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ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 21

Editors:Shumin Zhai
Dates:2014/15
Volume:21
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISSN 1073-0516
Papers:35
Links:Table of Contents
  1. TOCHI 2014-02 Volume 21 Issue 1
  2. TOCHI 2014-02 Volume 21 Issue 2
  3. TOCHI 2014-06 Volume 21 Issue 3
  4. TOCHI 2014-08 Volume 21 Issue 4
  5. TOCHI 2014-11 Volume 21 Issue 5
  6. TOCHI 2015-01 Volume 21 Issue 6

TOCHI 2014-02 Volume 21 Issue 1

Editorial: TOCHI turns twenty BIBFull-Text 1
  Shumin Zhai
Age differences in credibility judgments of online health information BIBAFull-Text 2
  Q. Vera Liao; Wai-Tat Fu
Older adults are a notable group among the exponentially growing population of online health information consumers. In order to better support older adults' health-related information seeking on the Internet, it is important to understand how they judge the credibility of such information when compared to younger users. We conducted two laboratory studies to explore how the credibility cues in message contents, website features, and user-generated comments differentially impact younger (19 to 26 years of age) and older adults' (58 to 80 years of age) credibility judgments. Results from the first experiment showed that older adults were less sensitive to the credibility cues in message contents and those in website features than younger adults. Verbal protocol analysis revealed that these differences could be caused by the higher tendency of older adults to passively accept web information, and their lack of deliberation on its quality and attention towards contextual web features (e.g., design look, source identity). In the second experiment, we studied how credibility cues from user reviews might differentially impact older and younger adults' credibility judgments of online health information. Results showed that consistent credibility cues in user reviews and message contents could facilitate older adults' credibility judgments. When the two were inconsistent, older adults, as compared to younger ones, were less swayed by highly appraising user reviews given to low credibility information. These results provided important implications for designing health information technologies that better fit the older population.
Emergent effects in multimodal feedback from virtual buttons BIBAFull-Text 3
  Adam Faeth; Chris Harding
The continued advancement in computer interfaces to support 3D tasks requires a better understanding of how users will interact with 3D user interfaces in a virtual workspace. This article presents two studies that investigated the effect of visual, auditory, and haptic sensory feedback modalities presented by a virtual button in a 3D environment on task performance (time on task and task errors) and user rating. Although we expected task performance to improve for conditions that combined two or three feedback modalities over a single modality, we instead found a significant emergent behavior that decreased performance in the trimodal condition. We found a significant increase in the number of presses when a user released the button before closing the virtual switch, suggesting that the combined visual, auditory, and haptic feedback led participants to prematurely believe they actuated a button. This suggests that in the design of virtual buttons, considering the effect of each feedback modality independently is not sufficient to predict performance, and unexpected effects may emerge when feedback modalities are combined.
Disambiguation of imprecise input with one-dimensional rotational text entry BIBAFull-Text 4
  William S. Walmsley; W. Xavier Snelgrove; Khai N. Truong
We introduce a distinction between disambiguation supporting continuous versus discrete ambiguous text entry. With continuous ambiguous text entry methods, letter selections are treated as ambiguous due to expected imprecision rather than due to discretized letter groupings. We investigate the simple case of a one-dimensional character layout to demonstrate the potential of techniques designed for imprecise entry. Our rotation-based sight-free technique, Rotext, maps device orientation to a layout optimized for disambiguation, motor efficiency, and learnability. We also present an audio feedback system for efficient selection of disambiguated word candidates and explore the role that time spent acknowledging word-level feedback plays in text entry performance. Through a user study, we show that despite missing on average by 2.46-2.92 character positions, with the aid of a maximum a posteriori (MAP) disambiguation algorithm, users can average a sight-free entry speed of 12.6wpm with 98.9% accuracy within 13 sessions (4.3 hours). In a second study, expert users are found to reach 21wpm with 99.6% accuracy after session 20 (6.7 hours) and continue to grow in performance, with individual phrases entered at up to 37wpm. A final study revisits the learnability of the optimized layout. Our modeling of ultimate performance indicates maximum overall sight-free entry speeds of 29.0wpm with audio feedback, or 40.7wpm if an expert user could operate without relying on audio feedback.
Moderated online social therapy: Designing and evaluating technology for mental health BIBAFull-Text 5
  Reeva Lederman; Greg Wadley; John Gleeson; Sarah Bendall; Mario Álvarez-Jiménez
Although the use and prevalence of Web-based mental health applications have grown over the past decade, many of these services suffer high rates of attrition. This is problematic, as face-to-face support for mental health is limited. To determine appropriate design guidelines for increasing engagement, we conducted a study of First-Episode Psychosis (FEP) patients and reviewed theories on the use of existing online services. We produced a set of design goals, developed an online application that combined social networking and online therapy within a clinician-moderated site, and conducted a 6-week trial with a group of young FEP patients. The design goals, based on existing theory including Supportive Accountability and Positive Psychology, are operationlised through a model we call Moderated Online Social Therapy (MOST). The trial results indicate that our implementation achieved the design goals and that the MOST model can inform the development of more effective and engaging online therapies.
Understand users' comprehension and preferences for composing information visualizations BIBAFull-Text 6
  Huahai Yang; Yunyao Li; Michelle X. Zhou
We are developing an automated visualization system that helps users combine two or more existing information graphics to form an integrated view. To establish empirical foundations for building such a system, we designed and conducted two studies on Amazon Mechanical Turk to understand users' comprehension and preferences of composite visualization under different conditions (e.g., data and tasks). In Study 1, we collected more than 1,500 textual descriptions capturing about 500 participants' insights of given information graphics, which resulted in a task-oriented taxonomy of visual insights. In Study 2, we asked 240 participants to rank composite visualizations by their suitability for acquiring a given visual insight identified in Study 1, which resulted in ranked user preferences of visual compositions for acquiring each type of insight. In this article, we report the details of our two studies and discuss the broader implications of our crowdsourced research methodology and results to HCI-driven visualization research.
Designing interfaces for multiple-goal environments: Experimental insights from in-vehicle speech interfaces BIBAFull-Text 7
  Sergej Truschin; Michael Schermann; Suparna Goswami; Helmut Krcmar
Designing computer-human interfaces for multiple-goal environments is challenging because people pursue multiple goals with conflicting priorities. Safety-critical environments, such as driving, aggravate the need for a more nuanced understanding of interfaces that may reconcile conflicting tasks. Speech interfaces are prime examples of such interfaces. In this article, we investigate how design variations of an in-vehicle speech interface influence performance of a primary task (driving safely) and a secondary task (e-mailing). In a controlled experiment, we test the performance implications of using single computer-generated Text-To-Speech (TTS) voice and multiple matching TTS voices while users respond to e-mails with varying levels of complexity during driving. Our results indicate that the number of voices used has a significant effect on both driving performance and handling e-mail -- related activities. We discuss potentially unintended consequences of making the interface too naturalistic and too engaging for the driver and conclude with theoretical and practical implications.

TOCHI 2014-02 Volume 21 Issue 2

Complementing text entry evaluations with a composition task BIBAFull-Text 8
  Keith Vertanen; Per Ola Kristensson
A common methodology for evaluating text entry methods is to ask participants to transcribe a predefined set of memorable sentences or phrases. In this article, we explore if we can complement the conventional transcription task with a more externally valid composition task. In a series of large-scale crowdsourced experiments, we found that participants could consistently and rapidly invent high quality and creative compositions with only modest reductions in entry rates. Based on our series of experiments, we provide a best-practice procedure for using composition tasks in text entry evaluations. This includes a judging protocol which can be performed either by the experimenters or by crowdsourced workers on a microtask market. We evaluated our composition task procedure using a text entry method unfamiliar to participants. Our empirical results show that the composition task can serve as a valid complementary text entry evaluation method.
On the benefits of providing versioning support for end users: An empirical study BIBAFull-Text 9
  Sandeep K. Kuttal; Anita Sarma; Gregg Rothermel
End users with little formal programming background are creating software in many different forms, including spreadsheets, web macros, and web mashups. Web mashups are particularly popular because they are relatively easy to create, and because many programming environments that support their creation are available. These programming environments, however, provide no support for tracking versions or provenance of mashups. We believe that versioning support can help end users create, understand, and debug mashups. To investigate this belief, we have added versioning support to a popular wire-oriented mashup environment, Yahoo! Pipes. Our enhanced environment, which we call "Pipes Plumber," automatically retains versions of pipes and provides an interface with which pipe programmers can browse histories of pipes and retrieve specific versions. We have conducted two studies of this environment: an exploratory study and a larger controlled experiment. Our results provide evidence that versioning helps pipe programmers create and debug mashups. Subsequent qualitative results provide further insights into the barriers faced by pipe programmers, the support for reuse provided by our approach, and the support for debugging provided.
A large-scale study of daily information needs captured in situ BIBAFull-Text 10
  Karen Church; Mauro Cherubini; Nuria Oliver
The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental understanding of the daily information needs of people through a large-scale, in-depth, quantitative investigation. To this end, we have conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of information needs to date, spanning a 3-month period and involving more than 100 users. The study employed a contextual experience sampling method, a snippet-based diary technique using SMS technology, and an online Web diary to gather in situ insights into the types of needs that occur from day to day, how those needs are addressed, and how contextual, technological, and demographic factors impact on those needs. Our results not only complement earlier studies but also provide a new understanding of the intricacies of people's daily information needs.
Up close and personal: Collaborative work on a high-resolution multitouch wall display BIBAFull-Text 11
  Mikkel R. Jakobsen; Kasper HornbÆk
Multitouch wall-sized displays afford new forms of collaboration: They can be used up close by several users simultaneously, offer high resolution, and provide sufficient space for intertwining individual and joint work. The difference to displays without these capabilities is not well understood. To better understand the collaboration of groups around high-resolution multitouch wall displays, we conducted an exploratory study. Pairs collaborated on a problem-solving task using a 2.8m × 1.2m multitouch display with 24.8 megapixels. The study examines how participants collaborate; navigate relative to the display and to each other; and interact with and share the display. Participants physically navigated among different parts of the display, switched fluidly between parallel and joint work, and shared the display evenly. The results contrast earlier research that suggests difficulties in sharing and collaborating around wall displays. The study suggests that multitouch wall displays can support different collaboration styles and fluid transitions in group work.
User interfaces for smart things -- A generative approach with semantic interaction descriptions BIBAFull-Text 12
  Simon Mayer; Andreas Tschofen; Anind K. Dey; Friedemann Mattern
With ever more everyday objects becoming "smart" due to embedded processors and communication capabilities, the provisioning of intuitive user interfaces to control smart things is quickly gaining importance. We present a model-based interface description scheme that enables automatic, modality-independent user interface generation. User interface description languages based on our approach carry enough information to suggest intuitive interfaces while still being easily producible for developers. This is enabled by describing the atomic interactive components of a device and capturing the semantics of interactions with the device. We propose a taxonomy of abstract sensing and actuation primitives and present a smartphone application that can act as a ubiquitous device controller. An evaluation of the mobile application in a laboratory setup, home environments, and an educational setting as well as the results of a user study highlight the accessibility of the proposed scheme for application developers and its suitability for controlling smart devices.
E-government intermediaries and the challenges of access and trust BIBAFull-Text 13
  Lynn Dombrowski; Gillian R. Hayes; Melissa Mazmanian; Amy Voida
In this article, we present the results of a study examining challenges related to access and trust for nutrition assistance outreach workers and suggest design implications for these challenges. Outreach workers are e-government intermediaries who assist clients with accessing and using e-government online applications, systems, and services. E-government intermediaries are not typical end users; they use e-government systems on behalf of clients, and as such their challenges differ from those of primary users. We detail social and technical aspects of these challenges to develop a nuanced understanding of access and trust in the ecosystems surrounding e-government systems. First, we describe how the practical accomplishment of access involves multiple stakeholders, actors, and practices. Second, we highlight how trust emerges through the e-government intermediaries' work to project themselves as professional and competent through their technical practice. Last, we propose design implications sensitive to both the social and technical aspects of these challenges.

TOCHI 2014-06 Volume 21 Issue 3

Using Metrics of Curation to Evaluate Information-Based Ideation BIBAFull-Text 14
  Andruid Kerne; Andrew M. Webb; Steven M. Smith; Rhema Linder; Nic Lupfer; Yin Qu; Jon Moeller; Sashikanth Damaraju
Evaluating creativity support environments is challenging. Some approaches address people's experiences of creativity. The present method measures creativity, across conditions, in the products that people make.
   This research introduces information-based ideation (IBI), a paradigm for investigating open-ended tasks and activities in which users develop new ideas. IBI tasks span imagining, planning, and reflecting on a weekend, vacation, outfit, makeover, paper, internship, thesis, design, campaign, crisis response, career, or invention. What products do people create through engagement in IBI? Curation of digital media incorporates conceptualization, finding and choosing information objects, annotation, and synthesis. Through engagement in IBI tasks, people create curation products. This article formulates a quantitative methodology for evaluating IBI support tools, building on prior creative cognition research in engineering design to derive a battery of ideation metrics of curation. Elemental ideation metrics evaluate creativity within curated found objects. Holistic ideation metrics evaluate how a curation puts elements together.
   IBI support environments are characterized by their underlying medium of curation. Curation media include lists, such as listicles, and grids, such as the boards of Pinterest.
   An in-depth case study investigates information composition, an art-based medium representing a curation as a freeform visual semantic connected whole. We raise two creative cognition challenges for IBI. One challenge is overcoming fixation -- for instance, when a person gets stuck in a counterproductive mental set. The other challenge is to bridge information visualization's synthesis gap, by providing support for connecting findings. To address the challenges, we develop mixed-initiative information composition (MI2C), integrating human curation of information composition with automated agents of information retrieval and visualization.
   We hypothesize that MI2C generates provocative stimuli that help users overcome fixation to become more creative on IBI tasks. We hypothesize that MI2C's integration of curation and visualization bridges the synthesis gap to help users become more creative. To investigate these hypotheses, we apply ideation metrics of curation to interpret results from experiments with 44 and 49 participants.
The Hybrid Artisans: A Case Study in Smart Tools BIBAFull-Text 15
  Amit Zoran; Roy Shilkrot; Suranga Nanyakkara; Joseph Paradiso
We present an approach to combining digital fabrication and craft, demonstrating a hybrid interaction paradigm where human and machine work in synergy. The FreeD is a hand-held digital milling device, monitored by a computer while preserving the makers freedom to manipulate the work in many creative ways. Relying on a pre-designed 3D model, the computer gets into action only when the milling bit risks the objects integrity, preventing damage by slowing down the spindle speed, while the rest of the time it allows complete gestural freedom. We present the technology and explore several interaction methodologies for carving. In addition, we present a user study that reveals how synergetic cooperation between human and machine preserves the expressiveness of manual practice. This quality of the hybrid territory evolves into design personalization. We conclude on the creative potential of open-ended procedures within this hybrid interactive territory of manual smart tools and devices.
Family Rituals and the Potential for Interaction Design: A Study of Christmas BIBAFull-Text 16
  Daniela Petrelli; Ann Light
Drawing on a field study with eight families in northern England, we explore the traditions and rituals carried out at Christmas, looking at the artifacts and processes that constitute family life at this time of year. In addition to individual differences, a common pattern emerges: an extended preparation is carried out by the hosting household over a few weeks to set up the celebration and build expectations; preparation gives way to a short but intense celebration shared with the family or intimate friends; then decorations are stored and there is a return to normal life. The celebration is across generations, and everyone takes part. We note examples of new and evolving rituals. Starting from the three identified phases, we discuss the theoretical and technical implications of our findings for the design of more sympathetic technology that holds potential for augmenting family rituals sensitively and possibly creating new ones.
Modeling What Friendship Patterns on Facebook Reveal About Personality and Social Capital BIBAFull-Text 17
  Yong Liu; Jayant Venkatanathan; Jorge Goncalves; Evangelos Karapanos; Vassilis Kostakos
In this study, we demonstrate how analysis of users' social network structure -- a topic that has remained until recently inconspicuous within Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research on social systems -- can contribute to our understanding of Social Networking Services (SNS) effect on users. Despite a consensus that SNS enhance people's social capital, prior studies on SNS have provided inconsistent evidence on this process. In a multipronged study, we analyze personality, social capital, and Facebook data from a cohort of participants to model the extent to which one's SNS reflects aspects of his or personality and affects his bridging social capital. Our empirically validated model shows that empathy and conscientiousness influence the structural holes in one's social network, which in turn affects bridging social capital. These findings highlight the importance of network structure as an intermediary between one's personality and the social benefits one reaps from using SNS. Our work demonstrates how the implicit structural information embedded in users' social networks can provide key insights into users' personality and social capital.
Reciprocal Habituation: A Study of Older People and the Kinect BIBAFull-Text 18
  Bjorn Nansen; Frank Vetere; Toni Robertson; John Downs; Margot Brereton; Jeannette Durick
We explore relationships between habits and technology interaction by reporting on older people's experience of the Kinect for Xbox. We contribute to theoretical and empirical understandings of habits in the use of technology to inform understanding of the habitual qualities of our interactions with computing technologies, particularly systems exploiting natural user interfaces. We situate ideas of habit in relation to user experience and usefulness in interaction design, and draw on critical approaches to the concept of habit from cultural theory to understand the embedded, embodied, and situated contexts in our interactions with technologies. We argue that understanding technology habits as a process of reciprocal habituation in which people and technologies adapt to each other over time through design, adoption, and appropriation offers opportunities for research on user experience and interaction design within human-computer interaction, especially as newer gestural and motion control interfaces promise to reshape the ways in which we interact with computers.
Estrellita: A Mobile Capture and Access Tool for the Support of Preterm Infants and Their Caregivers BIBAFull-Text 19
  Gillian R. Hayes; Karen G. Cheng; Sen H. Hirano; Karen P. Tang; Marni S. Nagel; Dianne E. Baker
In this article, we describe the design process and principles used in the development of Estrellita, a tool to support parents of preterm infants to track health data. We tested Estrellita in the homes of seven families for 4 months while following seven additional families without Estrellita. The feedback from this trial, including in-depth interviews, surveys, and log analyses, sheds light on how parents can use a mobile data collection tool to enhance their problem-solving processes about their own health and that of their infants, as well as to share with others who support them in this care. In addition to presenting the design of a recording technology for preterm infants and its use in a real-life setting, the results of this research provide a deep understanding of how technology can and should be used to support home care of at-risk patients, in which data capture may be essential.

TOCHI 2014-08 Volume 21 Issue 4

My Self and You: Tension in Bodily Sharing of Experience BIBAFull-Text 20
  Helena M. Mentis; Jarmo Laaksolahti; Kristina Höök
There is a growing interest in designing systems for sharing experience through bodily interaction. To explore this design space, we built a probe system we named the Lega. In our 2-month-long research design process, we noted that the users' attention was set on their own reflective experience, rather than attending to the person(s) with which they were sharing their experience. To explain these findings, we present an inductive analysis of the data through a phenomenological lens to pinpoint what causes such behavior. Our analysis extends our understanding of how to design for social embodied interaction, pointing to how we need to embrace the tension between self-reflection and shared experience, making inward listening and social expression visible acts, accessible to social construction and understanding. It entails experiencing our embodied self as others experience us in order to build a dialogue.
Quantifying the Creativity Support of Digital Tools through the Creativity Support Index BIBAFull-Text 21
  Erin Cherry; Celine Latulipe
Creativity support tools help people engage creatively with the world, but measuring how well a tool supports creativity is challenging since creativity is ill-defined. To this end, we developed the Creativity Support Index (CSI), which is a psychometric survey designed for evaluating the ability of a creativity support tool to assist a user engaged in creative work. The CSI measures six dimensions of creativity support: Exploration, Expressiveness, Immersion, Enjoyment, Results Worth Effort, and Collaboration. The CSI allows researchers to understand not just how well a tool supports creative work overall, but what aspects of creativity support may need attention. In this article, we present the CSI, along with scenarios for how it can be deployed in a variety of HCI research settings and how the CSI scores can help target design improvements. We also present the iterative, rigorous development and validation process used to create the CSI.
Crowdsourced Monolingual Translation BIBAFull-Text 22
  Chang Hu; Philip Resnik; Benjamin B. Bederson
An enormous potential exists for solving certain classes of computational problems through rich collaboration among crowds of humans supported by computers. Solutions to these problems used to involve human professionals, who are expensive to hire or difficult to find. Despite significant advances, fully automatic systems still have much room for improvement. Recent research has involved recruiting large crowds of skilled humans ("crowdsourcing"), but crowdsourcing solutions are still restricted by the availability of those skilled human participants. With translation, for example, professional translators incur a high cost and are not always available; machine translation systems have been greatly improved recently but still can only provide passable translation; and crowdsourced translation is limited by the availability of bilingual humans.
   This article describes crowdsourced monolingual translation, where monolingual translation is translation performed by monolingual people. Crowdsourced monolingual translation is a collaborative form of translation performed by two crowds of people who speak the source or the target language, respectively, with machine translation as the mediating device.
   This article describes a general protocol to handle crowdsourced monolingual translation and analyzes three systems that implemented the protocol. These systems were studied in various settings and were found to supply significant improvement in quality over both machine translation and monolingual editing of machine translation output ("postediting").
Health Vlogs as Social Support for Chronic Illness Management BIBAFull-Text 23
  Jina Huh; Leslie S. Liu; Tina Neogi; Kori Inkpen; Wanda Pratt
Studies have shown positive impact of video blogs (vlogs) on patient education. However, we know little on how patient-initiated vlogs shape the relationships among vloggers and viewers. We qualitatively analyzed 72 vlogs on YouTube by users diagnosed with HIV, diabetes, or cancer and 1,274 comments posted to the vlogs to understand viewers' perspectives on the vlogs. We found that the unique video medium allowed intense and enriched personal and contextual disclosure to the viewers, leading to strong community-building activities and social support among vloggers and commenters, both informationally and emotionally. Furthermore, the unique communication structure of the vlogs allowed ad hoc small groups to form, which showed different group behavior than typical text-based social media, such as online communities. We provide implications to the Health Care Industry (HCI) community on how future technologies for health vlogs could be designed to further support chronic illness management.
Optimistic Programming of Touch Interaction BIBAFull-Text 24
  Yang Li; Hao Lu; Haimo Zhang
Touch-sensitive surfaces have become a predominant input medium for computing devices. In particular, multitouch capability of these devices has given rise to developing rich interaction vocabularies for "real" direct manipulation of user interfaces. However, the richness and flexibility of touch interaction often comes with significant complexity for programming these behaviors. Particularly, finger touches, though intuitive, are imprecise and lead to ambiguity. Touch input often involves coordinated movements of multiple fingers as opposed to the single pointer of a traditional WIMP interface. It is challenging in not only detecting the intended motion carried out by these fingers but also in determining the target objects being manipulated due to multiple focus points. Currently, developers often need to build touch behaviors by dealing with raw touch events that is effort consuming and error-prone. In this article, we present Touch, a tool that allows developers to easily specify their desired touch behaviors by demonstrating them live on a touch-sensitive device or selecting them from a list of common behaviors. Developers can then integrate these touch behaviors into their application as resources and via an API exposed by our runtime framework. The integrated tool support enables developers to think and program optimistically about how these touch interactions should behave, without worrying about underlying complexity and technical details in detecting target behaviors and invoking application logic. We discuss the design of several novel inference algorithms that underlie these tool supports and evaluate them against a multitouch dataset that we collected from end users. We also demonstrate the usefulness of our system via an example application.

TOCHI 2014-11 Volume 21 Issue 5

An Assisted Photography Framework to Help Visually Impaired Users Properly Aim a Camera BIBAFull-Text 25
  Marynel Vázquez; Aaron Steinfeld
We propose an assisted photography framework to help visually impaired users properly aim a camera and evaluate our implementation in the context of documenting public transportation accessibility. Our framework integrates user interaction during the image capturing process to help users take better pictures in real time. We use an image composition model to evaluate picture quality and suggest providing audiovisual feedback to improve users' aiming position. With our particular framework implementation, blind participants were able to take pictures of similar quality to those taken by low vision participants without assistance. Likewise, our system helped low vision participants take pictures as good as those taken by fully sighted users. Our results also show a positive trend in favor of spoken directions to assist visually impaired users in comparison to tone and silent feedback. Positive usefulness ratings provided by full vision users further suggest that assisted photography has universal appeal.
Ad Hoc Participation in Situation Assessment: Supporting Mobile Collaboration in Emergencies BIBAFull-Text 26
  Christian Reuter; Thomas Ludwig; Volkmar Pipek
Emergencies are characterized by high complexity and unpredictability. In order to assess and manage them successfully, improvisation work and informal communication, even beyond local and organizational boundaries, is needed. Such informal practices can facilitate ad hoc participation of units in situation assessment, but this may lack overall situation awareness. This article presents a study on how emergent "collaboration needs" in current work of response teams located on-site and in the control center could be supported by mobile geo-collaboration systems. First, we present the results of an empirical study about informal work and mobile collaboration practices of emergency services. Then we describe the concept of a mobile geo-collaboration system that addresses the aspects detected in the empirical study and that was implemented as an Android application using web sockets, a technology enabling full-duplex ad hoc communication. Finally, we outline the findings of its evaluation in practice and its implications.
Does Distance Still Matter? Revisiting the CSCW Fundamentals on Distributed Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 27
  Pernille Bjørn; Morten Esbensen; Rasmus Eskild Jensen; Stina Matthiesen
Does distance still matter? Reporting on a comparative analysis of four ethnographic studies of global software development, this article analyzes the fundamental aspects of distance as depicted in the famous paper "Distance Matters." The results suggest that, although while common ground, collaboration readiness, and organizational management are still important aspects for distributed collaboration, the arguments concerning coupling of work and collaboration technology readiness need to be refined. We argue that in working remotely, closely coupled work tasks encourage remote workers to spend the extra effort required in articulation of work to make the collaboration function. Also we find that people in distributed software development have already made collaborative technologies part of their work, and individuals are comfortable with them; thus, collaboration technology readiness takes a different shape in this setting.
Exploring and Understanding Unintended Touch during Direct Pen Interaction BIBAFull-Text 28
  Michelle Annett; Anoop Gupta; Walter F. Bischof
The user experience on tablets that support both touch and styli is less than ideal, due in large part to the problem of unintended touch or palm rejection. Devices are often unable to distinguish between intended touch (i.e., interaction on the screen intended for action) and unintended touch (i.e., incidental interaction from the palm, forearm, or fingers). This often results in stray ink strokes and accidental navigation, frustrating users. We present a data collection experiment where participants performed inking tasks, and where natural tablet and stylus behaviors were observed and analyzed from both digitizer and behavioral perspectives. An analysis and comparison of novel and existing unintended touch algorithms revealed that the use of stylus information can greatly reduce unintended touch. Our analysis also revealed many natural stylus behaviors that influence unintended touch, underscoring the importance of application and ecosystem demands, and providing many avenues for future research and technological advancement.

TOCHI 2015-01 Volume 21 Issue 6

Special Issue on Physiological Computing for Human-Computer Interaction

Introduction to the Special Issue on Physiological Computing for Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 29
  Hugo Plácido Da Silva; Stephen Fairclough; Andreas Holzinger; Robert Jacob; Desney Tan
Physiological data in its different dimensions -- bioelectrical, biomechanical, biochemical, or biophysical -- and collected through existing sensors or specialized biomedical devices, image capture, or other sources is pushing the boundaries of physiological computing for human-computer interaction (HCI). Although physiological computing shows the potential to enhance the way in which people interact with digital content, systems remain challenging to design and build. The aim of this special issue is to present outstanding work related to use of physiological data in HCI, setting additional bases for next-generation computer interfaces and interaction experiences. Topics covered in this issue include methods and methodologies, human factors, the use of devices, and applications for supporting the development of emerging interfaces.
Informing the Design of Novel Input Methods with Muscle Coactivation Clustering BIBAFull-Text 30
  Myroslav Bachynskyi; Gregorio Palmas; Antti Oulasvirta; Tino Weinkauf
This article presents a novel summarization of biomechanical and performance data for user interface designers. Previously, there was no simple way for designers to predict how the location, direction, velocity, precision, or amplitude of users' movement affects performance and fatigue. We cluster muscle coactivation data from a 3D pointing task covering the whole reachable space of the arm. We identify 11 clusters of pointing movements with distinct muscular, spatio-temporal, and performance properties. We discuss their use as heuristics when designing for 3D pointing.
Understanding Gesture Expressivity through Muscle Sensing BIBAFull-Text 31
  Baptiste Caramiaux; Marco Donnarumma; Atau Tanaka
Expressivity is a visceral capacity of the human body. To understand what makes a gesture expressive, we need to consider not only its spatial placement and orientation but also its dynamics and the mechanisms enacting them. We start by defining gesture and gesture expressivity, and then we present fundamental aspects of muscle activity and ways to capture information through electromyography and mechanomyography. We present pilot studies that inspect the ability of users to control spatial and temporal variations of 2D shapes and that use muscle sensing to assess expressive information in gesture execution beyond space and time. This leads us to the design of a study that explores the notion of gesture power in terms of control and sensing. Results give insights to interaction designers to go beyond simplistic gestural interaction, towards the design of interactions that draw on nuances of expressive gesture.
ColorBless: Augmenting Visual Information for Colorblind People with Binocular Luster Effect BIBAFull-Text 32
  Soon Hau Chua; Haimo Zhang; Muhammad Hammad; Shengdong Zhao; Sahil Goyal; Karan Singh
Binocular disparity allows interesting visual effects visible only to people with stereoscopic 3D displays. Here, we studied and applied one such effect, binocular luster, to the application of digital colorblind aids with active shutter 3D. We developed two prototype techniques, ColorBless and PatternBless, to investigate the effectiveness of such aids and to explore the potential applications of a luster effect in stereoscopic 3D beyond highlighting. User studies and interviews revealed that luster-based aids were fast and required lower cognitive effort than existing aids and were preferred over other aids by the majority of colorblind participants. We infer design implications of a luster effect from the study and propose potential applications in augmented visualization.
Measurable Decision Making with GSR and Pupillary Analysis for Intelligent User Interface BIBAFull-Text 33
  Jianlong Zhou; Jinjun Sun; Fang Chen; Yang Wang; Ronnie Taib; Ahmad Khawaji; Zhidong Li
This article presents a framework of adaptive, measurable decision making for Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) by varying decision factors in their types, numbers, and values. Under this framework, decision making is measured using physiological sensors such as Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and eye-tracking while users are subjected to varying decision quality and difficulty levels. Following this quantifiable decision making, users are allowed to refine several decision factors in order to make decisions of high quality and with low difficulty levels. A case study of driving route selection is used to set up an experiment to test our hypotheses. In this study, GSR features exhibit the best performance in indexing decision quality. These results can be used to guide the design of intelligent user interfaces for decision-related applications in HCI that can adapt to user behavior and decision-making performance.
A Framework for Psychophysiological Classification within a Cultural Heritage Context Using Interest BIBAFull-Text 34
  Alexander J. Karran; Stephen H. Fairclough; Kiel Gilleade
This article presents a psychophysiological construct of interest as a knowledge emotion and illustrates the importance of interest detection in a cultural heritage context. The objective of this work is to measure and classify psychophysiological reactivity in response to cultural heritage material presented as visual and audio. We present a data processing and classification framework for the classification of interest. Two studies are reported, adopting a subject-dependent approach to classify psychophysiological signals using mobile physiological sensors and the support vector machine learning algorithm. The results show that it is possible to reliably infer a state of interest from cultural heritage material using psychophysiological feature data and a machine learning approach, informing future work for the development of a real-time physiological computing system for use within an adaptive cultural heritage experience designed to adapt the provision of information to sustain the interest of the visitor.
Designing Implicit Interfaces for Physiological Computing: Guidelines and Lessons Learned Using fNIRS BIBAFull-Text 35
  Erin Treacy Solovey; Daniel Afergan; Evan M. Peck; Samuel W. Hincks; Robert J. K. Jacob
A growing body of recent work has shown the feasibility of brain and body sensors as input to interactive systems. However, the interaction techniques and design decisions for their effective use are not well defined. We present a conceptual framework for considering implicit input from the brain, along with design principles and patterns we have developed from our work. We also describe a series of controlled, offline studies that lay the foundation for our work with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging, as well as our real-time platform that serves as a testbed for exploring brain-based adaptive interaction techniques. Finally, we present case studies illustrating the principles and patterns for effective use of brain data in human -- computer interaction. We focus on signals coming from the brain, but these principles apply broadly to other sensor data and in domains such as aviation, education, medicine, driving, and anything involving multitasking or varying cognitive workload.