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International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 23

Editors:B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Publisher:Academic Press
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 1
  2. IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 2
  3. IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 3
  4. IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 4
  5. IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 5
  6. IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 6

IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 1

The Design of a Rule-Based CAI Tutorial BIBA 1-25
  Jesse M. Heines; Tim O'Shea
Rule-based systems are a development associated with recent research in artificial intelligence (AI). These systems express their decision-making criteria as sets of production rules, which are declarative statements relating various system states to program actions. For computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs, system states are defined in terms of a task analysis and student model, and actions take the form of the different teaching operations that the program can perform. These components are related by a set of means-ends guidance rules that determine what the program will do next for any given state.
   The paper presents the design of a CAI course employing a rule-based tutorial strategy. This design has not undergone the test of full implementation; the paper presents a conceptual design rather than a programming blueprint. One of the unique features of the course design described here is that it deals with the domain of computer graphics. The precise subject of the course is ReGIS, the Remote Graphics Instruction Set on Digital Equipment Corporation GIGI and VT125 terminals. The paper describes the course components and their inter-relationships, discusses how program control might be expressed in the form of production rules, and presents a program that demonstrates one facet of the intended course: the ability to parse student input in such a way that rules can be used to update a dynamic student model.
Inference in a Multivalued Logic System BIBA 27-44
  Ronald R. Yager
A definition for the logical inference of one proposition based upon the assertion of some premise propositions in multivalued logics is introduced. Some of the properties of this definition are investigated. It is shown that it is a generalization of the concept of inference in binary logic.
Computer Transcription of Handwritten Shorthand as an Aid for the Deaf -- A Feasibility Study BIBA 45-60
  C. P. Brooks; A. F. Newell
An automatic speech transcription aid for the deaf provides a written version of speech for a deaf person to read. Such a system need not provide a perfect rendition of the speech, all that is necessary is for the output to be readable and to be provided at or close to verbatim speeds. One possible system to achieve this would be to translate handwritten shorthand into readable orthography. This paper describes a feasibility study in which such a transcription system was implemented on a microcomputer to ascertain the practical problems involved.
Speed of Response Using Keyboard and Screen-Based Microcomputer Response Media BIBA 61-70
  J. Graham Beaumont
Response latencies were recorded during a continuous performance task using four standard microcomputer response media: the standard QWERTY keyboard, a numeric keypad, a light-pen and a touch-screen. There were significant differences among these media, the fastest responses being made with the touch-screen, and the slowest with the light-pen. The keypad was superior to the full keyboard. Within devices, the physical layout of the key-based devices accounted for the differences among responses with specific keys. A common pattern of response using the touch-screen and light-pen was found, with a constant offset of 309 ms for the light-pen. A tentative model of response execution with these screen-based devices is presented, with implications for the nature of response parameters in unconstrained response environments, and for the design of human-computer interfaces.
UMFE: A User Modelling Front-End Subsystem BIBA 71-88
  D. Sleeman
The paper argues that user models are an essential component of any system which attempts to be "user friendly", and that expert systems should tailor explanations to their users, be they super-experts or novices. In particular, this paper discusses a data-driven user modelling front-end subsystem, UMFE, which assumes that the user has asked a question of the main system (e.g. an expert system, intelligent tutoring system etc.), and that the system provides a response which is passed to UMFE. UMFE determines the user's level of sophistication by asking as few questions as possible, and then presents a response in terms of concepts which UMFE believes the user understands. Investigator-defined inference rules are then used to suggest additional concepts the user may/may not know, given the concepts the user indicated he or she knew in earlier questioning. Several techniques are discussed for detecting and removing inconsistencies in the user model. Additionally, UMFE modifies its inference rules for individual users when it detects certain types of inconsistencies. UMFE is a portable domain-independent implementation of a system which infers overlay models for users. UMFE has been used in conjunction with NEOMYCIN; and the paper contains several protocols which demonstrate its principal features. The paper concludes with a critique of UMFE and suggestions for enhancing the current system.
Microcomputer Implementation of an Idiographic Psychological Instrument BIBA 89-96
  Michael J. Cliffe
The use of microcomputers in clinical assessment in psychology and psychiatry is briefly reviewed. An explanation is given of the distinction between nomothetic assessment, based on the statistical comparison of a person's performance with a normative sample of his peers, and idiographic assessment allowing the measurement of clinically relevant experiences unique to the individual and expressed in his own words. The Personal Questionnaire Rapid Scaling Technique due to Mulhall is described. This paper and pencil test is an example of an idiographic instrument. Its repeated use generates data allowing graphs to be drawn showing the covariation of clinically relevant phenomena over time. The implementation of the test on a microcomputer is described and an example given of the use of the computer version in a clinical case. Patients describe the computer version as more pleasant to use, and it is significantly easier and quicker for the clinician, obviating paperwork and printing the results in an ergonomically efficient format enabling rapid assimilation of clinical data.

IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 2

Co-Operative Structuring of Information: The Representation of Reasoning and Debate BIBA 97-111
  David G. Lowe
Interactive computer networks create new opportunities for the co-operative structuring of information which would be impossible to implement within a paper-based medium. Methods are described for co-operatively indexing, evaluating and synthesizing information through well-specified interactions by many users with a common database. These methods are based on the use of a structured representation for reasoning and debate, in which conclusions are explicitly justified or negated by individual items of evidence. Through debates on the accuracy of information and on aspects of the structures themselves, a large number of users can co-operatively rank all available items of information in terms of significance and relevance to each topic. Individual users can then choose the depth to which they wish to examine these structures for the purposes at hand. The function of this debate is not to arrive at specific conclusions, but rather to collect and order the best available evidence on each topic. By representing the basic structure of each field of knowledge, the system would function at one level as an information retrieval system in which documents are indexed, evaluated and ranked in the context of each topic of inquiry. At a deeper level, the system would encode knowledge in the argument structures themselves. This use of an interactive system for structuring information offers further opportunities for improving the accuracy, integration and accessibility of information.
A Study in Dimensions of Psychological Complexity of Programs BIBA 113-133
  B. D. Chaudhary; H. V. Sahasrabuddhe
Program comprehension is considered to be a two-stage process. The two stages broadly consist of formation and use of a mental representation of the program. Based on this two-stage process, five features of the program are identified as factors contributing to the psychological complexity of the program. The identified factors are: meaningfulness, size, control structure, data structure and execution structure. This article reports consolidated results of a series of experiments conducted to establish and to study the integrated effect of these factors on program comprehension. The two experiments in the series are discussed in detail. The results of the judgemental experiment indicate that program size, control structure, data structure and execution structure contribute independently to perceived program complexity and their contributions to complexity are different. The results of experiments, including the two described in the paper, on program comprehension confirm that the above four algorithm-dependent factors affect program understanding and hence contribute to the psychological complexity of the program.
A Performance Profile Methodology for Implementing Assistance and Instruction in Computer-Based Tasks BIBA 135-151
  Jay Elkerton; Robert C. Williges
The development of assistance and instructional systems is an alternative design strategy for human-computer interfaces. An integral component in the construction of these interfaces concerns the representation used to capture the user, task or machine. Representational issues and strategies in assistance and instructional systems are discussed in the paper. These representational issues concern the use of symbolic and quantitative models, the development of performance and cognitive models, the distinction between skilled and unskilled models, the use of static and dynamic models, and the possible development of multiple representation strategies. From these issues, a profile methodology was distilled that could be implemented as an assistant or tutor in a file-search environment based upon novice and expert differences. This profile method is a quantitative, performance-based approach that samples expert behaviour to define a skilled model of file search. The development and formative evaluation of the methodology used 16 novice and 16 expert subjects. File-search performance and strategies were analysed in a complex information-retrieval task using the profile methodology. The method proved to be sensitive to novice and expert differences in file search and also seemed to be capable of being implemented as a diagnostic device for assistance and instruction. Limitations and extensions of the profile methodology are discussed in terms of command sequence information, explanation and reasoning, strategic and planning resources, and possible learning and adaptive models.
Implementing Pictorial Interfaces Using a High Resolution Digitizer BIBA 153-173
  P. G. Barker; M. Najah
Pictures provide an effective means of communication both between humans and within human-computer systems. This paper describes how a microcomputer-controlled high resolution digitizer may be used to implement a variety of pictorial human-computer interfaces using a number of novel transaction types.
Spaces for the Assessment of Knowledge BIBA 175-196
  Jean-Paul Doignon; Jean-Claude Falmagne
The information regarding a particular field of knowledge is conceptualized as a large, specified set of questions (or problems). The knowledge state of an individual with respect to that domain is formalized as the subset of all the questions that this individual is capable of solving. A particularly appealing postulate on the family of all possible knowledge states is that it is closed under arbitrary unions. A family of sets satisfying this condition is called a knowledge space. Generalizing a theorem of Birkhoff on partial orders, we show that knowledge spaces are in a one-to-one correspondence with AND/OR graphs of a particular kind. Two types of economical representations of knowledge spaces are analysed: bases, and Hasse systems, a concept generalizing that of a Hasse diagram of a partial order. The structures analysed here provide the foundation for later work on algorithmic procedures for the assessment of knowledge.
Computer-Administered Individualized Psychological Testing: A Feasibility Study BIBA 197-213
  Richard L. Sanders
The advent of microcomputers promises to open up a new era in psychometrics. In order to tap the full potential of the computer, it should do more than simply administer and score psychological tests, generate interpretations and graph the results. Psychometricians should tap the decision-making capacity of the computer, so that the most information can be generated from the fewest questions necessary accurately to assess, diagnose and treat the patient. This exploratory study explores the feasibility of converting the full-length Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (566 items) into a shorter form using a computer to individualize the number of items needed to reproduce a full-scale MMPI. 499 subjects from Kaiser Permanente (Southern California Region) who had taken the MMPI-566 in the paper and pencil format were used for the norming group, and 489 subjects from the same population were used for the comparison group. Multiple regression equations were produced for each step, and the computer generated a new equation for each item until criterion (matching two consecutive predictions, accurate to the first decimal place) was reached. The mean of the correlations comparing the predicted raw scores against the actual raw scores (scales across subjects) was r = 0.95, with a range of 0.88 to 0.98. The mean of the correlations comparing the predicted profiles (subjects across scales) was r = 0.98 for the norming group and r = 0.97 for the comparison group. The mean number of items needed for the comparison group was 187 (after adjusting for item overlap), and the profile correlation by subject for number of items needed was r = 0.20. It was concluded that (1) psychological tests can be developed that will allow for individualized computer administration and (2) scores on these tests can accurately predict the scores on tests from which they were derived. Implications for use of computers in psychometrics are discussed.

IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 3

An Empirical Comparison of Two Metalanguages BIBA 215-229
  Barbara S. Isa; R. James Evey; Bernard W. McVey; Alan S. Neal
An important issue in the usability of software is the quality of the manuals that are provided with the product. Some manuals describe the rules of a programming language to the user, and the syntax notation or metalanguage used to describe these rules can take various forms. In this study, we tested a notation which uses brackets and braces (designated "Signs") against a method which uses syntax diagrams (designated "Maps"). A two-day experimental design was used in which the subjects were trained and tested on one metalanguage the first day, and then trained and tested on the second metalanguage the next day in a Latin square design. Four phases of this experiment were conducted, with 12 subjects in each phase. The procedure remained the same in each phase, but the subject population (programmers or non-programmers) or training material (full manual or one-page instruction) was changed from one phase to the next. No performance differences were found between Maps and Signs when the subjects were given extensive training on the metalanguage. However, when training was restricted to one page of instruction, performance was consistently superior with Maps for both programmers and non-programmers.
Paper versus Online Presentations of Subjective Questionnaires BIBA 231-247
  Peter R. Newsted
Exhibit effectiveness data from Jasper National Park in the Canadian Rockies was collected using both a paper and pencil survey and by means of a Victor 9000 microcomputer. These methods were compared to see if responses to a manually administered questionnaire are similar to responses to the same questions asked at a computer terminal. Both groups of respondents got similar percentages correct on questions about major exhibits that were textually based, but the computer group scored significantly better on those exhibits that had sound instead of text (in addition to a major visual component). The computer and manual groups were similar in their indication of how easy they felt most exhibits were to understand. However, the computer group indicated they saw significantly fewer major exhibits than did the manual group. Thus as a preliminary theory, it can be suggested that the non-random group of people drawn to the computer differ from typical random respondents in that they seem to gain more knowledge from or know more about features in exhibits which have a major sound component rather than a textual one. It was also found that the use of computerized surveying was well received by both visitors and staff. Respondents in the computer group particularly preferred it over paper and pencil questionnaires. Given these results it is concluded that the computer can be used to measure the effectiveness of many exhibits, and for those that have visual and auditory components, it may be a means of establishing a base-line or relative knowledge level for determining changing knowledge as exhibits are altered.
A Study of the Effect of Different Data Models on Casual Users Performance in Writing Database Queries BIBA 249-262
  Howard N. Ray
The motivation for this study was that database query facilities are not effectively meeting casual users' needs. A solution to this problem is especially important due to the increasing number of potential users falling into the classification of "casual user". There is considerable controversy revolving around the question of which elements and/or which combination of elements within the casual users' environment are necessary to provide an effective man-machine interface. This study is intended to extend the basic knowledge relating to the effect of different data models on casual users' performance and confidence in writing database queries. The data models used to present the external view of the database in this study are the relational, hierarchical and network models. The experiment involves a written test designed to permit the evaluation of the subject's ability to comprehend and retrieve information from a database by writing English-like queries. The subject's performance in writing the queries is based on errors made in (1) writing the specification portion, (2) writing the condition portion, (3) writing the navigation portion, and (4) the use of the language. Overall performance is represented by the sum of the four component scores. The subject's confidence is a self-reported value on a scale of one to five. The group using the relational model performed significantly better than the group using the hierarchical model when writing the specification and navigation portions of the queries. The absences of a significant difference in overall performance among the data model groups supports the technique used to evaluate specific aspects of the queries independently. No statistically significant differences in confidence level were detected among the data model groups. This is an indication that the group using the hierarchical model may have been overly confident, in view of their poorer performance.
Identity Verification Through Keyboard Characteristics BIBA 263-273
  David Umphress; Glen Williams
Most personal identity mechanisms in use today are artificial. They require specific actions on the part of the user, many of which are not "friendly". Ideally, a typist should be able to approach a computer terminal, begin typing, and be identified from keystroke characteristics. Individuals exhibit characteristic cognitive properties when interacting with the computer through a keyboard. By examining the properties of keying patterns, statistics can be compiled that uniquely describe the user. Initially, a reference profile is built to serve as a basis of comparison for future typing samples. The profile consists of the average time interval between keystrokes (mean keystroke latency) as well as a collection of the average times required to strike any two successive keys on the keyboard. Typing samples are scored against the reference profile and a score is calculated assessing the confidence that the same individual typed both the sample and the reference profile. This mechanism has the capability of providing identity surveillance throughout the entire time at the keyboard.
Visual Memories and Mental Images BIBA 275-311
  Robert J. Baron
A model is presented for the architecture of the neural networks which encode visual information for storage and which reconstruct iconic representations from storage representations. (Iconic representations are geometrically similar to projections of the objects they represent.) Each storage representation consists of a sequence of patterns derived while the eyes fixate at different positions in the visual field. Each pattern in the sequence has three components: (1) a control component which describes both where the eyes fixated and the size of the attended scene fragment; (2) a surface quality component which describes visual surface characteristics of the object; and (3) a spatial component which describes the spatial extent, spatial position (depth), surface orientation and visual flow (movement) of the surface having the specified surface characteristics. Prior to storage, all spatial components are transformed using a complex logarithmic mapping. As a consequence, stored spatial patterns are not iconic representations of the scene fragments they represent. Also, storage representations can be recognized and reconstructed at any desired size and orientation: they are size and orientation invariant. During reconstruction, each pattern in the storage representation is transformed back into an iconic representation using a complex exponential mapping. One consequence of the combined complex logarithmic and exponential mappings and the limited size of the storage representations is that the fidelity of the recalled information degrades exponentially from its centre.
   A neural network, called spatial memory, not only holds the partially reconstructed representation during recall, but also shifts it to remain in registration with the fragment currently being recalled and combined. The control system uses the control component of each stored pattern and knowledge of the size and orientation of the reconstruction to determine how to shift the partially reconstructed representation in spatial memory. Due to the decreasing fidelity from the centre to the perimeter of each reconstructed scene fragment, spatial memory only preserves information from overlapping fragments having the highest fidelity. It does so by maintaining and using fidelity information for each position in the reconstructed representation.
   Spatial memory can maintain a current stable representation of the visual world. It can also magnify, reduce, shift and rotate representations. The representations are therefore independent of their position in spatial memory. It is suggested that the representations held and processed by spatial memory correspond to the representations we call mental images and for this reason they are called mental images in the model.
A Model of Mental Imagery BIBA 313-334
  Bryant A. Julstrom; Robert J. Baron
A spatial image is a representation of a scene which encodes the spatial location, distance away, surface orientation and movement of each visible surface in the scene. Mental images are spatial images which are held and transformed by a neural network called spatial memory. Spatial memory is a large two-dimensional array of processors called spatial locations which operate in parallel under the control of a single supervising processor. Though held in spatial memory, mental images are independent of it, and can be transformed, shifted and rotated by transforming and moving image parts among the spatial locations. The architecture and control structure of spatial memory are presented as are details of its operation in translating, scaling and rotating mental images of three-dimensional objects. Computer simulations of spatial memory are summarized, and spatial memory is compared with other models of mental imagery.

IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 4

A Natural Language Information Retrieval System with Extensions Towards Fuzzy Reasoning BIBA 335-367
  Leonard Bolc; Adam Kowalski; Malgorzata Kozlowska; Tomasz Strzalkowski
For the last few years we have observed a growing interest among researchers about how to make computers behave "intelligently". The field of computer science has gained a substantial level of development especially in the field of so-called expert systems. This particular area has also obtained relatively wide approval and applicability. This paper describes an experimental version of the conversational natural language information retrieval system which is currently under investigation at the Institute for Informatics of Warsaw University. This system deals with gastroenterology, a branch of internal medicine. The system's purpose is to provide physicians and hospital personnel with information which may be consulted during the diagnostic process. The system first acquires a base knowledge in the field which is presented to it in the form of a comprehensive natural language text. From this point on knowledge can be retrieved and/or updated in conversational manner. The system has a modular structure and its most important parts are the natural language processor and the reasoning module based on procedural deduction. The deduction process is realized through the mechanisms known as fuzzy logic incorporated in the FUZZY programming language. The system has been designed in close co-operation with specialists in medical science, and implemented on an IBM 370/148 at Warsaw University.
A Research Model for Studying the Gender/Power Aspects of Human-Computer Communication BIBA 369-382
  Margaret A. Fulton
A new research model was developed for examining the gender and power conceptualizations affecting human-computer communications. University students worked on an Apple II computer on which the linguistic output was stereotyped male or female. Potency attributions of the computer were rated on a semantic differential scale. A test of the research model indicated significant differences in potency ratings. There was an interaction between gender-stereotyped linguistic output, user's sex, and user's computer experience (F(1,19) = 5.10, P < .0343). The human-computer communication research model was demonstrated to be useful. It can be used for examining human-computer communication from both theoretical and applied perspectives.
Novice/Expert Differences in Programming Skills BIBA 383-390
  Susan Wiedenbeck
Automation is the ability to perform a very well-practised task rapidly, smoothly and correctly, with little allocation of attention. This paper reports on experiments which sought evidence of automation in two programming subtasks, recognition of syntactic errors and understanding of the structure and function of simple stereotyped code segments. Novice and expert programmers made a series of timed decisions about short, textbook-type program segments. It was found that, in spite of the simplicity of the materials, experts were significantly faster and more accurate than novices. This supports the idea that experts automate some simple subcomponents of the programming task. This automation has potential implications for the teaching of programming, the evaluation of programmers, and programming language design.
GENIE: A Modifiable Computer-Based Task for Experiments in Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 391-406
  T. E. Lindquist; R. G. Fainter; M. T. Hakkinen
The results of many human-computer interaction studies are often not applicable as desired because the task environment in which they are run does not possess characteristics common to other interfaces. This paper describes a generalized task environment that contains elements appearing in several systems having human-computer interfaces. The environment is implemented through a software system called GENIE (Generic ENvironment for Interactive Experiments), and is based on controlling the motion of vehicles through three-dimensional space. Aside from providing a task with common characteristics, GENIE's implementation was designed to allow for adaptation to a variety of studies.
   This paper introduces and motivates the development of the GENIE software system. The software components are described at a functional level to provide the background for a discussion of how various instantiations of GENIE's human-computer interface can be created. To exemplify the generic nature of GENIE, specific changes to the user's interface are described. We show how GENIE's software must be modified to implement each of the changes and demonstrate how the use of a compiler-compiler eases the burden of doing so. The paper concludes with a discussion of GENIE as constructed for a voice-output experiment.
Interactive Fuzzy Decision-Making for Multi-Objective Non-Linear Programming Using Reference Membership Intervals BIBA 407-421
  Masatoshi Sakawa; Hitoshi Yano
This paper presents an interactive fuzzy decision-making method by assuming that the decision-maker (DM) has fuzzy goals for each of the objective functions in multi-objective non-linear programming problems. Through the interaction with the DM, the fuzzy goals of the DM are quantified by eliciting the corresponding membership functions. After determining the membership functions for each of the objective functions, in order to generate a candidate for the satisficing solution which is also Pareto optimal, the DM is asked to specify his reference intervals for each of the membership functions, called reference membership intervals. For the DM's reference membership intervals, the corresponding augmented weighted minimax problem is solved and the DM is supplied with the Pareto optimal solution which is in a sense close to his requirement together with the trade-off rates between the membership functions. Then by considering the current values of the membership functions as well as the trade-off rates, the DM responds by updating his reference membership intervals. In this way the satisficing solution for the DM can be derived efficiently from among a Pareto optimal solution set by updating his reference membership intervals. On the basis of the proposed method, a time-sharing computer program is written and an illustrative numerical example is demonstrated along with the corresponding computer outputs.
Pictorial Interfaces to Data Bases BIBA 423-442
  P. G. Barker; M. Najah
Pictures provide an effective means of communication both between humans and within human-computer systems. This paper describes how pictorial interfaces might facilitate interaction with a microcomputer data base system.

IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 5

Computer Aided Techniques for Crew Station Design: Work-Space Organizer -- WORG; Workstation Layout Generator -- WOLAG BIBA 443-457
  Babur Mustafa Pulat; Anthony E. Grice
Two interactive models for crew station design are discussed. WORG is developed for arranging workstations within a work-space. WOLAG aims at generating the layout of the instrument panel at each station for sit-stand duty. Both models collect evaluative measures for the designs generated. The input data, internal structure, and output files of both WORG and WOLAG are discussed, together with actual sample outputs.
Expertise in Debugging Computer Programs: A Process Analysis BIBA 459-494
  Iris Vessey
This paper reports the results of an exploratory study that investigated expert and novice debugging processes with the aim of contributing to a general theory of programming expertise. The method used was verbal protocol analysis. Data was collected from 16 programmers employed by the same organization. First, an expert-novice classification of subjects was derived from information based on subjects' problem solving processes: the criterion of expertise was the subjects' ability to chunk effectively the program they were required to debug. Then, significant differences in subjects' approaches to debugging were used to characterize programmers' debugging strategies. Comparisons of these strategies with the expert-novice classification showed programmer expertise based on chunking ability to be strongly related to debugging strategy. The following strategic propositions were identified for further testing. 1. (a) Experts use breadth-first approaches to debugging and, at the same time, adopt a system view of the problem area; (b) Experts are proficient at chunking programs and hence display smooth-flowing approaches to debugging. 2. (a) Novices use breadth-first approaches to debugging but are deficient in their ability to think in system terms; (b) Novices use depth-first approaches to debugging; (c) Novices are less proficient at chunking programs and hence display erratic approaches to debugging.
A Knowledge Acquisition Program for Expert Systems Based on Personal Construct Psychology BIBA 495-525
  John H. Boose
Retrieving problem-solving information from a human expert is a major problem when building an expert system. Methods from George Kelly's personal construct psychology have been incorporated into a computer program, the Expertise Transfer System, which interviews experts, and helps them construct, analyse, test and refine knowledge bases. Conflicts in the problem-solving methods of the expert may be enumerated and explored, and knowledge bases from several experts may be combined into one consultation system. Fast (one to two hour) expert system prototyping is possible with the use of the system, and knowledge bases may be constructed for various expert system tools.
Solving the Containment Problem for Figurative Language BIBA 527-537
  E. Judith Weiner
Knowledge bases for natural language processing systems which can support the interpretation of figurative language input must reflect certain pragmatic considerations in their representations. Among these are salience, prototypicality and epitomization. Confusion of these three terms in the literature impedes a clear understanding of their effect and the requirements for their possible implementation. An exploration of their differences and interrelationships is presented with an eye toward solving the "containment problem" for figurative language. The notions of a "holistic approach" and "disjoint clustering" are introduced. Implications for machine translation are briefly discussed.
Explanatory Models in Expert Systems BIBA 539-549
  Ronald R. Yager
The problem considered here concerns the situation in which we are interested in the degree to which a set of elements called the diagnosis set explains another set called the evidence set. A measure is suggested to calculate the degree of explanatory power the diagnosis set has for the evidence set. We also concern ourselves with the problem of minimizing the diagnosis set.
Knowledge-Based Systems for Genetics BIBA 551-561
  Toshinori Munakata
This article describes knowledge-based systems for genetics called GENETICS-I, II, and III, and their possible extensions. GENETICS-I works on a simple genetic model where a phenotype is determined by a gene-pair, each gene having a value of 0 or 1 (diallelism). In GENETICS-II, which is a generalization of GENETICS-I, each gene can have a value of 0, 1,..., or gmax (multi-allelism; e.g. the ABO blood group). GENETICS-III is a further generalization of GENETICS-II in which a phenotype is determined by more than one pair of genes (multi-genes; e.g. major histocompatibility complex).
   In each system, a knowledge base is established as a collection of production rules which are repeatedly applied on the database representing phenotypes and genotypes for a family tree to deduce new information. During the course of generalization, substantial changes in the database and knowledge-base structures have been made to deal with new types of problems as well as to increase the efficiency of computer time and memory space utilization. Possible extensions of these systems to include some common characteristics in expert systems are also discussed; included are a heuristic search of rules, user-system interactions, and reasoning under uncertain information.
An On-Line Version of the Personal Relations Index Psychological Test BIBA 563-585
  Robert F. Stevens
Originally developed by Mulhall (1977), the "Personal Relations Index" (PRI) used the computer to generate a personalized questionnaire which could be used in mapping an interpersonal relationship. Viewed within the context of the current trend towards automated psychological tests, the PRI stands out as being one which attempts to take advantage of computer capabilities beyond mere automation.
   The current study sought to overcome the primary disadvantage of the PRI by developing an on-line or interactive version capable of running on the popular Apple II microcomputer. This would eliminate the use of antiquated computer cards, written questionnaires and scoring templates by allowing the user to read the questions on a video screen and to respond to them by pressing particular keys on the keyboard. It would also eliminate the wait for the personalized questionnaire to be produced and the delay before results were available. An additional advantage was that users could be advised by the computer of areas in which results had not reached an acceptable level of significance and they could be given an opportunity of doing these sections a second time.
   Written in the computer language BASIC, the resulting version of the PRI was developed in close consultation with subjects who had tried out various versions of the program. The interactive testing process appealed to users and test results were found to be internally consistent, as well to demonstrate promising signs of validity on pilot trials.

IJMMS 1985 Volume 23 Issue 6

A General-Purpose Man-Machine Environment with Special Reference to Air Traffic Control BIBA 587-603
  Nicholas V. Findler; Timothy W. Bickmore; Robert F. Cromp
First, we describe briefly some issues concerning decision-making and planning. We then discuss decision support systems which increase the effectiveness and efficiency of human judgmental processes by extending their range, capabilities and speed. A novel man-machine environment is proposed that is a useful tool in training human decision-makers and planners, and can also serve as the basis for routine operations. Finally, we describe the first area of application of this environment in simulated air traffic control. Five large-scale projects are integrated in the environment, which are also discussed.
An Experimental Study of Dialogue-Based Communication for Dynamic Human-Computer Task Allocation BIBA 605-621
  Joel S. Greenstein; Siu-Tong Lam
The allocation of tasks between human and computer and the merits of a dynamic approach to this allocation are discussed. Dynamic task allocation requires efficient human-computer communication. This communication may be accomplished in an implicit, model-based, or explicit, dialogue-based, manner. A framework for the study of dialogue-based human-computer communication is introduced and a study exemplifying the use of the framework is presented. This study investigated the effects of two input media and four task allocation strategies on the performance of a human-computer system. The task environment represented a simplified version of an air traffic control scenario wherein computer aid could be evoked by the human controller to accomplish task sharing between the human and the computer. Dedicated function keys proved to be a more effective input medium than the standard Sholes QWERTY keyboard in terms of both objective performance and subjective preference measures. Of the task allocation strategies considered, spatial assignment, contingency-based assignment, and assignment by designation achieved the highest levels of overall system performance, while temporal assignment achieved a significantly lower level of performance. Subjective ratings indicated an overall preference for assignment by designation, followed by spatial assignment and contingency-based assignment. Spatial assignment was the most powerful, but the least specific strategy. Assignment by designation was the least powerful strategy, but the most specific and most flexible strategy.
Elements of Computer Typography BIBA 623-687
  Ian H. Witten
The advent of the low-cost software-controlled raster printer has transformed typography, which is an interesting amalgam of human factors and technology, from an esoteric and specialist discipline into a widely available medium of expression. This tutorial paper introduces the software and system organization aspects of computer typography. Taking a practical approach, it explains the world of fonts and typographic measurements; how fonts are represented digitally; the technical issues of line breaking, hyphenation, and justification; the problems of page make-up and the inclusion of tabular and graphical information in documents.
Organization of Broad Computer Menu Displays BIBA 689-697
  Stanley R. Parkinson; Norwood Sisson; Kathleen Snowberry
Sixty students performed simple menu selection with one of ten menus; each with 64 items arranged in four columns of 16 on a single frame. Target words consisted of eight items from each of eight categories. In eight categorized menus, words belonging to the same category were presented together in the display. Three factors were varied in the categorized menus: alphabetical vs categorial ordering of words within categories; spacing vs no additional spacing between category groups; and category organization arranged by column or by row. In the final two menus the entire array was arranged in alphabetical order, top-to-bottom by column in one, and left-to-right by row in the other. Both spacing and columnar organization facilitated search time. Menus with spacings between category groups were searched approximately 1 s faster than menus without additional spacing and menus with categories organized by column were searched about 1 s faster than menus organized by row. Furthermore, the effects of spacing and organization were additive. Given categorized menus, no difference in search time was observed for categorial vs alphabetical ordering within categories. Menus in which the entire array was arranged in alphabetical order were searched with rates similar to those for categorized menus with spacings and faster than categorized menus without spacings; these effects were observed with both forms of organization, row and column. Explanations were offered for the results and their implications for menu design were discussed.
Measuring the Structure of Expertise BIBA 699-728
  Roger W. Schvaneveldt; Francis T. Durso; Timothy E. Goldsmith; Timothy J. Breen; Nancy M. Cooke; Richard G. Tucker; Joseph C. De Maio
This report reviews work on defining and measuring conceptual structures of expert and novice fighter pilots. Individuals with widely varying expertise were tested. Cognitive structures were derived using multidimensional scaling (MDS) and link-weighted networks (Pathfinder). Experience differences among pilots were reflected in the conceptual structures. Detailed analyses of individual differences point to factors that distinguish experts and novices. Analysis of individual concepts identified areas of agreement and disagreement in the knowledge structures of experts and novices. Applications in selection, training and knowledge engineering are discussed.
User Modelling for a Computer Coach: A Case Study BIBA 729-750
  Adrian Y. Zissos; Ian H. Witten
A computer coach unobtrusively monitors interaction with a system and offers individualized advice on its use. Such active on-line assistance complements conventional documentation and its importance grows as the complexity of interactive systems increases. Instead of studying manuals, users learn highly-reactive systems through experiment, imported metaphors and natural intelligence. However, in so doing they inevitably fail to discover features which would help them in their work.
   This paper describes Anchises, a coach which aims to detect inefficient use and ignorance of important facilities of an interactive program in a domain-independent way. Its current knowledge base is the EMACS text editor, and Anchises provides highly-selective access to pertinent parts of the on-line documentation with little overhead for the user. In the design of Anchises, close attention has been paid to the user modelling component which determines the needs of an individual without entering into any explicit dialogue with him; in general this is the least well-understood aspect of computer coaches. An informal experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the user modelling techniques employed.