includes other users. Furthermore, the evaluation of the concept requires less cognitive load in terms of figuring out the real-world counterparts of the VRP interactions.
Communities of Conflict or Conversation? Online Discources in a Web-Gallery BIBA
  Lars Svensson; Carsten Sorensen; Hanna Fagerlind; Tomas Lindroth
In the summer of 1999 a web-site containing the work of the Swedish artist photographer Elisabeth Olsson was published on the web, (www.eccehomo.nu). The 12 pictures displaying Jesus Christ in a homosexual context, had previously travelled across Europe leaving a trail of public debate and strong feelings. The website was built by researchers at Laboratorium, and a research project monitored all interaction during the first 6 months. The site received extensive mass media attention resulting in approximately 200 000 visitors during the time of the study. Each exposure of the site in national or international press resulted in significant short-term peaks in the access log files. For example the article in the culture section of "Wired news" (Kriz, Wired News 1999), within 1 hour resulted in 3000 hits on the start page.
Genres and Design Considerations of iTV Cases BIBA
  Stefan Holmlid; Mattias Arvola; Fredrik Ampler
With the marriage between computers and television a combination of practices and theories from both human-computer interaction and mass communication is needed to consistently and efficiently produce and design interactive television, iTV. This paper relates use qualities to the mass communication concept of genres in the light of two iTV design cases.
Coordination through Focused Media Spaces BIBA
  Maria Normark
Since distributed work settings are becoming more and more common, research has been made on finding suitable ways for supporting awareness among distributed participants. One part of this is the media space research, which is aiming at supporting informal awareness through opening up a common space through video and/or audio transmissions.
   Air traffic control (ATC) work is a complex work setting, the airspace continuously changing with or without the controllers. Since different controllers handle different sectors (parts of the airspace) on the way, there is an extensive need for coordination of the current state of the aircraft soon to be in the next sector. One way to coordinate the latest information is through a video or audio link, which is used in Copenhagen ATC (DK) and Shannon ATC (IE). These two case studies show the usefulness of media spaces for focused purposes in supporting coordination, one show the use of a video link and one show an audio link. understanding of the situation.

Session 7: Usability and User Centered Design (Short papers)

What Makes a Virtual Community Work? BIBA
  Daniel Pargman
Most muds - text-based social virtual environments - are either young or dead. That being so, what makes a mud long-lived? More generally; what makes a (virtual) community hold together, thrive and develop over time?
Expressing Trust BIBA
  Kristiina Karvonen; Ursula Holmstrom
The key question is, how to deal with the complexity that security inevitably holds within. How could we guarantee that users can, at the same time, make a simple yet accurate decision about trust? Should we try to imitate the real-world trust between people or between people and banks, for example, or would some other approach be more fruitful? From the user point of view, the problem areas include the following:
  • How can users find out if a service provider is trustworthy?
  • How can users get information about security and trust issues?
  • How can we motivate the users to care about their security in a positive way,
       and not to consider it as a burden?
  • Explaining Recommendation through User Groups BIBAK
      Jarmo Laaksolahti
    Recommender systems are a specific type of information filtering tools that have emerged in recent years. Until now research in recommender systems has been focused on developing algorithms for collaborative filtering, little effort has gone into considering how users understand recommendations. We describe a system that visualizes the structure of the user population thereby making it easier to understand what recommendations are based on and thus anticipate the effect of your own actions.
    Keywords: Recommender systems, collaborative filtering, user groups, visualization
    A Study of Mental Workload in Mouse and Keyboard Input BIBAK
      Anker H. Jorgensen; Bente R. Jensen; Bjarne Laursen; Anne H. Garde
    The motivation for this paper is the health risks associated with intensive computer work and the inappropriateness of GUI interfaces for skilled use, partly due to the extensive demands to visuo-motor coordination. The work integrates the strong Scandinavian traditions in Occupational Health and Ergonomics with the traditions of HCI and Human Factors. The paper reports an exploratory, experimental study of mental workload in intensive input work using mouse and keyboard, employing subjective and performance measures. The study shows that the keyboard was significantly superior in a large majority of the measures. In addition, 11 of 12 subjects preferred the keyboard.
    Keywords: Mental workload, input devices, mouse, keyboard, Stoop task.
    Individual and Pair Performance in Usability Tests BIBA
      Eija Suikola
    Usability tests with a pair of participants have often been recommended to alleviate problems in thinking aloud in single-participant tests. HCI community has been relatively immune to results in distributed cognition indicating that in some situations "two heads are better than one." This would mean that results in usability tests with a pair do not give comparable results to results by individual users.
    Gaining Staff Commitment to User-Centered Design by Performing Usability Assessment - Key Lessons Learned BIBA
      Mikko Jamsa; Pekka Abrahamsson
    Uptaking usability engineering activities in software development organization may be hampered or even terminated by the lack of appreciation of their value (Hakiel 1997). Building organizational (management and staff) commitment to usability development is an issue that many authors in usability field have stressed as being one of the greatest challenges. We set out to perform two usability assessments in two different organizations (for details of the project see www.kessu.oulu.fi). One of the goals for the assessment, besides understanding the current status of usability processes, was to gain staff commitment to usability development. This short paper describes the key lessons learned on how the assessment procedure worked as a vehicle to build up staff commitment to usability development. As a basis of our analysis we use Conner and Patterson's (Conner and Patterson 1982) model of commitment development to change despite of its shortcomings (for critical review see (Abrahamsson and Jokela 2000)) because it possesses high value of truthlikeness and it is widely accepted in process improvement field.

    Session 8: User Studies of Accessibility

    User Study of Video Mediated Communication in the Domestic Environment with Intellectually Disabled Persons BIBAK
      Stefan Junestrand; Ulf Keijer; Goran Molin; Konrad Tollmar
    This paper presents a user study of Video Mediated Communication (VMC) involving six persons with mild intellectual disabilities. It took place at the "comHOME", a full-scale model of an "apartment of the future", showing innovative architectural and technical design with regard to the integration of VMC into the domestic environment. The design concept of the apartment is based on the creation of private and public digital places in the home expressed both architecturally and technologically. Two different zones for VMC, "comZONES", in the apartment were tested, the videoTORSO (a large screen set-up for informal everyday communication) and the workPLACE (a place for professional work tasks). The purpose of the study was, at an early design stage, to get a deeper understanding of how people use these two comZONES. The final discussion points out that the comZONES seem to be interpreted correctly and to function aptly in relationship to the participants of the study. Tentatively we might find an explanation in the fact that spatial recognition probably is a very fundamental human function, learned and trained for years, and thus, may be less significant with regard to the mental capacity of the individual. This might be even more true if the spatial design factors are still less abstract.
    Keywords: Architecture, ICT, intellectual disability, observation, place, private, public, space, user studies, VMC, video mediated communication.

    Session 9: Visualisation and Aesthetics

    What Does the User do: A tool for Visualising the Novice User's Interaction Relative to Optimum Path BIBAK
      Mikael Goldstein; Jost Werdenhoff; Thomas Backstrom
    The generic KeystrokeMapper data visualisation tool proposes a new way of visualising and annotating novice user behaviour when interacting with an interface as expressed in the unit keystroke actions. By displaying the Optimum path keystroke actions when accomplishing a task as a straight diagonal string of characters, each character representing a keystroke action, and plotting the novice user's keystroke action path in the same plot, deviating (keystroke) actions are displayed visually. The KeystrokeMapper tool thus displays a novice user's navigation path relative to the Optimum path for a particular task. Each task plot generates a topological user keystroke action map suitable for qualitative analysis. The KeystrokeMapper tool only exists as a paper-based mock up. It has not yet been evaluated and does not exist as software.
    Keywords: Usability, Optimum path, KLM, GOMS, keystroke, data visualisation, novice user, expert user
    Visualizing Discussion History BIBAK
      Jarkko Leponiemi
    The current systems supporting computer-mediated discussion usually provide only a strict hierarchical structure for the annotations of a discussion. Applying existing visualization techniques can be used for allowing a more free and natural structure of annotations. GraffiDis is a discussion system supporting computermediated asynchronous and synchronous discussion. The discussions conducted with the system consist of graphical annotations including text and graphical elements. The history of the discussion is visualized by fading the older annotations to the background of the discussion. Using a simple slider a user can browse the history of the discussion forwards and backwards. This article describes the system and the visualization technique with the aid of two sample discussions. Based on the experience on the use of the system it is attested that GraffiDis is especially suitable for conducting discussions with a clear target to discuss about provided in the form of a background picture.
    Keywords: Groupware, visualization, discussion tools, fading
    Interaction styles: An Aesthetic Sense of Direction in Interface Design BIBAK
      Trond Are Oritsland; Jacob Buur
    In architecture and industrial design, the concept of style plays a major role in education as a way of establishing an understanding of visual design expression.
       In this article we claim that interaction design can benefit greatly from an understanding of the concept of style. It can provide designers with strong visions and a sense of direction in designing new interfaces. In particular we focus on Solid User Interface design, i.e. products with small displays and a limited number of keys, because of the tight coupling of interaction and industrial design.
       We explore style theory and an aesthetic for interaction design and report on an experiment with introducing interaction style thinking in a user centred design practice in industry. Further we open the discussion about parallels between our approach to interaction design and the dominant styles of the 20th century - Scandinavian design in particular.
    Keywords: Interaction Style, Interaction Design, Quality in Use, Solid User Interface

    Session 10: Information Management

    Give the Boss a Break from email: Managers and their Communication BIBAK
      Olle Balter
    Many employees are depending on their manager's abilities to communicate. Therefore it is essential that managers master their tools for communication. This study describes the situation for managers in a company where all employees had access to and used email for communication. Results show that managers use email more than telephone. Half of the respondents allowed incoming email to interrupt other tasks, despite their need for uninterrupted time. Unwanted carbon copies was considered a problem by the respondents, but the time spent handling them seems to be neglectable.
    Keywords: Email, interruptions, carbon copies, managers
    Information Seeking is Social BIBAK
      Kaisa Soininen; Eija Suikola
    This study aimed to clarify how social knowledge is used in information seeking in the Internet. The issue was studied with tasks without one correct answer. The verbal protocols were categorised according to the subprocesses of information seeking and indication of use of social knowledge. We found clear evidence that social knowledge was used when selecting a source or place where to start looking for the information, while examining the results and extracting information, and when reflecting and making the decision to iterate or stop seeking. The results show that people interpret the interaction with web pages as social situations, use their social knowledge, and actively seek for social information.
    Keywords: Information seeking, Internet, social knowledge, social navigation
    Back to Basics: Is a Better Understanding of the Internet a Precursor for Effective Use of the Web? BIBAK
      Louise Sheeran; M. Angela Sasse; Jon Rimmer; Ian Wakeman
    Due to the rapid growth of the Internet over the past few years, the profile of Internet users has changed considerably, growing from a small group of professionals and experts to a large group of mostly novice and intermediate users. Since the Internet is a best-effort service, high levels of usage can lead to slowing down and occasional breakdown of service. However, networked applications such as Web browsers currently fail to take this into account. This paper reports on two studies, which found most users' models of networks to be patchy and inaccurate. Feedback provided by the Web browsers, such as error messages, did not help the users identify the appropriate action when they encountered problems. We suggest that designers of Web browsers and Web sites should provide users with appropriate models of network operations in their help systems and explanatory pages which helps users understand the underlying technology. This will allow users to appropriately diagnose and recover from breakdown situations. Additionally, this knowledge will give users the confidence to explore the possibilities of the Web further.
    Keywords: Conceptual Design, Mental Models, User's Model, Internet, WWW, Web browsers

    Session 11: Empathy, Learning and User Experiences (Short papers)

    Feeling Good - A Case Study of Empathic Design Methods BIBA
      Tuuli Mattelmaki; Katja Battarbee
    The study is a collaboration between eDesign research project at the University of Art and Design Helsinki, and Polar Electro Oy, a heart rate monitor manufacturer. The qualitative user study aims at understanding the life and values of people to find opportunities for product concept design by making a deep but narrow cut into the life of ten regularly exercising people of different ages and health conditions. The rich and visual data collected will be used to create empathy in the designers for the users in the aim to create new and better products for people (Black 1998, Dandavate et al. 1996).
    Design for User Experience - Method Lessons from a Design Student Workshop BIBA
      Katja Battarbee; Tuuli Mattelmaki; Anu Makela
    What should the product be? Finding an excellent answer to a loosely defined question in a vast scope of possibilities is difficult. Empathic design methods can be applied to give directions and material for intuition and innovation (Black, 1998, Leonard et al. 1997). This involves conducting qualitative field studies with real users, gathering rich and vivid information, creating feelings of empathy and understanding within the design team, and following an iterative design process.
    Informal Feedback in Distance Education BIBA
      Lars Svensson; Carsten Sorense
    Evaluation in an educational context is often associated with conscious and formal activities directed towards formative or summative purposes (Oliver 1997). In addition, there are also more subtle and informal sources of evaluative feedback that constantly reaches the members of a classroom. The air is literally filled with unobtrusive ephemeral queues that can be interpreted in terms of feedback (Schmidt & Simone, 1996). The students can express their degree of interest and concentration through the way they sit, the expression on their faces, where the look and through other bodylingual expressions. There is a big difference between a student looking directly at the teacher, nodding the head and smiling, and a student with the arms crossed over the chest, starring at the ceiling with a bored yawn. The formal systems and instruments for evaluation can easily be transformed and perhaps even enhanced by the use of IT, but the equally important informal feedback is to a great extent lost in the virtual classroom. Luff & Heath (1992) discuss video-based mediaspaces for collaborative work. Video-conferencing provides poor support for nonverbal communication such as body language, glances and head nods. Factors such as the distance between camera and monitor as well as the delays between action and reaction affects the interaction. In asynchronous text communication, this problem is even exacerbated although 'smileys' and other emoticons can help to reduce the effects.
    Dynamic Libraries as a Means for the Management of Information Browsing Networks BIBA
      Anne Hakansson; Lars Oestreicher
    The WWW has changed the concept of interactivity in applications, and dramatically also reduced the influence of direct manipulation (Shneiderman 1983) on the interfaces. A web page typically consists of a large number of links -- clickable -- where each one accomplishes different actions. Each of these links contains a large amount of information, and often a link is regarded as a means of putting together different pieces of knowledge into knowledge networks. Unfortunately, this knowledge is hidden in the linkage itself.
    Designing Interactive Simulations that Integrate Physical and Computational Media BIBAK
      Marcelo Milrad
    Frequently, the design of interactive simulations focuses exclusively on computers and the virtual environments they provide, excluding the physical environment. In this paper we present our efforts in exploring the integration of physical and computational media for the design of interactive simulations to support learning about complex domains. We demonstrate some examples of our work and present preliminary results.
    Keywords: Interactive simulations, physical and computational media, situated learning, complex systems
    Scaffolds for Users of Interactive Learning Media BIBAK
      Cecilia Katzeff; Elin Lundborg
    In this paper, we report an experiment addressing the problem of designing scaffolds, i.e. learning support, for interactive media for learning. The paper focuses learning and memorization of facts, rather than complex problem solving. When subjects were provided with a scaffold prompting them to actively engage in their own learning process, they tended to perform better on a retention test than subjects who were not presented with the scaffold.
    Keywords: Interactive learning media, constructivism, scaffolding

    Session 12: Input Techniques and Mobile Interaction (Short papers)

    6DOF Input Device Usability Test in a CAD Task BIBAK
      Martin Sundin; Josef Weiss; Gunilla Sundin
    A usability test was performed with two six degrees of freedom (6DOF) desktop input devices in a CAD assembly task: one elastic position control device and one stiff elastic velocity control device. Position control was preferred by the subjects for precise adjustments of the viewpoint, for rotations and zooming. Velocity control was preferred especially for long virtual object translations.
    Keywords: 6DOF input device, computer aided design, input device control order
    Evaluating a Usability Capability Assessment BIBA
      Netta Iivari; Timo Jokela
    ISO 13407 standard [1] defines a set of User-Centered Design (UCD) activities and principles through which usable systems can be developed. Still there exist quite a few organizations, which systematically and consciously apply UCD in their product development. Usability capability is a characteristic of a development organization that determines its ability to constantly develop products with high level usability. There have been developed usability capability models, which help to assess areas in the development organization that have impact on its usability capability. The maturest one is the model TR ISO 18529 [2]. [3] KESSU-project aims at improving usability capability of development organizations (see www.kessu.oulu.fi). At first we have conducted usability capability assessments in the organizations. We have noticed that further development of the assessment approach is really needed. The existing literature concerning usability capability assessments is mainly concerned about presenting the structure of the models (constructs and their relationships) and guidelines how to perform assessements (procedures). 'Usability capability model' is anyhow an artifact. Papers concerned with the models seldom approach the models according to the principles of constructive research. One research activity of the constructive research is evaluation [4]. In this experiment we especially concentrated on this activity.
    Low Cost Test of Menu Texts BIBA
      Georg Strom
    The precise choice of categories and words in menu texts are crucial for the usability. If the user makes an error at top level, it may be impossible for her to find what she is looking for.
       Some words display the pop out effect (Kahneman 1984): They tend to draw the user's attention almost no matter what she is looking for.
       Other words tend for unknown reasons to be overlooked, or they do not give the user sufficient scent (CHI2000): The words do not indicate clearly the direction to the item the user wants to reach.
       A word may have a highly personal meaning for the designer choosing it, and a group tends to agree on abstract wordings, which are open to many possible associations and interpretations.
       It is necessary to test the precise words and categories to be used.
    The Effectiveness of Symbol and Color Coding in Mobile Phone Keys BIBAK
      Kati Hyyppa; Viljami Salmela; Lauri Repokari
    The effectiveness of color-coded symbology in mobile phone answering keys is studied using dual-task paradigm and phones with different kinds of keypad layouts. Results show that color-coded symbology is highly effective, though it does not always automatically draw attention to the correct answering key when the user encounters a new kind of mobile phone.
    Keywords: Mobile phone, SEND and END keys, symbol and color coding, attention
    Collaborative Use of Mobile Telephones: A Field Study of Swedish Teenagers BIBA
      Alexandra Weilenmann; Catrine Larsson
    In this paper, we have shown how teenagers use their mobile phones collaboratively. The mobile phone itself as well as the information on it, is often shared and made public in various ways. The mobile phone is used as a social device, very often with co-present teenagers. Within the same local context, the teenagers use their mobile phones for purposes other than calling distant persons; they do things together, and the mobile phone takes part in this collaborative action.
       By using ethnomethodology, we can gain information about the detailed practices of teenagers' mobile phone use. We argue that it is important to ground design of new mobile technology for young people, in an understanding of how teenagers' actually use their mobile phones in their everyday lives. Teenagers' ways of using their phones collaboratively and for social purposes other than just calling non-present others, need to be attended to in design.
    Channel- vs. Person-orientation on Mobile Communication Devices, Using Usability Testing to Design Future User Interfaces BIBAK
      Jens Bergqvist; Senja Edvardsson
    Mobile communication is becoming an important factor in collaborative work. At the same time mobile communication devices are increasing in capacity, though the limitations in screen size and interaction possibilities remain. The increased capacity makes multiple communication channels, such as email and telephony, available on a single mobile device. In this paper we discuss how to outline a study, which utilizes usability testing techniques to provide information on whether a channel-oriented approach or a person-oriented approach is easier to use. A channel-oriented approach means that each communication channel is represented as an application and interaction starts off with choosing the channel, whereas person-oriented means that the channels are integrated and the interaction starts off with choosing the recipient.
    Keywords: Mobile Communication, Mobile Computing, HCI, Usability Testing

    Demonstrations

    BRAINBALL - Using Brain Activity for Cool Competition BIBA
      Sara Ilstedt Hjelm; Esbjorn Eriksson; Carolina Browall
    This paper describes Brainball, a game and a research project on methods of human-machine interaction using brain activity. It also describes the results of an evaluation with users. In Brainball Beta and Alpha waves in the electrical activity of the brain are measured by EEG (Electro-Encephalography) sensors to allow interaction between two people playing the game. The players control a ball on the table through their state of relaxation, the object of the game being to score a goal by moving the ball into the opponent's goalmouth.
    Using Fisheye for Navigation on Small Displays BIBAK
      Patrik Backvall; Per Martensson; Pernilla Qvarfordt
    In this paper we present a solution to the problem of visualising large amount of hierarchical information structures on small computer screens. Our solution has been implemented as a prototype for mobile use on a hand-held computer using Microsoft Pocket PC with a screen size of 240x320 pixels. The prototype uses the same information as service engineers use on stationary computers. The visualisation technique we used for displaying information is based on fisheye technique, which we have found functional on small displays. The prototype is domain independent; the information is easily interchangeable. A consequence of the result presented here is that the possibility of using hand-held computers in different types of contexts increases.
    Keywords: Handheld computers, PDA, information visualisation, Fisheye, Focus+context
    PMA - Personal Multimedia Assistant - A Simulation of a Multimedia Mobile Phone BIBA
      Titti Kallio
    Mobile networks are developing rapidly. In Finland the next steps from the GSM network will be an extension of the GSM known as GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and after that the so called third-generation (3G) UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System). These will enable more and more interesting and challenging mobile services especially from the point of view of the user interface. Multimedia services will be available, i.e. services using video, sound and animation.
    Freefeed - Instead of Forms BIBA
      Youssef Ali; Lars Hallnas; Mats Jontell; Nader Nazari; Olof Torgersson
    The most common way to design an application where data needs to be entered is to use forms. The forms are typically built from objects such as text-fields, pulldown lists, and checkboxes (Frank 1988). This paper describes Freefeed; a technique for entering data where the forms are replaced by a specialized text-editor coupled with hypertext links for navigation and easily scrollable text lists containing possible values.
       Freefeed was originally developed as a solution for entering detailed patient, medical history, and status information during clinical examinations.
       The design goal behind Freefeed was to create an unobtrusive, easy-to-use, space efficient, and scalable method for entering data, where the forms used could be created by users without requiring any programming knowledge. We describe the interaction technique and experiences from using it regularly for about two years.
    Interactive Layout Techniques for Conceptual Schema Editors BIBA
      Roope Raisamo; Tapio Niemi
    Automatic layout algorithms of graphs are a widely studied topic. A good survey for the literature of the area was presented by Di Battista et al. (1994). In principle, the automatic methods can work well and produce clear and beautiful schemas. However, they cannot take into account semantic information in the schema - at least it would be very difficult.
    Enhancing Visual Comparisons in Interactive Graphs BIBA
      Mika Kaki
    This paper presented an interaction technique for controlling spatial grouping in graphs and a visualization technique for making unobtrusive visual landmarks. The former technique was based on a new widget, which enables users to make complex queries simply and at the same time gives them good control over the visualization of the results. The visual landmarks, on the other hand, were based on fading items of lesser interest. This preserves overall context of the visualization, but does not add visual clutter. In the future a formal usability test will be carried out.
    Sound Effects in Search of Causes. Storytelling with Psst! - The Programmable SoundScape Toy BIBAK
      Ylva Gislen; Asa Harvard; Simon Lovind
    This abstract introduces the Psst! project. The objective of the Psst! project is to explore the possibilities for a new type of storytelling tool/medium, that combine physical artefacts with virtual information.
       Psst! is a test platform, consisting of a story universe, a sound database and a physical interface: wooden boxes with loudspeakers and a number of dolls with electronic ID-tags. The Psst! platform is built to make it possible to quickly try out and modify play concepts based on sound and objects.
       In our first tests we have experimented with combinations of unpredictability and causality in order to find a balance where the interaction with the toy cues children to create rich narratives commenting and explaining the sound events in the boxes.
    Keywords: Interactive narrative, toys, play, sound, augmented reality
    Every Object Tells a Story: Physical Interfaces for Digital Storytelling BIBAK
      Lars Erik Holmquist; Magnus Helander; Steve Dixon
    We have designed a novel interface for interactive storytelling, where users manipulate physical objects to access various portions of a narrative. The story is designed so that the physical artefacts play meaningful parts in the narrative, thus blurring the line between story and interface. In informal tests and demonstrations users found the interaction easy to understand, thus indicating this could be a promising way to increase user involvement in interactive narrative.
    Keywords: Interactive narrative, tangible interfaces, multimedia

    Posters

    Multi-user Network Games for the Visually Impaired: Using Tactile and Auditory Interface to Graphical Screen BIBA
      Satoshi Ina
    Multi-media functions have rapidly become widespread and accessible, and network communication has been further popularized by performance improvement of the PC (personal computer) and the progress of GUI (Graphical User Interface). But visually impaired people have few chances to utilize these new media and networks, because of the lack of online access tools to graphical screen (INA 1999). It is to be more difficult for them to work in cooperation with sighted people. So, we studied and developed a non-visual access method to a graphical screen through tactile and auditory sense instead of visual sense, and applied it into multi-user network games as a prior sample of future CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) in mind.
    Navigation and Learning - A Cognitive Analysis of User Tasks in Electronic Information Spaces BIBA
      Peter Lonnqvist; Nils Dahlback
    While the navigation metaphor has received widespread support from the HCI community, the views on the usefulness of the navigation approach have a very wide range. Benyon (1998, p 35) argues that "'Navigation in Information Space' is not (just) a metaphor, (...) [it] is a new paradigm for thinking about HCI." On the other hand, Dillon and Vaughan (1997) claim that "navigation is a limited metaphor for hypermedia that potentially constrains our understanding of human-computer interaction" (p 91).
    Roadguards Assisted by Mobile Technology BIBAK
      Mattias Esbjornsson
    This paper describes parts of a project in progress. The occupational group roadguards at the Swedish National Road Administration-Production is currently using handheld computers in their work. Currently the system only supports the individual reporting phase of their work, even if their work, partially, is characterised as collaborative.
    Keywords: Handheld computers, GPS, collaborative work, ethnography
    The WebAwareness Experience - Enhancing a Website with People BIBA
      Lars Svensson; Stefan Nilsson; Fredrik Bengtsson; Christian Johansson
    Most people perceive the World Wide Web primarily as a huge information container, where nodes of information are connected through hyperlinks. To browse the web is like walking in an endless library where books, journals, brochures, video-clips and scraps of papers are spread on the shelves and tables with little or no systematic structure to guide the visitor.
    Mapping out and constructing user needs - in developing online public services BIBAK
      Annelie Ekelin
    This poster gives a web-based presentation of work in progress1 in a pilot study2 concerning the setting up of public services in the local context of the county of Blekinge, southeastern Sweden. The way in which I will do this study is to examine a selection of methods, or types of needs analysis, used by different actors and producers of public services in order to get a picture of various needs among the users. One part of my study is to look at service producers/providers and their use of explicit techniques such as questionnaires, larger surveys and work carried out with the help of focus groups. A basic question to put forward is what role do these explicit surveys play for the various participating actors - including citizens - and in the long run for the design-choices?
    Keywords: Analysis of methods, on-line public services, citizenship, needs analysis, needs assessments
    Role Playing Games for Concept Design of Mobile Services - A Participatory Design Session to Envision with Users Future Mobile Services BIBAK
      Giulio Iacucci; Eerik Vesterinen
    Our research is carried out in an industry-funded project that investigates the service architecture for the nomadic Internet user of the future. In carrying out concept design we recognize, among others, the challenge of allowing the use context to influence design activities of mobile services. We consider user participation as a way to reduce the gap between design and use. We present a role playing game in a mise-en-scene made out of toys to envision and try out with users future mobile services.
    Keywords: Mobile services, participatory design, role playing game
    WAP User Interfaces BIBA
      Titti Kallio; Toni Komu
    Regardless of the WAP Forum standardisation, user interfaces in different WAP devices differ from each other. In fact, the differences between devices are so great that you can use very few user interface features while developing services, i.e. when developing the services to be used with all WAP phones.
       In this presentation we present three ways to cope with the situation: 1. To apply the principle of the lowest common denominator, 2. To design separate applications for different devices or device groupings, A converter.
    Mind Your Own Business - Searching for Support for Information and Interaction Overload BIBA
      Bo-Goran Bernheim; Lars Svensson
    Working in the knowledge sector means dealing with increasing amounts of information, technology and people. Trying to cope with this situation can be stressful, and the tools to help us are often not adjusted to the terms of life in the Internet age. Departing from a study of a group of IT consultants, this poster advocates the need for ICT systems that addresses the whole spectrum of problems concerning 'overload' with respect to both information and interaction.
    "Production First, Reflection Later" -- An Emerging Methodology for Research in Cross-Disciplinary Groups BIBAK
      Michael Barner Rasmussen
    This short-paper reports on an early attempt to formally describe the research methodology for interactive media design ad-hoc named: "Production First - Reflection Later".
       Two key components are identified:
  • 1 The nescessity of not only building a 'common ground' of shared experiences,
       but of actively co-construeing these by discussing the experiences
       extensively.
  • 2 The nescessity of real world objects and shared events in the above
       discussions and as a 'cognitive feedback-mechanism' for reflecting on the
       design. The emerging methodology gleaned from these experiences can be summarized as follows:
  • 1 Separation of productive and reflexive phases
  • 2 Ultra-fast prototyping/mock-upping and user-feedback providing both cognitive
       feedback and shared experiences
  • 3 Communikation must be integral to the process The methodology was simultaneously assembled, testet and now (somewhat) formalized in the Project "Narrative Toys/Psst" (Programmable Sound Stage Toy) developed by 'Interactiv Instituttet', Malmoe-hoegskola-section, led by senior researcher and artist Asa Harvard.
    Keywords: Research methodology, teamwork, cross-disciplinary development, rapid prototyping, cognition, constructivism.