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ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 7

Editors:Jonathan Grudin
Dates:2000
Volume:7
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISSN 1073-0516
Papers:20
Links:Table of Contents
  1. TOCHI 2000 Volume 7 Issue 1
  2. TOCHI 2000 Volume 7 Issue 2
  3. TOCHI 2000 Volume 7 Issue 3
  4. TOCHI 2000 Volume 7 Issue 4

TOCHI 2000 Volume 7 Issue 1

Past, Present, and Future of User Interface Software Tools BIBAKPDF 3-28
  Brad Myers; Scott E. Hudson; Randy Pausch
A user interface software tool helps developers design and implement the user interface. Research on past tools has had enormous impact on today's developers -- virtually all applications today are built using some form of user interface tool. In this article, we consider cases of both success and failure in past user interface tools. From these cases we extract a set of themes which can serve as lessons for future work. Using these themes, past tools can be characterized by what aspects of the user interface they addressed, their threshold and ceiling, what path of least resistance they offer, how predictable they are to use, and whether they addressed a target that became irrelevant. We believe the lessons of these past themes are particularly important now, because increasingly rapid technological changes are likely to significantly change user interfaces. We are at the dawn of an era where user interfaces are about to break out of the "desktop" box where they have been stuck for the past 15 years. The next millenium will open with an increasing diversity of user interface on an increasing diversity of computerized devices. These devices include hand-held personal digital assistants (PDAs), cell phones, pages, computerized pens, computerized notepads, and various kinds of desk and wall size-computers, as well as devices in everyday objects (such as mounted on refridgerators, or even embedded in truck tires). The increased connectivity of computers, initially evidenced by the World Wide Web, but spreading also with technologies such as personal-area networks, will also have a profound effect on the user interface to computers. Another important force will be recognition-based user interfaces, especially speech, and camera-based vision systems. Other changes we see are an increasing need for 3D and end-user customization, programming, and scripting. All of these changes will require significant support from the underlying user interface software tools.
Keywords: Software -- Software Engineering -- Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2): User interfaces; Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human factors; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): User interface management systems (UIMS); Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Windowing systems;; event languages, interface builders, scripting languages, toolkits, user interface development environments, user interface software
Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing BIBAKPDF 29-58
  Gregory D. Abowd; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
The proliferation of computing into the physical world promises more than the ubiquitous availability of computing infrastructure; it suggest new paradigms of interaction inspired by constant access to information and computational capabilities. For the past decade, application-driven research on ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) has pushed three interaction themes: natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. To chart a course for future research in ubiquitous computing, we review the accomplishments of these efforts and point to remaining research challenges. Research in ubiquitous computing implicitly requires addressing some notion of scale, whether in the number and type of devices, the physical space of distributed computing, or the number of people using a system. We posit a new area of applications research, everyday computing, focussed on scaling interaction with respect to time. Just as pushing the availability of computing away from the traditional desktop fundamentally changes the relationship between humans and computers, providing continuous interaction moves computing from a localized tool to a constant companion. Designing for continuous interaction requires addressing interruption and resumption of interaction, representing passages of time and providing associative storage models. Inherent in all of these interaction themes are difficult issues in the social implications of ubiquitous computing and the challenges of evaluating ubiquitous computing research. Although cumulative experience points to lessons in privacy, security, visibility, and control, there are no simple guidelines for steering research efforts. Akin to any efforts involving new technologies, evaluation strategies form a spectrum from technology feasibility efforts to long-term use studies -- but a user-centric perspective is always possible and necessary.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Miscellaneous (H.5.m); Computer Applications -- Miscellaneous (J.m); Computing Milieux -- Computers and Society -- Social Issues (K.4.2);; augmented reality, capture and access, context-aware applications, evaluation, everyday computing, natural interfaces, social implications, ubiquitous computing, user interfaces
Social Translucence: An Approach to Designing Systems that Support Social Processes BIBAKPDF 59-83
  Thomas Erickson; Wendy A. Kellogg
We are interested in designing systems that support communication and collaboration among large groups of people over computing networks. We begin by asking what properties of the physical world support graceful human-human communication in face-to-face situations, and argue that it is possible to design digital systems that support coherent behavior by making participants and their activities visible to one another. We call such systems "socially translucent systems" and suggest that they have three characteristics -- visibility, awareness, and accountability -- which enable people to draw upon their experience and expertise to structure their interactions with one another. To motivate and focus our ideas we develop a vision of knowledge communities, conversationally based systems that support the creation, management and reuse of knowledge in a social context. We describe our experience in designing and deploying one layer of functionality for knowledge communities, embodied in a working system called "Barbie" and discuss research issues raised by a socially translucent approach to design.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human factors; Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human information processing; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Graphical user interfaces (GUI); Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Theory and methods; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Asynchronous interaction; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Collaborative computing; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Computer-supported cooperative work; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Organizational design; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Synchronous interaction; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Theory and models; Computing Milieux -- Computers and Society -- Organizational Impacts (K.4.3): Computer-supported collaborative work;; Design, Human Factors, CMC, CMI, CSCW, computer-mediated communication, social computing, social navigation, social visualization, visualization
Transcending the Individual Human Mind -- Creating Shared Understanding through Collaborative Design BIBAKPDF 84-113
  Ernesto Arias; Hal Eden; Gerhard Fischer; Andrew Gorman; Eric Scharff
Complex design problems require more knowledge than any single person possesses because the knowledge relevant to a problem is usually distributed among stakeholders. Bringing different and often controversial points of view together to create a shared understanding among these stakeholders can lead to new insights, new ideas, and new artifacts. New media that allow owners of problems to contribute to framing and resolving complex design problems can extend the power of the individual human mind. Based on our past work and study of other approaches, systems, and collaborative and participatory processes, this article identifies challenges we see as the limiting factors for future collaborative human-computer systems. The Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory (EDC) is introduced as an integrated physical, and computational environment addressing some of these challenges. The vision behind the EDC shifts future development away from the computer as the focal point, toward an emphasis that tries to improve our understanding of the human, social, and cultural system that creates the context for use. This work is based on new conceptual principles that include creating shared understanding among various stakeholders, contextualizing information to the task at hand, and creating objects to think with in collaborative design activities. Although the EDC framework is applicable to different domains; our initial effort has focused on the domain of urban planning (specifically transportation planning) and community development.
Keywords: Software -- Software Engineering -- Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2); Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -- Information Storage and Retrieval (H.3); Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation (H.5); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Computing Methodologies -- Computer Graphics -- Methodology and Techniques (I.3.6); Computer Applications -- Social and Behavioral Sciences (J.4);; Design, Human Factors, collaborative design and knowledge construction, design support systems, distributed cognition, integration of action and reflection spaces, integration of physical and computational environments, open systems, symmetry of ignorance
Creating Creativity: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation BIBAKPDF 114-138
  Ben Shneiderman
A challenge for human-computer interaction researchers and user interface designers is to construct information technologies that support creativity. This ambitious goal can be attained by building on an adequate understanding of creative processes. This article offers a four-phase framework for creativity that might assist designers in providing effective tools for users: (1) Collect: learn from previous works stored in libraries, the Web, etc.; (2) Relate: consult with peers and mentors at early, middle, and late stages, (3) Create: explore, compose, evaluate possible solutions; and (4) Donate: disseminate the results and contribute to the libraries. Within this integrated framework, this article proposes eight activities that require human-computer interaction research and advanced user interface design. A scenario about an architect illustrates the process of creative work within such an environment.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3);; creativity support tools, direct manipulation, graphical user interfaces, human-computer interaction, information visualization

TOCHI 2000 Volume 7 Issue 2

Supporting Cognitive Models as Users BIBAKPDF 141-173
  Frank E. Ritter; Gordon D. Baxter; Gary Jones; Richard M. Young
Cognitive models are computer programs that simulate human performance of cognitive skills. They have been useful to HCI by predicting task times, by assisting users, and by acting as surrogate users. If cognitive models could interact with the same interfaces that users do, the models would be easier to develop and would be easier to apply as interface testers. This approach can be encapsulated as a cognitive model interface management system (CMIMS), which is analogous to and based on a user interface management system (UIMS). We present five case studies using three different UIMSes. These show how models can interact with interfaces using an interaction mechanism that is designed to apply to all interfaces generated within a UIMS. These interaction mechanisms start to support and constrain performance in the same ways that human performance is supported and constrained by interaction. Most existing UIMSes can and should be extended to create CMIMSes, and models can and should use CMIMSes to look at larger and more complex tasks. CMIMSes will help to further exploit the synergy between the disciplines of cognitive modeling and HCI by supporting cognitive models as users.
Keywords: Software -- Software Engineering -- Testing and Debugging (D.2.5): Testing tools (e.g., data generators, coverage testing); Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human information processing; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): User interface management systems (UIMS); Computing Methodologies -- Artificial Intelligence -- General (I.2.0): Cognitive simulation; Computing Methodologies -- Simulation and Modeling -- Model Development (I.6.5); Computing Methodologies -- Simulation and Modeling -- Simulation Support Systems (I.6.7);; Design, Human Factors, cognitive modeling, usability engineering
Distributed Cognition: Toward a New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction Research BIBAKPDF 174-196
  James Hollan; Edwin Hutchins; David Kirsh
We are quickly passing through the historical moment when people work in front of a single computer, dominated by a small CRT and focused on tasks involving only local information. Networked computers are becoming ubiquitous and are playing increasingly significant roles in our lives and in the basic infrastructures of science, business, and social interaction. For human-computer interaction to advance in the new millennium we need to better understand the emerging dynamic of interaction in which the focus task is no longer confined to the desktop but reaches into a complex networked world of information and computer-mediated interactions. We think the theory of distributed cognition has a special role to play in understanding interactions between people and technologies, for its focus has always been on whole environments: what we really do in them and how we coordinate our activity in them. Distributed cognition provides a radical reorientation of how to think about designing and supporting human-computer interaction. As a theory it is specifically tailored to understanding interactions among people and technologies. In this article we propose distributed cognition as a new foundation for human-computer interaction, sketch an integrated research framework, and use selections from our earlier work to suggest how this framework can provide new opportunities in the design of digital work materials.
Keywords: Software -- Software Engineering -- Requirements/Specifications (D.2.1): Methodologies (e.g., object-oriented, structured); Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Theory and models; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Evaluation/methodology;; Design, Human Factors, Theory, cognitive science, distributed cognition, ethnography, human-computer interaction, research methodology
On the Effective Use and Reuse of HCI Knowledge BIBAKPDF 197-221
  Alistair Sutcliffe
The article argues that new approaches for delivering HCI knowledge from theory to designers will be necessary in the new millennium. First the role of theory in HCI design to date is reviewed, including the progress made in cognitive theories of interaction and their impact on the design process. The role of bridging models that build on models of interaction is described, but it is argued that direct application of cognitive theory to design is limited by scalability problems. The alternative of representing HCI knowledge as claims and the role of the task-artefact approach to theory-based design are introduced. Claims are proposed as a possible bridging representation that may enable theories to frame appropriate recommendations for designers and, vice versa, enable designers to ask appropriate questions for theoretical research. However, claims provide design advice grounded in specific scenarios and examples, which limits their generality. The prospects for reuse becoming an important mode of development and the possible directions in generalizing claims for reuse are discussed, including generalizing claims beyond their original context, providing a context for reuse of claims by linking them to generic task and domain models. It is argued that generic models provide a way forward for developing reusable libraries of interactive components. The approach is illustrated from a case study of extracting claims from one information retrieval application, generalizing claims for future reuse in information-searching tasks, and reapplying claims in the Web-based Multimedia Broker application. The article concludes by proposing that HCI knowledge should be theory-grounded, and development of reusable "designer-digestible" packets will be an important contribution in the future.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human factors;; Design, Human Factors, Theory, HCI theory, claims, cognitive models, design process, reuse, review
Systems, Interactions, and Macrotheory BIBAKPDF 222-262
  Philip Barnard; Jon May; David Duke; David Duce
A significant proportion of early HCI research was guided by one very clear vision: that the existing theory base in psychology and cognitive science could be developed to yield engineering tools for use in the interdisciplinary context of HCI design. While interface technologies and heuristic methods for behavioral evaluation have rapidly advanced in both capability and breadth of application, progress toward deeper theory has been modest, and some now believe it to be unnecessary. A case is presented for developing new forms of theory, based around generic "systems of interactors." An overlapping, layered structure of macro- and microtheories could then serve an explanatory role, and could also bind together contributions from the different disciplines. Novel routes to formalizing and applying such theories provide a host of interesting and tractable problems for future basic research in HCI.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human factors; Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- Systems and Information Theory (H.1.1): General systems theory;; Design, Human Factors, Theory, cognitive models, computing system models, models of interaction
HCI in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Designing to Support Worker Adaptation BIBAKPDF 263-280
  Kim J. Vicente
Increasingly, people are being required to perform open-ended intellectual tasks that require discretionary decision making. These demands require a relatively unique approach to the design of computer-based support tools. A review of the characteristics associated with the global knowledge-based economy strongly suggests that there will be an increasing need for workers, managers, and organizations to adapt to change and novelty. This is equivalent to a call for designing computer tools that foster continuous learning. There are reasons to believe that the need to support adaptation and continuous learning will only increase. Thus, in the new millennium HCI should be concerned with explicitly designing for worker adaptation. The cognitive work analysis framework is briefly described as a potential programmatic approach to this practical design challenge.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): User interface management systems (UIMS); Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3);; Human Factors, adaptation, cognitive work analysis, knowledge-based economy

TOCHI 2000 Volume 7 Issue 3

Exploiting Space and Location as a Design Framework for Interactive Mobile Systems BIBAKPDF 285-321
  Alan Dix; Tom Rodden; Nigel Davies; Jonathan Trevor; Adrian Friday; Kevin Palfreyman
This article considers the importance of context in mobile systems. It considers a range of context-related issues and focus on location as a key issue for mobile systems. A design framework is described consisting of taxonomies of location, mobility, population, and device awareness. The design framework informs the construction of a semantic model of space for mobile systems. The semantic model is reflected in a computational model built on a distributed platform that allows contextual information to be shared across a number of mobile devices. The framework support the design of interactive mobile systems while the platform supports their rapid development.
Keywords: Computer Systems Organization -- Computer-Communication Networks -- Distributed Systems (C.2.4): Distributed applications; Information Systems -Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Systems Applications -- Communications Applications (H.4.3); Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Synchronous interaction; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Theory and models;; Design, Human Factors, Theory, awareness, context information, design framework, location-sensitive applications, mobile systems, platform support, shared interaction, virtual space
Satchel: Providing Access to Any Document, Any Time, Anywhere BIBAKPDF 322-352
  Mik Lamming; Marge Eldridge; Mike Flynn; Chris Jones; David Pendlebury
Current solutions for providing access to electronic documents while away from the office do not meet the special needs of mobile document workers. We describe "Satchel," a system that is designed specifically to support the distinctive features of mobile document work. Satchel is designed to meet the following five high-level design goals (1) easy access to document services; (2) timely document access; (3) streamlined user interface; (4) ubiquity; and (5) compliance with security policies. Our current prototype uses a Nokia 9000 Communicator as the mobile device; it communicates to the rest of the Satchel system using wireless communications, both infrared and radio. A fundamental Satchel concept is the use of tokens, or small secure references, to represent documents on the mobile device. The mobile client only transmits small tokens over the wireless channels, leaving the wired network to transmit the contents of documents when, and only when, they are required. Another fundamental Satchel concept is the highly specialized and context-sensitive user interface on the mobile device. The user's interactions are streamlined because of this specialization and though the use of contextual information gained by using infrared communications. We report the results of a trial of Satchel that was carried out within our own company, and discuss how well Satchel met our design goals. We call Satchel a "document appliance" because it provides a streamlined solution to the problem of remote document access -- it aims to support only a limited set of activities, but supports them very well.
Keywords: Computer Systems Organization -- Computer-Communication Networks -- Distributed Systems (C.2.4): Distributed applications; Information Systems -Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human factors; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Computing Methodologies -- Computer Graphics -- Methodology and Techniques (I.3.6): Interaction techniques;; Human Factors, document access, document appliance, document processing, information appliance, mobile computing, mobile work
Nomadic Radio: Speech and Audio Interaction for Contextual Messaging in Nomadic Environments BIBAKPDF 353-383
  Nitin Sawhney; Chris Schmandt
Mobile workers need seamless access to communication and information services while on the move. However, current solutions overwhelm users with intrusive interfaces and ambiguous notifications. This article discusses the interaction techniques developed for Nomadic Radio, a wearable computing platform for managing voice and text-based messages in a nomadic environment. Nomadic Radio employs an auditory user interface, which synchronizes speech recognition, speech synthesis, nonspeech audio, and spatial presentation of digital audio, for navigating among messages as well as asynchronous notification of newly arrived messages. Emphasis is placed on an auditory modality as Nomadic Radio is designed to be used while performing other tasks in a user's everyday environment; a range of auditory cues provides peripheral awareness of incoming messages. Notification is adaptive and context sensitive; messages are presented as more or less obtrusive based on importance inferred from content filtering, whether the user is engaged in conversation and his or her own recent responses to prior messages. Auditory notifications are dynamically scaled from ambient sound through recorded voice cues up to message summaries. Iterative design and a preliminary user evaluation suggest that audio is an appropriate medium for mobile messaging, but that care must be taken to minimally intrude on the wearer's social and physical environment.
Keywords: Hardware -- Input/Output and Data Communications -- Input/Output Devices (B.4.2): Voice; Software -- Software Engineering -- Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2): Modules and interfaces; Software -- Software Engineering -- Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2): User interfaces; Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human factors; Information Systems -Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human information processing; Information Systems -- Information Systems Applications -- Communications Applications (H.4.3): Electronic mail; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Audio input/output; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Input devices and strategies; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Theory and methods; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Asynchronous interaction;; Design, Human Factors, adaptive interfaces, contextual interfaces, interruptions, nonspeech audio, notifications, passive awareness, spatial listening, speech interaction, wearable computing
Improving Selection Performance on Pen-Based Systems: A Study of Pen-Based Interaction for Selection Tasks BIBAKPDF 384-416
  Xiangshi Ren; Shinji Moriya
Two experiments were conducted to compare pen-based selection strategies and their characteristics. Two state transition models were also formulated which provide new vocabulary that will help in investigating interactions related to target selection issues. Six strategies, which can be described by the state transition models, were used in the experiments. We determined the best strategy of the six to be the "Slide Touch" strategy, where the target is selected at the moment the pen-tip touches the target for the first time after landing on the screen surface. The six strategies were also classified into strategy groups according to their characteristics. We determined the best strategy group to be the "In-Out' strategy group, where the target is selected by contact either inside or outside the target. Analyses show that differences between strategies are influenced by variations in target size; however, the differences between strategies are not affected by the distance to the target (i.e., pen-movement-distance) or the direction of pen movement (i.e., pen-movement-direction). We also found "the smallest maximum size" of five pixels, i.e., the boundary value for the target size below which there are significant differences, and above which there are no significant differences between the strategies in error rate. Relationships between interaction states, routes, and strategy efficiency were also investigated.
Keywords: Categories and Subject Descriptors: Software -- Software Engineering -- Requirements/Specifications (D.2.1): Methodologies (e.g., object-oriented, structured); Software -- Software Engineering -- Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2): User interfaces; Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human factors; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Input devices and strategies; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Screen design; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Theory and methods; Computing Methodologies -- Computer Graphics -- Methodology and Techniques (I.3.6): Interaction techniques;; Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Theory, classifications of selection strategies, mobile computing, pen-based input interfaces, pen-based systems, small targets, state-transition models, target selection strategies
Using while Moving: HCI Issues in Fieldwork Environments BIBAKPDF 417-437
  Jason Pascoe; Nick Ryan; David Morse
"Using while moving" is the basic ability fieldwork users require of a mobile computer system. These users come from a wide range of backgrounds but have in common an extremely mobile and dynamic workplace. We identify four specific characteristics of this class of users: dynamic user configuration, limited attention capacity, high-speed interaction, and context dependency. A prototype is then presented that was designed to assist fieldworkers in data collection tasks and to explore the HCI design issues involved. The prototype was used in an extensive field trial by a group of ecologists observing giraffe behavior in Kenya. Following this trial, improvements were made to the prototype interface which in turn was tested in a subsequent field trial with another group of ecologists. From this experience, we have formulated our resulting ideas about interface design for fieldworkers into two general principles: Minimal Attention User Interfaces (MAUIs) and context awareness. The MAUI seeks to minimize the attention, though not necessarily the number of interactions, required from the user in operating a device. Context awareness enables the mobile device to provide assistance based on a knowledge of its environment.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human factors; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Ergonomics; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Graphical user interfaces (GUI); Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Haptic I/O; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Input devices and strategies; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Style guides; Computer Applications -- Life and Medical Sciences (J.3);; Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, MAUI, PDA, archaeology, context, context awareness, ecology, fieldwork, giraffe, minimal attention user interface, palmtop, small screen

TOCHI 2000 Volume 7 Issue 4

Introduction to the Special Issue on Human-Computer Interaction and Collaborative Virtual Environments BIBPDF 439-441
  Steve Benford; Paul Dourish; Tom Rodden
An Experimental Study on the Role of Touch in Shared Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 443-460
  Cagatay Basdogan; Chih-hao Ho; Mandayam A. Srinivasan; Mel Slater
Investigating virtual environments has become an increasingly interesting research topic for engineers, computer and cognitive scientists, and psychologists. Although there have been several recent studies focused on the development of multimodal virtual environments (VEs) to study human-machine interactions, less attention has been paid to human-human and human-machine interactions in shared virtual environments (SVEs), and to our knowledge, no attention paid at all to what extent the addition of haptic communication between people would contribute to the shared experience. We have developed a multimodal shared virtual environment and performed a set of experiments with human subjects to study the role of haptic feedback in collaborative tasks and whether haptic communication through force feedback can facilitate a sense of being and collaborating with a remote partner. The study concerns a scenario where two participants at remote sites must cooperate to perform a joint task in an SVE. The goals of the study are (1) to assess the impact of force feedback on task performance, (2) to better understand the role of haptic communication in human-human interactions, (3) to study the impact of touch on the subjective sense of collaborating with a human as reported by the participants based on what they could see and feel, and (4) to investigate if gender, personality, or emotional experiences of users can affect haptic communication in SVEs. The outcomes of this research can have a powerful impact on the development of next-generation human-computer interfaces and network protocols that integrate touch and force feedback technology into the internet, development of protocols and techniques for collaborative teleoperation such as hazardous material removal, space station.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Haptic I/O; Computing Methodologies -- Computer Graphics -- Methodology and Techniques (I.3.6): Interaction techniques; Computing Methodologies -- Computer Graphics -- Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): Virtual reality; Computing Methodologies -- Artificial Intelligence -- Robotics (I.2.9): Manipulators; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Input devices and strategies;; Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory, copresence, force feedback devices, haptic interaction, shared virtual environments
Supporting Presence in Collaborative Environments by Haptic Force Feedback BIBAKPDF 461-476
  Eva-Lotta Sallnas; Kirsten Rassmus-Grohn; Calle Sjostrom
An experimental study of interaction in a collaborative desktop virtual environment is described. The aim of the experiment was to investigate if added haptic force feedback in such an environment affects perceived virtual presence, perceived social presence, perceived task performance, and task performance. A between-group design was employed, where seven pairs of subjects used an interface with graphic representation of the environment, audio connection, and haptic force feedback. Seven other pairs of subjects used an interface without haptic force feedback, but with identical features otherwise. The PHANToM, a one-point haptic device, was used for the haptic force feedback, and a program especially developed for the purpose provided the virtual environment. The program enables for two individuals placed in different locations to simultaneously feel and manipulate dynamic objects in a shared desktop virtual environment. Results show that haptic force feedback significantly improves task performance, perceived task performance, and perceived virtual presence in the collaborative distributed environment. The results suggest that haptic force feedback increases perceived social presence, but the difference is not significant.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Theory and methods; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Input devices and strategies; Information Systems -- Information Systems Applications -- Communications Applications (H.4.3): Computer conferencing, teleconferencing, and videoconferencing; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Synchronous interaction; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- User Interfaces (H.5.2): Haptic I/O;; Human Factors, Measurement, Performance, distributed collaboration, haptic force feedback, presence
Object-Focused Interaction in Collaborative Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 477-509
  Jon Hindmarsh; Mike Fraser; Christian Heath; Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh
This paper explores and evaluates the support for object-focused interaction provided by a desktop Collaborative Virtual Environment. An experimental "design" task was conducted, and video recordings of the participants' activities facilitated an observational analysis of interaction in, and through, the virtual world. Observations include: problems due to "fragmented" views of embodiments in relation to shared objects; participants compensating with spoken accounts of their actions; and difficulties in understanding others' perspectives. Implications and proposals for the design of CVEs drawn from these observations are: the use of semidistorted views to support peripheral awareness; more explicit or exaggerated representations of actions than are provided by pseudohumanoid avatars; and navigation techniques that are sensitive to the actions of others. The paper also presents some examples of the ways in which these proposals might be realized.
Keywords: Information Systems -- Information Systems Applications -- Communications Applications (H.4.3): Computer conferencing, teleconferencing, and videoconferencing; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Evaluation/methodology;; Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, CSCW, embodiment, objects, shared spaces, social interaction, user interface design, virtual reality
Inhabited Television: Broadcasting Interaction from Within Collaborative Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 510-547
  Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh; Mike Craven; Graham Walker; Tim Regan; Jason Morphett; John Wyver
Inhabited television combines collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) with broadcast television so that on-line audiences can participate in television shows within shared virtual worlds. We describe a series of experiments with inhabited television, beginning with the NOWninety6 poetry performance, The Mirror, and Heaven & Hell -- Live. These early experiments raised fundamental questions for inhabited television concerning the extent to which it is possible to establish fast-paced social interaction within a CVE, and to which it is possible to produce a coherent and engaging broadcast of this action. We then present a fourth more recent experiment, Out of This World, that directly addressed these questions. We describe how the formulation of inhabited television design principles, combined with the use of dedicated production software for scripting and directing a show and for controlling virtual cameras, enabled us to create a fast-moving and more coherent experience.
Keywords: Computer Systems Organization -- Computer-Communication Networks -- Distributed Systems (C.2.4): Distributed applications; Information Systems -Models and Principles -- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): Human factors; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities; Information Systems -- Information Interfaces and Presentation -- Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Theory and models; Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics -- Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): Virtual reality; Computer Applications -- Arts and Humanities (J.5): Arts, fine and performing**;; Design, Human Factors, computer-supported cooperative work, entertainment, media spaces, social interaction