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HYPERM Tables of Contents: 010203040506

Hypermedia 1

Editors:Patricia Baird
Dates:1989
Volume:1
Publisher:Taylor Graham
Standard No:ISSN 0955-8543
Papers:26
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HYPERM 1989 Volume 1 Issue 1
  2. HYPERM 1989 Volume 1 Issue 2
  3. HYPERM 1989 Volume 1 Issue 3

HYPERM 1989 Volume 1 Issue 1

Articles

Introduction BIB 1-2
  Patricia Baird
Hyperwelcome BIB 3-5
  Theodor Holm Nelson
Hypermedia as an Interpretive Act BIBA 6-19
  Virginia M. Doland
This essay will explore the epistemological foundations of hypertext and hypermedia, focusing on the need for an especially acute awareness of cognitive issues in the design and execution of academic data bases. Since hypertext as a technology has the potential to organize massive bodies of primarily academic information, we will address a number of basic interpretive and pedagogical concerns about the interpretive 'freighting' which such electronic intellectual archives might unintentionally produce.
   At this stage of development, there is a great deal of interest and enthusiasm from the computer community in hypertext and hypermedia, but we must not ignore the ideological and hermeneutical implications of what may appear to be simple technical decisions. This essay will explore some of the implications of such 'technical decisions', suggesting that academicians as 'gatekeepers' of knowledge, must be aware of this cognitive overhead and consciously incorporate strategies in future hypertext databases which attempt to clarify their creators' critical assumptions. While hermeneutical neutrality is not possible in this cognitive universe, future hypertext and hypermedia systems must be self-consciously aware of cognitive issues.
Structuring Knowledge Bases for Designers of Learning Materials BIBA 20-33
  Elizabeth B. Duncan
Designers of interactive video training packages need access to multiple sources of information to be able to create exciting materials for learning or training. Hypertext allows dynamic linking of different strands of knowledge in ways which encourage effective elicitation of knowledge from experts, and understandable representation for subsequent users.
   This paper describes the knowledge representation aspect of a system which will allow a designer to collect information from clients, from experts, as well as from printed and visual sources -- to co-ordinate the information in a single environment, and using the same set of tools, to link the information to learning materials using videodisc and graphics packages.
   The total system for a designer consists of an authoring environment, using NoteCards on a Xerox 1186, with a multi-tasking workstation (Amiga) which will bring together output from the knowledge base on the Xerox with information from videodisc. Information about the physical requirements of the authoring environment -- constraints, domain limits, financial aspects -- can be recorded alongside subject domain knowledge using different 'modes' of the NoteCards environment. Modes are a feature of a supplementary package, IDE (Instructional Design Environment), which operates as a 'shell' along with NoteCards. Our involvement with the designer's system is in looking at ways in which domain knowledge can be recorded and represented for use interactively with graphics and video materials.
Evaluating the Usability of the Glasgow Online Hypertext BIBA 34-63
  Lynda Hardman
Although there are many hypertext systems currently on the market there is little advice available on how authors can create easy-to-use hypertexts. This paper addresses the usability of Glasgow Online -- a hypertext which contains tourist information on the city of Glasgow. The issues raised in the paper are based on an observational study in which a number of readers performed tasks representative of those undertaken by tourists visiting Glasgow. The usability issues raised by Glasgow Online are discussed in a wider context and their applicability to other styles of hypertext is considered.

Reviews

"Interactive Multimedia," edited by Sueann Ambron and Kristina Hooper BIB 64-66
  Jacquetta Megarry
"Text, ConText and HyperText: Writing With and For the Computer," edited by Edward Barrett BIB 66-68
  David Riddle
"Hands-On HyperCard," by Mimi Jones and Dave Myers BIB 69-71
  Mark Percival
"Neuromancer," by William Gibson BIB 71-73
  Noreen Mac Morrow

Bibliography

Hypertext Bibliography BIB 74-91
  Jakob Nielsen

HYPERM 1989 Volume 1 Issue 2

Articles

Collaborative Writing of Text and Hypertext BIBA 93-110
  Roy Rada; Barbara Keith; Marc Burgoine; Steven George; David Reid
A good writer understands his audience. Collaborative writing allows authors to act as readers and thus to create text which an audience is more likely to appreciate. This paper describes four sets of experiences in collaborative writing. In one of the experiences secondary school students who were unable to produce a sophisticated document independently were able to produce a quality document through a group process. Given the correct combination of authors and goals, a simple computer editor can be very helpful. Hypertext differs from text in that links among chunks of text are made explicit. It could be argued that collaborative writing would work particularly well with hypertext because the links among the writers' ideas could be more easily explored. In experiences with graduate students at two universities, this hypothesis has not been supported. The students did not understand how these links should be created and thus could not collaboratively write hypertext.
Linking Together Books: Experiments in Adapting Published Material into Intermedia Documents BIB 111-145
  Paul Kahn
Interface Alternatives for Hypertexts BIBA 146-166
  Patricia Wright
This paper seeks to make explicit the ranges of design choices among which authors select whenever they create a particular hypertext. These choices are grouped into five categories: the links authors provide which influence the routes that readers can take within the text; the design features relating to the initiation of jumps within the hypertext; the visual characteristics of the destination of a jump; the navigation support that can be offered to readers; the design implications of the tasks that people will be trying to accomplish using the hypertext. It is suggested that the interface characteristics which are most helpful for hypertexts written as tutorials may differ from those design features which benefit users wishing to gain access through hypertexts to large (encyclopaedic) information sources, or hypertexts used by people as a means of personal information management. Although there is little evidence about which design features work best in which circumstances, an understanding of the range of interface options may help authors appreciate the tradeoffs they often have to make when designing hypertexts.
Problems in Hyperland? A Human Factors Perspective BIBA 167-178
  Cliff McKnight; Andrew Dillon; John Richardson
While the potential of hypertext as an information presentation medium is undeniable, its acceptance by users will be determined largely by its usability. The present paper highlights four issues of relevance: reading from screens as opposed to reading from paper; reader behaviour, particularly how and why different texts are read; interface design variables such as display size and manipulation facilities; and user navigation. Existing research is reviewed and implications for the design of hypertext systems are discussed. Suggestions for future work are presented.
A Spectrum of Automatic Hypertext Constructions BIBA 179-195
  Richard Furuta; Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman
We describe our experiences with four separate conversions from paper documents into hypertext and discuss the lessons we have learned. The paper document's organisation affects the ease with which it can be converted and the appropriateness of the resulting hypertext. The form of the paper document's machine-readable 'markup' description affects the ability to transform the structure automatically. Designing the link structures that tie together the parts of the hypertext takes special care in automating, as badly-designed and incorrectly-formed links destroy the integrity of the hypertext. Overall, each of the conversions followed the same basic methodology, providing the handle for the development of 'power tools' that can be applied to simplify subsequent conversions.

Reviews

"Hypertext: Theory into Practice," edited by R. McAleese BIB 196-198
  Barry McIntyre
"The Brady Guide to CD-ROM," by Laura Buddine and Elizabeth Young BIB 198-199
  Rob Ransom
"Mastering HyperTalk," by Keith Weiskamp and Namir Shammas BIB 199-201
  Pieter Burghart
"Literary Machines," by Theodor Holm Nelson BIB 201-204
  Lizzie Davenport

HYPERM 1989 Volume 1 Issue 3

Articles

A Manifesto for Hypermedia Usability Research BIBA 205-234
  John A. Waterworth; Mark H. Chignell
Following a brief introductory review of existing findings, we discuss key aspects of hypermedia usability in the light of the differences, and similarities, between the design of hypermedia applications and that of more conventional user interfaces. Conversational interaction, techniques for visualisation of structure, considerations of relevance and importance, and the provision of selective views of knowledge bases are all considered. We then focus on the role of analogy and of dynamism in hypermedia interface design, with particular emphasis on the advantages and pitfalls of using metaphor. The concluding section summarises our manifesto for future hypermedia usability research.
A Common Notation for Knowledge Representation, Cognitive Models, Learning and Hypertext BIBA 235-254
  P. R. Churcher
The subject areas of psychology, artificial intelligence, education, information science and now hypertext employ a common representation to structure knowledge and information. The various interpretations applied to this representation and the uses made and phenomena modelled with it in the different subject domains are examined. The application of these different meanings and functions to hypertext are briefly considered and the convergence of hypertext and these other subject areas in intelligent tutoring is discussed. The importance of structure with this notation is considered throughout.
A Similarity-Based Hypertext Browser for Reading the Unix Network News BIBA 255-265
  Michael H. Anderson; Jakob Nielsen; Henrik Rasmussen
HyperNews is a prototype user interface to reading the articles coming in over the Unix network news. HyperNews automatically constructs hypertext links between articles which are part of a stream of articles commenting on each other, and it also constructs links to articles outside these streams if they are considered related to the current article according to a similarity rating based on an information retrieval formula.

Reviews

"Hypertext Hands-On!," by Ben Shneiderman and Greg Kearsley BIB 266-269
  Anne Marie McGrath
"Hypertext'89. Proceedings of the Second ACM Hypertext Conference" BIB 269-271
  Douglas Badenoch
"The Waite Group's Hypertalk Bible," by Mitchell Waite, Stephen Prata and Ted Jones BIB 272-273
  Alasdair C. Scott-Goddard
"Human Factors in Computing Systems. Proceedings of CHI'89, Austin, Texas," edited by K. Bice and C. Lewis BIB 273-274
  Forbes Gibb