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HYPERM Tables of Contents: 010203040506

Hypermedia 6

Dates:1994
Volume:6
Publisher:Taylor Graham
Standard No:ISSN 0955-8543
Papers:11
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HYPERM 1994 Volume 6 Issue 1
  2. HYPERM 1994 Volume 6 Issue 2
  3. HYPERM 1994 Volume 6 Issue 3

HYPERM 1994 Volume 6 Issue 1

Security for next generation hypertext systems BIBA 1-18
  Dieter Merkl; Gunther Pernul
This paper concerns the need for enhancing hypertext systems with security protection. We identify the elements of hypertext models which must be subject to security control. Main attention is directed toward hypertext and access control preventing the information stored from unauthorised disclosure or modification. From the class of known security models we consider the Discretionary Models, the Mandatory Models, the Personal Knowledge Approach, and the Clark and Wilson Model as candidates for the underlying security paradigm of hypertext systems. The security techniques considered originate from emphasizing different goals: Discretionary Models try to assign access privileges to users, Mandatory Models try to keep secrets, the Personal Knowledge Approach focuses on enforcing the constitutional right of informational self-determination of humans, and the Clark and Wilson Model tries to adapt common commercial security practice to computerized systems. The applicability of these security models to hypertext is discussed and their pros and cons are outlined.
Age-related differences in the use of hypertext: Experiment and design guidelines BIBA 19-34
  L. M. Leventhal; B. M. Teasley; K. Instone; J. Farhat
Hypertext systems can be targeted for many different user populations, yet little experimental research has been done to provide design guidelines on how to match the system to the user. An experiment tested whether age relates to the dimensions of performance, navigation strategies and perceptions in use of a hypertext library card catalog. While adults were superior to children in speed and accuracy, there were no indications that the children were qualitatively different than the adults in navigation patterns or perceptions of the system. Some children exhibited more exploratory problem-solving behaviours that the adults. A number of design guidelines are offered, based on the empirical results.
Navigating the educational space with hypercourseware BIBA 35-60
  Kent L. Norman
Navigation is a spatial metaphor for the activity of steering a course through hypermedia. When hypermedia is used in the context of education, navigation takes on a number of critical functions related to learning (e.g. acquisition, generation, and organization of knowledge) as well as the service functions related to the database (e.g. retrieval, storage, and database management).
   This article attempts to articulate the concept of navigation in hypermedia for education and to unpack the complexity of the metaphor in the educational context. Principles of good hypermedia and interface design are proposed based on a review of relevant literature pertaining to navigation, menu selection, and information retrieval. In the course of this discussion, a number of tools are suggested that may serve as navigational aids, retrieval aids, organizational aids, and planning aids.
   Finally, the article considers the application of these ideas to the design of a hypermedia environment for interactive/collaborative learning in a fully integrated electronic classroom. An environment called HyperCourseware is described which acts as an infrastructure supporting the materials and methods of education. HyperCourseware instantiates in hypermedia form the traditional materials of education such as the syllabus, lecture notes, exams, and class roll as well as interactive methods for group discussion, exchange of ideas, student polling, feedback, and collaborative group note taking. Navigation in HyperCourseware involves the traversal of shared course materials as well as personal notes as they are generated in the hypermedia space. Furthermore, navigation must be considered as traversal by individual students, by the instructor, by the class as a group, and by various collaborative combinations.

HYPERM 1994 Volume 6 Issue 2

Hypermedia use by the disadvantaged: Assessing a health information program BIBA 67-86
  Michael D. Slater; Donald E. Zimmerman; Martha L. Tipton; Holly Halvorson; Thomas Kean; Jordan D. Rost
Hypermedia as an audiovisual tool that users can tailor to meet their individual information needs, has considerable potential for communicating about complex topics to naive users - including the educationally and economically disadvantaged. This study evaluates the ability of low-income, ethnically-diverse persons to successfully navigate a hypermedia health information program designed for their use. This study, using protocol analysis, detailed content analysis of videotapes, and questionnaire data from 32 African-American, Hispanic, Native American, and Anglo low-income women, found very positive overall user reactions to the program's understandability and ease of use and identifies characteristic navigation patterns and some problems that these persons have in using such a hypermedia program. Some minor differences in responses and characteristic problems due to age, ethnicity, and education level were also found. The authors suggest guidelines for the development of such computer-based interactive programs for use by disadvantaged populations and other lay or naive adult users.
   Adapting hypermedia for use by less sophisticated users poses special problems and offers special opportunities. Hypermedia use by disadvantaged persons is of particular interest in two respects: educationally and culturally disadvantaged persons provide a demanding benchmark for programs designed for lay users, and hypermedia itself may be better-suited than some traditional communication modalities for imparting information to the disadvantaged.
A comparative study of computer-based document manipulation techniques BIBA 87-100
  Richard Picking
Techniques to aid the manipulation of a computer-based document were tested by a group of 38 novice users. The subjects were given a period of time to browse the document (which employed a simple book metaphor), and were subsequently given a set of goal-related tasks in a question/answer session. The techniques tested were sequential paging, index referral, text find and embedded hypertext links. In the latter case, 3 differing types of link mechanisms were assessed and compared with each other. It was found that sequential paging and index referral were the most commonly used of the techniques. Text find was employed more for goal-related tasks than for browsing. The hypertext link technique was generally unpopular, especially for goal-related tasks. In order to establish the importance of the text find technique, the effect on reading strategies without this facility was also investigated. For browsing operations, an increase in paging and a decrease in hypertext linking was observed. In the case of goal-directed searching, an increase was observed in paging and index referral techniques.
The impact of learning style on problem-solving performance in a hypertext environment BIBA 101-110
  Vatcharaporn Esichaikul; Robert D. Smith; Gregory R. Madey
Experiential learning theory, introduced by Kolb, suggests that people develop different learning styles. A study was conducted to determine whether or not individuals who exhibit certain learning styles are more successful in using a hypermedia problem-solving system. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) was used to classify subjects into 4 groups based on their learning styles: 1 converger, 2 diverger, 3 assimilator, and 4 accommodator. The study found that learning style had an impact on problem-solving quality when using the hypermedia system. The preferred learning style in a hypermedia-based problem-solving environment is the converger. In terms of learning orientation, abstract conceptualizers performed a higher quality of hypertext-based problem-solving than those who prefer concrete experience.
SIHEN: A hypertext system for creating encyclopedias BIBA 111-123
  I. Aedo; T. Ayllon; M. Landoni; F. Panetsos
This paper presents the development of a hypertext system for processing information and creating encyclopedias and dictionaries. It shows how nodes are inserted, deleted and modified as well as the description of the structures and procedures for making efficient searches and for maintaining and managing the information related with the implemented links.
Authoring and searching in dynamically growing hypertext databases BIBA 124-148
  Paulo C. Masiero; M. Cristina F. de Oliveira; Fernao S. R. Germano; Gladys Pierri
In this paper we show how an application in the domain of Office Information Systems can be modelled so that a dynamically growing database of hypertext documents is created and automatically extended, as well as easily searched. We propose a method for analyzing office applications which relies on a model based on statecharts to record the flow of documents within the system. A prototype implementation is described of a hypertext system to support the creation, storage and retrieval of documents associated to formal face to face meetings. Special features to be incorporated into hypertext systems aimed at supporting the storage and retrieval of office documents are also identified.

HYPERM 1994 Volume 6 Issue 3

Hypermedia support for software development: A retrospective assessment BIBA 149-173
  Tina Roth; Peter Aiken; Scarlette Hobbs
Hypermedia technologies have been available for about a decade. Beginning with Douglas Engelbart, researchers have become interested in applying hypermedia concepts and technologies to software development. This paper assesses this symbiosis between hypermedia and software development as described by research contributions; by our count, more than one hundred articles. To date, no collection of, or guide to, this literature has been published. A number of significant contributions are classified, described, and appraised - providing a guide into what has been a rich but perhaps under-reported research area. Hypermedia has made significant contributions to software development in three primary areas: coping with massive amounts of information associated with software development projects; establishing and maintaining linkages between various types of software engineering documents; and enabling development engineers to record, document, and preserve knowledge about development thoughts, processes and rationale. These contributions may help direct the focus of future research towards building on, combining and assessing the resulting contributions. A research agenda is proposed along these lines.
Virtual architecture based on a binary relational model: A museum hypermedia application BIBA 174-192
  Douglas Tudhope; Paul Beynon-Davies; Carl Taylor; Chris Jones
This paper reviews claims made for virtual architectures and proposes a semantic data model for hypermedia architecture. Semantic modelling, and an extended binary relational model in particular, are outlined in the context of hypermedia. The binary relational store is a simple, uniform data structure, capable of representing abstraction in the application model. Pilot implementations of museum hypermedia systems demonstrate that the architecture is capable of supporting a variety of navigation techniques and authoring tools. We outline the SHIC (Social History and Industrial Classification) museum classification schema, and discuss its implementation in a hypermedia systems based on a binary relational store. We reflect on our experiences with the prototypes and discuss feedback from the museum profession and general public. We believe that an extended binary relational model is particularly suited to certain forms of reasoning based on generalisation.
A user-configurable hypermedia-based interface via the functional model of the link BIBA 193-208
  Janet Verbyla; Helen Ashman
Hypermedia management systems often make use of database management systems for the persistent storage of links and of the linked information components. In this paper, we argue that a hypermedia management system with its support for reader-directed navigation provides an attractive type of database system interface in that it facilitates ease of database access or more specifically, of locating ('discovering') relevant information.
   Furthermore, our approach to hypermedia management, based on the Functional Model of the link, provides for extensive user-configurability of that interface. This configurability particularly applies to fully dynamic links, which free the user from much of the link creation and maintenance duties.
   A prototype system incorporating this approach is overviewed in this paper.