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NORDICHI Tables of Contents: 020406081012142000

Proceedings of the Sixth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2010 Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Note:Extending Boundaries
Editors:Ebba Þóra Hvannberg; Marta Kristín Lárusdóttir; Ann Blandford; Jan Gulliksen
Location:Reykjavik, Iceland
Dates:2010-Oct-16 to 2010-Oct-20
Standard No:ISBN 1-60558-934-9, 978-1-60558-934-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: NORDICHI10
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Keynote speakers
  2. Full papers
  3. Short papers
  4. Design and interactive demonstrations
  5. Panel

Keynote speakers

Changing boundaries of design and use BIBAFull-Text 1
  Tone Bratteteig
Human-Computer Interaction concerns both humans and computers and involves a number of different disciplines and interdisciplinary areas. In this talk I discuss how recent technological and socio-cultural developments challenge the established categories of design and use of IT. I suggest seeing use as work, included in the work knowledge and constituting the conditions for the work. Drawing on traditional design disciplines design of IT can be conceptualized as a combination of ideas and materials, where the particular qualities of IT as a design material influence both the design process as well as the design result. In the talk I discuss these conceptualizations and how they can help us discuss how the changing relations between design and use of IT. I draw on both old and new research projects to illustrate how the concepts can be applied.
Developing interactive artificial intelligence software for NASA mission control BIBAFull-Text 1
  Ari Kristinn Jónsson
Over the last decade, artificial intelligence technology has moved from being an obscure research project within NASA to being an important tool for NASA mission controllers who operate spacecraft such as the Mars Exploration Rovers and the International Space Station. This achievement is in part due to advances in artificial intelligence, but a critical part is due to the development of a good understanding of mission controllers needs and how they interact with computer software. This talk presents the development of these interactive software tools, with focus on user involvement and how lessons learned were applied to improve the technology.
The new era of physical/digital play BIBAFull-Text 2
  David Merrill
The landscape of human-computer-interface possibilities has changed dramatically in recent years. Rising popularity of mobile phones has driven down the cost of microprocessors and other electronic components, and driven their quality up. Sensors have become tiny and embeddable, and graphical displays can be found on more and more of our personal devices. We are now entering the era of ubiquitous computing that Mark Weiser famously wrote about, where these technologies are disappearing into the fabric of our everyday lives. How will these new capabilities affect our experience of being human? One domain already experiencing great change is play. In this talk I will discuss some changes to the ways we play that are arriving as a result of technological advancement. I will explore implications of these changes for human-computer and human-human interaction, and how technology-based play in the future may look more familiar to us than we may think.

Full papers

Let's all get up and walk to the North Pole: design and evaluation of a mobile wellness application BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Aino Ahtinen; Pertti Huuskonen; Jonna Häkkilä
Mobile wellness applications can motivate people to exercise more because of their ubiquitous presence and suitable technological possibilities. Wellness applications utilize several factors that can increase physical activity levels of users, e.g., data tracking, social sharing and playfulness. We describe the design and evaluation of a mobile-phone based wellness application addressing social sharing and playfulness. In our user study with 37 participants we focus on presentation of physical activity data as a virtual trip on a map-based game world. The findings reveal design implications that support users to be motivated in doing the physical exercise, including setting departure and destination places and viewing up-to-date progress between them. The virtual trip was considered an understandable, concrete and interesting analogy. The familiarity of the map of the home country as the game world was liked because it added concreteness and understandability to the achievements.
Keywords: analogy, evaluation, metaphor, mobile applications, playfulness, social sharing, user experience, user studies, wellness
Location-based crowdsourcing: extending crowdsourcing to the real world BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Florian Alt; Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Albrecht Schmidt; Urs Kramer; Zahid Nawaz
The WWW and the mobile phone have become an essential means for sharing implicitly and explicitly generated information and a communication platform for many people. With the increasing ubiquity of location sensing included in mobile devices we investigate the arising opportunities for mobile crowdsourcing making use of the real world context. In this paper we assess how the idea of user-generated content, web-based crowdsourcing, and mobile electronic coordination can be combined to extend crowdsourcing beyond the digital domain and link it to tasks in the real world. To explore our concept we implemented a crowd-sourcing platform that integrates location as a parameter for distributing tasks to workers. In the paper we describe the concept and design of the platform and discuss the results of two user studies. Overall the findings show that integrating tasks in the physical world is useful and feasible. We observed that (1) mobile workers prefer to pull tasks rather than getting them pushed, (2) requests for pictures were the most favored tasks, and (3) users tended to solve tasks mainly in close proximity to their homes. Based on this, we discuss issues that should be considered during designing mobile crowdsourcing applications.
Keywords: context, crowdsourcing, location, mobile phone
Analysis of precedent designs: competitive analysis meets genre analysis BIBAKFull-Text 23-31
  Mattias Arvola; Jonas Lundberg; Stefan Holmlid
Designers need to survey the competition and analyze precedent designs, but methods for that purpose have not been evaluated in earlier research. This paper makes a comparative evaluation between competitive analysis and genre analysis. A randomized between-group experiment was conducted where graphic design students were conducted one of the two analysis methods. There were 13 students in one group and 16 in the other. The results show that genre analysis produced more detailed descriptions of precedent designs, but its process was more difficult to understand. It is concluded that genre analysis can be integrated into competitive analysis, to make use of the strengths of both methods in the analysis of precedents.
Keywords: analysis of precedents, competitive analysis, genre analysis, interaction design
Exploring distance encodings with a tactile display to convey turn by turn information in automobiles BIBAKFull-Text 32-41
  Amna Asif; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
Visual and auditory displays successfully complement each other presenting information in car navigation systems. However, they distract the visual and auditory attention of the driver, which is needed in many primary driving tasks, such as maneuvering the car or observing the traffic. Tactile interfaces can form an alternative way to display spatial information. The way of how exactly information should be presented in a vibro-tactile way is explored rarely. In this paper we investigate three different designs of vibro-tactile stimulation to convey distance information to the driver using a tactile waist belt. We explore the tactile parameters intensity, rhythm, duration, and body location for encoding the distance information. We conduct a comparative experiment on a real navigation scenario in an urban environment to evaluate our designs.
   In our study we discovered that rhythm and duration are suitable parameters to generate tactile stimulation for encoding distance information. In this way the driver perceives countable vibro-tactile pulses, which indicate the distance in turn by turn instructions. The approach is found be simple way of encoding complex navigational information.
Keywords: car navigation system, tactile interface
Facilitating continuity: exploring the role of digital technology in physical rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 42-51
  Naveen Bagalkot; Elena Nazzi; Tomas Sokoler
In this paper we report our early experiences on exploring if, and how, digital technology can help facilitate a stronger sense of continuity in the physical rehabilitation process, as experienced by the therapists and the senior citizens. We recognize four aspects of the design space offered by the notion of continuity, and present two design explorations: MagicMirror, exploring the design for self-monitoring and collaborative articulation; and Walky, exploring the design for self-monitoring and the integration of rehab activities with other everyday activities. Taking a research-through-design approach we have used sketching in a co-design setting with senior citizens and therapists, as the main vehicle for our research. With our MagicMirror and Walky design explorations, we aim to contribute on two levels: firstly, by providing two proof-of-concepts of designing digital technology for the physical rehabilitation of senior citizens. Secondly, and more importantly, we provide a pointer towards a new practice of physical rehabilitation: a practice where the role of digital technology is to support, through the facilitation of continuity, the collaboration between therapist and senior citizens across the private home and the rehab clinic. We speculate that, digital technology, in this way, can become a constructive part of the general move towards successful and more efficient rehabilitation processes for the ever-growing number of senior citizens in need of rehab.
Keywords: aging, continuity, everyday activities, interaction design, physical sketches, rehabilitation, research through design, self-monitoring
4Photos: a collaborative photo sharing experience BIBAKFull-Text 52-61
  Martijn ten Bhömer; John Helmes; Kenton O'Hara; Elise van den Hoven
In this paper, we describe the iterative design and user study of "4Photos", a multi-screen table centrepiece allowing media content to be shared and enjoyed in a social setting. It was our intention to design an object with the purpose to gather qualitative data concerning the social effects of new ways of democratic, serendipitous and playful photo sharing. To facilitate this we used online photo repository content that most often gets experienced in an individual setting. Using 4Photos we positioned this content within a social setting and observed how the presentation of these images enabled new ways of 'phototalk' to arise. We describe the design process, the final concept and reflect upon observed practices that emerged from people's usage of 4Photos. We then present several design implications and discuss future directions for continuation of this research.
Keywords: collaboration, information interfaces, interaction, iterative design, photo sharing, screens, serendipity
Two-handed input in a standard configuration of notebook with external mouse BIBAKFull-Text 62-71
  Florian Block; Hans Gellersen
This paper discusses two-handed input for interaction with notebooks, motivated by the observation that notebooks are often used with an external mouse. We present results of a survey of 905 notebook users, of which 63.8% reported occasional, and 47.0% regular use of a mouse instead of the built-in pointing device (a touchpad in 95.8% of the reported configurations). Based on this finding, we propose use of the built-in touchpad with the non-dominant hand when an external mouse is used as primary pointing device. We provide a systematic analysis of the input space of such a configuration, and contribute a set of techniques that specifically exploit touchpad properties for input with the non-dominant hand. These techniques include flick, scale and rotate gestures; absolute positioning with tokens; and touchpad use as key modifier. The techniques are demonstrated in a variety of GUI applications in a standard environment of notebook with external mouse.
Keywords: GUI, external mouse, input device, laptop, touchpad, two-handed interaction
Tenori-on stage: YouTube as performance space BIBAKFull-Text 72-81
  Mark Blythe; Paul Cairns
This paper reports findings from four related studies of the "Tenori-on" as it appears on YouTube in order to consider Web 2.0 as a performance space. A quantitative analysis of returns for "Tenori-on" attempts to model how posts achieve and maintain popularity. This analysis suggests sustained posting and engagement amongst users rather than initial product launch enthusiasm. A content analysis of the videos returned demonstrates a very different response to the launch of other technologies like the iPhone 3G. A grounded theory explores comments to the most viewed video returned which was a post by the artist Little Boots. A range of comments indicate virtual applause and suggest that YouTube has been appropriated here as a space for performance. Finally perspectives from critical theory are drawn on to consider the meanings of the Tenori-on in this user generated context and the ways users creatively resist the most obvious affordances of the device.
Keywords: Tenori-on, YouTube, critical theory, interaction criticism, user experience
Training software developers in usability engineering: a literature review BIBAKFull-Text 82-91
  Anders Bruun
Software companies focusing on Usability Engineering face two major challenges, the first being the sheer lack of usability specialists leading to missing competences in the industry and the second, which regards small companies suffering from the constraint of low budgets, thus not being able to fund usability specialists or comprehensive consultancy. Training of non-usability personnel in critical usability engineering methods has the potential of easing these challenges. It is, however, unknown how much and what kind of research that has been committed to novice training in UE methods. This paper presents a comprehensive literature study of research conducted in this area, where 129 papers are analyzed in terms of research focus, empirical basis, types of training participants and training costs. Findings show a need for further empirical research regarding long term effects of training, training costs and training in user based evaluation methods.
Keywords: developers, literature review, training, usability engineering
Design and evaluation of player experience of a location-based mobile game BIBAKFull-Text 92-101
  Tara Carrigy; Katsiaryna Naliuka; Natasa Paterson; Mads Haahr
This paper reports on the design and evaluation of player experience of a Location-Based Mobile Game set in Dublin, Ireland in which players act as paranormal investigators hunting for ghosts and gathering evidence of paranormal activity. The paper focuses on players' experience of engagement and immersion, which was evaluated through a qualitative user study undertaken over a three-day period with the participation of 19 subjects. We first discuss the concept of immersion in gaming and then review related work before presenting the design and implementation of our prototype and the results of our user study. The results show that the experience succeeds in creating a high level of immersion at several stages in the game and that this immersion can be influenced by several factors including usability, control, modes of interaction, aesthetics, flow and, perhaps most significantly, choice of location.
Keywords: engagement, immersion, location-based mobile gaming
Understanding the everyday use of images on the web BIBAKFull-Text 102-111
  Boon Chew; Jennifer A. Rode; Abigail Sellen
This paper presents a qualitative study of domestic Web-based image use, and specifically asks why users access images online. This work is not limited to image search per se, but instead aims to understand holistically the circumstances in which images are accessed through Web-based tools. As such, we move beyond the existing information seeking literature, and instead provide contextual examples of image use as well as an analysis of both how and why images are used. The paper concludes with design recommendations that take into account this wider range of activities.
Keywords: diary study, domestic, field study, image search, photowork, web use
HCI & sustainable food culture: a design framework for engagement BIBAKFull-Text 112-117
  Jaz Hee-jeong Choi; Eli Blevis
The current food practices around the world raises concerns for food insecurity in the future. Urban / suburban / and peri-urban environments are particularly problematic in their segregation from rural areas where the natural food sources are grown and harvested. Soaring urban population growth only deteriorates the lack of understanding in and access to fresh produce for the people who live, work, and play in the city. This paper explores the role of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design in encouraging individual users to participate in creating sustainable food cultures in urban environments. The paper takes a disciplinary perspective of urban informatics and presents five core constituents of the HCI design framework to encourage sustainable food culture in the city via ubiquitous technologies: the perspective of transdisciplinarity; the domains of interest of people, place, and technology; and the perspective of design.
Keywords: HCI, design, food, sustainability, transdisciplinarity, urban informatics
Distributed usability evaluation: enabling large-scale usability evaluation with user-controlled instrumentation BIBAKFull-Text 118-127
  Lars Christensen; Erik Frøkjær
We present DUE (Distributed Usability Evaluation), a technique for collecting and evaluating usability data. The DUE infrastructure involves a client-server network. A client-based tool resides on the workstation of each user, providing a screen video recording, microphone input of voice commentary, and a window for a severity rating. The idea is for the user to work naturalistically, clicking a button when a usability problem or point of uncertainty is encountered, to describe it verbally along with illustrating it on screen, and to rate its severity. These incidents are accumulated on a server, providing access to an evaluator (usability expert) and to product developers or managers who want to review the incidents and analyse them. DUE supports evaluation in the development stages from running prototypes and onwards. A case study of the use of DUE in a corporate environment is presented. The study indicates that the DUE technique is effective in terms of low bias, high efficiency, and clear communication of usability issues among users, evaluators and developers. Further, DUE is supporting long-term evaluations making possible empirical studies of learnability.
Keywords: automation, beta test, case study, distributed, evaluator effect, instrumentation, learnability, remote, screen video, software industry, think-aloud, usability evaluation, voice commentary
A study of mobile mood awareness and communication through MobiMood BIBAKFull-Text 128-137
  Karen Church; Eve Hoggan; Nuria Oliver
Recent research shows that there has been increased interest in investigating the role of mood and emotions in the HCI domain. Our moods, however, are complex. They are affected by many dynamic factors and can change multiple times throughout each day. Furthermore, our mood can have significant implications in terms of our experiences, our actions and most importantly on our interactions with other people. We have developed MobiMood, a proof-of-concept social mobile application that enables groups of friends to share their moods with each other. In this paper, we present the results of an exploratory field study of MobiMood, focusing on explicit mood sharing in-situ. Our results highlight that certain contextual factors had an effect on mood and the interpretation of moods. Furthermore, mood sharing and mood awareness appear to be good springboards for conversations and increased communication among users. These and other findings lead to a number of key implications in the design of mobile social awareness applications.
Keywords: awareness, emotions, field study, location, mobile computing, mobile interaction, moods, social context
Engaging spectators with multimodal digital puppetry BIBAKFull-Text 138-147
  Céline Coutrix; Giulio Jacucci; Anna Spagnolli; Lingyi Ma; Matti Helin; Gabriela Richard; Lorenza Parisi; Stefano Roveda; Prayag Narula
We present Euclide, a multimodal system for live animation of a virtual puppet that is composed of a data glove, MIDI music board, keyboard, and mouse. The paper reports on a field study in which Euclide was used in a science museum to animate visitors as they passed by five different stations. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of several hours of videos served investigation of how the various features of the multimodal system were used by different puppeteers in the unfolding of the sessions. We found that the puppetry was truly multimodal, utilizing several input modalities simultaneously; the structure of sessions followed performative strategies; and the engagement of spectators was co-constructed. The puppeteer uses nonverbal resources (effects) and we examined how they are instrumental to talk as nonverbal turns, verbal accompaniment, and virtual gesturing. These findings allow describing digital puppetry as an emerging promising field of application for HCI that acts as a source of insights applicable in a range of multimodal performative interactive systems.
Keywords: co-creation, engagement, field study, multimodality, museum, performative interaction, virtual puppetry
Comparing user interaction with low and high fidelity prototypes of tabletop surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 148-157
  Jan Derboven; Dries De Roeck; Mathijs Verstraete; David Geerts; Jan Schneider-Barnes; Kris Luyten
This paper describes a comparative study between the usage of low-fidelity and a high-fidelity prototyping for the creation of multi-user multi-touch interfaces. The multi-touch interface presented in this paper allows users to collaboratively search for existing multimedia content, create new compositions with this content, and finally integrate it in a layout for presenting it. The study we conducted consists of a series of parallel user tests using both low-fidelity and high-fidelity prototypes to inform the design of the multi-touch interface. Based on a comparison of the two test sessions, we found that one should be cautious in generalising high-level user interactions from a low towards a high-fidelity prototype. However, the low-fidelity prototype approach presented proved to be very valuable to generate design ideas concerning both high and low-level user interactions on a multi-touch tabletop.
Keywords: content creation, design, fidelity, multi-touch, prototyping, tabletop
Drop-and-drag: easier drag & drop on large touchscreen displays BIBAKFull-Text 158-167
  Sebastian Doeweling; Urs Glaubitt
Large displays have been found to offer a number of benefits over average-sized desktop displays: They increase productivity in office settings, improve performance on spatial tasks and offer increased user satisfaction in several contexts. However, their physical dimensions can complicate drag & drop interactions for users, especially when touch or pen input is used. Existing approaches (e.g. push-and-pop) have addressed this problem for simple drag&drop operations, but fall short when it comes to more complex ones (e.g. dropping a target onto a currently hidden node of a file tree or a specific location on a digital map).
   To address this issue, we propose drop-and-drag, an interaction technique which introduces fully interactive proxy targets and which allows the interruption and resumption of drag & drop operations. The results of a controlled experiment show that drop-and-drag is significantly faster than traditional drag & drop for sufficiently distant targets. Additionally, the results report improved user satisfaction when drop-and-drag is used, especially for complex drop targets.
Keywords: drag & drop, drop-and-drag, interaction technique, touch screen, wall-size display
Extending boundaries with meta-design and cultures of participation BIBAKFull-Text 168-177
  Gerhard Fischer
Human-computer interaction (HCI) has refocused many research efforts within computer science from a technology-centered view to a human-centered view. The developments so far, however, have seen humans mostly as users and consumers rather than as active contributors and designers.
   This paper provides a conceptual framework based on meta-design and cultures of participation that democratize design and allows all stakeholders to evolve systems to fit their needs. It establishes a new extended discourse for HCI research in which information technologies are interwoven with human lives in all aspects of our existence (at home, working, teaching, learning, and being a citizen). Specific socio-technical environments instantiating the framework in different application domains are described, including: (1) environments for people with cognitive disabilities, (2) table-top computing systems for framing and solving complex urban planning problems, (3) modeling the buildings of the world in 3D, and (4) using Smart Grids to support energy sustainability. These examples show how metadesign and cultures of participation are design approaches that allow researchers and practitioners to extend boundaries by allowing all stakeholders to have more control over their artifacts and by providing opportunities to encourage and to support contributions by many people in personally meaningful activities.
Keywords: boundaries, control, cultures of participation, distances, meta-design, motivation, socio-technical environments, systemic problems
Wattsup?: motivating reductions in domestic energy consumption using social networks BIBAKFull-Text 178-187
  Derek Foster; Shaun Lawson; Mark Blythe; Paul Cairns
This paper reports on the design, deployment and evaluation of "Wattsup", an innovative application which displays live autonomously logged data from the Wattson energy monitor, allowing users to compare domestic energy consumption on Facebook. Discussions and sketches from a workshop with Facebook users were used to develop a final design implemented using the Facebook API. Wattson energy monitors and the Wattsup app were deployed and trialled in eight homes over an eighteen day period in two conditions. In the first condition participants could only access their personal energy data, whilst in the second they could access each others' data to make comparisons. A significant reduction in energy was observed in the socially enabled condition. Comments on discussion boards and semi-structured interviews with the participants indicated that the element of competition helped motivate energy savings. The paper argues that socially-mediated banter and competition made for a more enjoyable user experience.
Keywords: competitive energy saving, persuasive technology, social networking, sustainability, user experience
Empirical investigation of web design attributes affecting brand perception BIBAKFull-Text 188-197
  Franca Garzotto; Fabio Sorce; Davide Bolchini; Tao Yang
The web has become a mainstream communication tool used by companies, institutions, celebrities, and politicians to establish, reinforce, or repurpose their brand, almost bypassing more conventional branding media. In this scenario, understanding the effects of the different design qualities of a website on users' attitude towards the brand is of major importance. This paper contributes to the exploration of this issue by presenting a wide empirical study that investigates the degree to which users' perception of a brand is affected by different design aspects of a website, namely usability, aesthetics, and communicability. The results of this multidimensional analysis have implications on HCI research and practice, as they provide empirically founded guidelines to prioritize design choices in relationship to branding goals.
Keywords: aesthetics, brand, communicability, design, usability, user attitude, user experience, value, web
"Luckily, I don't need it": elderly and the use of artifacts for time management BIBAKFull-Text 198-206
  Leonardo Giusti; Eleonora Mencarini; Massimo Zancanaro
In this paper, we describe the artifacts and the practices that a group of elderly people use to plan future events and remembering information about future event at the proper time. The role of such artifacts in the construction of a narrative and emotional account of elderly life is discussed. A particular attention is given to the description of the values that mediate the use of time-scheduling artifacts. By taking into consideration the whole complexity of time management ecology, we finally suggest a number of design opportunities.
Keywords: elderly, time-management
Studying mobile context-aware social services in the wild BIBAKFull-Text 207-216
  Paul Holleis; Matthias Wagner; Sebastian Böhm; Johan Koolwaaij
We have implemented and evaluated IYOUIT, a context-aware application for the mobile phone that promotes a digital lifestyle, sharing, and life-logging approach for people on the go. The service incorporates context management technology to abstract data about and around the user into meaningful interpretations of the user's digital trace in the real world. Complementary to the public release of our service, we have conducted a longitudinal field study with 19 users for a period of one month. In this paper, we present findings from this coordinated user trial and provide researchers with advice on the design and implementation of similar systems.
Keywords: context awareness, mobile services, social networking
Negotiating privacy boundaries in social applications for accessibility mapping BIBAKFull-Text 217-225
  Harald Holone; Jo Herstad
Privacy is often used as an abstract concept, and negotiating what information to disclose to whom, where, at what times, and in what situations is a challenging one. In this paper we apply a previously proposed framework from Palen and Dourish for understanding and discussing privacy to a setting of sharing and acting on information about physical accessibility. We do this by describing existing practice for sharing of such information among wheelchair users, and compare that with new practices emerging from the use of ICT, the mobile, collaborative route planning concept OurWay. Through highlighting these changes, we discuss concrete privacy issues, and hope to provide a contribution to users, designers and analysts for creating and using mobile, networked technologies for accessible navigation of urban and built environments.
Keywords: CSCW, accessibility, negotiation, privacy, social navigation, trust
Transferring qualities from horseback riding to design BIBAKFull-Text 226-235
  Kristina Höök
We see more and more attempts to design for bodily experiences with digital technology, but it is a notably challenging design task. What are the possible bodily experiences we may aim to design for, and how can we characterise them? By analysing a horseback riding experience, we came to identify the following themes: (1) how certain kinds of bodily experiences are best understood through experiencing them yourself -- the bodily ways of knowing, (2) how rhythm and balance create for particularly strong physical experiences of this kind, (3) how movement and emotion coincide in these experiences, (4) how the movement between seeing our own bodies as objects vs experiencing in and through our bodies is one of the ways we come to learn the language of expressing and understanding bodily action, and (5) how this in turn lets us describe the sensitive and delicate relationship of wordless signs and signals that represent, in the case described, two bodily agents -- a human and a horse. When the human-horse relationship is really successful, it can be described as rare moments of becoming a centaur. We translate these themes into design considerations for bodily interactions.
Keywords: autoethnography, bodily interaction, embodiment, experiential qualities
Controlling the use of collaboration tools in open source software development BIBAKFull-Text 236-245
  Heli Ikonen; Netta Iivari; Henrik Hedberg
This paper analyses control in the open source software (OSS) development context, focusing specifically on how the use of collaboration tools, such as bug trackers and mailing lists, are controlled in OSS projects. The tools are vital for the functioning of distributed OSS projects. One OSS case project was analysed in the paper. The findings show a surprising amount of control in the OSS project. In addition, when compared to traditional information systems (IS) development projects, different control modes and mechanism were found. Strong evidence for informal 'clan' and 'self-control' were found, but also a lot of formal control was in use. The results are discussed in connection to OSS literature and critical IS literature.
Keywords: collaboration tools, control, open source software
Piles, tabs and overlaps in navigation among documents BIBAKFull-Text 246-255
  Mikkel Rønne Jakobsen; Kasper Hornbæk
Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles. In an experiment we compared 11 participants' navigation with these variations and found strong task effects. Overall, overlapping windows were preferred and their structured layout worked well with some tasks. Surprisingly, tabbed documents were efficient in tasks requiring simply finding a document. Piled documents worked well for tasks that involved visual features of the documents, but the utility of recency or stable ordering of documents was task dependent. Based on the results, we discuss the effects of spatial arrangement, visibility, and task-dependency, and suggest areas for future research on document navigation and its support by piling.
Keywords: document navigation, overlapping windows, piled windows, window switching
Determining usability requirements into a call-for-tenders: a case study on the development of a healthcare system BIBAKFull-Text 256-265
  Timo Jokela
Systems of public organizations, the development of which is acquired through public tendering, often suffer from poor usability. To resolve this issue, we explored how to determine usability requirements into a call-for-tenders. Our case is a usability-critical healthcare system to be developed for a city in Finland. We explored different options, and ended up with two measures: task completion success rate for defining effectiveness requirements, and a complementary measure that we call design solution success rate. We could not find appropriate ways for defining requirements that directly address efficiency and user satisfaction. Our case shows that the tendering context sets specific restrictions to the selection of usability measures, especially from the viewpoint of target setting and objective verification.
Keywords: call-for-tenders, measures, requirements, success rate, target levels, tendering, usability, user experience
Descriptive quality of experience for mobile 3D video BIBAKFull-Text 266-275
  Satu Jumisko-Pyykkö; Dominik Strohmeier; Timo Utriainen; Kristina Kunze
Perceptual quality evaluation experiments are used to assess the excellence of multimedia quality. However, these studies disregard qualitative experiential descriptions, interpretations, and impressions of quality. The goal of this paper is to identify general descriptive characteristics of experienced quality of 3D video on mobile devices. We conducted five studies in which descriptive data was collected after the psychoperceptual quality evaluation experiment. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and written attribute description tasks were conducted with over 90 naïve participants. The experiments contained an extensive and heterogeneous set of produced quality by varying content, level of depth, compression and transmission parameters, and audio and display factors for 3D. The results showed that quality of experience is constructed from four main components, 1) visual quality, 2) viewing experience, 3) content, and 4) quality of other modalities and their interactions.
Keywords: 3D, multimedia, quality of experience, quality perception
Unobtrusively controlling and linking information and services in smart environments BIBAKFull-Text 276-285
  Bastian Kriesten; Christian Mertes; René Tünnermann; Thomas Hermann
Our living and work spaces are becoming ever more enriched with all kinds of electronic devices. Many of these are too small to provide the possibility to control or monitor them. Ambient intelligence is integrating many such devices in what are called smart environments to form a network of interweaved sensors, data displays and everyday devices. We present a method to intuitively issue control over smart objects in such an environment, to display data that smart objects provide and to manage the flow of information between objects in a smart environment. This is achieved by using touch-enabled mobile phones as readily available multi-purpose devices which are used to overlay real objects with virtual controls. We evaluated the system with a first qualitative user study.
Keywords: ambient data streams, augmented reality, home automation, mixed reality, mobile devices, mobile interaction
Evaluating multimodal systems: a comparison of established questionnaires and interaction parameters BIBAKFull-Text 286-294
  Christine Kühnel; Tilo Westermann; Benjamin Weiss; Sebastian Möller
This paper describes the analysis of established and new questionnaires concerning their applicability for the assessment of quality aspects of multimodal systems. To this purpose, an experiment with 27 participants interacting with a smart-home system via a voice interface, a smartphone-based interface and a multimodal interface, was conducted. Interaction parameters were assessed and related to constructs measured with these questionnaires. The results indicate that some of the questionnaires are suitable for evaluating multimodal interfaces. On the basis of correlations with interaction parameters subscales of these questionnaires can be mapped to quality aspects, such as effectiveness and efficiency. Recommendations are given how to meet two important evaluation requirements, namely which questionnaire to use for comparing two or more systems or system versions and how to identify factors or components in a system that have to be improved. This is another step forward to establish evaluation methods for multimodal systems.
Keywords: evaluation, gesture, multimodal interaction, smart-home
Rise of the expert amateur: DIY projects, communities, and cultures BIBAKFull-Text 295-304
  Stacey Kuznetsov; Eric Paulos
This paper presents a large-scale study of Do-It-Yourself (DIY) communities, cultures and projects. We focus on the adoption and appropriation of human-computer interaction and collaboration technologies and their role in motivating and sustaining communities of builders, crafters and makers. Our survey of over 2600 individuals across a range of DIY communities (Instructables, Dorkbot, Craftster, Ravelry, Etsy, and Adafruit) reveals a unique set of values, emphasizing open sharing, learning, and creativity over profit and social capital. We derive design implications to embed these values into other everyday practices, and hope that our work serves to engage CHI practitioners with DIY expert amateurs.
Keywords: DIY, motivations of contributors, online communities
Do people say what they think: social conformity behavior in varying degrees of online social presence BIBAKFull-Text 305-314
  Lieve Laporte; Christof van Nimwegen; Alex J. Uyttendaele
In recent social media internet applications, many activities consist of voting, ranking, commenting and sharing. People using these applications can experience the social presence and influences of others, just as in real life. The difference is, however, that fewer communication channels are available in these online communication mediums. In this pilot study, we investigated to which degree these altered communication mediums affect people's social conformity behavior. Based on a classic normative social conformity paradigm by Asch [1], we developed an online quiz. Two versions were created: a version where users see other players represented with only a picture, and a version with a live video stream. We studied the social conformity in these two online situations regarding three information types: visual perception, factual information and personal opinions. Results showed that participants answering factual questions in the live video variant, offering more social cues than the photo variant, followed the group more in giving incorrect answers. Furthermore, participants in both variants agreed with group opinions.
Keywords: online social conformity, online social presence, video
Using the hybrid simulation for early user evaluations of pervasive interactions BIBAKFull-Text 315-324
  Karin Leichtenstern; Elisabeth André; Matthias Rehm
To reach a good user-friendliness, knowledge about user requirements is crucial in the development process of a product. The sooner the knowledge is achieved via user evaluations, the more money and time can be saved. In this paper we investigate an approach called hybrid simulation for the early stages evaluation of mobile applications where real mobile phones are used as interaction devices to a virtualised simulation of a pervasive environment. On the first sight, the method is cheap, easy and quick to use as well as more realistic compared to a virtual simulation only approach. In order to receive a more detailed insight in potential benefits and problems of the method, we performed a user study and compared results of a traditional laboratory study with the results of a study performed with the hybrid simulation.
Keywords: early stages evaluation method, hybrid simulation, mobile phones, pervasive interface, user-centred design
XTag: designing an experience capturing and sharing tool for persons with aphasia BIBAKFull-Text 325-334
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Rikkert Gerits; Jean-Bernard Martens
In this paper we describe the design and exploratory field evaluation of an experience tagging and sharing application for people with expressive aphasia. We conducted a probe study with representatives from this target user group to gain a deeper understanding of the potential use of technology to capture and share everyday experiences. We used the obtained insights in the design of a new experience tagging tool (XTag). Our field study with the resulting prototype suggests that multimedia (picture, audio and GPS) indeed offer great potential for assisting aphasics while retelling their past experiences. Specifically, the tagging application improved support over a digital camera as it could be more easily operated single-handedly, which was much appreciated by aphasics. We also share some methodological lessons that we learned from our study.
Keywords: aphasia, digital photo, inclusive design, photo tagging, sharing experiences, storytelling, technology probe
Pipet: a design concept supporting photo sharing BIBAKFull-Text 335-342
  Bernt Meerbeek; Peter Bingley; Wil Rijnen; Elise van den Hoven
To support reminiscing in the home, people collect an increasing amount of digital media on numerous devices. When sharing their media with other people, distribution of the media over different devices can be problematic. In this paper, we address this problem by designing an innovative interaction concept for cross-device interaction to support groups in sharing photos using multiple devices. We designed and implemented the Pipet concept. Results of a comparative study show that Pipet resulted in a pragmatic and hedonic user experience.
Keywords: collaboration, cross-device interaction, interaction design, photo sharing, tangible user interface
User experience (UX) patterns for audio-visual networked applications: inspirations for design BIBAKFull-Text 343-352
  Marianna Obrist; Daniela Wurhofer; Elke Beck; Amela Karahasanovic; Manfred Tscheligi
This paper summarizes best practices for improving user experience (UX) of audio-visual networked applications such as YouTube, Flickr, or Facebook. Designing for a good UX is becoming increasingly important within the HCI community. However, there is still a lack of empirically based knowledge on how to design audio-visual networked applications for an optimal UX. Based on studies with more than 8000 users of ten different audio-visual networked applications, we have developed 30 user experience patterns (short UX patterns). Our UX patterns are build on the end users' experiences investigated in lab and field studies in three different European countries. Most other pattern collections are based on the experience of designers or developers. In this paper we will present how we have developed the UX patterns and will describe the major UX problem areas found in detail. Our pattern collection can be useful to the designers of audio-visual networked applications and for the researchers working in the area of UX by providing empirical evidence on identified UX problems and suggestions for solutions referring to one or more of our UX patterns.
Keywords: audio-visual applications, patterns, social media, social networked applications, user experience, user experience patterns
Collective interaction by design collective controllers for social navigation on digital photos BIBAKFull-Text 353-362
  Marianne Graves Petersen; Peter Gall Krogh; Morten Boye Mortensen; Thomas Møller-Lassen; Ditte Hvas Mortensen
This paper seeks to attract attention to the possibilities for designing for collaborative control and social negotiation in everyday interaction design. This work is starts out from the interaction model of collective interaction, which is a model depicting strong social connection between people interacting on a shared digital material with a shared goal. We adopt a research through design approach where we develop an exemplar collective interaction prototype for collective exploration of digital photos in the home and we evaluate the prototype in use. The exemplar prototype and experiences from trial use serves to refine the collective interaction model and identify qualities and shortcomings of collective interaction applications. In this way we wish to point to a design space, which can lead to new interaction techniques and designs supporting shared social experiences around digital materials in everyday life.
Keywords: collective interaction, interaction device, shared display, social interaction, tactile
Privacy-awareness information for web forums: results from an empirical study BIBAKFull-Text 363-372
  Stefanie Pötzsch; Peter Wolkerstorfer; Cornelia Graf
While interacting with others on the internet, users share a lot of personal data with a potentially large but "invisible" audience. An important issue is maintaining control over personal data and therefore, in the first place, users need to be aware to whom they are disclosing which data. Based on the cues-filtered-out theory we introduce a new feature to support the privacy-awareness of forum users and tested it with 313 users. The results of our empirical study show that the presentation of privacy-related context cues indeed increases forum users' privacy-awareness. This is an important precondition for users' willingness to modify privacy settings or to use privacy-enhancing technologies.
Keywords: empirical study, forum, privacy, privacy awareness, social software, social web, user-centered design
Tactile camera vs. tangible camera: taking advantage of small physical artefacts to navigate into large data collection BIBAKFull-Text 373-382
  Mathieu Raynal; Guillaume Gauffre; Cédric Bach; Bénédicte Schmitt; Emmanuel Dubois
This paper presents the design and evaluation of two interaction techniques used to navigate into large data collection displayed on a large output space while based on manipulations of a small physical artefact. The first technique exploits the spatial position of a digital camera and the second one uses its tactile screen. User experiments have been conducted to study and compare the both techniques, with regards to users' performance and satisfaction. Results establish that Tactile technique is more efficient than Tangible technique for easy pointing tasks while Tangible technique is better for hardest pointing tasks. In addition, users' feedback shows that they prefer to use the tangible camera, which requires fewer skills.
Keywords: interaction technique, mixed interactive systems, pointing task, usability study
Five design challenges for human computation BIBAKFull-Text 383-392
  Stuart Reeves; Scott Sherwood
Human computation systems, which draw upon human competencies in order to solve hard computational problems, represent a growing interest within HCI. Despite the numerous technical demonstrations of human computation systems, however, there are few design guidelines or frameworks for researchers or practitioners to draw upon when constructing such a system. Based upon findings from our own human computation system, and drawing upon those published within HCI, and from other scientific and engineering literatures, as well as systems deployed commercially, we offer a framework of five challenging issues of relevance to designers of systems with human computation elements: designing the motivation of participants in the human computation system and sustaining their engagement; orienting participants, framing and orienting participants; using situatedness as a driver for content generation; considering the organisation of human and machine roles in human computation systems; and reconsidering the way in which computational analogies are applied to the design space of human computation.
Keywords: citizen science, crowdsourcing, design framework, games with a purpose, human computation
Designing for crowds BIBAKFull-Text 393-402
  Stuart Reeves; Scott Sherwood; Barry Brown
Designing for spectators and audiences presents new challenges to the design of technology. In this paper we focus our attention on understanding and designing for crowds as a distinct design topic. We present a study of one particular instance of crowd activity -- football fans on match day. Close video analysis of interactions within the crowd reveals how crowds seeks to maintain membership through synchronisation of activity, but also how crowd support interaction between its members through co-ordination around shared objects and the 'snowballing' of songs and gestures. Drawing on this data we develop salient topics for HCI design for crowds, such as: reconceptualising interaction design to treat crowds as crowds rather than as groups of individual audience members; understanding intra-crowd interactions, via the use of shared objects and synchronising crowd interactions; and understanding the nature of peripheral participation in crowd activities, and interactions between distinct crowds. We also reflect on conceptual challenges that crowds pose for HCI as it increasingly develops its interests in public settings.
Keywords: crowds, design, spectatorship, sports fans
Mobile interaction with real-time geospatial data by pointing through transparent Earth BIBAKFull-Text 403-412
  Erika Reponen; Jaakko Keränen
We present the user experience study results of a novel interaction concept that enables viewing and accessing geospatial data from all around the Earth, by pointing with a mobile device directly towards any physical location. We explain the relationship of this concept to traditional augmented reality and map based user interfaces, and we describe a prototype of the concept. In the evaluation we found that whole body interaction is a good way to browse geospatial content. The need for real-time information arises when using the concept. Reliable and detailed information is expected. Examining the Earth became interesting with the prototype. We also discuss the challenges faced in the prototype and suggest ways to tackle them.
Keywords: augmented reality, embodied interaction, first person view, geospatial data, location based data, reality-based interaction
Lightweight personal sensemaking tools for the web BIBAKFull-Text 413-421
  Brendan Ryder; Terry Anderson
Sensemaking is an ill-defined, iterative and complex activity concerned with the way people approach the process of collecting, organizing and creating representations of information. The user needs to be supported in two cognitive tasks: 'representation construction', which involves finding an appropriate structure to aid sensemaking and 'encoding', which is populating that structure with meaningful information. Much work has been completed in the area of encoding, but the forms of representation construction and how they can be better supported in software require further investigation.
   This paper reports on the design, implementation and evaluation of a web-based personal sensemaking tool called Coalesce. It tightly integrates search facilities with the representation construction task through the SenseMap -- an innovative interactive hierarchical mechanism for displaying, structuring and storing selected information. Results from controlled experiments indicate that Coalesce enhances users' searching, gathering and organizing tasks when compared to a standard browser and word processor combination, but without imposing an additional cognitive load.
Keywords: personal information management, personal sensemaking, representation construction, tagging
The effect of aesthetically pleasing composition on visual search performance BIBAKFull-Text 422-431
  Carolyn Salimun; Helen C. Purchase; David R. Simmons; Stephen Brewster
This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of the aesthetic layout properties of a computer interface on visual search performance. Search performance was measured at three levels of layout aesthetics: high, medium, and low. Two types of performance metric were recorded: response time and number of errors. Performance at the three levels of aesthetics was also compared between two search methods (with or without mouse pointing), and related to preference. The findings of the present study indicate that, regardless of search method used, response time (but not errors) was strongly affected by the aesthetics level. There is also a clear relationship between preference and performance when a composite measurement of aesthetics is used, although this does not seem to be due to the influence of individual aesthetic features. Further study is needed to identify other aesthetic factors that influence task performance, and to establish appropriate design guidelines.
Keywords: aesthetics, aesthetics measures, interface layout, task performance
HandsDown: hand-contour-based user identification for interactive surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 432-441
  Dominik Schmidt; Ming Ki Chong; Hans Gellersen
HandsDown is a novel technique for user identification on interactive surfaces. It enables users to access personal data on a shared surface, to associate objects with their identity, and to fluidly customize appearance, content, or functionality of the user interface. To identify, users put down their hand flat on the surface. HandsDown is based on hand contour analysis; neither user instrumentation nor external devices are required for identification. Characteristic features of the hand are initially extracted from images captured by the surface's camera system and then classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM).
   We present a proof-of-concept implementation and show results of our evaluation which indicates the technique's robustness for user identification within small groups. Additionally, we introduce a set of interaction techniques to illustrate how HandsDown can improve the user experience, and we discuss the design space of such interactions.
Keywords: authentication, interactive tabletops, multi-touch interaction, surface computing, user identification
ExoBuilding: breathing life into architecture BIBAKFull-Text 442-451
  Holger Schnädelbach; Kevin Glover; Ainojie Alexander Irune
ExoBuilding explores the novel design space that emerges when an individual's physiological data and the fabric of building architecture are linked. In its current form ExoBuilding is a tent-like structure that externalises a person's physiological data in an immersive and visceral way. This is achieved by mapping abdominal breathing to its shape and size, displaying heart beat through sound and light effects and mapping electro dermal activity to a projection on the tent fabric. The research is positioned in relation to previous work and the iterative development of ExoBuilding from to-scale to full-size prototype is described. The design process, feedback gathered alongside and observations allow the discussion of wider issues: the different scales possible, the temporal nature of the data, ownership and ambiguity of that data, ranges of control and the aggregation of data in a building context. This leads to the presentation of directions for future research at this exciting boundary between Architecture, HCI and medical science.
Keywords: adaptive buildings, biofeedback, iterative prototyping, physiological data
Sustainable energy practices at work: understanding the role of workers in energy conservation BIBAKFull-Text 452-462
  Tobias Schwartz; Matthias Betz; Leonardo Ramirez; Gunnar Stevens
Energy conservation has become a very relevant social issue. There is a growing body of knowledge in the literature focused on supporting consumers in reducing their personal carbon footprint in their domestic context. In the workplace, however, most of the research focuses on optimizing formalized production processes and investing in energy efficient equipment. This leaves the question open of the role of workers in energy conservation. To explore this question, and overcome this bias, we conducted a series of participatory action research studies in which we introduced new smart metering technologies in a large organization and observed their contribution in supporting sustainable energy practices at work. In the paper we discuss the opportunity and risks posed by using this technology to make energy practices more transparent.
Keywords: emancipation, energy conservation, practices, sustainability, workplace
Body-centric interaction techniques for very large wall displays BIBAKFull-Text 463-472
  Garth Shoemaker; Takayuki Tsukitani; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Kellogg S. Booth
We examine the design space of interaction techniques for very large wall displays by drawing from existing theory and practice for reality-based interfaces and whole-body interfaces. We also apply insights drawn from research in psychology about the human cognitive mechanisms that support sensorimotor operations in different coordinate spaces, as well as research in sociology examining how people manage coordination and privacy concerns in these spaces. Using guidelines obtained from these analyses, we designed and implemented a novel suite of body-centric interaction techniques. These were integrated into a map browsing and editing application for a very large (5m×3m) wall display. The application was then used to gather user feedback to guide the further development of the interaction techniques.
Keywords: embodied interaction, gesture-based interaction, multimodal, post-WIMP interfaces, proxemics, reality-based interaction
From product concept to user experience: exploring UX potentials at early product stages BIBAKFull-Text 473-482
  Sandra Sproll; Matthias Peissner; Christina Sturm
The focus on users' needs and emotions while interacting with products is a key factor for product success. As the field of User Experience (UX) explores these needs and their fulfilment, it gains in importance against the background of the wish for human-oriented products and services. In order to avoid product failure, the UX of a product should be considered in very early stages of development when there is only a first concept or product idea. However, an empirical UX evaluation seems to be quite difficult at a time when only abstract product concepts are available. This paper presents a new method for transferring concepts into "fictitious product experiences". The method has been tried out in two studies focusing on the potential UX of new products. The results show that this new approach enables users to evaluate the potential UX of products in their daily routines. Moreover, the method is promising for identifying new product attributes and even new product ideas based on a positive UX.
Keywords: concept testing, design methods, participatory design, user experience, user-driven innovation
Electronic resource discovery systems: from user behaviour to design BIBAKFull-Text 483-492
  Hanna Stelmaszewska; B. L. William Wong; Simon Attfield; Raymond Chen
Information seeking is a central part of academic development for both students and researchers. However, this is often hindered by complex and highly complicated electronic resource discovery systems. One approach to improving these resources is to understand the difficulties and likely causes of problems when using current systems and how people develop their searching, retrieval and storage strategies. These might provide useful information about the requirements for future design. In this paper we present our findings from UBiRD, a project investigating user search behaviour in electronic resource discovery systems based on a qualitative study of 34 users from three UK universities. We then describe how the information gathered during the study helped inform the design of INVISQUE, a novel non-conventional interface for searching and querying on-line scholarly information. In addition, the theories and design principles used during the INVISQUE design are discussed.
Keywords: design principles, information seeking, interactive visualization, resource discovery systems, search, user interface
Design qualities for whole body interaction: learning from golf, skateboarding and BodyBugging BIBAKFull-Text 493-502
  Jakob Tholander; Carolina Johansson
What is it that is makes swinging a club to hit a ball so captivating and fun that people spend their whole lives perfecting that one movement? In this paper we present how we, rather than to invent something off-line in a lab, have returned to the real world to get inspiration and studied full body movement activities with non-digital artefacts that have track records of ensnaring and hooking practitioners for a life time, golf and skateboarding. We have also looked at a new interactive movement device called the BodyBug. We explore how the skilled use of the artefacts puts people in contact with and let them experience the world in an essentially new way. We identify and present 8 design qualities for Whole Body Interaction, based on people's performances in these activities. The interdependency between user, artefact and physical environment was a primary driving forces behind rich, sustained and graceful interaction with the artefacts.
Keywords: body, embodiment, experience, interaction, movement
The impact of using location-based services with a behaviour-disordered child: a case study BIBAKFull-Text 503-510
  Lisa Thomas; Pam Briggs; Linda Little
In this paper we explore technologies that help parents locate their children. Parents regularly use mobile phones to stay in touch with their children, but recent developments in location-based tracking allow parents to assess the location of their child directly. Such location-based services offer new assurances, but also bring new privacy challenges. In order to explore these, we conducted a case study focussing on the way in which a family has used location-based technologies to keep track of a child with Asperger's Syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This novel research shows that Location-Based Services, although usually applied to lone-worker situations, can be effectively applied to other user groups. The parents of the child were interviewed at length, and the interview was analysed using qualitative methods. The findings are discussed and considered against a current predictive model of LBS use.
Keywords: assistive technology, location-based services, parental monitoring
Eyes-free text entry with error correction on touchscreen mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 511-520
  Hussain Tinwala; I. Scott MacKenzie
We present an eyes-free text entry method for mobile touchscreen devices. Input progresses by inking Graffiti strokes using a finger on a touchscreen. The system includes a word-level error correction algorithm. Auditory and tactile feedback guide eyes-free entry using speech and non-speech sounds, and by vibrations. In a study with 12 participants, three different feedback modes were tested. Entry speed, accuracy, and algorithm performance were compared between the three feedback modes. An overall entry speed of 10.0 wpm was found with a maximum rate of 21.5 wpm using a feedback mode that required a recognized stroke at the beginning of each word. Text was entered with an overall accuracy of 95.7%. The error correction algorithm performed well: 14.9% of entered text was corrected on average, representing a 70.3% decrease in errors compared to no algorithm. Where multiple candidates appeared, the intended word was 1st or 2nd in the list 94.2% of the time.
Keywords: Graffiti, auditory display, error correction, eyes-free, finger input, gestural input, mobile computing, text entry, touchscreen
User experience evaluation methods: current state and development needs BIBAKFull-Text 521-530
  Arnold P. O. S. Vermeeren; Effie Lai-Chong Law; Virpi Roto; Marianna Obrist; Jettie Hoonhout; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
The recent shift of emphasis to user experience (UX) has rendered it a central focus of product design and evaluation. A multitude of methods for UX design and evaluation exist, but a clear overview of the current state of the available UX evaluation methods is missing. This is partly due to a lack of agreement on the essential characteristics of UX. In this paper, we present the results of our multi-year effort of collecting UX evaluation methods from academia and industry with different approaches such as literature review, workshops, Special Interest Groups sessions and an online survey. We have collected 96 methods and analyzed them, among other criteria, based on the product development phase and the studied period of experience. Our analysis reveals development needs for UX evaluation methods, such as early-stage methods, methods for social and collaborative UX evaluation, establishing practicability and scientific quality, and a deeper understanding of UX.
Keywords: evaluation method, methodological development needs, user experience
Family storytelling for grandparents and grandchildren living apart BIBAKFull-Text 531-540
  René Vutborg; Jesper Kjeldskov; Sonja Pedell; Frank Vetere
Grandparents may feel revitalized when a grandchild joins the family, but the physical separation that often exists between grandparents and grandchildren can make it difficult to develop a close relationship. Current communication technologies, such as the phone, are inadequate for developing close relationships with children. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a technology probe exploring how technology can be designed to alleviate this problem. Based on the evaluation, four important themes for designing technology for distributed intergenerational bonding are elicited and discussed. The four themes are Conversational Context (to have something to talk about), Facilitation (to be given the opportunity to talk), Diversified Interaction Forms (to maintain attention of the child) and Supporting Grandparent caring for grandchild (to adapt activity to the mood of the child).
Keywords: bonding, conversational context, distributed interaction, field study, grandchildren, grandparents, technology probe
Supporting cooperative design through "living" artefacts BIBAKFull-Text 541-550
  Dhaval Vyas; Anton Nijholt; Gerrit van der Veer
We present findings from a field trial of CAM (Cooperative Artefact Memory) -- a mobile-tagging based messaging system -- in a design studio environment. CAM allows individuals to collaboratively store relevant information onto their physical design artefacts, such as sketches, collages, story-boards, and physical mock-ups in the form of messages, annotations and external web links. We studied the use of CAM in three student design projects. We observed that CAM facilitated new ways of collaborating in joint design projects. The serendipitous and asynchronous nature of CAM facilitated expressions of design aesthetics, allowed designers to have playful interactions, supported exploration of new design ideas, and supported designers' reflective practices. In general, our results show how CAM transformed mundane design artefacts into "living" artefacts that made the creative and playful side of cooperative design visible.
Keywords: CAM (Cooperative Artefact Memory), design studio, living artefacts, product design, twitter
Crowdsourcing human-based computation BIBAKFull-Text 551-560
  Doug Wightman
Thousands of websites have been created to crowdsource tasks. In this paper, systems that crowdsource human-based computations are organized into four distinct classes using two factors: the users' motivation for completing the task (direct or indirect) and whether task completion is competitive. These classes are described and compared. Considerations and selection criteria for systems designers are presented. This investigation also identified several opportunities for further research. For example, existing systems might benefit from the integration of methods for transforming complex tasks into many simple tasks.
Keywords: crowdsourcing, distributed knowledge acquisition, human-based computation
Curve: revisiting the digital desk BIBAKFull-Text 561-570
  Raphael Wimmer; Fabian Hennecke; Florian Schulz; Sebastian Boring; Andreas Butz; Heinrich Hußmann
Current desktop workspace environments consist of a vertical area (e.g., a screen with a virtual desktop) and a horizontal area (e.g., the physical desk). Daily working activities benefit from different intrinsic properties of both of these areas. However, both areas are distinct from each other, making data exchange between them cumbersome. Therefore, we present Curve, a novel interactive desktop environment, which combines advantages of vertical and horizontal working areas using a continuous curved connection. This connection offers new ways of direct multi-touch interaction and new ways of information visualization. We describe our basic design, the ergonomic adaptations we made, and discuss technical challenges we met and expect to meet while building and configuring the system.
Keywords: curve, digital desks, direct-touch, ergonomics, interactive surfaces, tabletop interfaces, workplace
How to stay in the emotional rollercoaster: lessons learnt from designing EmRoll BIBAKFull-Text 571-580
  Farnaz Zangouei; Mohammad Ali Babazadeh Gashti; Kristina Höök; Tim Tijs; Gert-Jan de Vries; Joyce Westerink
Bodily expressions can be used to involve players in intense experiences with games. By physically moving, breathing, or increasing your pulse, you may start emotional processes that help create for a stronger experience of the narrative in the game. We have designed a system named EmRoll that poses riddles to pairs of players. The riddles can only be solved if the players are, or at least pretend to be, moving according to different emotional states: dancing happily, relaxed breathing and being scared. The system measures movement, breathing and sweat reactions from the two players. Lessons learnt were: playing in pairs is an important aspect as the two players influenced one-another, pulling each other into stronger experiences; getting excited through intense movement when involving your whole body worked well, as did relaxing through deep breathing; using the sweat response as an input mechanism worked less well; and finally, putting a Wizard (a human operator) into the loop can help bootstrap difficulty balancing and thereby increase emotional involvement.
Keywords: affective loop, biological sensors, body tracking, designing for experience, full body interaction
Keep talking: an analysis of participant utterances gathered using two concurrent think-aloud methods BIBAKFull-Text 581-590
  Tingting Zhao; Sharon McDonald
This paper presents the results of a study that compared two think-aloud styles: the classic approach and a relaxed think-aloud on the nature and number of participant utterances produced. Overall, ten categories of utterance were extracted from the verbal data ranging from categories that had a direct impact on usability problem analysis, to those which simply described procedural actions. There were no categories of utterance that were unique to either method. The interactive think-aloud led to the production of more utterances that could be directly used in usability problem analysis. Participants provided explanations, opinions and recommendations during classic think-aloud, even though they were not instructed to do so. This finding suggests that the social context of testing may override the classic instruction to think aloud.
Keywords: think aloud studies, usability testing, verbal protocols

Short papers

tacTiles: a low-cost modular tactile sensing system for floor interactions BIBAKFull-Text 591-594
  Jan Anlauff; Tobias Großhauser; Thomas Hermann
In this paper, we present a prototype of a spatially resolved force sensing floor surface. The force sensors are based on conductive paper and grouped into modules called tacTiles. Due to the cheap and widely available materials used for tacTiles, the approach is suitable as a low-cost alternative for spatially resolved tactile sensing. The necessary techniques are shared as an open source and open hardware project to provide an affordable tactile sensing for smart environments. As an interactive application of these tacTiles, we present a detection of step direction algorithm used to count steps into and out of a room.
Keywords: HCI, force sensing, modular systems, open hardware, open source, paper FSR, tacTiles, tactile floor sensing
Interaction design qualities: theory and practice BIBAKFull-Text 595-598
  Mattias Arvola
This paper reports the results of an action research project investigating the articulation of interaction design qualities for a web portal for urban planning and development. A framework for analyzing interaction design qualities is presented. The framework consists of the practical, the social, the aesthetic, the structural and the ethical quality dimensions, and it was tried out in practice with developers and designers of the portal. This provided experiences used to revise the framework. The results indicate that the framework can be improved by splitting the social quality dimension into a communicational dimension and an organizational dimension. The structural dimension is also renamed to the technical dimension.
Keywords: experiential qualities, interaction design qualities, quality in use, use qualities, user experience
Virtual fashion and avatar design: a survey of consumers and designers BIBAKFull-Text 599-602
  Jeffrey Bardzell; Tyler Pace; Jennifer Terrell
As virtual worlds evolve, so does the visual language of avatars inside them. In Second Life, an emergent virtual fashion industry supports amateur fashion/avatar design. This fashion industry includes both emergent (i.e., user-created) social institutions as well as a network of technologies, including Second Life's virtual environment itself, which support a sophisticated fusion of technical and cultural practices. This paper presents the results of a survey, offering an empirical overview of virtual fashionistas' shopping and content creation behaviors in Second Life. The results suggest relationships between technology and culture, giving rise to concrete forms of sociality, style, embodiment and gender in the virtual world. The paper concludes with a discussion of the role of usability (both in fashion creation and consumption) in driving the desirability of fashion products, bodies, and even gender performances in virtual environments.
Keywords: Second Life, user study, user-generated content, virtual fashion
Space-multiplexed input on mouse-extended notebooks BIBAKFull-Text 603-606
  Florian Block; Hans Gellersen
Space-multiplexed input allows the distribution of tasks across spatially separated input devices. In this paper, we present an empirical study that evaluates the practical applicability of space-multiplexed input to mouse-extended notebooks -- a common configuration which integrates both a touchpad and an external mouse. Our study shows that (1) two-handed input can instantly be performed by subjects without significant loss in performance; (2) one-handed operation of space-multiplexed interfaces performs worse than time-multiplexed input; and (3) the touchpad can be faster to acquire than virtual handles of standard size.
Keywords: notebook, space-multiplexed input, touchpad, two-handed interaction
The impact of cognitive load on the perception of time BIBAKFull-Text 607-610
  Florian Block; Hans Gellersen
In cognitive psychology it is well known that cognitive load can have a significant impact on time perception. In this paper, we present an observation made during an empirical evaluation of several input techniques, showing that the cognitive load occurring during user input can significantly reduce perceived time. We provide a discussion of our findings, proposing that existing work in cognitive psychology, such as the Cognitive-Timer Model is applicable to HCI; and that this understanding can provide valuable information for predicting and actively modeling perceived input performance when designing user interfaces.
Keywords: cognitive load, perception of time, user interface design
Experiencing the non-sensuous: on measurement, representation and conception in urban art installations BIBAKFull-Text 611-614
  Morten Breinbjerg; Morten S. Riis; Tobias Ebsen; Rasmus B. Lunding
In this paper we discuss the conflict between a scientific and an artistic approach to interface design in an urban experience-oriented installation, we designed for the Hopenhagen LIVE activities in Copenhagen during the COP15 climate summit meeting in December 2009. The installation called "Atmosphere -- the sound and sight of CO2" converted data from CO2 measurements to sound and visuals presented through headphones and on a 2-meter high, quadrant sculpture that functioned as a transparent, low resolution LED screen. Hereby a normally non-sensuous phenomenon became visible and audible giving the public sensuous access to the symbolic villain of climate change: Carbon dioxide. What the sound and visuals actually represented and how it was conceived is a rather complex question that is fundamental to the artistic concept and of epistemological concern for this paper.
Keywords: interface design, measurement and epistemology, representation, sonification, visualization
DisQo: a user needs analysis method for smart home BIBAKFull-Text 615-618
  Joëlle Coutaz; Emeric Fontaine; Nadine Mandran; Alexandre Demeure
How can people identify the services that they might expect from their smart home when they have little to no knowledge about novel technologies? This paper reports on a user needs analysis method designed to answer this question: DisQo. We have recruited 17 families and used a combination of interviews and playful cultural probes. Results show that families are willing to couple smart objects to improve their lives.
Keywords: end-user composition, service-oriented computing, smart artifacts coupling, smart home, ubiquitous computing
User perception of interruptions in multimedia annotation tasks BIBAKFull-Text 619-622
  Chris Creed; Chris P. Bowers; Robert J. Hendley; Russell Beale
For mixed-initiative multimedia annotation systems an effective dialogue between the system and user is critical. In order to inform the development of such dialogue a clear insight into the impact of interruptions upon the perceptions of the user is required. We present preliminary results of an investigation into interruptions in the form of queries to the user. We show that a user can perceive differences between trivial and important queries. Whether a query is shown in or out of context, or at some opportune time, is also shown to have an impact on user perception of the system.
Keywords: interruptions, multimedia annotation
Seeking a theoretical foundation for design of in sitro usability assessments BIBAKFull-Text 623-626
  Yngve Dahl
Recent studies on usability assessment methodology suggest that features of real-word use settings can be replicated in laboratories in order to combine realism with a high level of control. The field of human-computer interaction, however, lacks theoretical foundation for how to design well scoped and targeted in sitro, or simulation-based usability assessments. In this paper, we draw parallels between usability assessments and training simulations. We argue that the same mechanisms through which training simulations are adjusted to optimize transfer of skills can also be used in usability assessments conducted in sitro to trigger user reflections on specific design aspects.
Keywords: fidelity, simulation, training simulation, usability assessment, user-centered design
Why do users communicate via such or such media?: some insights from users' daily experiences BIBAKFull-Text 627-630
  Françoise Détienne; Béatrice Cahour; Liv Lefebvre
The objective of this study is to understand why people choose to use such or such media of communication in their daily activity. In a field study, twelve young adults were requested to narrate daily communication experiences on a storyboard, some of them being interviewed afterward. Quantitative results show a significant relationship between the choice of media and the affective or socio-relational link with the recipient. Qualitative analyses highlight (1) more or less deliberate choices of media, (2) strategic choices of media for emotional interactions or for reinforcing social relationships, (3) management of communication focus, (4) management of information complexity and ambiguity, (5) management of interruptiveness and modeling interlocutors' availability and preference, (6) management of time-distributed communication with conversational progress and context switches. These results are put into perspective in the framework of mediated communication theories.
Keywords: media affordances, mediated communication, socio-affective relationship, users' experience
The impact of concept (re)presentation on users' evaluation and perception BIBAKFull-Text 631-634
  Sarah Diefenbach; Marc Hassenzahl; Kai Eckoldt; Matthias Laschke
Early product concept evaluation, which is based on descriptions or conceptual sketches instead of functional prototypes or design models, has many practical advantages. However, a question at hand is whether the format of representation impacts the results of empirical "user studies". A study with two different design concepts and 326 participants revealed that global product evaluation (i.e., goodness) and high-level product perceptions (i.e., pragmatic quality, hedonic quality) are not influenced by differences in the concept (re)presentation (text, pictures, video, functional prototype). Only the assessment of interaction characteristics, such as its speed, was affected.
Keywords: concept testing, evaluation, interaction, prototyping, representation, user experience
Exploration of direct bi-manual interaction in digitally mediated stop-motion animation BIBAKFull-Text 635-638
  Mariza Dima; John Lee; Mark Wright
In this paper we present the development of a digital system prototype for character animation, with the primary focus on enabling direct bi-manual interaction through the employment of haptic sense and gestural control. The aim of the research is to explore the design of digital animation systems that build upon and augment the rich tacit knowledge embodied in the traditional creative practice of stop-motion animation. A team of highly skilled stop-motion animators participated in the design process of the prototype system evaluating and reflecting upon the key aspects of the design. We describe our design approach and the methodology employed in two design key studies framed around the concepts of direct tactile manipulation and two-handed interaction. We identify the components that enabled immediacy and enhanced engagement with the new system. The outcomes of the studies illustrate the system's potential for enabling immersive physical interaction in a digital animation setting.
Keywords: animation, embodied interaction, haptic I/O, tacit knowledge
Choosing field methods: a reflection on a RepGrid study BIBAKFull-Text 639-642
  Helen M. Edwards; Sharon McDonald; S. Michelle Young
Usability researchers increasingly need to get into the field to study emerging technologies and new contexts of use. Success in such endeavors requires an appropriate toolbox of techniques, to use in specific settings and with a broad range of user groups. In this study a user group of elderly citizens considered what benefits mobile technologies could offer them. Two techniques (repertory grids and semi-structured interviews) were used. Reflection on the study has led to identification of a number of criteria to consider when choosing field methods.
Keywords: elderly citizens, field methods, mobile technology, repertory grids, semi-structured interviews
Mementos: a tangible interface supporting travel BIBAKFull-Text 643-646
  Augusto Esteves; Ian Oakley
Tangible interaction promises interfaces with ready affordances, which embrace physicality and which naturally support collaboration. However, the complexity of the hardware required to produce tangible systems has typically constrained their operation to highly specialized application areas and particular physical environments. This paper argues that this has limited the scope of research into such systems and addresses this issue by presenting Mementos, a tangible interface for tourists and travelers and intended to support all stages of a trip: preparation, experience, and remembering and reflecting. In this way, it explores how tangible interaction can support a complex real world task spread across time and multiple contexts. The paper describes the design, implementation and early evaluation of Mementos. It concludes that such work takes an important step towards popularizing tangible interaction.
Keywords: HCI, context-aware, tangible interaction, tourism
Analysis in usability evaluations: an exploratory study BIBAKFull-Text 647-650
  Asbjørn Følstad; Effie Lai-Chong Law; Kasper Hornbæk
While the planning and implementation of usability evaluations are well described in the literature, the analysis of the evaluation data is not. We present interviews with 11 usability professionals on how they conduct analysis, describing the resources, collaboration, creation of recommendations, and prioritization involved. The interviews indicate a lack of structure in the analysis process and suggest activities, such as generating recommendations, that are unsupported by existing methods. We discuss how to better support analysis, and propose four themes for future research on analysis in usability evaluations.
Keywords: analysis, interview, thinking aloud, usability evaluation, usability inspection, usability professionals
Pocket Bee: a multi-modal diary for field research BIBAKFull-Text 651-654
  Jens Gerken; Stefan Dierdorf; Patric Schmid; Alexandra Sautner; Harald Reiterer
In this paper we present Pocket Bee, a multi-modal diary tool that allows researchers to remotely collect rich and in-depth data in the field. Based on the Android smart phone platform, we especially focused on an easy to use user interface. We introduce the notion of core questions that serve as cognitive triggers for pre-defined events. Multiple modalities allow participants to compose notes in the most appropriate and convenient way. Instant network synchronization allows researchers to view and analyze the data on-the-fly while also being able to create new tasks or questionnaires during an ongoing study. These can also be linked to certain trigger events, such as time and date. Thereby, Pocket Bee supports diary and Experience Sampling (ESM) studies. The system was developed in a user-centered design process and its potential value is described in a scenario of use illustrating an upcoming study.
Keywords: ESM, diary, evaluation, longitudinal, multi-modal, tool
SmarterPhone: supporting meetings in a mobile context BIBAKFull-Text 655-658
  Humberto Glória; Tiago Guerreiro; Daniel Gonçalves
We must deal with growing amounts of information, leading to organizational and retrieval problems. This is particularly true in a mobile context. We describe how to proactively present the users with information relevant for a meeting, in a mobile context, based solely on the personal information available in their computers. We performed a study where 100 users were asked about what makes some information important for a given meeting, leading to the creation of SmarterPhone, a mobile application whose interface was crafted to enable users to efficiently access personally relevant information in a particular context. A user study showed that on average 80% of all relevant documents and people are found, demonstrating the validity of our approach and underlying relevance criteria.
Keywords: meetings, mobile applications, personal information management, user studies
Evaluating game genres for tagging images BIBAKFull-Text 659-662
  Dion Hoe-Lian Goh; Rebecca P. Ang; Alton Y. K. Chua; Chei Sian Lee
Applications that use games to harness human intelligence are increasing in popularity and such games are also known as Games With A Purpose (GWAP). Most GWAPs are collaborative in nature, requiring pairs of players to cooperate in a game to receive points. Competitive GWAPs, where players work against each other, are a more recent entrant, and have been argued to address shortcomings of collaborative GWAPs. In this paper, we focus on image tagging GWAPs where users play games to generate tags for images. Three versions were created: collaborative GWAP, competitive GWAP and a control application for manual tagging. The applications were evaluated to uncover users' preferences for these genres as well as the usefulness of the tags generated. Results suggest that the competitive GWAP outperformed the other two applications. Implications of the work are discussed.
Keywords: games with a purpose, human computation game, image tagging, social computing, user study
Designing a personal information visualization tool BIBAKFull-Text 663-666
  Paulo Gomes; Sandra Gama; Daniel Gonçalves
Interacting with computers has become part of our daily lives. This interaction results in large amounts of personal information, spread throughout places and applications. As a consequence, it is quite difficult to get an overall view of all our information or to find a specific item we are looking for. A meaningful visualization technique may be the solution to this problem. We present VisMe, an interactive visualization tool that allows users to explore personal information. It integrates and uniformly displays relevant concepts in interconnected timelines. Each of these items (people, subjects and documents) can be progressively explored, creating new timelines, where several avenues can be simultaneously explored in context. VisMe allows relations between concepts to be explored in a straightforward way. By providing the means to interactively find relations between different kinds of information in order to retrieve personally relevant data, VisMe gives users insight into their digital selves that current tools have a hard time providing.
Keywords: information visualization, personal information management, user-centered design
The city at hand: media installations as urban information systems BIBAKFull-Text 667-670
  Roland Haring; Hideaki Ogawa; Christopher Lindinger; Horst Hörtner; Shervin Afshar; David Stolarsky
This paper describes an approach to design a novel system for presenting data related to a city in an intuitive and metaphorical way. By using interactive surfaces and the coupling of information with graspable physical objects, urban data, maps and live sensors built around the physical model of a city can be used to engage discourse and civil participation. This research group aims to create new media installations for bridging the gap between citizen and urban data. In this research, we realized two installations named "Changing Linz" and "SimLinz". By providing different interaction modalities to generate and visualize views of datasets, the systems support new insights on statistical and real-time information of a city. The paper is a case study of urban information presentation systems that were built for public installations in the city of Linz.
Keywords: HCI, collaboration, interaction design, maps, multimedia, paper-pen metaphor, presentation system, tangible interface, tangible interfaces, urban information system
Take me by the hand: haptic compasses in mobile devices through shape change and weight shift BIBAKFull-Text 671-674
  Fabian Hemmert; Susann Hamann; Matthias Löwe; Anne Wohlauf; Josefine Zeipelt; Gesche Joost
This paper compares two novel physical information displays, both of which allow for haptic, non-invasive, non-audiovisual information display: a shape-changing device and a weight-shifting device. As for their suitability in mobile navigation applications, the two haptic systems are compared against each other, and also against a GUI-based solution, which serves as a baseline. The results of the study indicate that the shape- and weight-based displays are less accurate than the GUI-based variant, but may be suitable for simple directional guidance (e.g. walking ahead, or turning left or right) and beneficial in terms of reaction times to visual cues (e.g. traffic lights). This paper concludes with an outlook towards potential future research activities in this field.
Keywords: handheld, mobile phone, navigation, physical displays, shape change, weight shift
Experiments in the wild: public evaluation of off-screen visualizations in the Android market BIBAKFull-Text 675-678
  Niels Henze; Benjamin Poppinga; Susanne Boll
Since the introduction of application stores for mobile devices there has been an increasing interest to use this distribution platform to collect user feedback. Mobile application stores can make research prototypes widely available and enable to conduct user studies "in the wild" with participants from all over the world. Previous work published research prototypes to collect qualitative feedback or to collect quantitative attributes of specific prototypes. In this paper we explore how to conduct a study that focuses on a specific task and tries to isolate cause and effect much like controlled experiments in the lab. We compare three visualization techniques for off-screen objects by publishing a game in the Android Market. e.g. we show that the performance of the visualization techniques depends on the number of objects. Using a more realistic task and feedback from a hundred times more participants than previous studies lead to much higher external validity. We conclude that public experiments are a viable tool to complement or replace lab studies.
Keywords: Android Market, experiment, game, map navigation, off-screen
TilePix: an exploratory interface to astronomical image databases BIBAKFull-Text 679-682
  Avon Huxor; Steve Phillipps
In this paper we present TilePix, an ongoing project to design and build a visual interface to massive, astronomical, imaging databases. We focus on the motivation, design rationale and early decisions taken to design the interface. We address the problem that arises when astronomical image data is reduced to metadata by automated tools, losing much of the basic information. TilePix allows a structured access to the raw image data, through the metadata, facilitating exploration and discovery. This is achieved by creating image tiled image displays that represent the formal data normally used by astronomers. The use of the prototype is also briefly described.
Keywords: exploration of data, image database access, premature formalization
Motor efficiency of text entry in a combination of a soft keyboard and unistrokes BIBAKFull-Text 683-686
  Poika Isokoski; Benoît Martin; Paul Gandouly; Thomas Stephanov
We describe a text entry system called UniKeyb where a character is entered when the stylus lands on a key on a soft keyboard. Optionally, a second character may be entered by doing a unistroke gesture before lifting the stylus. A simulation suggested a speed advantage of about 20% in expert use. In an experiment, we verified that learning needed for UniKeyb use is possible. Unikeyb may indeed outperform conventional soft keyboards in expert use. However, reaching such level of expertise requires learning the skill of chunking writing into two-character chunks. UniKeyb offers a soft transition to Unistroke writing because the use of Unistrokes is not compulsory.
Keywords: UniKeyb, soft keyboard, text entry, unistroke
Prototyping iPhone apps: realistic experiences on the device BIBAKFull-Text 687-690
  Anders P. Jørgensen; Matthijs Collard; Christian Koch
In this paper we evaluate Touch Application Prototype -- a tool for designers to quickly create interactive and realistic prototypes of Apple® iPhone® apps and test them on the device. We define 5 requirements such as Speed, Practicality and Realism, and evaluate the tool during the development of a mobile work tool. Users intuitively use their inherent knowledge about touch interfaces, revealing expectations towards the use of gestures, and testing the interface's affordance. TAP rivals the speed and ease of paper prototyping, yet offers a realistic look and feel, without any coding. It is offered as a public, free tool.
Keywords: gestures, iPad, iPhone, mobile applications, user evaluation
Onto-Frogger: the making of BIBAKFull-Text 691-694
  Amalia Kallergi; Fons J. Verbeek
This paper presents the making of a game-like interface to an image collection. Having previously claimed that video games can be relevant to collections as interfaces to support exploration, we proceeded with developing a prototype game as a case study for an image database. The making of this game and, specifically, of the game's interface has been an iterative process the stages and challenges of which we discuss here. In our approach, we deliberately adopt a HCI standpoint but our practice has been heavily influenced by concepts particular to games. The resulting artifact is intriguing both as a product in the context of our database and as a research tool to explore the potentials of game-like interfaces to collections.
Keywords: arcade games, gaming interface, image repositories
Politics at the interface: a Foucauldian power analysis BIBAKFull-Text 695-698
  Gopinaath Kannabiran; Marianne Graves Petersen
At the birth of participatory design, there was a strong political consciousness surrounding the design of new technology, the design process in particular, establishing a rich set of methods and tools for user-centered design. Today, the term design has extended its scope of concern beyond the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis.
   This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface. By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing the need for furthering this agenda and outlining future work.
Keywords: critical analysis, foucault, gender, interface design, politics, power, transgender
Thumbs-up scale and frequency of use scale for use in self reporting of children's computer experience BIBAKFull-Text 699-702
  Akiyo Kano; Matthew Horton; Janet C. Read
A Computer Experience questionnaire was piloted with 49 children to validate two new scales of measurement, the Thumbs-Up Scale (TUS) and Frequency of Use Scale (FUS). TUS is a VAS (Visually Analogue Scale) designed to measure perceived skill levels. FUS is a Likert scale for measuring how often a device is used or an event occurs. The two scales gained high correlation with their respective validation measures (TUS r=.892, FUS r=.744) indicating that TUS and FUS can be used effectively with children as young as 7 years old.
Keywords: Computer Experience, Frequency of Use Scale, Thumbs-Up Scale, VAS, children, Likert scale, validating scales
EcoIsland: a persuasive application to motivate sustainable behavior in collectivist cultures BIBAKFull-Text 703-706
  Hiroaki Kimura; Tatsuo Nakajima
Until now, many kinds of persuasive applications have been developed, and most of which are used by individuals for personal benefits, example includes better healthcare, better lifestyle, etc. However, one application area that is yet to be explored effectively is persuading commons for preserving shared resources including environmental conservation. Unlike existing persuasive applications, these applications do not aim personal benefits and consequently requires radically different persuasion techniques. In this paper, we apply knowledge of cross-cultural understanding to this kind of persuasive applications. We introduce five design strategies for persuasive applications that could be used especially in collectivist cultures. By sharing our experiences of building persuasive application for reducing CO2 emissions, we expose how these five strategies could be applied in persuasive applications in collectivist cultures.
Keywords: cultural difference, persuasive technology, sustainability
Comprehending parametric CAD models: an evaluation of two graphical user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 707-710
  Sinisa Kolaric; Halil Erhan; Robert Woodbury; Bernhard E. Riecke
In this study, we experimentally evaluated two GUI prototypes (named "split" and "integrated") for parametric CAD modeling. Participants in the study were asked to perform a number of 3D model comprehension tasks, using both interfaces. The tasks themselves were classified into three classes: parameterization, topological and geometrical tasks. We measured the task completion times, error rates, and user satisfaction for both interfaces. The experimental results showed that task completion times are significantly shorter when the "split" interface is being used, in all cases of interest: 1) tasks taken as a whole and 2) tasks viewed by task type. There was no significant difference in error rates between the two interfaces; however, error rate was significantly higher in the case of parameterization tasks (for both interfaces). User satisfaction was significantly higher for the "split" interface. The study gave us a better understanding of the human performance when perceiving and comprehending parametric CAD models, and offered insight into the usability aspects of the two studied interfaces; we also believe that the knowledge obtained could be of practical utility to implementers of parametric CAD modeling packages.
Keywords: 3D model comprehension, CAD, GUI, interfaces, parametric CAD, parametric models, usability
Are human-computer interaction design patterns really used? BIBAKFull-Text 711-714
  Christian Kruschitz; Martin Hitz
This paper describes the outcoming of an online survey which focuses on the usage of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design patterns. The results should clarify if HCI patterns are currently used in academic and especially in industrial environments. Furthermore, we want to investigate the shortcomings of the design pattern concept from the users point of view. The results are incorporated in the design of an formalized HCI design pattern structure.
Keywords: HCI design pattern, formalization, survey
Where are the Ionians of user experience research? BIBAKFull-Text 715-718
  Kari Kuutti
The paper discusses about the attempts to clarify and define the concept of User Experience, using the difference between Babylonians and Ionians to astronomy as a parable. According to paper, the effort in UX research may be too heavily directed towards immediate practical usefulness, and suggests that there is a need for a complementary conceptual-theoretical discussion.
Keywords: Empirical Research, history, theory, usability
To what extent usability truly matters?: a study on usability requirements in call-for-tenders of software systems issued by public authorities BIBAKFull-Text 719-722
  Taina Lehtonen; Juha Kumpulainen; Tapani N. Liukkonen; Timo Jokela
Systems in public organizations widely suffer from poor usability. We analyzed to what extent public authorities require usability, through examining 38 call-for-tenders that were issued during a period of three months in Finland. We found six categories of usability requirements. Our conclusion is that the authorities seem to have some concern on usability. However, not a single call-for-tenders was found where usability was truly required: the usability requirements were invalid and/or not verifiable. We conclude that both more research and more guidance for defining usability requirements for practitioners are needed.
Keywords: call-for-tenders, usability, usability requirements
Blue-sky and down-to-earth: how analogous practices can support the user-centred design process BIBAKFull-Text 723-726
  Sara Ljungblad; Clint Heyer
We discuss how traditional methods for understanding design requirements are leveraged to produce innovative and fundamentally new perspectives when using analogy. We call these analogous practice approaches, and illustrate two cases that both use analogy to achieve exploratory design with ethnography, by gathering data from a different setting than we intend to design for. We discuss how the use of analogy is different in the cases, yet exemplify a related perspective of using analogy as a resource to support inventive design with traditional data collection methods.
Keywords: analogous practice, analogy, design methods, ethnography, transfer scenarios
GappaGoshti : a social networking platform for information dissemination in the rural world BIBAKFull-Text 727-730
  Sylvan Lobo; Pankaj Doke; Sanjay Kimbahune
The poor, rural, semi-literate farmer in India is in dire need of credible information services for sustenance. Various telephony, Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS), Short Messaging Service (SMS) texts, kiosks, and mobile based approaches have attempted to cater to their information needs, but have failed to give an engaging and useful experience. We have attempted to give the rural farmer a rich and useful Internet-like experience through a mobile based multimedia social networking platform -- GappaGoshti™. We have created an engaging user experience which transforms into a platform used for information exchange, advice exchange, announcement board and more such services in spite of the technology and social challenges.
Keywords: ICT, India, asynchronous persistent audio, mobile, rural, rural social networking, search, social media, usability, voice, web
PINwI: pedestrian indoor navigation without infrastructure BIBAKFull-Text 731-734
  Markus Löchtefeld; Sven Gehring; Johannes Schöning; Antonio Krüger
Navigation in larger unfamiliar buildings like town halls, airports, shopping malls or other public indoor locations is often difficult for humans. Due to the high amount of infrastructure needed for indoor positioning, just a few navigation services for indoor environments exist. Therefore in many of these buildings 'YOU-ARE-HERE' (YAH) maps are provided, often located at the entrance or other key places, to facilitate orientation and navigation within the building, but they have the disadvantages of being stationary. In this paper, we try to overcome these problems by presenting PINwI (Pedestrian Indoor Navigation without Infrastructure), an application that allows the user of a mobile camera device with integrated compass and accelerometer to utilize a photo of such an indoor YAH-map to navigate through the corresponding building. Using a dead reckoning approach, we enrich stationary analog YAH-maps with basic location functionality and turn them into a digital and dynamic medium that can help decision making while taking turns or estimating distances.
Keywords: 'you are here' maps, indoor localization, mobile camera devices, pedestrian navigation
Pointing for non-visual orientation and navigation BIBAKFull-Text 735-738
  Charlotte Magnusson; Miguel Molina; Kirsten Rassmus-Gröhn; Delphine Szymczak
People who have visual impairments may have difficulties navigating freely and without personal assistance, and some are even afraid to go out alone. Current navigation devices with non-visual feedback are quite expensive, few, and are in general focused on routing and target finding. We have developed a test prototype application running on the Android platform in which a user may scan for map information using the mobile phone as a pointing device to orient herself and to choose targets for navigation and be guided to them. It has previously been shown in proof of concept studies that scanning and pointing to get information about different locations, or to use it to be guided to a point, can be useful. In the present study we describe the design of PointNav, a prototype navigational application, and report initial results from a recent test with visually impaired and sighted users.
Keywords: GPS, audio-haptic, augmented reality, compass, interaction, navigation, non-visual
Mobile or desktop websites?: website usage on multitouch devices BIBAKFull-Text 739-742
  Max-Emanuel Maurer; Doris Hausen; Alexander De Luca; Heinrich Hussmann
Mobile Internet is nearly a standard nowadays. Due to former bandwidth, input and screen limitations, website providers often created special versions of their websites for mobile devices. New hardware and interactions techniques like multitouch gestures enable a new way of browsing the original versions of websites. However, companies still spent effort and money in creating secondary versions of their original pages. With the rapid deployment of new mobile devices, the usefulness of mobile versions of websites becomes questionable. To investigate on users expectations, we conducted an online survey with 108 participants about their browsing habits and preferences on mobile devices.
   In a follow-up user study with 24 participants. The results of the survey show that more and more people prefer using original content instead of the mobile version, especially for users of new generation mobile devices like the iPhone or Android phones. Those results are supported by the user study, which shows no significant performance increase when comparing both versions -- the mobile and desktop one -- performing a visual search task.
Keywords: Mobile Internet, mobile devices, multitouch
Venice unfolding: a tangible user interface for exploring faceted data in a geographical context BIBAKFull-Text 743-746
  Till Nagel; Frank Heidmann; Massimiliano Condotta; Erik Duval
We introduce Venice Unfolding, a case study on tangible geo-visualization on an interactive tabletop to enable the exploration of architectural projects in Venice. Our tangible user interface consists of a large display showing projects on a map, and a polyhedral object to browse these data interactively by selecting and filtering various metadata facets. In this paper we describe a prototype employing new methods to communicate territorial data in visual and tangible ways. The object reduces the barrier between the physical world and virtual data, and eases the understanding of faceted geographical data, enabling urban planners and citizens alike to participate in the discovery and analysis of information referring to the physical world.
Keywords: faceted data, geo visualization, multi-touch, tabletop interface, tangible interaction, urban planning, visual browsing
DESIGNi: a workbench for supporting interaction design BIBAKFull-Text 747-750
  Claudia Nass; Kerstin Klöckner; Sarah Diefenbach; Marc Hassenzahl
New devices expand design possibilities, but also lead to more challenges in the creation of interaction forms. This article introduces DESIGNi, a workbench that supports designers in exploring interaction forms and their attributes in a structured and systematic way. We present the components of DESIGNi and its use in creating a business application. Moreover, a comparison of the interaction forms specified in the design process with DESIGNi and the perceived interaction characteristics in user studies revealed interesting insights and points for improvement in the interaction design itself.
Keywords: design workbench, interaction design, interaction vocabulary
What makes a Butlerbot a Butlerbot?: a discussion of a robot classification system BIBAKFull-Text 751-754
  Mie Nørgaard
This paper discusses the development of a classification system for robots, inspired by other ordering systems such as archaeological typology and zoological taxonomy. The paper argues that a robot classification system would help researchers, designers and public discuss specific types of robots -- such as robotic hoovers, robotic pets and speculative social multipurpose robots -- and the ethical implications they each offer. Inspiration from typology and taxonomy is discussed and the paper points to challenges for the development of a robot classification system and concrete plans for future work.
Keywords: futurescaping, human-robot interaction, robot classification, robots, social robots
Towards a model for egocentric interaction with physical and virtual objects BIBAKFull-Text 755-758
  Thomas Pederson; Lars-Erik Janlert; Dipak Surie
Designers of mobile context-aware systems are struggling with the problem of conceptually incorporating the real world into the system design. We present a body-centric modeling framework (as opposed to device-centric) that incorporates physical and virtual objects of interest on the basis of proximity and human perception, framed in the context of an emerging "egocentric" interaction paradigm.
Keywords: interaction paradigm, user interface design
Visualizing the text of Philip Pullman's trilogy "His Dark Materials" BIBAKFull-Text 759-764
  Tim Regan; Linda Becker
Digital technologies have repeatedly redefined the paper world of books. Digital printing has overhauled the publishing processes, and the internet has revolutionized the way audiences and authors connect to share their enthusiasm and criticism. Now the digitization of books themselves, either for searching, browsing, and reading on a computer screen through services like Google Books, or for reading on dedicated devices like Amazon's Kindle, the Sony Reader, or Apple's iPad are threatening the established order. For this project we side-step these issues and concentrate instead on how the analytical power and display capabilities of computers may be used to enhance our understanding of book texts. We use the term "book texts" rather than the word "books" as we are not trying to build computer systems that might understand books, but rather we use the computer's ability to treat books as an abstract sequence of words as the starting point for new analytical tools.
Keywords: book visualization, books, children's literature, information visualization, text visualization, visualization
Teaching UbiComp with sense BIBAKFull-Text 765-768
  Mike Richards; Neil Smith
Modern computer science education should take account of recent advances in smart and ubiquitous computing technologies. Ubicomp shows great potential to attract new learners. However, novice students find it needlessly difficult to learn concepts with existing programming languages, let alone the additional demands of programming sensors, actuators and networks. We have developed Sense, an extension to the graphical programming language Scratch, and an associated sensor/actuator board. Together, these will allow novice undergraduate students to quickly develop their own smart devices while learning the fundamentals of programming. Students will first study with Sense in 2011 but developmental feedback has been positive.
Keywords: education, graphical languages, programming, ubiquitous computing
Introducing co-design for digital technologies in rural areas BIBAKFull-Text 769-772
  Fausto Sainz; R. Ignacio Madrid; Jaisiel Madrid
This article presents the preliminary results of an innovative experience of user involvement, which employs a methodology anchored in the Nordic participatory design tradition. The activities conducted cover early stages of the design process for electronic identity (eID) card applications in rural areas of Southern Spain. People Led Innovation (PLI) methodology is adopted in order to ensure that the technological solutions to be developed fit users' needs. PLI is a Human Centered Design (HCD) approach which combines Ergonomics and Emotional evaluation techniques (e.g. user experience testing) with participatory techniques (e.g. co-design sessions) in the context of the specific 'form of life' of potential users. Research results showed that this combination of techniques and approaches provides valuable information to guide the design of products and services adapted to the real context in which they are going to be used.
Keywords: PLI, co-design, eID, participatory design, people led innovation, rural areas, user experience
PyGmI: creation and evaluation of a portable gestural interface BIBAKFull-Text 773-776
  Matthias Schwaller; Denis Lalanne; Omar Abou Khaled
The Portable Gestural Interface PyGmI, which we implemented, is a smart tool to interact with a system via simple hand gestures. The user wears some color markers on his fingers and a webcam on his chest. The implemented prototype permits to visualize and navigate into presentation files, thanks to a tiny projector fixed on the user's belt. The gesture recognition uses color segmentation, tracking and the Gesture and Activity Recognition Toolkit (GART). This article presents PyGmI, its setup, the designed gestures, the recognition modules, an application using it and finally an evaluation.
Keywords: gestural interaction, portable user interface
Capital music: personal expression with a public display of song choice BIBAKFull-Text 777-780
  Jan Seeburger; Marcus Foth; Dian Tjondronegoro
Using information and communication technology devices in public urban places can help to create a personalised space. Looking at a mobile phone screen or listening to music on an MP3 player is a common practice avoiding direct contact with others e.g. whilst using public transport. However, such devices can also be utilised to explore how to build new meaningful connections with the urban space and the collocated people within. We present findings of work-in-progress on Capital Music, a mobile application enabling urban dwellers to listen to music songs as usual, but also allowing them to announce song titles and discover songs currently being listened to by other people in the vicinity. We study the ways that this tool can change or even enhance people's experience of public urban spaces. Our first user study also found changes in choosing different songs. Anonymous social interactions based on users' music selection are implemented in the first iteration of the prototype that we studied.
Keywords: context sharing, music, public places, urban informatics
Research methods for involving hearing impaired children in IT innovation BIBAKFull-Text 781-784
  Karin Slegers; Pieter Duysburgh; An Jacobs
Involving hearing impaired children in research is not straightforward, as these children often have deficiencies in spoken and written language. Therefore, researchers cannot rely on commonly used research methods that are based on verbal communication. In this paper we describe a series of research activities that were conducted to understand the world of experience of hearing impaired children in order to generate ideas for innovative IT applications. A user-centered design approach was followed, in which potential users and stakeholders were involved as much as possible. The methods that were used to understand the target group are discussed with respect to the experience of the researchers. Successes and lessons learned are described and recommendations for involving target groups with whom researchers and designers cannot communicate as they are used to, are provided.
Keywords: children, hearing impairments, methods, user-centered design
Evaluation of adaptive SpringLens: a multi-focus interface for exploring multimedia collections BIBAFull-Text 785-788
  Sebastian Stober; Christian Hentschel; Andreas Nürnberger
Sometimes users of a multimedia retrieval system are not able to explicitly state their information need. They rather want to browse a collection in order to get an overview and to discover interesting content. In previous work, we have presented a novel interface implementing a fish-eye-based approach for browsing high-dimensional multimedia data that has been projected onto display space. The impact of projection errors is alleviated by introducing an adaptive nonlinear multi-focus zoom lens. This work describes the evaluation of this approach in a user study where participants are asked to solve an exploratory image retrieval task using the SpringLens interface. As a baseline, the usability of the interface is compared to a common pan-and-zoom-based interface. The results of a survey and the analysis of recorded screencasts and eye tracking data are presented.
Measuring effects of private and shared displays in small-group knowledge sharing processes BIBAKFull-Text 789-792
  Sara Streng; Karsten Stegmann; Sebastian Boring; Sonja Böhm; Frank Fischer; Heinrich Hussmann
Knowledge sharing is important in every team or organization. Various tools are frequently used in meetings to support knowledge sharing, ranging from pen-and-paper to whiteboards and other shared workspaces. This paper reports on a user study that investigated how private and shared displays affect knowledge sharing processes in co-located meetings. Three setups were compared in a hidden-profile experiment: a distributed system providing a shared display and laptops (Note&Share), a regular whiteboard and pen-and-paper. The results show several advantages of the distributed system. For example, the group was more confident in the solution when using Note&Share. Furthermore the number of shared arguments was significantly closer to the correct number, which suggests that misunderstandings occurred less frequently. Finally some interesting effects were observed, which we claim to be connected to the availability of pen-and-paper in all conditions. Therefore, we discuss the observed effects as well as general lessons learned from this experiment.
Keywords: hidden profile experiment, knowledge sharing, mind map, multi-display environment
Mobile device interaction gestures for older users BIBAKFull-Text 793-796
  Christian Stößel; Lucienne Blessing
Finger gesture interaction on multitouch surfaces has become increasingly popular, especially on mobile devices. While manufacturers struggle to stake their claims in setting the next interaction standard, research still has to validate the 'intuitiveness' and 'naturalness' which is often attributed to this new interaction paradigm. Elderly users, who still struggle with interfaces that do not address their particular needs, abilities and knowledge, could especially benefit from a more intuitive and easy-to-use interface. This work addresses the question of which gestures might be appropriate for a range of common tasks on a generic mobile device for older users. Furthermore, we investigate whether the preferred gestures for a certain task differ between younger and older users. Results show that perceived suitability differs significantly on characteristics such as basic gesture type, fingers involved, or gesture complexity between the age groups.
Keywords: aging, gesture-based interaction, multi-touch interfaces, user-centered design
Messenger visual: a pictogram-based IM service to improve communications among disabled people BIBAKFull-Text 797-800
  Pere Tuset; Pere Barberán; Léonard Janer; Esteve Buscà; Sandra Delgado; Nuria Vilà
This paper presents a pictogram-based instant messaging service that intends to bridge the social and digital gap of people with cognitive impairments. By means of using pictograms as the communication language and by tailoring down the interface to suit pictogram-based communication requirements, the service allows users to exchange real-time messages across the Internet to communicate with their relatives and acquaintances. Through our initial evaluation procedure with a group of eleven users with different types and degrees of cognitive impairments we show that a pictogram-based instant messaging service has a great potential to improve their communicative capabilities, as well as to enable their personal and social development.
Keywords: assistive technologies, instant messaging services, pictogram-based communication, user-centered design
From magical experience to effortlessness: an exploration of the components of intuitive interaction BIBAKFull-Text 801-804
  Daniel Ullrich; Sarah Diefenbach
Though researchers, industry and users largely agree that products must be 'intuitive' to use, there is little agreement on what is meant by this claim. In order to clarify the concept and, in particular, its differentiation to usability we choose a phenomenological approach. Overall, we identify four relevant subcomponents of intuitive interaction, whose origin is rooted in HCI and decision making research: Effortlessness, Gut Feeling, Verbalizability, and Magical Experience. Two user studies (N=115, N=37) provide further insights into the complex nature of intuitiveness. We conclude that there are systematic variations in the respective components' specification which can be regarded as particular patterns of intuitive interaction. Amongst others, these patterns depend on the product category and one's prior knowledge in the product domain.
Keywords: components of intuitiveness, intuitive interaction, prior knowledge, user experience
Role playing with fire fighters: using a worst case scenario and verbal re-enactment in the role play BIBAKFull-Text 805-808
  Paula Valkonen; Marja Liinasuo
The paper presents a case in which the new method for studying user-related issues in dangerous working environments was used. An innovation of reshaped role play, named as here as Worst Case Role Play, accompanied by reality checks in the form of verbal re-enactments, was used in searching for use context and information needs of a fire fighter performing smoke diving in a burning building. The specific purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of fire fighters' potential need for wearable electronics. The method, described and discussed in this paper, proved fruitful in eliciting user-centric information, usable also for technical design.
Keywords: method, role playing, use context
Gesture based interaction for visually-impaired people BIBAKFull-Text 809-812
  Sylvie Vidal; Grégoire Lefebvre
This paper presents a user-based pilot evaluation with visually-impaired users, which compares three different interaction paradigms when dialing a phone number on a touchscreen device. Our proposal based on the coupling of gesture recognition and vocal synthesis seems to offer users an easy, efficient and pleasurable alternative for entering numbers, without cognitive overload.
Keywords: eyes-free interaction, gesture recognition, user study
Bridging gaps with pointer warping in multi-display environments BIBAKFull-Text 813-816
  Manuela Waldner; Ernst Kruijff; Dieter Schmalstieg
Pointer warping can be an effective alternative to relocate the mouse pointer to a remote display in multi-display environments. It minimizes the mouse pointer travel and does not require the user to search for a path to the target display. However, little is known about the factors that influence the performance of pointer warping. In this paper we explore the characteristics of pointer warping compared to standard mouse behavior on a dual-monitor setup with varying physical distance. Our results show that the performance of pointer warping is hardly affected by the distance of the pointer warp, but is influenced by the direction of the warp.
Keywords: multi-display environments, pointer warping
Detecting the "point of originality" in student writing BIBAKFull-Text 817-820
  Brandon White; Johann Ari Larusson
This paper proposes a new method for the objective evaluation of student work through the identification of original content in writing assignments. Using WordNet as a lexical reference, this process allows instructors to track how key phrases are employed and evolve over the course of a student's writing, and to automatically visualize the point at which the student's language first demonstrates original thought, phrased in their own, original words. After sketching the method for isolating "points of originality," the paper provides a method for visualizing the resulting information. By visualizing otherwise subjective information in a way that is objectively intelligible, the goal is to provide educators with the ability to monitor student investment in concepts from the course syllabus, and to extend or modify the boundaries of the syllabus in anticipation of pre-existing knowledge or trends in interest.
Keywords: evaluation methods, information visualization and presentation
Architectures of interaction: an architectural perspective on digital experience BIBAKFull-Text 821-824
  Heather Wiltse; Erik Stolterman
Digital technologies increasingly form the backdrop for our lives, and both provide and shape possibilities for interaction. This is a function similar to that of architecture in the physical world. For this reason we suggest that it could be productive to view and critique interactive digital technologies as one might physical architecture: in terms of the possibilities they provide for action, visibility, and interaction. We begin by pointing to the many architectural metaphors that are already common in HCI, and then move on to demonstrate how an architectural perspective can make visible less obvious interactive spaces. Finally, we argue that the potential benefits of this perspective are that it can allow us to see where interactive spaces have been constructed (intentionally or not); think about how particular artifacts and systems interface with each other and with the whole of embodied experience; and link specific design decisions to potential social dynamics.
Keywords: architecture, critique, design, experience, infrastructure, interaction, phenomenology, postphenomenology, theory
Measuring the dynamics of user experience in short interaction sequences BIBAKFull-Text 825-828
  Benjamin Wimmer; Bernhard Wöckl; Michael Leitner; Manfred Tscheligi
In this paper we discuss the dynamics of user experience in short interaction sequences (SIS). By splitting up complex tasks into several smaller sub steps -- and therefore transforming it into a SIS -- it allows identifying and measuring dynamic changes of specific UX factors throughout the task. This enables generating a more detailed view than by common approaches like pre and post task evaluation. Through a study we examined the factors pleasantness and arousal on the basis of a generic online shopping process. For validation, two different methods (Emocards, Sensual Evaluation Instrument) were used for measurement. Results show different dynamics of UX for each of the evaluated sub steps and we therefore conclude that singular UX measurement (at one point of time) or pre and post task evaluation is not sufficient for getting a full picture of UX.
Keywords: dynamic user experience, emocards, sensual evaluation instrument, short interaction sequence

Design and interactive demonstrations

UCD method selection with usability planner BIBAKFull-Text 829-830
  Xavier Ferre; Nigel Bevan; Tomás Antón Escobar
The diversity of User Centred Design (UCD) methods and the difficulties for estimating their cost-effectiveness make planning usability activities in systems development a hard task. Usability Planner is a tool to support the selection of UCD methods to be applied in a particular project or organization, and to estimate the relative cost benefits of applying usability methods at different stages.
Keywords: UCD method selection, business benefits, business case for usability, project risks, usability support tool
HawkEye: a novel process automation interface BIBAKFull-Text 831-832
  Kristoffer Husøy; Torgeir Enkerud
Operators in the automation industries today have difficulties in maintaining their situation awareness and understanding the impact of events. Massive amounts of data must be perceived and made sense of in a short amount of time, and maintaining overview is difficult while digging deep into the details when solving problems. The HawkEye prototype described here seeks to overcome these problems by providing a zoomable interface with animated movement and information aggregation. The intentions are that the information layout with zooming can provide a better sense of context, the animated movement can support continuous learning and the information aggregation can help operators make sense of the events and their implications as they occur.
Keywords: DCS, information navigation, interaction techniques, process automation, sensemaking, situation awareness, zooming
Temporal relations in affective health BIBAFull-Text 833-838
  Elsa Vaara; Iuliana Silvasan; Anna Ståhl; Kristina Höök
In the Affective Health project we explore possibilities of how to, through biofeedback support users in making sense of the relationship between their stress and their behavior in everyday life. Affective Health is a tool for visualizing patterns and trends of bodily and contextual information. It is particularly important that the design reflects changes over time as this is how people start recognizing patterns in their own behavior and connect it to their bodily reactions. We spent substantial effort sketching and testing ways of portraying time that would move us away from more mathematically inspired representations such as for example graphs and calendars. Instead, we want users to see the signals our bodies emit as part of themselves, of their own ways of being in the world, alive, acting and reacting to their environment. We have explored many possible, alternative ways of visualizing biofeedback over time. For example as the relation between different places and with time as different layers of history in a concept inspired from ecology. The latest and most developed concept is a cyclic repetition of biodata mapped on a spiral shape.
linked.: a relatedness experience for boys BIBAKFull-Text 839-844
  Matthias Laschke; Marc Hassenzahl; Kurt Mehnert
Social exchange, intimacy and relatedness are a basic human need. Not surprisingly, there is a number of means to mediate relatedness over a distance, such as the telephone, Skype or Facebook. However, each of these imposes a particular way of communication, constrained by the employed technology rather than deliberately shaped by the designer. In line with an experience-driven approach to technology design, we suggest linked. as a communication device for teenage boys. An ethnography-inspired study revealed that teenage boys tend to "squabble" to express and fulfill their need for relatedness and physicality. linked. draws upon this. It is a modular pillow-like device, enabling boys to squabble over a distance, thereby providing a means to experience relatedness in a novel, emotional, but socially appropriate ways.
Keywords: emotion, experience design, industrial design, non-verbal communication, relatedness, social interaction, user experience
An exploratory study of a touch-based gestural interface for elderly BIBAKFull-Text 845-850
  Chiara Leonardi; Adriano Albertini; Fabio Pianesi; Massimo Zancanaro
This paper presents the design ideas and a preliminary study of a touch-based gestural interface to support older adults in social networking. We had the hypothesis that the directness of gestures made them well suited to implement an interaction metaphor based on familiarity. Although preliminary, this hypothesis can be sustained. In particular, we found that most of the gestures (and in particular the iconic and the dynamic ones) have a hedonic quality that attracted and motivated our participants. We think that our results may contribute to the ongoing debate about gestural interfaces and help in understanding the value and the issue of this form of interaction.
Keywords: Elderly, familiarity-based design, gestural interfaces, touch-based interfaces
Bringing playfulness to disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 851-856
  Patrizia Marti
This article presents the design case of a robot companion targeted at children who are prevented from playing normally, due to cognitive, developmental or physical impairments. The robot design presents some distinctive qualities. From an instrumental viewpoint it reflects inclusiveness and social exchange. It enables inclusive play activities that promote confidence and self-esteem. All children blossom as children with different abilities, including "fully able" children, collaboratively achieve success, in games that are fun for all. A specific effort in the design was spent in creating consistency between the form, visual qualities, and the behaviours of the robot, in order to enable play scenarios that were specifically targeted at autistic, mild cognitively-impaired and severely motor-impaired children.
Keywords: inclusive games, modular design, robot companion, smart textile design
Untangling the mess -- a redesign of a technical environment for a telecommunication company call centre: part II: capturing a valid order for a telecommunication service BIBAKFull-Text 857-862
  Margret Dora Ragnarsdottir
The technical environment in a call center for a telecommunications company has exploded in the past years and is now in bad need of a redesign. In a previous paper [3] we described how we used probes in order to understand the user needs for such a system. This paper discusses how to address the user needs in the redesign of the environment. In particular we focus on designing an order capture user interface by applying user-centered design and participatory design. The conclusion discusses the lessons learned and the challenges of making a design come to life as functioning software. In this case, getting the users to describe what they do and what they need proved easy using the methodology described above. The challenges were communicating this result onwards to those responsible for creating the software so that the wishes of the users would be honored.
Keywords: agile software development, enterprise software design, participatory design, scrum, user interface design, user-centered design


Grand challenges for future HCI research: cultures of participation, interfaces supporting learning, and expansive learning BIBAFull-Text 863-866
  Yrjö Engeström; Annalisa Sannino; Gerhard Fischer; Anders I. Mørch; Olav W. Bertelsen
This panel will analyze the research activities (including objectives, theoretical foundations, developments, synergy, and differences) of three research centers:
  • Center for Research on Activity, Development, and Learning (CRADLE),
       University of Helsinki, with a research focus on "expansive learning";
  • Center for LifeLong Learning and Design (L3D). University of Colorado, with a
       research focus on "cultures of participation";
  • InterMedia, Center for Communication, Design and Learning, University of
       Oslo, with a research focus on "interfaces supporting learning".