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ECSCW Tables of Contents: 8991939597990103050709111315

Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of ECSCW'09 European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Ina Wagner; Hilda Tellioglu; Ellen Balka; Carla Simone; Luigina Ciolfi
Location:Vienna, Austria
Dates:2009-Sep-07 to 2009-Sep-11
Standard No:ISBN: 1-84882-853-5, 978-1-84882-853-7; eISBN: 978-1-84882-854-4; DOI 10.1007/978-1-84882-854-4; hcibib: ECSCW09
Links:Online Proceedings | Springer Proceedings | Conference Home Page (defunct)
The boundaries of participatory citizenship BIBAPDF 1-20
  Nikolaj Gandrup Borchorst; Susanne Bødker; Pär-Ola Zander
This paper explores the space between municipal administrative systems and citizens' web use. It addresses the possibilities of drawing new boundaries between public administration and citizens' everyday lives through a shared planning and visualization artifact, embedded into Web 2.0. The case deals with planning, advising and control of parental leave. This process involves several citizens, the municipal office, employers, as well as the laws regulating parental leave, and the collective agreements supplementing this legislation. The municipal office controls that citizens and employers comply with the law. At the same time it is often the only reliable source of overview of the law, and of leave days recorded. This paper analyses the current situation, presents an exploratory design process and outcome, probing the boundaries between citizens and the municipal office. Focusing on boundaries and tribes, the paper discusses how new forms of web technologies may improve communication between citizen and government and facilitate collaborative user empowerment: Participatory citizenship. Where Web 2.0 technology is often thought of as tearing down boundaries between individuals, this case points to the importance of a focus beyond individual users, and a renegotiation of boundaries between citizens and caseworkers in the context of other groups of actors.
Research Project as Boundary Object: negotiating the conceptual design of a tool for International Development BIBAPDF 21-42
  Ann Light; Theresa Dirndorfer Anderson
This paper reflects on the relationship between who one designs for and what one designs in the unstructured space of designing for political change; in particular, for supporting "International Development" with ICT. We look at an interdisciplinary research project with goals and funding, but no clearly defined beneficiary group at start, and how amorphousness contributed to impact. The reported project researched a bridging tool to connect producers with consumers across global contexts and show players in the supply chain and their circumstances. We explore how both the nature of the research and the tool's function became contested as work progressed. To tell this tale, we invoke the idea of boundary objects and the value of tacking back and forth between elastic meanings of the project's artefacts and processes. We examine the project's role in India, Chile and other arenas to draw out ways that it functioned as a catalyst and how absence of committed design choices acted as an unexpected strength in reaching its goals.
Supporting Nurses' Information Flow by Integrating Paper and Digital Charting BIBAPDF 43-62
  Charlotte Tang; Sheelagh Carpendale
Information technology has changed the way health care is delivered. Electronic health records which are prevalently deployed to replace or supplement paper documentations have made distributed information access at various points of care and work activity achievable with the use of mobile information devices. Our particular concern is with nurse's information flow, where nurse's notes and observations taken at the point of care feed into the electronic record. In these cases, digital technology has not yet entirely replaced paper and pen, because the latter still provide greater ease and flexibility of use when compared to current digital technologies. Even when mobile digital technology is available, clinicians still prefer creating handwritten notes, and then later manually transposing them into the digital medium. Within this context, we created a prototype that integrated digital paper with electronic health charts to retain the benefits of paper and pen, as well as digital medium. A focus group evaluation of this prototype demonstrated promise and potential for its value in a medical environment.
The eDiary: Bridging home and hospital through healthcare technology BIBAPDF 63-84
  Rikke Aarhus; Stinne Aaløkke Ballegaard; Thomas Riisgaard Hansen
The main contribution of the paper is to present challenges relating to the use of new healthcare technology, the eDiary, which seeks to create a better integration between home and hospital. To minimise risks of malformations and other complications, pregnant women with diabetes are enrolled in an extensive treatment regime, which requires frequent visits to an outpatient clinic as well as a high degree of self-care. The eDiary is designed to assist the women in this work, primarily by allowing the women to register their glucose values, record video consultations, and support video-teleconsultations. This paper reports on a pilot study during which pregnant women with diabetes and their healthcare providers make use of the eDiary. The pilot study indicates that such healthcare technology not only allows the women to achieve a better integration of the management of their diabetes into their everyday life, but may also challenge existing power relations between patients and healthcare providers.
PRODOC: an Electronic Patient Record to Foster Process-Oriented Practices BIBAPDF 85-104
  Federico Cabitza; Carla Simone; Giovanni Zorzato
The paper presents PRODOC, an Electronic Document System that allows users to navigate documental artifacts according to predefined process maps. In fact in PRODOC, process models are to be considered as maps that users willingly take as guide for their decisions and actions, rather than scripts prescribed from above. The main tenet of this research is that, by integrating documents and processes, documental practices and related work practices could better align to intended models of action. The underlying concept is the result of a long empirical research in the healthcare domain, where we have deployed PRODOC as an innovative and process-oriented Electronic Patient Record. The user participation in the phase of document definition and clinical processes modeling is central in our approach and it is illustrated in three scenarios of the software informal validation that we present in this paper.
Finding the other 5%: Understanding the role of social networking technologies in building personal networks for young adults with cancer BIBAPDF 105-122
  Shawn Ashkanasy; Frank Vetere; Hillary Davis; Graeme Shanks
In this paper we explore the ways in which young adults with cancer (aged 17- 24) build support networks through computer mediated personal networks. The support networks are influenced by technological affordances and the ongoing experiences of living with the illness and treatment regimes. We report a single, in-depth case study of one young adult with cancer and her use of mobile telephony and web based social networking sites in building support networks. Three important themes emerge from this case. First, in this context computer mediated communications (CMC) are not exclusive to the maintenance of online relationships, but mediate networks of "core", "significant," and new ties (primarily online) over time. Second, the social engagement between the subject and members of their social networks is dynamic with different modes of communication predominant at different points in time and different relationships significant at different points in time depending on state of illness, treatment and context. Finally, the interplay between CMC and different ties influence the characteristics of the networks, which is characterized by bridging and segmenting networks.
Trust and Social Capital: Revisiting an Offshoring Failure Story of a Small German Software Company BIBAPDF 123-142
  Alexander Boden; Bernhard Nett; Volker Wulf
While work organization and social capital are known to be important factors for offshoring success, there is little empirical evidence on how these aspects evolve in the course of offshoring projects. In the literature, trust has been discussed as a personal disposition to abstain from control in a given situation, and was found to remain surprisingly stable in some cases. By analyzing the relation between control and trust in the course of a failed offshoring project, we want to add to the discussion on social capital as a factor for successful offshoring. The results of our long-term ethnographic study are somewhat paradox: in our case, ongoing conflicts motivated attempts to strengthen control, although personal trust and social capital remained strong. Despite the fact that the confidence of the partners in their offshoring project was weakened over time, the trust among the partners prevailed. However, social capital was not only unable to save the offshoring project -- it also seemed to hinder the conflict resolution in some regards. Therefore, we argue that while social capital is an important factor, it should not be regarded as a context-free asset, but rather (in Bourdieu's perspective) as a risky investment.
Return On Contribution (ROC): A Metric for Enterprise Social Software BIBAPDF 143-150
  Michael J. Muller; Jill Freyne; Casey Dugan; David R. Millen; Jennifer Thom-Santelli
The value of enterprise social media applications, components, and users is difficult to quantify in formal economic terms such as Return On Investment. In this work we propose a different approach, based on human service to other humans. We describe a family of metrics, Return On Contribution (ROC), to assist in managing social software systems. ROC focuses on human collaboration, namely the creation and consumption of information and knowledge among employees. We show how ROC can be used to track the performance of several types of social media applications, and how ROC can help to understand the usage patterns of items within those applications, and the performance of employees who use those applications. Design implications include the importance of "lurkers" in organizational knowledge exchange, and specific types of measurements that may be of value to employees, managers, and system administrators.
Collaborative Practices that Support Creativity in Design BIBAPDF 151-170
  Dhaval Vyas; Dirk Heylen; Anton Nijholt
Design is a ubiquitous, collaborative and highly material activity. Because of the embodied nature of the design profession, designers apply certain collaborative practices to enhance creativity in their everyday work. Within the domain of industrial design, we studied two educational design departments over a period of eight months. Using examples from our fieldwork, we develop our results around three broad themes related to collaborative practices that support the creativity of design professionals: 1) externalization, 2) use of physical space, and 3) use of bodies. We believe that these themes of collaborative practices could provide new insights into designing technologies for supporting a varied set of design activities. We describe two conceptual collaborative systems derived from the results of our study.
'Talking about (my) Generation': Creativity, Practice, Technology & Talk BIBAPDF 171-190
  David Martin; Jacki O'Neill; Dave Randall
This paper describes the findings of an ethnomethodological enquiry into the work of graphic designers. We explore the collaborative nature of graphic design as undertaken by a small team of designers working in a packaging design company. In doing so, we attempt to explicate the way in which practice, talk and technology are intricately bound up in such a way as to constitute a creative process. We describe a series of scenic features, 'orderings', and 'talkaboutables' which are characteristic of this process and which may be entailed in other creative contexts and hence can be important topics for CSCW design for creativity.
Using Annotations in a Collective and Face-to-Face Design Situation BIBAPDF 191-206
  Sylvie Guibert; Françoise Darses; Jean-François Boujut
Allowing a group of users to produce and transmit some annotations in common digital documents is nowadays a major issue for groupware systems. In this paper, we report a psychological and ergonomic study carried out on this topic in the mechanical design domain. We observed a collective design process that took place in a series of face-to-face meetings attended by the members of a design team. Our results show the minor role played by textual annotations, contrasting with the great number of figurative annotations. We also highlight that the function of annotations is not to develop parts of the solution but to provide the team members with contextual descriptions of the problem and the solution. These results are a first step towards a model of annotations in a collective face-to-face situation. They also provide interesting tracks for elaborating specifications of annotations in mediated situations.
We can work it out: Collaborative Conflict Resolution in Model Versioning BIBAPDF 207-214
  Petra Brosch; Martina Seidl; Konrad Wieland; Manuel Wimmer
For the versioning of code a pantheon of version control system (VCS) solutions has been realized and is successfully applied in practice. Nevertheless, when it comes to merging two different versions of one artifact, the resolution of conflicts poses a major challenge. In standard systems, the developer who performs the later commit is sole in charge of this often time-consuming, error-prone task. This commit carries the inherent danger of losing the modifications of the other developer. Recently, collaborative merge approaches for code versioning systems have been proposed to minimize this risk. In this paper we propose to apply similar techniques in the context of model versioning where the challenge of merging two versions is even more formidable due to their graph-structure and their rich semantics. In particular, modeling is used in the early phases of the software development, where a collaborative merge is beneficial to elaborate a consolidated understanding of a domain.
On the effects of Refactoring in the Coordination of Software Development Activities BIBAPDF 215-222
  Cleidson R. B. de Souza; Maryanne P. Rosa; Crys S. Goto; Jean M. R. Costa; Pedro J. F. Treccani
Several empirical studies suggest that an alignment between the architecture of a software system and the coordination of development activities lead to better quality and improved performance. In this paper we investigate the possible effects of misalignments due to changes in the software architecture by describing the results of an exploratory study about the effects of refactoring in the coordination of software development activities in an open source project. We studied refactorings because they are perfect examples of changes in the software architecture. The project evaluated is the Jackrabbit, an Apache Software Foundation project. This project was analyzed using statistical tests and social networks analysis metrics. We evaluate different hypothesis regarding the impact of the refactoring process on project coordination. Initial results suggest that core software developers are especially affected by refactoring activities.
Divided by a common acronym: On the fragmentation of CSCW BIBAPDF 223-242
  Kjeld Schmidt
CSCW is in an advanced state of fragmentation. The acronym now, by and large, denotes widely diverging research programs that, apart from a shared name, have little or nothing in common. This situation obviously calls for clarification. Recounting the prehistory and formation of CSCW, the paper shows that CSCW, as a distinct research program devoted to the development of new technologies on the basis of understanding actual cooperative work practices, arose in response to the crises in which 'Computer Mediated Communication' (CMC) and 'Office Automation' (OA) had landed by the late 1980s. The paper finally discusses the reasons why CMC, although superseded as a research paradigm by the practice-oriented program of CSCW, has gained a new lease on life in CSCW and thus why CSCW has become fragmented.
Collaboration in Metagenomics: Sequence Databases and the Organization of Scientific Work BIBAPDF 243-262
  Matthew J. Bietz; Charlotte P. Lee
In this paper we conduct an ethnographic study of work to explore the interaction between scientific collaboration and computing technologies in the emerging science of metagenomics. In particular, we explore how databases serve to organize scientific collaboration. We find databases existing across scientific communities where scientists have different practices and priorities. We suggest while these databases appear to be boundary objects, they are better understood as boundary negotiating artifacts. Due to rapid scientific and technical innovation the tools, practices, and scientific questions change over the course of merely a few years resulting in challenges for collaboration.
Towards 'LivingAgendas' Shaping the next generation of business meetings BIBAPDF 263-282
  Till Schümmer; Hilda Tellioglu; Jörg M. Haake
Business meetings are omnipresent in all kinds of organizations. This paper presents an analysis of meetings at one specific medium-sized enterprise. By means of ethnographic studies, we observed collaboration and coordination problems in meetings. We address these problems with socio-technical meeting patterns, as documentations of good practices that help to understand and change the social interaction, the infrastructure, or both. These pattern-driven interventions helped us to gain insights into the socio-technical aspects of meetings. Finally, we created a first prototype of an integrated meeting support system.
Analyzing Multimodal Communication around a Shared Tabletop Display BIBAPDF 283-302
  Anne Marie Piper; James D. Hollan
Communication between people is inherently multimodal. People employ speech, facial expressions, eye gaze, and gesture, among other facilities, to support communication and cooperative activity. Complexity of communication increases when a person is without a modality such as hearing, often resulting in dependence on another person or an assistive device to facilitate communication. This paper examines communication about medical topics through Shared Speech Interface, a multimodal tabletop display designed to assist communication between a hearing and deaf individual by converting speech-to-text and representing dialogue history on a shared interactive display surface. We compare communication mediated by a multimodal tabletop display and by a human sign language interpreter. Results indicate that the multimodal tabletop display (1) allows the deaf patient to watch the doctor when she is speaking, (2) encourages the doctor to exploit multimodal communication such as co-occurring gesture-speech, and (3) provides shared access to persistent, collaboratively produced representations of conversation. We also describe extensions of this communication technology, discuss how multimodal analysis techniques are useful in understanding the affects of multiuser multimodal tabletop systems, and briefly allude to the potential of applying computer vision techniques to assist analysis.
Status on Display: a Field Trial of Nomatic*Viz BIBAPDF 303-322
  Xianghua Ding; Donald J. Patterson
The use of personal status messages is becoming a part of popular culture through wide-spread instant messaging (IM) adoption, the growth of social networking websites and the increased connectivity provided by mobile phones. However, the implications of status broadcasting and people's behavior in the milieu of social life is still poorly understood. In this paper, we present the results of a field trial in which we examined how community members come to understand and appropriate a status broadcasting service into their daily use. We designed Nomatic*Viz, a situated large display showing people's location and status messages to complement an existing status message distribution tool called Nomatic*IM. Through a five month field study of its use we uncovered not only how it supports lightweight awareness of the community, but also how it participates in creating new spatial experiences and how people perform and negotiate self-representations through multiple simultaneous displays of personal status.
The 'out-of-avatar experience': object focused collaboration in Second Life BIBAPDF 323-342
  Greg Wadley; Nicolas Ducheneaut
Much of our current understanding of collaboration around objects in collaborative virtual environments comes from studies conducted with experimental immersive systems. Now Internet-based desktop virtual worlds (VWs) have become a popular form of 3d environment, and have been proposed for a variety of workplace scenarios. One popular VW, Second Life (SL), allows its users to create and manipulate objects. This provides an opportunity to examine the problems and practices of object-focused collaboration in a current system and compare them to prior results. We studied small groups as they assembled objects in SL under varying conditions. In this paper we discuss the problems they encountered and the techniques they used to overcome them. We present measures of camera movement and verbal reference to objects, and discuss the impact of the UI upon these behaviors. We argue that while well-documented old problems remain very much alive, their manifestation in SL suggests new possibilities for supporting collaboration in 3d spaces. In particular, directly representing users' focus of attention may be more efficient than indirectly representing it via avatar gaze or gestures.
Character Sharing in World of Warcraft BIBAPDF 343-362
  Nelson Wong; Anthony Tang; Ian Livingston; Carl Gutwin; Regan Mandryk
Many online games are played through characters that act out players' intentions in the game world. The practice of character sharing -- allowing others to use one's characters, or using others' -- is prohibited in many RPGs, but anecdotal evidence suggests that the practice is common, and that it may play an important role in the game. To shed light on this little-known form of collaboration, we carried out a large-scale survey study to investigate character sharing in one RPG, World of Warcraft. We analyze and report on 1348 responses, providing a detailed picture of sharing practices and attitudes. We found that character sharing is common (57% of respondents reported sharing) and that sharers have a wide variety of motivations and concerns. In addition to showing how character sharing works, the study also provides new perspectives on several themes in CSCW, including conceptions of sharing, online identity, and mediating artifacts.
High-Octane Work: The oil and gas workplace BIBAPDF 363-382
  Clint Heyer
This paper introduces the oil and gas workplace context and describes work practices observed at a large Norwegian gas refinery. Ethnographic fieldwork was carried out over a ten day period, consisting of observational studies and informal interviews. They are a small, inter-disciplinary group who are highly mobile and work in a hazardous, critical environment where mistakes can pose risk to health, safety and the environment as well as significant financial loss. Two main shift roles, field operator and central control room operator, are discussed and related to the wider workplace. Even in this technologically-advanced workplace, non-digital informational artifacts are important, often serving as bridges to support flowing activity between communities of practice and the physical and digital. Spending time in the physical plant was seen as an important way to develop an understanding of the process and to gain insight not available through a control system. The primary contribution of this paper is the detailing and discussion of an oil and gas workplace from a CSCW perspective, a context not well established in the literature, yet one that poses an interesting range of design challenges.
Asking for the moon Or model-based coordination in distributed design BIBAPDF 383-402
  Kjeld Schmidt; Hilda Tellioglu; Ina Wagner
This paper reports on a study of practitioners in engineering design striving to transform their work practices so as to be able to cope with complex interdependencies across global production networks. As a key feature of these budding coordinative practices, practitioners are trying to build computational 'models' of the 'design space' of their enterprise. The paper examines the difficulties they face in developing these models.
Information Curators in an Enterprise File-Sharing Service BIBAPDF 403-412
  Michael J. Muller; David R. Millen; Jonathan Feinberg
We report on a social-software file-sharing service within a large company. User-created collections of files were associated with increased usage of the uploaded files, especially the sharing of files from one employee to another. Employees innovated in the use of the collections features as "information curators," an emergent lead-user role in which one employee creates named, described collections of resource for use by other employees. This role suggests new work practices and new features.