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ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 15

Editors:John M. Carroll
Standard No:ISSN 1073-0516
Links:Table of Contents
  1. TOCHI 2008 Volume 15 Issue 1
  2. TOCHI 2008 Volume 15 Issue 2
  3. TOCHI 2008 Volume 15 Issue 3
  4. TOCHI 2008 Volume 15 Issue 4

TOCHI 2008 Volume 15 Issue 1

An Integrated Approach for Modeling Learning Patterns of Students in Web-Based Instruction: A Cognitive Style Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1
  Sherry Y. Chen; Xiaohui Liu
Web-based instruction (WBI) programs, which have been increasingly developed in educational settings, are used by diverse learners. Therefore, individual differences are key factors for the development of WBI programs. Among various dimensions of individual differences, the study presented in this article focuses on cognitive styles. More specifically, this study investigates how cognitive styles affect students' learning patterns in a WBI program with an integrated approach, utilizing both traditional statistical and data-mining techniques. The former are applied to determine whether cognitive styles significantly affected students' learning patterns. The latter use clustering and classification methods. In terms of clustering, the K-means algorithm has been employed to produce groups of students that share similar learning patterns, and subsequently the corresponding cognitive style for each group is identified. As far as classification is concerned, the students' learning patterns are analyzed using a decision tree with which eight rules are produced for the automatic identification of students' cognitive styles based on their learning patterns. The results from these techniques appear to be consistent and the overall findings suggest that cognitive styles have important effects on students' learning patterns within WBI. The findings are applied to develop a model that can support the development of WBI programs.
Strategy-Based Instruction: Lessons Learned in Teaching the Effective and Efficient Use of Computer Applications BIBAFull-Text 2
  Suresh K. Bhavnani; Frederick A. Peck; Frederick Reif
Numerous studies have shown that many users do not acquire the knowledge necessary for the effective and efficient use of computer applications such as spreadsheets and Web-authoring tools. While many cognitive, cultural, and social reasons have been offered to explain this phenomenon, there have been few systematic attempts to address it. This article describes how we identified a framework to organize effective and efficient strategies to use computer applications and used an approach called strategy-based instruction to teach those strategies over five years to almost 400 students. Controlled experiments demonstrated that the instructional approach (1) enables students to learn strategies without harming command knowledge, (2) benefits students from technical and nontechnical majors, and (3) is robust across different instructional contexts and new applications. Real-world classroom experience of teaching strategy-based instruction over several instantiations has enabled the approach to be disseminated to other universities. The lessons learned throughout the process of design, implementation, evaluation, and dissemination should allow teaching a large number of users in many organizations to rapidly acquire the strategic knowledge to make more effective and efficient use of computer applications.
Investigating the Roles of Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adult Information Seeking on the Web BIBAFull-Text 3
  Joseph Sharit; Mario A. Hernández; Sara J. Czaja; Peter Pirolli
This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60-70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71-85). Ten younger adults (ages 18-39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem's complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites.
Data Sonification for Users with Visual Impairment: A Case Study with Georeferenced Data BIBAFull-Text 4
  Haixia Zhao; Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman; Jonathan Lazar
We describe the development and evaluation of a tool, iSonic, to assist users with visual impairment in exploring georeferenced data using coordinated maps and tables, augmented with nontextual sounds and speech output. Our in-depth case studies with 7 blind users during 42 hours of data collection, showed that iSonic enabled them to find facts and discover trends in georeferenced data, even in unfamiliar geographical contexts, without special devices. Our design was guided by an Action-by-Design-Component (ADC) framework, which was also applied to scatterplots to demonstrate its generalizability. Video and download is available at www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/iSonic/.
A New Framework for Theory-Based Interaction Design Applied to Serendipitous Information Retrieval BIBAFull-Text 5
  Oscar De Bruijn; Robert Spence
The activities of opportunistic and involuntary browsing offer the potential for many of a user's latent problems to be resolved serendipitously, with negligible cognitive effort. In this article, we demonstrate how the design of two novel artifacts to support such behavior was based on a set of Design Actions which were derived from a model of browsing behavior in combination with a cognitive model of human visual information processing. We propose the concept of Design Actions as a way of avoiding the need for an interaction designer associated with these and similar artifacts to understand the cognitive theories underlying them.
Queuing Network Modeling of Transcription Typing BIBAFull-Text 6
  Changxu Wu; Yili Liu
Transcription typing is one of the basic and common activities in human-machine interaction and 34 transcription typing phenomena have been discovered involving many aspects of human performance including interkey time, typing units and spans, typing errors, concurrent task performance, eye movements, and skill effects. Based on the queuing network theory of human performance [Liu 1996; 1997] and current discoveries in cognitive and neural science, this article extends and applies the Queuing Network-Model Human Processor (QN-MHP [Liu et al. 2006]) to model 32 transcription typing phenomena. The queuing network model of transcription typing offers new insights into the mechanisms of cognition and human-computer interaction. Its value in proactive ergonomics design of user interfaces is illustrated and discussed.

TOCHI 2008 Volume 15 Issue 2

The anatomy of prototypes: Prototypes as filters, prototypes as manifestations of design ideas BIBAFull-Text 7
  Youn-Kyung Lim; Erik Stolterman; Josh Tenenberg
The role of prototypes is well established in the field of HCI and Design. A lack of knowledge, however, about the fundamental nature of prototypes still exists. Researchers have attempted to identify different types of prototypes, such as low- vs. high-fidelity prototypes, but these attempts have centered on evaluation rather than support of design exploration. There have also been efforts to provide new ways of thinking about the activity of using prototypes, such as experience prototyping and paper prototyping, but these efforts do not provide a discourse for understanding fundamental characteristics of prototypes. In this article, we propose an anatomy of prototypes as a framework for prototype conceptualization. We view prototypes not only in their role in evaluation but also in their generative role in enabling designers to reflect on their design activities in exploring a design space. We base this framework on the findings of two case studies that reveal two key dimensions: prototypes as filters and prototypes as manifestations. We explain why these two dimensions are important and how this conceptual framework can benefit our field by establishing more solid and systematic knowledge about prototypes and prototyping.
From privacy methods to a privacy toolbox: Evaluation shows that heuristics are complementary BIBAFull-Text 8
  Giovanni Iachello; Gregory D. Abowd
We describe the two-year-long development and evaluation of the Proportionality Method, a design method intended to aid HCI practitioners in designing advanced IT applications with complex privacy implications. The method is inspired by Data Protection Authorities' (DPA) and Courts' practice and proposes to balance the impact on privacy of IT applications with their usefulness. We discuss the results of an evaluation of the design method to verify its usability, usefulness and effectiveness vis-a-vis other design methods proposed in the HCI literature to address similar issues. Results suggest that different design methods for privacy highlight different sets of issues and a combination of methods should be employed in a comprehensive design process. We propose to judge design methods based on their overall quantitative and qualitative merits, including the type of application and technology for which they are most fit and their methodological approach. We finally propose to develop a privacy toolbox, that is, a set of heuristic methods that designers can choose from with knowledge and understanding of their relative advantages and limitations.
Making place for clutter and other ideas of home BIBAFull-Text 9
  Laurel Swan; Alex S. Taylor; Richard Harper
In this article, we examine the containment of clutter in family homes and, from this, outline considerations for design. Selected materials from an ethnographically informed study of home life are used to detail the ways in which families contain their clutter in bowls and drawers. Clutter, within these containers, is found to be made up of a heterogeneous collection of things that, for all manner of reasons, hold an ambiguous status in the home. It is shown that bowls and drawers provide a "safe" site of containment for clutter, giving the miscellany of content the "space" to be properly dealt with and classified, or to be left unresolved. The shared but idiosyncratic practices families use to contain their clutter are seen to be one of the ways in which the home, or at least the idea of home, is collectively produced. It is also part of the means by which families come to make their homes distinct and unique. These findings are used to consider what it might mean to design for the home, and to do so in ways that are sensitive to the idiosyncratic systems of household organization. In conclusion, thought is given to how we design for people's ideas of home, and how we might build sites of uncertainty into homes, where physical as well as digital things might coalesce.

TOCHI 2008 Volume 15 Issue 3

Introduction to special issue on the aesthetics of interaction BIBFull-Text 10
  Marianne Graves Petersen; Lars Hallnäs; Robert J. K. Jacob
The aesthetics of emergence: Co-constructed interactions BIBAFull-Text 11
  Melanie Baljko; Nell Tenhaaf
In this article, we describe the aesthetics of emergence, which is our theoretical framework for an aesthetics of interaction and the underpinning of LoFi, an interactive A-life artwork that we are developing. We provide a survey of relevant concepts from the A-life and new media research communities, and we establish threads of commonalities with the HCI research community and especially the subset of that community that emphasizes aspects of user experience other than those that are characterized by performance-based measures. We describe and discuss several exemplar A-life artworks that are drawn from the last decade of jury selections of the annual Vida Art and Artificial Life Competition, conducted by Fundacion Telefonica. We conclude with a discussion of issues that are common to the A-life and HCI research communities.
Interfaces with the ineffable: Meeting aesthetic experience on its own terms BIBAFull-Text 12
  Kirsten Boehner; Phoebe Sengers; Simeon Warner
A variety of approaches have emerged in HCI that grapple with the ineffable, ill-defined, and idiosyncratic nature of aesthetic experience. The most straightforward approach is to transform the ineffable aspects of these experiences into precise representations, producing systems that are well-defined and testable but may miss the fullness of the experienced phenomenon. But without formal models and codified methods, how can we design and evaluate for a phenomenon we aren't sure can be adequately captured? In this article, we present a case study of a system for reflection and awareness of emotional presence that was, in a sense, lived into being. Through system design, use, and evaluation we recount how the system evolved into something that enhanced rather than impoverished the sympathetic awareness of another. In discussing the strategies and results of the case study, we examine what it means for the HCI community to not only design for aesthetic experiences but also bring aesthetics into the practice of HCI.
Performing perception -- staging aesthetics of interaction BIBAFull-Text 13
  Peter Dalsgaard; Lone Koefoed Hansen
In interaction design for experience-oriented uses of technology, a central facet of aesthetics of interaction is rooted in the user's experience of herself "performing her perception." By drawing on performance (theater) theory, phenomenology and sociology and with references to recent HCI-work on the relation between the system and the performer/user and the spectator's relation to this dynamic, we show how the user is simultaneously operator, performer and spectator when interacting. By engaging with the system, she continuously acts out these three roles and her awareness of them is crucial in her experience. We argue that this 3-in-1 is always already shaping the user's understanding and perception of her interaction as it is staged through her experience of the object's form and expression. Through examples ranging from everyday technologies utilizing performances of interaction to spatial contemporary artworks, digital as well as analogue, we address the notion of the performative spectator and the spectating performer. We demonstrate how perception is also performative and how focus on this aspect seems to be crucial when designing experience-oriented products, systems and services.

TOCHI 2008 Volume 15 Issue 4

Introduction to special issue on the aesthetics of interaction BIBFull-Text 14
  Marianne Graves Petersen; Lars Hallnäs; Robert J. K. Jacob
Towards a theory of user judgment of aesthetics and user interface quality BIBAFull-Text 15
  Jan Hartmann; Alistair Sutcliffe; Antonella De Angeli
The article introduces a framework for users' design quality judgments based on Adaptive Decision Making theory. The framework describes judgment on quality attributes (usability, content/functionality, aesthetics, customisation and engagement) with dependencies on decision making arising from the user's background, task and context. The framework is tested and refined by three experimental studies. The first two assessed judgment of quality attributes of websites with similar content but radically different designs for aesthetics and engagement. Halo effects were demonstrated whereby attribution of good quality on one attribute positively influenced judgment on another, even in the face of objective evidence to the contrary (e.g., usability errors). Users' judgment was also shown to be susceptible to framing effects of the task and their background. These appear to change the importance order of the quality attributes; hence, quality assessment of a design appears to be very context dependent. The third study assessed the influence of customisation by experiments on mobile services applications, and demonstrated that evaluation of customisation depends on the users' needs and motivation. The results are discussed in the context of the literature on aesthetic judgment, user experience and trade-offs between usability and hedonic/ludic design qualities.
Tangled interaction: On the expressiveness of tangible user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 16
  Johan Redström
This is an analysis and exploration of a basic aesthetic issue in interaction design: how an ambition to design strong and persistent relations between appearance and functionality, evident in approaches such as tangible user interfaces, in crucial ways in which conflicts with the ways miniaturization of technology have changed the relation between the object's surface and its internal complexity. To further investigate this issue, four conceptual design experiments are presented exploring the expressiveness and aesthetic potential of overloading the object's surface by adding several layers of interaction, thus creating a kind of tangled interaction.
The soft qualities of interaction BIBAFull-Text 17
  Alessia Rullo
This article provides a methodological perspective on the notion of the aesthetics of interaction in ambient computing systems. Aesthetics of interaction is challenged by the design proposal for the soft qualities of interaction, which is used as a tool to complement existing design methodologies. The perspective presented is based on work conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Siena Hospital in Italy, as a part of the EU PalCom project. The early outcomes provide a heuristic account which questions the design process by fostering the novel complexity of ambient technologies in delicate and fragile settings.
Aesthetics and experience-centered design BIBAFull-Text 18
  Peter Wright; Jayne Wallace; John McCarthy
The aesthetics of human-computer interaction and interaction design are conceptualized in terms of a pragmatic account of human experience. We elaborate this account through a framework for aesthetic experience built around three themes: (1) a holistic approach wherein the person with feelings, emotions, and thoughts is the focus of design; (2) a constructivist stance in which self is seen as continuously engaged and constituted in making sense of experience; and (3) a dialogical ontology in which self, others, and technology are constructed as multiple centers of value. We use this framework to critically reflect on research into the aesthetics of interaction and to suggest sensibilities for designing aesthetic interaction. Finally, a digital jewelery case study is described to demonstrate a design approach that is open to the perspectives presented in the framework and to consider how the framework and sensibilities are reflected in engagement with participants and approach to design.