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HYPERM Tables of Contents: 010203040506

Hypermedia 3

Editors:Patricia Baird
Dates:1991
Volume:3
Publisher:Taylor Graham
Standard No:ISSN 0955-8543
Papers:16
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HYPERM 1991 Volume 3 Issue 1
  2. HYPERM 1991 Volume 3 Issue 2
  3. HYPERM 1991 Volume 3 Issue 31991

HYPERM 1991 Volume 3 Issue 1

Articles

USHIR: A Knowledge-Based Hypermedia System BIBA 1-33
  Roderick I. Nicolson; Philip Tomlinson
A truly versatile information resource should combine the user-directed browsing and multimedia display capabilities of hypermedia applications both with the problem solving capability of knowledge-based systems and with the direct query answering capability found in database management systems. The potential of such a 'Knowledge-Based Hypermedia System' (KBHS) is demonstrated by reference to USHIR, a KBHS for accessing information about the University of Sheffield. USHIR involves a hypermedia front-end in HyperCard and a flat-text knowledge-based system written in Prolog, with both systems seamlessly interlinked via message passing so that the user appears always to be interacting with HyperCard. Several aspects of USHIR are outlined, including the architecture, a map-based route finding capability, a course construction capability, and an event-logging facility. All facilities may be used either via browsing or by typing in direct queries in natural language. Following an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the system, it is concluded that KBHS applications may hold the key to the next generation of hypermedia software.
A Model of Information Exploration BIBA 35-58
  John A. Waterworth; Mark H. Chignell
A three-dimensional model of information exploration is presented. By pointing to three distinct dimensions of exploration, we attempt to clarify the respective roles of the human and the system in browsing and information retrieval, and to characterise alternative interaction styles to maximise retrieval effectiveness. We illustrate the applicability of our model of exploration by describing eight paradigmatic cases of information exploration that represent different vertices of the model. We also briefly describe an initial experiment that attempted to assess the pragmatic impact of various combinations of exploration features. We then discuss methods for integrating hypermedia and information retrieval into general information exploration systems and discuss some of the processes that people use in information exploration. We conclude with a plea for the development of hybrid information systems combining exploration features in the most appropriate way according to the task needs of users.
Hypertext Access and the New Oxford English Dictionary BIBA 59-79
  Carolyn Watters; Michael A. Shepherd
While hypertext access to the New Oxford English Dictionary would seem to be potentially beneficial, the conversion of such a text to a hypertext document and the generation of semantic links may not be feasible. Rather than attempting either the conversion of the text or the designation and storage of specific hypertext links, a prototype frontend called READER has been developed that provides hypertext access to the Dictionary. The emphasis in this work has been to provide the user with the browsing approach typical of hypertext rather than the more traditional query-oriented approach to accessing full-texts. The prototype is based on a dynamic hypertext model which facilitates browsing through the dynamic instantiation of implicit links existing in the text of the Dictionary.

Reviews

"Designing User Interfaces for International Use," edited by Jakob Nielsen BIB 81-84
  Mark Percival
"CD-ROM Directory 1991: 5th Edition" BIB 85-87
  Steven Hill
"Intelligent Systems Design: Integrating Expert Systems, Hypermedia and Database Technologies," by Larry Bielawski and Robert Lewand BIB 87-89
  Ricardo Rodrigues Barbosa

HYPERM 1991 Volume 3 Issue 2

Articles

Higher Level Hypertext Facilities: Procedures with Arguments BIBA 91-100
  Peter J. Brown
For authors to write and maintain large hyperdocuments, hypertext systems must provide abstractions at a higher level than a link.
   This paper presents one example of such an abstraction: the hypertext equivalent of the procedure call with arguments. The paper describes why such a facility is needed, and how it has been implemented in the UNIX implementation of the Guide hypertext system.
Designing to Facilitate Browsing: A Look Back at the Hyperties Workstation Browser BIBA 101-117
  Ben Shneiderman; Catherine Plaisant; Rodrigo Botafogo; Don Hopkins; William Weiland
Since browsing hypertext can present a formidable cognitive challenge, user interface design plays a major role in determining acceptability. In the Unix workstation version of Hyperties, a research-oriented prototype, we focussed on design features that facilitate browsing. We first give a general overview of Hyperties and its markup language. Customizable documents can be generated by the conditional text feature that enables dynamic and selective display of text and graphics. In addition we present:
  • -- an innovative solution to link identification: pop-out graphical buttons of
        arbitrary shape.
  • -- application of pie menus to permit low cognitive load actions that reduce
        the distraction of common actions, such as page turning or window
        selection.
  • -- multiple window selection strategies that reduce clutter and housekeeping
        effort. We preferred piles-of-tiles, in which standard-sized windows were
        arranged in a consistent pattern on the display and actions could be done
        rapidly, allowing users to concentrate on the contents.
  • A Multi-Window Hypermedia Environment for the Delivery of Information to Architects, Engineers and Product Designers BIBA 119-132
      Philip J. Gartshore; Jane Young; Paul Newland
    A report is given of the Quality Package: a multi-window hypermedia system delivering information on Design Quality to architects, engineers, and product designers. An innovative information processing structure was devised including an object-oriented communication protocol, and a composite user interface individually tailored to individual needs.
       The information content is described to identify the manner in which modes of interaction were reflected in the separation of content accessed by menu windows. The flow of information was maintained through the use of link commentaries selected according to tests of user performance. Further interactions were also possible through agree and disagree decisions aggregated in a performance statement in the package summary. The user could therefore use their own interactions to assess personal notions of design quality in comparison with statements from established experts personified in videodisc and compact audiodisc material.
       Conclusions are drawn concerning the applicability of the further development of the multiwindow communication philosophy to create flexible modes of information delivery.
    Towards an Architecture for Third-Order Hypermedia Systems BIBA 133-152
      Hans C. Arents; Walter F. L. Bogaerts
    Present day hypermedia systems are undoubtedly powerful tools for information storage and consultation. However, until now little research effort has been directed towards making the presentation and navigation of a hypermedia system more knowledge-based, i.e. driven by knowledge about the information contents. This results un hypermedia systems which are difficult to use, since the gap which exists between the reader's mental model and the system's internal model of the subject information domain is too wide. Building such a knowledge-based or third-order hypermedia system requires the design of a conceptual architecture for hypermedia systems and the definition of an underlying data model which will allow for the explicit representation and manipulation of the semantics of the information. In this paper we will formulate a first approach towards such an architecture, the Model -- Map -- View -- Praxis architecture. Our architecture introduces two important new concepts: nodes and links are handled as objects of equal rank, and knowledge about both the nodes and the links is represented and manipulated explicitly. We also introduce a novel browsing mechanism, link navigation through message passing, which should allow a hypermedia system to actively change the presentation look and traversal feel of its information contents.

    HYPERM 1991 Volume 3 Issue 31991

    Articles

    Issues in Hypertext Interchange BIBA 159-186
      John J. Leggett; Ronnie L. Killough
    An important area of hypertext research focuses on the establishment of reference models and standards. In addition to defining the essential elements of hypertext systems, these standards can be elaborated as data structures and used as an intermediate format for hypertext interchange. The resulting interchange format is then used by a set of program modules which perform hypertext interchange between existing hypertext systems. This paper discusses the major issues in static and dynamic interchange of hypertexts. Definitions, methodology and goals of hypertext interchange are given. Static issues discussed include: ideal mappings, node size, node contents, multiple destinations, overlapping anchors, link directionality, partial hypertexts, system attributes and other attributes. Dynamic issues discussed include: system support, access to remote systems, identical remapping and partial hypertexts. Practical solutions to these issues are given where possible. A case study discusses the results of a research project that used the Dexter Hypertext Reference Model as the intermediate format in the transfer of hypertexts from Intermedia to KMS. An overview of the Dexter model is given and the Dexter interchange format, an implementation of the data modelling aspects of the Dexter model, is described. Issues and difficulties with hypertext interchange that arose in this implementation are presented and discussed. A list of open research issues concludes the paper.
    The HEFTI Model of Text to Hypertext Conversion BIBA 187-205
      Mark H. Chignell; Bernd Nordhausen; J. Felix Valdez; John A. Waterworth
    Manual authoring is a major bottleneck in the more widespread use of hypertext. The authoring process has been shown to be slow and labour intensive and hence expensive. Yet there already exists a large body of printed material which can be adopted for hypertext and hypermedia. In the project HEFTI (Hypertext Extraction From Text Incrementally), we are exploring methods of convening printed text into hypertext. We have developed a model which breaks the conversion process into a sequence of six modular components. The output of the conversion process are hypertext documents in a general specification language. In this paper we detail the model and our implementation of the HEFTI model. We believe the system demonstrates the validity of the model as it was used to convert a medium-sized technical textbook into hypertext within a (long) working day. We furthermore discuss two usability experiments that we carried out on HEFTI produced documents. In the conclusion of this paper we look at some open research issues.
    Supporting Composition in a Hypermedia Environment BIBA 207-238
      Tat-Seng Chua; Elaine Pui-Man Lai
    This paper introduces HCOMET, a composition editor developed to facilitate writing in a hypermedia environment. HCOMET provides an environment for on-line capture and manipulation of 'thoughts and ideas' in a multi-dimensional and multimedia manner. Composition as a mechanism for structuring and organization of information (to supplement the basic node and link model) is considered an important issue in the future generation of hypermedia systems. This paper discusses the basic issues in supporting composition, and describes the design and implementation of HCOMET. The use of HCOMET in application development is also discussed.

    Reviews

    "AAAI-91 Proceedings of the Ninth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Anaheim, California, July 14-19, 1991" BIB 239-242
      David G. Karetnyk
    "Hypertext: From Text to Expertext" by Roy Rada BIB 242-244
      Allan Forsyth
    "Intelligent Text and Image Handling. Conference Proceedings, RIAO '91. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, April 2-5, 1991" BIB 244-248
      Frank Mellon