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HYPERM Tables of Contents: 010203040506

Hypermedia 2

Editors:Patricia Baird
Dates:1990
Volume:2
Publisher:Taylor Graham
Standard No:ISSN 0955-8543
Papers:25
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HYPERM 1990 Volume 2 Issue 1
  2. HYPERM 1990 Volume 2 Issue 2
  3. HYPERM 1990 Volume 2 Issue 3

HYPERM 1990 Volume 2 Issue 1

Articles

Increasing the Power of Hypertext Search with Relational Queries BIBA 1-14
  Leonard Gallagher; Richard Furuta; P. David Stotts
We describe an SQL relational database schema for representing the objects in HyperCard, along with a technique for automatically populating this schema from a HyperCard stack using the facilities in HyperTalk with calls to the database manager. The standard relational database query language SQL can then be used to perform more general hypertext searches than are possible with the string search feature found in most hypertext browsing environments. Semiautomatic updates of the content of a hypertext are also possible using SQL updates on the object representations in the database to trigger corresponding HyperCard updates on the objects themselves. We describe a prototype implementation and present several example queries and updates to motivate this approach. These techniques, although demonstrated here specifically using HyperCard and Oracle for Macintosh, are generally applicable to a wide range of hypertext systems and relational databases.
A Hypermedia Tutoring System for Design Trainers BIBA 15-27
  Philip J. Gartshore
Research and development has been undertaken on the production of hypertext-based authoring and end-user training systems, linked to a videodisc player. A hypermedia system enabled the use of animation, purpose-designed graphics, sound and fast response to enhance the learning environment. The package structure could be presented, to allow the user to move around the package, and to see at a glance the consequence of his actions. In addition, material visited by the user and decisions taken, could be stored to enable computer managed manipulation of the data structure for individual requirements.
   This paper discusses one particular system for design trainers to explore various structures of training material. This videodisc-based package gives guidance on the use of multi-media authoring packages to produce material that is sensitive to the interests of each trainee at an appropriate level of understanding. The control structure required some innovative programming techniques of benefit to other researchers investigating the potential of hypermedia.
Using an Issue-Based Hypertext System to Capture the Software Life-Cycle Process BIBA 29-46
  Mark Lease; Mac Lively; John Leggett
Hypertext and object-oriented database technology offer significant possibilities for designing new software engineering environments which better represent the complex relationships between the many artifacts created during the life of a software system. These artifacts are composed of structured (machine understandable) and unstructured information. Hypertext systems can record both the structured and unstructured information of the software project and the linking relationships between both types of information. Issue-based information systems (also called argumentation systems) are special-purpose hypertext systems for capturing the issues and reasoning for decision making. The Issue-Based Experiment (IBE) system is an issue-based information system implemented on an object-oriented database platform. IBE was developed to research methods of capturing the life cycle of a software project in an issue-based information network. IBE is demonstrated to be useful in both the requirements development and system maintenance phases of the software life cycle. Several issues are discussed concerning the usability of issue-based information systems: maintaining a constant level of detail, scoping an Issue for placement in the issue network, and enforcing usage. IBE looks promising when integrated as part of a software development environment based on hypertext and object-oriented database technology.
Linking Active Anchors: A Stage in the Evolution of Hypermedia BIBA 47-66
  Murugappan Palaniappan; Nicole Yankelovich; Mark Sawtelle
With the advent of multimedia technology, hypertext has evolved into hypermedia, in which the elements that are linked together can include animations, video clips, music recordings, and database queries. The critical hypertext function of link traversal must undergo a parallel evolution to support the dynamic aspects of these new types of information.
   This paper introduces the concept of active anchors within dynamic information and explores the design issues involved in linking to active anchors. Scenarios from our hypermedia system, Intermedia, illustrate the use of active anchors in a university setting. General conclusions recommend characteristics that may facilitate the implementation of this concept in other hypermedia systems.

Reviews

"Intelligent Databases: Object Oriented, Deductive and Hypermedia Technologies," by K. Parsaye, M. Chignell, S. Khoshafian and H. Wong BIB 67-68
  David G. Karetnyk
"Computers and Writing," edited by Noel Williams and Patrick Holt BIB 68-71
  Daniel Baird
"Understanding Computers and Cognition," by Terry Winograd and Fernando Flores BIB 71-74
  Andrew Dillon
"Online Information 89. Proceedings of the 13th International Online Information Meeting, London, 12-14 December 1989" BIB 74-78
  Ian Rowlands

HYPERM 1990 Volume 2 Issue 2

Articles

Using HyperCard to Collect, Analyse and Report on Qualitative Data BIBA 79-90
  C. Dianne Martin
This paper describes how qualitative data collected using several application software programs were consolidated into a single linked database using HyperCard. A Macintosh computing environment with word processing, database, spreadsheet and graphics applications was first used to transcribe, code, organize and report on the data. The creation of the HyperCard database facilitated pulling together and re-analysing the data to produce new findings. The example used is a multiple-site case study of the implementation of microcomputers in a school district that was conducted during 1986-7 and included structured interviews, informal interviews, naturalistic observations, content analysis of historical documents, computer usage statistics, and stages-of-concern graphs.
Results of the Hypertext'89 Design Survey BIB 91-107
  Randy A. Knuth; Thomas A. Brush
The Rhetoric of Hypertext BIBA 109-131
  Patricia Ann Carlson
This study adopts as a fundamental orientation the view that hypertext may eventually bring about a paradigm shift in text delivery and in human information processing. However, paradigm shifts do not occur overnight; they are evolutionary rather than revolutionary. Because of the considerable commitment of Western knowledge and culture to the written word and to linear text, it seems likely that successful hypertext systems will -- at least in the beginning -- electronically emulate many of the strategies a sophisticated reader uses in dealing with hard copy. This article describes a project which modeled the functionality an intelligent reader would bring to paper text (specifically, a maintenance manual), and designed and implemented a hypertext version of the document using Apple Computer's HyperCard.
   Since few fully specified hypertext systems have been deployed, the research described here was undertaken to build a platform on which notions about the efficacy of non-linear text processing for a specific application could be tried out. This article describes a stackware version of a portion of an aircraft maintenance manual and considers issues of (1) data storage models, (2) user interface, and (3) information retrieval methods for online text. These elements -- among others -- are the essence of the new rhetoric for non-sequential text.
Real and Virtual Spaces: Mapping from Spatial Cognition to Hypertext BIBA 133-158
  Simon Shum
Parallels are frequently drawn between navigating through everyday spatial environments and information systems, hypertexts being a particular case in point. This paper examines the cognitive mapping theory often borrowed implicitly from spatial cognition research, which has a bearing on the appropriateness of using spatial imagery in hypertext. Conceptual differences between euclidean and virtual spaces are identified, and ways considered in which to make information spaces more coherent. A demonstration hypertext browser is described, incorporating some of the cognitive principles discussed.
Broadbutton Node Linking -- A Generalised Approach to Hyperbase Navigation BIBA 159-169
  Duncan Langford
Hypertext systems operate by establishing links within information. Links are normally established by an author, although some systems -- GUIDE, for example -- make little distinction between author and user, permitting deliberate modification of existing connections. However, linking between nodes, whether by original author or later user, is typically an active process. Producing effective hypertext links involves knowledge both of the system and of the particular data set within it.
   I suggest that efficient link building might be greatly facilitated, and existing systems given greater functionality, if two related modifications could be made. Firstly, more general or' broad-button' nodal links could be created; I use the phrase 'broad button' linking to describe ranked connections established between areas of a hyperbase. The term is defined in detail below. Intended to be easily selectable, broad-button links would offer users the choice of a ranked list of destinations from any point within any node. Secondly, were nodes to be ranked in order of probable user choice, allowing users a degree of feedback following selection of a node would permit such ranking to be dynamically organised. Feedback of this kind also has potential in assisting automatic establishment of appropriate new links between nodes.
   In this paper I describe how such modifications might be organised, and describe some experiments which are currently being planned and undertaken to evaluate the 'broad-button linking' process.

Reviews

"Guidelines for Screen Design," edited by Christopher Rivlin, Robert Lewis and Rachel Davies Cooper BIB 171-173
  Andrew Dillon
"David's Sling -- A Hypertext Novel," by Marc Stiegler with Gwen Hickling and Bob Schumaker BIB 173-176
  Ron Burns
"Ecodisc," by BBC Interactive Television Unit BIB 176-182
  Jakob Nielsen

HYPERM 1990 Volume 2 Issue 3

Articles

Incorporating String Research in a Hypertext System: User Interface and Signature File Design Issues BIBA 183-200
  Christos Faloutsos; Raymond Lee; Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman
Hypertext systems provide an appealing mechanism for informally browsing databases by traversing selectable links. However, in many fact finding situations string search is an effective complement to browsing. This paper describes the application of the signature file method to achieve rapid and convenient string search in small personal computer hypertext environments. The method has been implemented in a prototype, as well as in a commercial product. Performance data for search times and storage space are presented from a commercial hypertext database. User interface issues are then discussed. Experience with the string search interface indicates that it was used successfully by novice users.
Broadening the Scope of Hypermedia Principles BIBA 201-220
  Hermann Maurer; Ivan Tomek
Hypermedia systems have been implemented for such a wide range of applications that one must wonder whether their principles should not be included among the building blocks of computer environments themselves. In this paper, we argue that this would indeed be desirable and present a model on which such extension could be based.
   After a brief review of hypermedia principles and the terminology used in this paper, we give examples of several computer applications in which hypermedia already are or could advantageously be used. We then suggest that most computer applications would greatly benefit if hypermedia were extended from isolated applications to a system-wide facility and that this could substantially simplify implementation of new hypermedia applications. This claim is then generalized and it is shown that extending hypermedia concepts to the organization of the computer environment itself -- the file system -- and to the user interface would make computer environments more flexible and easier to use.
   We then list the main characteristics of such a 'hyperenvironment', and conclude the paper with an outline of its implementation model and an example.
Examining Cognitive Processing in Hypermedia Usage BIBA 221-233
  Philippe C. Duchastel
As a growing learning technology, hypermedia needs to be examined in terms of the cognitive processes it encourages in users. The characteristics that circumscribe hypermedia are first discussed. Two perspectives on learning from hypermedia are then presented. These are purpose of usage (culture, education, information) and usage context. Four cognitive processes involved in hypermedia usage are described. These are browsing, searching, integrating, and angling (establishing multiple perspectives). Two cognitive pitfalls are also discussed: hyperspace wandering and cohesion deficit. It is concluded that both practical and theoretical concerns emerge out of this focus on cognitive processes in hypermedia.
An Empirical Evaluation of Hypertext Interfaces BIBA 235-248
  Craig Boyle; Swee Hor Teh; Clay Williams
The success of hypertext as an information system will depend on its usability. Hypertext systems have mostly been built as research prototypes and paid little attention to user interface usability. Experiments are conducted to measure the usability of six well known hypertext systems. The first experiment measures authoring speed and the second browsing speed for novice users.
   Results show that the easiest systems to use, for novices, are those with the simplest models. Factors such as a high information band width (multiple card displays), an uncluttered screen and simple interaction also contribute to usability. For authoring, NoteCards emerged as statistically faster than other systems.
Slice of Life STAKAuthor: A Second Generation HyperCard Authoring Tool BIBA 249-257
  Robert Bourdage
HyperCard, by Apple Computer Inc., provides a powerful programming environment to anyone with a Macintosh computer. This hypertext development environment allows novice and intermediate level programmers to create applications that would otherwise, be beyond their normal capability. Unfortunately, very few educators have the time, the programming knowledge, or can obtain enough professional credit to entice them into becoming HyperTalk programmers. If hypertext systems are to have a significant effect on education, the need to become a programmer must be removed from the lesson development process. The Slice of Life STAKAuthor is a second generation NoteCard-based authoring application. STAKAuthor is a tool that allows anyone with the Slice of Life videodisc to create an interactive, computer-assisted lesson without the need to write a single line of HyperTalk code.

Reviews

"Hypertext: Concepts, Systems and Applications. Proceedings of the First European Conference on Hypertext, INRIA, France, November 1990," edited by N. Streitz, A. Rizk and J. Andre BIB 259-260
  Elisabeth Davenport
"Online 90 Information. Proceedings of the 14th International Online Information Meeting" BIB 260-262
  Anne Marie McGrath
"OOPSLA-Object-Oriented Programming: Systems, Languages and Applications OOPSLA '89 Conference Proceedings" BIB 262-266
  Lone Bendix Nielsen
"Hypertext and Hypermedia," by Jakob Nielsen BIB 266-268
  Patricia Baird