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ECSCW Tables of Contents: 8991939597990103050709111315

Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:ECSCW 2013: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Olav W. Bertelsen; Luigina Ciolfi; Maria Antonietta Grasso; George Angelos Papadopoulos
Location:Paphos, Cyprus
Dates:2013-Sep-21 to 2013-Sep-25
Publisher:Springer London
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-5346-7 hcibib: ECSCW13; ISBN: 978-1-4471-5345-0 (print), 978-1-4471-5346-7 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
"How Many Bloody Examples Do You Want?" Fieldwork and Generalisation BIBAFull-Text 1-20
  Andy Crabtree; Peter Tolmie; Mark Rouncefield
The title of this paper comes from comments made by an 'angry' ethnographer during a debriefing session. It reflects his frustration with a certain analytic mentality that would have him justify his observations in terms of the number of times he had witnessed certain occurrences in the field. Concomitant to this was a concern with the amount of time he had spent in the field and the implication that the duration of fieldwork somehow justified the things that he had seen; the implication being that the more time he spent immersed in the study setting the more valid his findings and, conversely, the less time, the less valid they were. For his interlocutors, these issues speak to the grounds upon which we might draw general insights and lessons from ethnographic research regarding the social or collaborative organisation of human activities. However, the strong implication of the angry ethnographer's response is that they are of no importance. This paper seeks to unpack his position and explicate what generalisation turns upon from the ethnographer's perspective. The idea that human activities contain their own means of generalisation that cannot be reduced to extraneous criteria (numbers of observations, duration of fieldwork, sample size, etc.) is key to the exposition.
Understanding Mobile Notification Management in Collocated Groups BIBAFull-Text 21-44
  Joel E. Fischer; Stuart Reeves; Stuart Moran; Chris Greenhalgh; Steve Benford; Stefan Rennick-Egglestone
We present an observational study of how notifications are handled by collocated groups, in the context of a collaborative mobile photo-taking exercise. Interaction analysis of video recordings is used to uncover the methodical ways in which participants manage notifications, establishing and sustaining co-oriented interaction to coordinate action, such as sharing notification contents and deciding on courses of action. Findings highlight how embodied and technological resources are collectively drawn upon in situationally nuanced ways to achieve the management of notifications delivered to cohorts. The insights can be used to develop an understanding of how interruptions are dealt with in other settings, and to reflect on how to support notification management within collocated groups by design.
Temporality in Planning: The Case of the Allocation of Parking Areas for Aircrafts BIBAFull-Text 45-62
  Ilaria Redaelli; Antonella Carassa
Several recent studies have focused on plans as coordination devices, demonstrating how organisational members use such plans to organise and make sense of their work. This research project aims to foster empirical research on plans showing how operators at the centre of coordination in handling activities at an Italian airport plan the allocation of parking areas for aircrafts. Based on the analysis of the operators' knowledge of the temporal features of planning, this research contributes to the understanding of how timely assistance for aircrafts on the ground depends on how spaces are allocated. This research highlights temporality in planning and promotes the understanding of the features of allocation and planning as situated and distributed activities.
Calendars: Time Coordination and Overview in Families and Beyond BIBAFull-Text 63-81
  Susanne Bødker; Erik Grönvall
This paper discusses how calendars and time coordination can be used across social and organizational borders, bridging between work and non-work, and between family coordination and external collaborators. The paper moves beyond family on-line calendars towards coordination and collaboration with professional caregivers and public authorities, and discusses how such shared calendars revitalize some of the very basic discussions of CSCW: The notion of shared goals in cooperative activities, the understanding of time and time-granularity in cooperation, common information spaces, and in particular boundary-crossing capacities and the holding back of information for fragmented exchange. Based on two cases, in which we have worked with sharing and coordination of time-resources in families on the one hand, and external parties such as external caregivers, employers and municipal authorities on the other, this paper will reopen these old CSCW debates. This paper questions if calendars, in particular family calendars should be designed based on shared goals and common interests. We argue that collaboration needs to be supported, even when families and their professional and amateur collaborators do not share the same goals, rhythms and routines.
The Collaborative Work of Heritage: Open Challenges for CSCW BIBAFull-Text 83-101
  Luigina Ciolfi
This paper discusses seminal contributions by and current open challenges for CSCW in the study of cultural heritage practices. It provides an overview of key issues relating to social and cooperative interactions -- particularly around the design and use of technology -- at heritage sites that have emerged in CSCW, and pertaining the conduct of visitors, the design and evaluation of interactive installations for guidance and access, and the creation of novel artistic performances. The paper then presents a set of open challenges for future CSCW work, particularly regarding the very re-definition of heritage in light of the social and collaborative practices that have arisen in recent years within the museum and heritage professionals community, and the emergence of new roles and practices for organisations, staff, visitors and related stakeholders. The paper aims at consolidating the range of contributions that CSCW has made to cultural heritage and at outlining key issues and challenges for future research in this domain.
"Drops Hollowing the Stone": Workarounds as Resources for Better Task-Artifact Fit BIBAFull-Text 103-122
  Federico Cabitza; Carla Simone
The paper reports on a systematic survey of the literature around the manifold theme of workarounds in CSCW and in so doing presents a range of definitions that focus on different aspects of this phenomenon. We also report a case study in a large hospital where we discussed with some key users the opportunity of a tool that could promote awareness of existing workarounds, as a way to provide feedback on the actual use of an IT application in a bottom-up fashion. This case study led to the design of a simple process annotation tool, where users could distinguish between different kinds of workarounds: either as misalignments with respect to the organization procedures, or circumventions of the technology supporting them, or both.
Physicians' Progress Notes BIBAFull-Text 123-142
  Jørgen Bansler; Erling Havn; Troels Mønsted; Kjeld Schmidt; Jesper Hastrup Svendsen
This paper examines physicians' progress notes, an artifact that, in spite of its obvious importance in the coordination of cooperative work in clinical settings, has not been subjected to systematic study under CSCW auspices. While several studies have addressed the role of the medical record in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative format is uniquely adequate for the pivotal epistemic aspect of cooperative clinical work: the narrative format enables physicians to not only record 'facts' but also -- by filtering, interpreting, organizing, and qualifying information -- to make sense and act concertedly under conditions of uncertainty and contingency.
Moving Healthcare to the Home: The Work to Make Homecare Work BIBAFull-Text 143-162
  Tone Bratteteig; Ina Wagner
The paper discusses the work of care recipients, informal caregivers, and the larger networks that are involved in homecare work. It discusses different kinds of work, and also if all the tasks involved in homecare could and should be labeled work. Finally, the paper looks into what kinds of work is delegated to machines and how this affects the work performed by people. One of the main conclusions from this analysis is that seeing the many different kinds of work that go into making homecare work is a good basis for designing alternative solutions.
Dwelling in Software: Aspects of the Felt-Life of Engineers in Large Software Projects BIBAFull-Text 163-180
  Richard Harper; Christian Bird; Thomas Zimmermann; Brendan Murphy
The organizational and social aspects of software engineering (SE) are now increasingly well investigated. This paper proposes that there are a number of approaches taken in research that can be distinguished not by their method or topic but by the different views they construct of the human agent acting in SE. These views have implications for the pragmatic outcome of the research, such as whether systems design suggestions are made, proposals for the development of practical reasoning tools or the effect of Social Network Systems on engineer's sociability. This paper suggests that these studies tend to underemphasize the felt-life of engineers, a felt-life that is profoundly emotional though played in reference to ideas of moral propriety and ethics. This paper will present a study of this felt-life, suggesting it consists of a form of digital dwelling. The perspective this view affords are contrasted with process and 'scientific' approaches to the human agent in SE, and with the more humanistic studies of SE reasoning common in CSCW.
What You See is What I Need: Mobile Reporting Practices in Emergencies BIBAFull-Text 181-206
  Thomas Ludwig; Christian Reuter; Volkmar Pipek
Decisions of emergency response organisations (police, fire fighters, infrastructure providers, etc.) rely on accurate and timely information. Some necessary information is integrated into control centre's IT (weather, availability of electricity, gauge information, etc.), but almost every decision needs to be based on very specific information of the current crisis situation. Due to the unpredictable nature of a crisis, gathering this kind of information requires much improvisation and articulation work which we aim to support. We present a study on how different emergency response organisations communicate with teams on-site to generate necessary information for the coordinating instances, and we described, implemented and evaluated an interaction concept as well as a prototype to support this communication by a semi-structured request-and-report system based on Android devices. We learned that (1) the accuracy of request and reports can be improved by using an appropriate metadata structure in addition to creating multimedia-based information content, (2) requirements of trusted and fast information need to be respected in support concepts although they may even be contradictory, and (3) the coordination strategy of the emergency response organisation also shapes the way this interaction needs to be designed.
The Social Life of Tunes: Representing the Aesthetics of Reception BIBAFull-Text 207-228
  Norman Makoto Su
I report on two years of participant observation of traditional musicians in Dublin, Ireland. In Irish traditional music, players from all walks of life gather at pub sessions to play tunes together. Due to the ethos of traditional music, the representation of tunes is a constant aesthetic concern. Drawing on the aesthetics of reception, I show how arriving at the proper "text" of a tune poses unique challenges. Rather than simply reading notes on sheet music, traditional musicians must imaginatively read the creative text on a "virtual space" to create art. Making music involves a nuanced process of learning, knowing, and retaining a tune. The tune is not a static entity but one dynamically shaped by its social context and provenance. The social life of tunes suggests that technologies ought to support the practice of practicing seamlessly across the performance-oriented session and the solitary pursuit of skill, while allowing novices a way to conceptualize the historical flexibility of the tune. I will outline a new agenda of surveilling tradition to represent the aesthetics of reception. With the burgeoning interest in the collaborative work of tradition, this work provides new perspectives into the creative processes involved in representation.
Achieving Continuity of Care: A Study of the Challenges in a Danish and a US Hospital Department BIBAFull-Text 229-247
  Naja L. Holten Møller
Continuity of care is a central topic for healthcare practice and is closely related to issues of collaboration. Thus, studying continuity of care from a CSCW perspective can help us understand what makes continuity of care in practice. In this paper, we show how collaborative technologies are appropriated differently in two cases, one in Denmark and the other in the US. We illustrate how this appropriation is dependent on challenges particular to the organizational context of work. Studying the practices in two different hospital departments we found that in practice achieving continuity of care depends on two main characteristics in the organization of work, namely (1) the constitution of roles and (2) the responsibility for care linked to the appropriation of collaborative technologies. These characteristics of the organization of work create different solutions to the challenges of discontinuity when physicians appropriate mundane collaborative technologies: patient records and pagers. To understand how continuity of care is achieved in practice we have to study the appropriation of technologies, the paper argues, and by comparing across cases we may begin to discern challenges that cut across context -- and their different origins.
Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work BIBAFull-Text 249-268
  Michael Prilla; Viktoria Pammer; Birgit Krogstie
Reflection is a well-known mechanism to learn from experience. Often, it has been investigated from an educational viewpoint or as a formalised procedure such as in project debriefing. Based on an analysis of three case studies, we show that collaborative reflection is much more embedded in daily work and that it supports collaborative, bottom-up redesign of work. We found that processes of work redesign alternate between individual and collaborative reflection and identified reasons for collaborative reflection as well as criteria for selecting reflection partners. We also identified perspective exchange, attribution and (re-)appraisal of past situations to be decisive for collaborative reflection and how it supports finding adequate levels of work redesign and partners needed to implement change. From this, we describe five themes for the design of support for collaborative reflection as a means for work redesign.
The Challenges of Microfinance Innovation: Understanding 'Private Services' BIBAFull-Text 269-286
  Muhammad Adeel; Bernhard Nett; Turkan Gurbanova; Volker Wulf; David Randall
The organization, technology and operation of microfinance have undergone much change and differentiation. Muhammad Yunus, a Nobel-prize winner first demonstrated the possible empowerment of poor people by means of microfinance. Even so, certain cases have indicated that this empowerment does not necessarily occur and that microfinance can even be damaging. In this paper, we describe a case study which describes some of the value clients do receive from an initiative of this kind but notes that this value sometimes lies in unofficial, 'private', advice and help. To this end, we conducted an ethnographic study in a microfinance institution (MFI) in Azerbaijan. We found a special pattern of interaction between MFI-staff members and customers, which both regarded as beneficial. Since, from the point of the organization, it was not recognizably part of their work, we call it a "private service". We think that the identification of similar private initiatives may help to identify new possible synergies between the operation, organization and technology in the microfinance sector. All of them are decisive for the identification of promising human-computer interaction patterns and the design of supportive computer applications.
Motivation-Targeted Personalized UI Design: A Novel Approach to Enhancing Citizen Science Participation BIBAFull-Text 287-297
  Oded Nov; Ofer Arazy; Kelly Lotts; Thomas Naberhaus
We report a preliminary exploration of the effectiveness of motivation-targeted UI design -- a novel personalized approach to enhance online participation. The empirical setting was Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA), a large-scale citizen science project. Using a combination of design intervention and classification of users based on their collective identification motivation, we show that stating the community's mission on its website increases the likelihood of contribution among those who strongly identify with the project, but decreases likelihood of contribution among those with weak identification with the project. The findings contribute to theory and practice of social systems design by demonstrating how motivation-targeted design that can enhance online participation.