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PDC Tables of Contents: 020406081012-112-214-114-2

Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Participatory Design

Fullname:Proceedings of the Tenth Conference on Participatory Design
Note:Experiences and Challenges
Editors:Jesper Simonsen; Toni Roberston; David Hakken
Location:Bloomington, Indiana
Dates:2008-Oct-01 to 2008-Oct-04
Standard No:ISBN: 0-9818561-0-1, 978-0-9818561-0-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: PDC08
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Large systems
  2. Communities
  3. Methods
  4. Politics
  5. Families and children
  6. Methods I
  7. Methods II
  8. Methods III
  9. Nature of participation I
  10. Nature of participation II
  11. Nature of participation III
  12. Nature of participation IV
  13. Community
  14. Designing (for) organizations
  15. Games & children
  16. Urban participatory design I
  17. Urban participatory design II
  18. Panels
  19. Workshops
  20. Tutorials
  21. Participatory art installations
  22. Posters and interactive demonstrations

Large systems

Participative design and the challenges of large-scale systems: extending the iterative PD approach BIBAKFull-Text 1-10
  Jesper Simonsen; Morten Hertzum
With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD approach applied throughout design and organizational implementation. To pursue this aim we extend the iterative PD prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing stepwise implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. The extended approach is exemplified through a large-scale PD experiment in the Danish healthcare sector. We reflect on our experiences from this experiment and discuss four challenges PD must address in dealing with large-scale systems development.
Keywords: EPR, challenges, improvisational change management, large-scale information systems, participatory design, prototyping, technochange
Lightweight methods in heavyweight organizations BIBAKFull-Text 11-20
  Liv Karen Johannessen; Gunnar Ellingsen
The aim of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of how PD plays out in emerging large-scale IS projects. We argue that even if many of these projects start out on a well-founded small-step methodological basis, such as agile methods, XP, etc. organizational politics and maneuvering will inevitably be part of the process, especially as the scope and size of the system increases. More specifically, we discuss this implicated organizational complexity; the increasingly unclear user roles, as well as critically examine the traditional neutral vendor role which is an assumption of agile engineering methods.
Keywords: ethnography and participatory design, healthcare, politics of design, system development methodologies
Impediments to change: the case of implementing an electronic patient record in three oncology clinics BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Christine Reidl; Marianne Tolar; Ina Wagner
The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of the complexities of IT implementation processes in health care by studying the introduction of an electronic patient record (EPR) system at three oncology clinics belonging to an association of hospitals in Austria. It examines the larger political and organizational context, the role of different stakeholders, the impact of arenas of influence and participation, and gives an in-depth analysis of the case dynamics.
   It argues that in order to better understand large scale IT implementation in health care a profound understanding of the complexities and interdependencies of clinical work is needed as well as the inclusion of other involved social arenas and their agendas. Careful planning and a powerful agenda in all these arenas are essential for the alignment of the different perspectives and the resulting demands.
Keywords: change management, electronic patient record, implementation, organizational issues, participation


Community driven development as participation?: involving user communities in a software design process BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Jan Hess; Sinja Offenberg; Volkmar Pipek
In this paper we report on a case study of a participatory design process we call Community Driven Development (CDD). Together with a German software company we developed a socio-technical environment to motivate users of an existing online user community to participate in the further development of a product. For the CDD approach developers and users worked together to create a functional description and different prototypes of a target product. By conducting interviews and analyzing formal and informal processes we could identify different motivations, fears, problems and benefits the participants perceived during the process. Our study shows that an existing online community can be a valuable basis for a PD process, but it calls for a careful design of the organizational and technological setting and a sensible process moderation. It also shows that existing professionalization structures in technology design arenas may always lead to an imbalanced 'participation'.
Keywords: end user development, home entertainment software, user-driven innovation, virtual community
The Neighborhood Networks project: a case study of critical engagement and creative expression through participatory design BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  Carl DiSalvo; Illah Nourbakhsh; David Holstius; Ayça Akin; Marti Louw
In this paper we examine the Neighborhood Networks project: a community-based participatory design project. The goal of the Neighborhood Networks project is to facilitate and investigate the use of participatory design to prompt critical engagements between people, technology, and the urban environment, and to enable the production of creative expressions of local issues by residents, using robotics and sensing technologies. We describe the activities and outcomes of the first workshop, and discuss how participants used the technology in a rhetorical sense, that is, to discover, invent, and deliver arguments about how we could or should live in the world.
Keywords: participatory design, participatory sensing, rhetoric, robotics, robots sensing, urban computing
Participatory design and web 2.0: the case of PIPWatch, the collaborative privacy toolbar BIBAKFull-Text 51-60
  Andrew Clement; Terry Costantino; Dan Kurtz; Mike Tissenbaum
We discuss the distinctive opportunities and challenges of adopting a PD approach to the development of 'Web 2.0' applications. Web-based services pose significant difficulties in interacting effectively with user groups in terms of traditional PD methods. However there are some quite popular 'peer-production' services which have been successful in overcoming such challenges and thereby offer useful insights into participatory approaches for developing applications that depend on the ongoing voluntary contributions by groups of physically dispersed individuals. These are illustrated through a reflective account of the iterative development of PIPWatch, a Firefox extension that enables web users to monitor the privacy policies and practices of the websites they visit, using data contributed by previous visitors and site privacy officers.
Keywords: Firefox extension, participatory design, peer production, privacy enhancement, social navigation, web 2.0


Software as hypothesis: research-based design methodology BIBAKFull-Text 61-70
  Teemu Leinonen; Tarmo Toikkanen; Katrina Silfvast
Recently design has been discussed in areas of research outside the traditional fields of art and design and engineering. Meanwhile design practitioners increasingly use methods from social sciences. Completing three design cases dealing with educational technology we have developed a human-centered research-based design methodology where software prototypes play an important role. Although the methodology builds on theories and methods from social sciences and educational research the context is design. Through analyses of the patterns identified in the cases we conceptualized the intentions of the methodology and created a model of an iterative research-based design process. Research-based design emphasizes serving users and the iterative process consists of four partly overlapping phases: contextual inquiry, participatory design, product design, and production of software as hypotheses. In the hermeneutic cycle all research and design operations increase researchers' and designers' understanding of the context and factors in all the phases. Firstly this article contributes to the discussion of using design in educational research. Secondly it contributes to the philosophical discussion of designing tools for complex social systems. Thirdly it presents a model of a design process for practitioners interested in carrying out research-based design with software prototypes.
Keywords: design methodology, education, human-centered, learning, method, software
PD method and socio-political context of the development organization BIBAKFull-Text 71-80
  Kari Rönkkö; Mats Hellman; Yvonne Dittrich
Little research is done on how socio-political factors intertwine with method implementation. This paper is a follow up of a reported PD method implementation failure four years ago. For branch related reasons, the implementation fell short. This article tells the story of what happened then. To our surprise, the original reason for introducing the PD method called Personas had disappeared during our one and a half year attempt at method implementation. Internal socio-political developments had solved the power struggle that the PD method was aimed to mediate. We propose that it is time to expand the method focus with studies revealing more about the socio-political internal climate and contingencies in today's software development practices that influence method introduction and adaptation.
Keywords: industrial cooperation, interaction design, method, participatory design, personas, research methodology, socio politics, software engineering
Participatory IT design and participatory development: a comparative review BIBAKFull-Text 81-91
  Andy Dearden; Haider Rizvi
This paper examines literature in the twin domains of participatory interactive systems design and participatory approaches to international development. As interactive systems are increasingly promoted as a possible means of achieving international development goals, designers generally agree that participatory design approaches should be applied. However, review of the literature reveals that these two different traditions have more complex relationships, and questions must be asked about: the aims of participation, the forms of participation that are being advocated, and the skills and strategies required of practitioners. The findings suggest that successful integration of participatory interactive systems design into development will require careful reflection on the nature of development and the approaches adopted.
Keywords: IT for development, design methods, international development, participatory design


Participation in design things BIBAKFull-Text 92-101
  Pelle Ehn
This paper discusses the design of things. This is done in an attempt to conceptually explore some of the political and practical challenges to participatory design today. Which things, and which participants? The perspective is strategic and conceptual. Two approaches are in focus, participatory design (designing for use before use) and meta-design (designing for design after design). With this framing the challenge for professional design to participate in public controversial things is considered.
Keywords: design, object, participation, public, thing, use
Participatory design: one step back or two steps forward? BIBAKFull-Text 102-111
  Birgitta Bergvall-Kåreborn; Anna Ståhlbrost
Several authors are pointing to the drift in focus from participation as the means to a political agenda to participation as a means to a smooth development and implementation, or sometimes as an end in itself. Other authors are arguing that participatory design (PD) should move forward to include new trends within IS. The aim of this paper is to present a snapshot of where PD stands today, in order to offer suggestions on where we need to be tomorrow. The concluding remarks from the discussion is that there are a number of new trends such as open innovation and distributed participation that have a great deal to gain from the knowledge and experience within the participatory design community. At the same time these new trends could constitute new research fields that would broaden the PD environment and result in interesting findings as exiting methods and theories are applied and tested in new contexts. Hence, the only way to move one step back seems to be to take two steps forward.
Keywords: motives for PD, new trends, participatory design, review, type and degree of PD
Participatory problem solving through interactive environments BIBAKFull-Text 112-117
  Joan Greenbaum
With the widespread availability of open source software and social networking sites, community groups, researchers, artists and other activists have taken political problems from their physical places and built bridges into interactive places to continue their work. The discussion and examples in this paper illustrate how design through practical problem-solving, actively involving participants, extends meaning and experience between and among environments.
Keywords: interaction design, participatory, place, pragmatism, social networking software

Families and children

Design for more: an ambient perspective on diabetes BIBAKFull-Text 118-127
  Anne Marie Kanstrup; Pernille Bertelsen; Marie Glasemann; Niels Boye
The purpose of the present study is to establish a foundation for participatory design (PD) between IT professionals and people with chronic diseases resulting in IT-supported compensation in daily life. This paper presents results from a qualitative study working on understanding everyday life with diabetes. The participants in the study are eight families with one or more diabetic members. The paper reports on their lives with the condition based on interviews and 'reflective probes' from the families. The analysis outlines perspectives, activities, locations and information related to daily life with diabetes. Design implications are in line with the term 'design for more' a central prerequisite for working with IT-support for diabetes providing an ambient perspective to technology assisted living.
Keywords: ambient assisted living, diabetes, everyday living, participatory design, personal health informatics
'Teen-scape': designing participations for the design excluded BIBAKFull-Text 128-137
  Yanki Lee; Jo-Anne Bichard
Aside from designing artefacts, designers can also design participations with people. This paper is a reflection of an eighteen-month design experiment by a design researcher with different designers aiming to develop a relationship with staff members and students of a secondary school. From this responsive experiment, four identified types or steps of design participations were identified: 1) innovation led by designers; 2) collaboration between designers and the 'users'; 3) emancipation focuses on how users invite professional designers to share design thinking and finally, 4) motivation is about projects initiated by 'users' to invite designers to co-designing. The result of this period of engagement is 'Teen-scape', a new school playground, designed by a design graduate, through exposure to methods for design inclusion. The introduction of creative thinking from design studies into the secondary school environment, through this design engaging process, demonstrates how design can instigate a transformation of lives, whilst highlighting the importance of people participation and the role of design facilitators who instigate and inform the participation. The main aim is to urge a new design discipline, entitled the Design Participations, which is a design study area extending creative thinking to design processes that engage people in design.
Keywords: children participation, design exclusion, design participations, inclusive design
Pursuing aesthetic inquiry in participatory design BIBAKFull-Text 138-145
  Ole Sejer Iversen; Christian Dindler
We introduce aesthetic inquiry as an important perspective to pursue in Participatory Design. Within the scope of tradition and transcendence, we pursue aesthetic inquiry by tipping the scale towards transcendence, and by staging offline loops for detached reflection through the use of imaginative artefacts. Although aesthetic inquiry resides to some extent in most Participatory Design practice, we see the need to elaborate this perspective, and to further build Participatory Design practice, tools, and techniques that address this issue. The Fictional Inquiry technique is presented as an illustrative example of a design technique for pursuing aesthetic inquiry, by using fictional narratives to temporarily bypass the existing structures of meaning and expectations within a given practice. We illustrate how Fictional Inquiry was utilized in a participatory design project, in which two design concepts for the Kattegat Marine Centre were developed.
Keywords: aesthetic inquiry, imaginative artefacts, offline loop, participatory design, transcendence

Methods I

The gender perspective in cultural probes BIBAKFull-Text 146-149
  Katharina Bredies; Sandra Buchmüller; Gesche Joost
This paper is a reflection on the application of participatory design methods in a gender sensitive approach. Investigating their appropriateness to gather gender specific insights, we are particularly interested in their potential of avoiding the recreation of gender stereotypes. In this context, we reflect the design of our research environments, methods and tools according to their unconscious gender assumptions which might cause stereotype answers. Our empirical study, called 'Women's Phone', aimed both at involving female prospective users to avoid gender clichés and to critically investigate conventional and stereotypical design solutions for mobile phones.
   We judge the suitability of the methods used in three respects:
  • Their value in preventing researchers from reproducing conventional gender
  • The researcher's influence on the gender image that the methods implicitly
  • The impact of the researchers' gender image on the research result. We consider our set of 'cultural probes' used in the project as the strongest evidence of the researchers' inherent gender assumptions. Therefore, we will explore the visibility of the 'gender point of view' in the probes and draw implications from it for future gender-sensitive design inquiries.
    Keywords: cultural probes, gender and design, mobile communication, participatory design
  • Opening exhibitions: the visually impaired and the design of probes packages BIBAKFull-Text 150-153
      Mariana Salgado; Andrea Botero
    This paper explores issues of the participation and the inclusion of visually impaired communities in the design of museum experiences. Design probes were used for delving into the life of the visually impaired community and, specifically, their integration into museums. The purpose of this paper is to document and reflect on an approach involving a workshop, design probes and interviews in order to begin to create a participatory process that engages the community. The project aims to design inclusive solutions in exhibitions for the visually impaired in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Keywords: design probes, exhibitions, inclusion, museums, visually impaired
    Exploring the problem domain: a socio-technical ICT design for the developing world BIBAKFull-Text 154-157
      Souleymane Boundaouda Camara; José Abdelnour Nooera; Lynne Dunckley
    The paper is a work in progress that explores the use of socio-technical matrices to try and design a fit for purpose ICT for two sub-Saharan Africa farming communities. Rooted in Hansen's (2006) socio-technical experiments in design processes and Summerville and Dewsbury's (2007) system dependability model, the paper offers a systematic design route from initial field study results to the development of use cases and scenarios that are in turn evaluated in iterative socio-technical matrices. The approach offers a solution in multi-disciplinary and geographically diverse structures of design that explore the problem domain, concluding by highlighting the merits and difficulties of the approach.
    Keywords: fitness for purpose, multi-disciplinary ICT design, participatory design, socio-technical design and evaluation

    Methods II

    Bootlegging: multidisciplinary brainstorming with cut-ups BIBAKFull-Text 158-161
      Lars Erik Holmquist
    We introduce bootlegging, a structured brainstorming technique particularly suited to multidisciplinary settings. Participants first generate ideas in 2 rough groups, one having to do with users and usage situations and the other pertaining to a specific technology or domain. Results are then randomly combined to form unexpected juxtapositions. These combinations are used as the basis for several quick application brainstorms, after which promising ideas can be fleshed out to complete scenarios. Bootlegging stimulates participants' creativity without abandoning the target domain, and can be run efficiently even without a skilled facilitator. The technique has been successfully used in several thematic workshops.
    Keywords: brainstorming, design methods, idea generation, multidisciplinary design
    Instant card technique: how and why to apply in user-centered design BIBAKFull-Text 162-165
      Elke Beck; Marianna Obrist; Regina Bernhaupt; Manfred Tscheligi
    Involving users in scenario development within participatory design is challenging as it places users at the same level with designers. In our research we stated a need for a structured scenario development process, which is suitable for various research areas. Following the tradition of card-based techniques, we aimed at developing a technique, which is easy to apply and modify. The "Instant Card Technique" (IC-Technique) presented in this paper offers a typology of instant cards, which enables a formalized development of scenarios together with a group of users. The technique was tested and improved through its evaluation in three case studies. In this paper we provide a description of this technique, including the step by step preparation and usage process.
    Keywords: card technique, design method, participatory design, scenarios
    Teaching participatory design BIBAKFull-Text 166-169
      K. Maike Hecht; Susanne Maass
    In this paper we reflect on how to teach methods used in participatory design (PD) to graduate students. We describe a course concept that has proved very successful both in terms of student satisfaction and course results during the last years. Lectures introduce the concept of PD and a wide variety of participatory methods for analysis and design; exercises prepared and facilitated by small groups of students permit hands-on experience and further the development of necessary group moderation skills. As there are only few descriptions of teaching concepts in the literature, we would like to invite the PD community to share their experiences and start a discussion about teaching participatory design.
    Keywords: education, methods, participatory design, teaching

    Methods III

    Silence' as an analytical category for PD BIBAKFull-Text 170-173
      Sisse Finken; Dagny Stuedahl
    Reporting from two field studies relating to design of IT, the authors show the importance of bringing in silence as an analytical category when conducting ethnography. With such take we aim at shedding light on the importance of understanding how diverse encounters -- explicitly and implicitly articulated -- make a difference when interpreting ethnographic material gathered around design processes.
    Keywords: ethnography, participation, relations, silence
    Stimulating empathy in ideation workshops BIBAKFull-Text 174-177
      Froukje Sleeswijk Visser; Merlijn Kouprie
    In participatory design users are involved in the design process, but oftentimes in industrial practice this involvement is limited to specific moments (e.g., a user study or a user test). Then designers have to work with indirect results about users. This paper describes a study about promoting empathy in conveying user insights to designers who have been partly or not even involved in meetings with users. Arranging the communication in a way that the designers can empathize with users is difficult, when they have not met the users. Based on our prior experiences with this problem, and a review on design and psychological literature, we formed a structure for how empathy can be stimulated in ideation workshops. An important step is to stimulate designers to recall their own experiences about the topic in order to be able to create a deeper understanding of the users' experiences.
    Keywords: design approach, empathy, user experiences
    Expressions of ownership: motivating users in a co-design process BIBAKFull-Text 178-181
      Helma van Rijn; Pieter Jan Stappers
    This paper describes how we tried to increase the user's feeling of 'psychological ownership' during the LINKX project. In this participatory design project, a language-learning toy was designed for children with autism. Participating 'users' were three boys with autism, their parents, and care professionals, such as teachers and a speech therapist. The children played with the prototype. Care professionals gave advice, and the parents even took initiative and showed pride. These factors indicate a feeling of ownership of the project. Ownership can serve as motivation for users to be involved in design.
    Keywords: contextmapping techniques, motivation, participatory design, psychological ownership

    Nature of participation I

    Of participation in industry: a hybridized possibility? BIBAKFull-Text 182-185
      Daria Loi
    This paper overviews how what I termed hybrid participatory tools supported user experience definition in an industry setting. Three case studies drawn from work by the User Experience Group (UEG) at Intel Corporation are used to illustrate the approach. The paper is divided into six parts. The first provides a brief background to the case studies. The second, third and fourth part overview three major case studies: projects conducted in 2007 and 2008 by Intel Corporation. The fifth section summarizes key learning and observed benefits and the concluding section reflects on issues surrounding the design and deployment of these tools within industry settings.
    Keywords: case study, hybrid participatory tools, user experience
    Participatory innovation: a research agenda BIBAKFull-Text 186-189
      Jacob Buur; Ben Matthews
    In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation.
    Keywords: business value, participatory design, user-driven innovation
    Participation and representation: a discussion based upon a case study in the Danish healthcare sector BIBAKFull-Text 190-193
      Keld Bødker; Maren Fich Granlien
    The Participatory Design community has come a long way in terms of raising attention to include future users in the design and development of new technologies and in relation to making PD approaches applicable in real life projects. Based upon a case study of a -- in many ways -- successful project in the Danish healthcare sector we discuss issues in relation to participation and representation in projects with diversified user groups.
    Keywords: diverse use groups, healthcare, participation, representation

    Nature of participation II

    Probes and participation BIBAKFull-Text 194-197
      Connor Graham; Mark Rouncefield
    This exploratory paper reflects on the relationship between methodological techniques and forms of user participation. Specifically our concern is to document and describe our experiences with different kinds of participation that different sorts of 'Probes' -- 'Cultural Probes', 'Technology Probes' etc -- elicit, encourage and provoke. Analysis of the different kinds of participation invoked by Probes -- imaginative, investigative, emotional, discursive, reactive, disruptive, reflective, and playful -- may prove useful as heuristic devices guiding the selection and deployment of these methodological and design tools. Whilst there are further opportunities for new forms of participation through 'Probing', new concerns, challenges and risks also emerge.
    Keywords: design, participation, probes
    Towards Liberating Voices 2.0 BIBAKFull-Text 198-201
      Douglas Schuler
    At PDC 2002 in Malmo, Sweden, I presented a vision of a broad participatory project to create a "pattern language" that would encourage and foster the creation of new information and communication systems to empower civil society and encourage positive social change. Although these systems can't solve problems by themselves, it is impossible to imagine any coordinated approach to social change without them. The project was called "Liberating Voices" for two reasons: It describes "voices" that are being sounded that are helping to liberate people and it raises the idea that working together towards the liberation of all voices worldwide is important.
       In 2008, the goal of positive social change is still primary -- and, indeed, has more urgency now. Since the publication of the Liberating Voices pattern language [9] represents a single milestone of a broader vision rather than the culmination, I would like to invite the participatory design community to advise and critique the ideas that the organizers are contemplating as the project moves forward. We now have an excellent opportunity to take stock of where we are, evaluate our opportunities, and make decisions about next steps.
    Keywords: Liberating Voices, civic intelligence, computer supported cooperative work, participatory design, pattern language
    Software development for a distributed community of practice: lessons learned from fifteen years of participatory design on a single system BIBAKFull-Text 202-205
      Vincenzo D'Andrea; Arthur Baskin; Robert E. Reinke
    In this paper, we describe a case study that spans fifteen years of participatory design by an international community of software users and a distributed software development team. We describe a participatory design process involving annual community meetings and computer collaboration tools. These participatory design meetings have brought together sponsors, power users, and software developers in order to review new software versions and chart the course for future development. In this paper, we summarize the lessons learned from this co-evolution of a community of practice and a software system. We have identified five general principle organized around two complementary principles: fostering emergence/evolution of systems while capturing common software/domain structure.
    Keywords: condition-based maintenance, distributed software development, participatory design

    Nature of participation III

    Resources for action in the negotiation of participatory design projects BIBAKFull-Text 206-209
      Brendon Clark
    This paper elevates the negotiation of project resources with stakeholders as a critical topic for analysis and site for action research experimentation. The ability of researchers and practitioners to engage in Participatory Design projects and introduce collaborative methods and practices is inherently linked to their ability to negotiate project resources with multiple stakeholders and to gain access to worthy contexts. Based on a design research case as part of a collaboration between a university-based design research group and the local municipality, the paper proposes that viewing stakeholder engagements through a 'performative lens' initiates an interactional view of the Participatory Design practitioner / stakeholder relationship that paves the way for exploring various modes of developing roles as a resource for action.
    Keywords: meeting format, performance, project negotiation, staging activities
    Collaborative design as narrative BIBAKFull-Text 210-213
      George Triantafyllakos; George Palaigeorgiou; Ioannis Tsoukalas
    Narrative theory or narratology is the systematic study of narrative and narrative structure [3]. It provides the necessary theoretical tools that can help scrutinize the various ways in which narrative is formed and is deciphered by an audience. In this paper, we suggest the use of narrative theory as: (a) a means to a detailed deconstruction or engineering of a collaborative design process, and (b) an analytical device for the in depth exploration of the design space.
    Keywords: collaborative design, interactive narrative, narrative theory
    "I don't want to be empowered": the challenge of involving real-world clients in instructional design experiences BIBAKFull-Text 214-216
      Ana-Paula Correia; Farrah D. Yusop
    This paper explores the issues of user's reluctance to be actively involved as co-designer in the instructional design process.
    Keywords: empowerment, instruction design, reflective practitioner

    Nature of participation IV

    Community Design: growing one's own information infrastructure BIBAKFull-Text 217-220
      Helena Karasti; Karen S. Baker
    This paper examines the phenomenon of Community Design. It is a radical phenomenon in that community members collectively grow their own community information infrastructures without the intervention of professionals typically associated with such endeavors. A recently initiated comparative study draws on ongoing, longitudinal research engagements with a small number of communities and has identified a set of characteristics that apply across these communities that undertake Community Design. We present the characteristics grouped into three dimensions of community: organizational, social and technical. Finally, we draw attention to future research topics that we see as relevant to the expanding scopes of Participatory Design.
    Keywords: community design, community membership, community of practice, continuity, in situ, information infrastructure, local, long-term
    Adapting participatory and agile software methods to participatory rural development BIBAKFull-Text 221-225
      Andy Dearden; Haider Rizvi
    This paper presents observations from a project that combines participatory rural development methods with participatory design techniques to support a farmers' co-operative in Madhya Pradesh, India.
    Keywords: IT for development, capacity building, international development, participatory design
    Experiencing pitfalls in the participatory design of social computing services BIBAKFull-Text 226-229
      Romain Zeiliger; Frederic Vermeulin; Liliane Esnault; Naima Cherchem
    The PALETTE European project based on participatory design aims at designing new Web services for Communities of Practice. In this paper we discuss three aspects of our experience as project members, which we qualify as participation pitfalls we had to tackle during the design process: i) user needs and the notion of usefulness, ii) the use of boundary objects, iii) the participation of users and the idea of emancipation. These issues are not new: the reflections we bring in at the light of our experience in the domain of social computing should contribute to the debate. The pitfalls showed up at an important project stage: the design of so-called "generic scenarios". Following a brief historical account of the project, the three pitfalls are discussed within the framework of Actor-Network Theory.
    Keywords: actor-network theory, boundary objects, communities of practice, participatory design, social networks systems


    Twitterspace: a co-developed display using Twitter to enhance community awareness BIBAKFull-Text 230-233
      William Ryan; William R. Hazlewood; Kevin Makice
    We describe the use of an ambient display called Twitterspace for promoting awareness of events and member activities within our community centers. Content for the display pulls from the social networking platform Twitter. Tweets, which are the recent posts from community members, move across large screens placed in public rooms. Through the concept of community-at-a-glance, we use these tweets to encourage enhanced community awareness and engagement. Although we are only in the beginning stages of our implementation, we have already seen changes in the way people behave with respect to their participation on Twitter. We have seen a surge of posting activity and a rise in the general awareness about the members of the community including remembering birthdays, having mini-conversations, and tracking which members are going to what events. With this participatory design project, we hope to further support general community awareness and allow members within our community to take ownership of the display both virtually and at their physical locations.
    Keywords: ambient displays, community awareness, evocative objects, informative art, social networking
    Participatory tensions in developing a community learning network BIBAKFull-Text 234-237
      Susan MacDonald; Andrew Clement
    This short paper reports on a study of St Christopher House (SCH), a community and social services agency that undertook an ambitious project to create a community learning network (CLN) based on a 'home-cooked' free/open source software (FOSS) content management system (CMS). The primary purpose of the CLN project was to provide adult learners with digital skills needed to secure employment in the knowledge-based economy. SCH also wanted to streamline administrative practices within the organization, reflecting an attempt to be inclusive and participatory. At the outset of the project there was an enormous investment of organizational energy, enthusiasm and participation. While this approach matched the various stakeholder expectations, the reality of transforming the CLN as an abstract ideal into practice produced internal tensions and stretched organizational capacities. This study examines the design and use of the CLN from the perspective of SCH staff in an effort to learn about how to reconcile conflicting organizational values and structures in the voluntary sector when undertaking ambitious participatory system development projects.
    Keywords: community learning, community networks, evaluation, information and communication technology, organizational learning, participatory design
    Infrastructures from the bottom-up and the top-down: can they meet in the middle? BIBAKFull-Text 238-241
      Michael B. Twidale; Ingbert Floyd
    Based on a study of participatory design in the development of cyberinfrastructure involving the rapid composition of open source software and web services, we consider cases where researchers create their own ad hoc infrastructures out of available software. We compare 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' cyberinfrastructure development and speculate on whether the two approaches can be productively combined.
    Keywords: appropriation, cyberinfrastructure, end-user computing, open source software, research collaboratories

    Designing (for) organizations

    Beginnings in protecting privacy by pretentious invasion BIBAKFull-Text 242-245
      Lakshmi Kumar
    Privacy in countries such as India is poorly protected by the legislative and is under increasing threat from new technologies. Strong cultural elements in Indian society multiply the issue. A democratic alternative could be to provoke individuals to come forward and discuss their issues. This will enable better designs of current and future systems especially in the workplace, which collect and maintain private information. To stimulate this participatory environment this paper develops scenarios imagining an invasive environment. The scenarios include one in which a rest-room displays one's identity and another in which a coffee cup keeps track of one's language. Initial reviews on these scenarios provide insights into the approach.
    Keywords: India, awareness, monitoring, organization, privacy
    Socialization of practice in a process world: toward participatory organizations BIBAKFull-Text 246-249
      Peter H. Jones
    This paper presents a model and our experience of a lateral, participatory approach to creating and sustaining new sociotechnical practices within organizations. Working closely with a user-centered design and project team in a large (US) IT product company, we designed a socialization process as an alternative to institutionalization for new product development, design, and marketing practices. A socialization process accommodates current organizational structures and the agents typically involved as decision makers when introducing a new practice to be deployed as an organizational standard. Socialization promotes practices laterally across established organizational boundaries through a series of informal peer exchanges, which are encounters designed to facilitate participation in the developing practice. Socialization is inherently participatory, and follows an organic model opposing the popular management practice of importing "best practices" from industry leading firms and consultants.
    Keywords: design practice, organizational design, socialization, transformation
    Bricks and clicks: participatory organizational design through microparticipation BIBAKFull-Text 250-253
      Christian Briggs; Kevin Makice
    In this paper, we present research being done around a novel online platform designed to allow deep co-creation in small organizations, between their employees and non-employees. Deep co-creation, a concept that shares similar philosophical antecedents with participatory design [2, 3, 10], facilitates the act of co-creation of an organization itself -- its administrative and functional structures -- rather than merely its products or experiences. This paper explores research, currently in-progress, in the use of mixed online and offline modes of microparticipation to accommodate the stringent time constraints of users participating in deep co-creation within small retail-based organizations. This research has significant applicability to co-creation within other types of organization as well.
    Keywords: deep co-creation, microparticipation, organization, participatory design, strategy

    Games & children

    "This is a flying shopping trolley": a case study of participatory design with children in a shopping context BIBAKFull-Text 254-257
      Astrid Weiss; Daniela Wurhofer; Regina Bernhaupt; Elke Beck; Manfred Tscheligi
    Participatory design methods are increasingly used to investigate design ideas for new forms of information and communication technologies. We present a methodological variation of a user-centered idea generation, with children using a playful setting in the real usage context. This playful context-aware design workshop with children is situated directly in the context for which the device should be designed: the shopping context. To investigate the methodological concept we have conducted a three day design workshop with children to find out if this method can be beneficially used to provide recommendations for the design of new forms of information and communication technologies, especially mobile devices. We could show that this method can be useful to stimulate the creativity of children, helping them to focus on the usage context by a high number of shopping context related inventions.
    Keywords: children, context aware, method, participatory design, playful, variation
    ReacTickles Global: a non-textual mobile & networked play space BIBAKFull-Text 258-261
      Wendy Keay-Bright
    This paper describes, ReacTickles Global, an exploratory project that will investigate the potential of mobile and Internet technologies to encourage creativity and social interaction for young people with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. The paper will draw upon the experiences and outcomes of the Reactive Colours project, which developed on the basis of a flexible and agile design methodology that included the ideas and experiences of the target population at all stages. The broad aim of ReacTickles Global is to explore how the inherent connectivity of mobile and web technologies can be exploited to encourage playfulness and self-expression, and to evaluate the impact of this on learning that is both socially constructed and collaborative.
    Keywords: experiential, exploratory, mobile technologies, participatory, playful, self-expression
    Co-creative game development in a participatory Metaverse BIBAKFull-Text 262-265
      Daniel Volk
    In recent years a strong kind of user participation has shown up in the domain of computer games in form of game modifications and Massively Multiplayer Online Games. But in contrary to this intense user involvement, the games industry yet mainly adheres to top-down development methodology. On this note, the paper at hand discusses the approach of in-world game development in form of a serious game. This approach tries to close the userdeveloper gap by intertwining as well the concepts of development and play as also their corresponding platforms. Since the mentioned trend towards a productive kind of use and the collateral tension between conventional development and "prod-usage" is not solely game-specific but characteristic for the current paradigmatic change towards an upcoming Metaverse, the discussion is embedded within this context.
    Keywords: MMOG, Metaverse, co-creation, game development, participatory design, serious game, virtual world

    Urban participatory design I

    Co-designing for new city-citizen interaction possibilities: weaving prototypes and interventions in the design and development of Urban Mediator BIBAKFull-Text 266-269
      Andrea Botero; Joanna Saad-Sulonen
    This paper explores issues of participation in urban life, particularly new partnerships between city and citizens to co-design new services for their cities. We will share experiences from working on the design and development of a software infrastructure, Urban Mediator, and its related social practices. We conclude by pointing out the necessity of considering the software artifacts designed as being part of a toolkit for co-design that can enhance conversations between cities and citizens, and enable the envisioning of new practices related to city-citizen interactions.
    Keywords: citizen-driven innovations, co-design, e-government, social practices, user innovation
    Getting to the nub of neighbourhood interaction BIBAKFull-Text 270-273
      Fiona Redhead; Margot Brereton
    Designing technologies to support community communication in local communities of place is a considerable challenge. This research compares and contrasts two approaches: (i) Supporting a community organisation to develop their own IT and (ii) Deploying of a digital noticeboard in the local built environment with the aim of fostering broad community communication. The challenges of appropriating the built environment for public use and soliciting community information for public use are discussed.
    Keywords: community informatics, participatory design, public displays, social networking, social software, sustainable communication, urban informatics
    Exploring web-based participation methods for urban planning BIBAKFull-Text 274-277
      Johanna Nuojua; Antti Juustila; Toni Räisänen; Kari Kuutti; Leena Soudunsaari
    Participatory planning is a new paradigm in urban and community planning and a part of the future of the participation is on the Web. In this paper, new Web-based participation methods, along with their possibilities and challenges are studied. An urban planning experiment was carried out in the autumn 2007 in Pyhäjärvi, Finland. A Web mapping application was developed for the experiment to help the planners to acquire local knowledge from the citizens. In addition to the planning data provided by the application, the experiment was investigated by monitoring the traffic on the Web site of the experiment, a Web questionnaire and also by in situ observations. The results indicate that a Web mapping application not only supports the traditional participation methods, but may also change the nature of participation in the planning process.
    Keywords: e-democracy, participatory design, urban planning, web mapping, web-based participation

    Urban participatory design II

    'Design your home pack' co-designing tools to design homes and houses BIBAKFull-Text 278-281
      Yanki Lee; Atsue Takeoka; Satoko Fukuyoshi; Shoko Sameshima
    Clients commission architects to design their dream 'homes', ones that reflect both their needs and desires. Conversely, architects aim to design 'houses' that demonstrate their excellent skills. This paper discusses an ongoing study in Japan that aims to improve the communication between clients and designers and develop solutions that will narrow the gap between the spatial configurations that clients desire and those that are designed for them. The focus of this paper is the design process involved in the planning of two workshops for both designers and clients as part of an action research project that aims to demonstrate good practice of participatory housing design. The workshop was based on the 3P process: preferring, planning and processing. Different design games of the 'Design Your Home Pack' are explained in this paper and the results are shown with further discussion of how to improve the designer-user relationship in order to develop desirable and designable housing projects.
    Keywords: co-design workshop, design games, house design
    Participatory design of sensing networks: strengths and challenges BIBAKFull-Text 282-285
      K. Shilton; N. Ramanathan; S. Reddy; V. Samanta; J. Burke; D. Estrin; M. Hansen; M. Srivastava
    Participatory design (PD) involves users in all phases of design to build systems that fit user needs while simultaneously helping users understand complex systems. We argue that traditional PD techniques can benefit participatory sensing: community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects in which complex technologies, such as sensing networks using mobile phones, are the research instruments. Based on our pilot work on CycleSense, a community-based data gathering system for bicycle commuters, we discuss the benefits and challenges of PD in participatory sensing settings, and outline a method to integrate PD into the research process.
    Keywords: community-based participatory research, sensing networks
    Participatory design and road safety and design BIBAKFull-Text 286-289
      Dennis de Jong
    Automobiles are the cause of millions of deaths every year. Enforcement, engineering and education have made significant impacts on accident rates, but many countries are now having difficulties further reducing casualties. Despite a possible wealth of knowledge, drivers are largely overlooked as a resource. This paper investigates the use of participatory design as a method to improve road designs, road safety, driver attitudes and driver behaviour.
    Keywords: driver attitudes, driver behaviour, participatory design, road design, road safety


    Distributed-PD: challenges and opportunities BIBAKFull-Text 290-291
      Amir M. Naghsh; Karin Danielsson; Gerhard Fischer; Tone Bratteteig; Jeanette Blomberg; José Abdelnour Nocera
    A limitation of Participatory Design (PD) is that it has primarily focused on project stakeholders being co-located, whereas in recent years we are starting to see software development projects involve more distributed collaborations. This panel grows out of the issues raised from a series of workshops on Distributed Participatory Design (http://distributedpd.com/) and discusses the experiences and challenges of performing PD in distributed design teams.
    Keywords: CSCW, distributed software development, distributed-PD, meta-design, participatory design
    What to do when you've been made an offer you can't refuse: what participatory design and FLOSS (free/libre and/or open source software) have to teach each other about the corporate embrace BIBAFull-Text 292
      David Hakken; Vincenzo D'Andrea; Maurizio Teli; Brad Wheeler
    In the early days (e.g., the 1970s), proponents of Scandinavian approaches to systems development, and the Participatory Design methods so central to their work, often put political and social change objectives at the core of their advocacy. In more recent years, for profit corporations have become strong proponents of PD. Advocacy rhetoric for PD has changed as PDers increasingly work with, in, and for corporations. But what about the practice of PD -- has it changed, too?
    Participatory design and international development BIBAKFull-Text 293-294
      Andy Dearden; Haider Rizvi; Rogerio dePaula; Cecilia Oyugi; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus
    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are increasingly being considered as ways to support international development efforts, whether in the form of information systems for clinics and hospitals, telecentres or kiosks providing access to internet information resources and e-government services in remote areas, or advice services to support improved agricultural practices and crop management. In doing this work, participatory approaches are commonly espoused, but, as participants in PDC will realize, translating verbal commitments into meaningful participatory realities is a complex challenge requiring critical reflection and careful examination of our practice. This is even more apparent in contexts where there are large cultural and socio-economic differences between practitioners and other participants. Some authors have questioned whether 'established' participatory design methods are effective for this type of work.
    Keywords: IT for development, international development, participatory design, social development


    The challenges for participatory design in the developing world BIBAKFull-Text 295-296
      Cecilia Oyugi; Jose Abdelnour Nocera; Lynne Dunckley; Susan Dray
    Participatory design within the context of developing countries is an emerging area of interest in the Participatory Design community. This workshop will provide a unique forum for participants to exchange their experiences, consider the different approaches needed in developing country's context, encourage new partnerships and learn from each others past difficulties and how these were solved.
    Keywords: ICT design methods, culture, international development, requirements gathering
    Exploring digital storytelling as a method for participatory design BIBAFull-Text 297-298
      Annelie Ekelin; Pirjo Elovaara; Christina Mörtberg
    The core of Participatory Design builds on collaborative processes of users, designers and other stakeholders. [2] In order to realize this ambition a range of methods and techniques have been developed and used. Initially it was the ethnographic methods that were regarded as the most valuable ones, especially when investigating the users' everyday practices. [3] During the last years the methods repertoire has been expanded to also include methods inspired by narrative and visualization methods (games, story boards, digital scenarios etc.) [1, 7]
    Designed for co-designers BIBAKFull-Text 299-300
      Katja Battarbee; Andrea Botero Cabrera; Tuuli Mattelmäki; Francesca Rizzo
    How to design and manage products, services and experiences that are to be completed and built upon by users or customers? How can we design for co-designers? This workshop will bring together examples and studies of recent trends in user generated content, open platforms for exchange of products, ideas and media, end user customization and other open models for innovation [4]. This is a full day workshop that invites case studies, methods, stories and critical analysis on this topic to generate a deeper understanding of its relevance to contemporary participatory design. The discussion will focus on methods, challenges and advantages for intentionally supporting end user innovation through design.
    Keywords: co-creation, co-design, end user, innovation, open source
    Social informatics and participatory design: exploring ways to inform one another BIBAFull-Text 301-302
      Kristin Hanks; Muzaffer Ozakca; Kevin Makice; Kathryn Clodfelter
    This half-day workshop examines how Social Informatics (SI) and Participatory Design (PD) focus on similar topics. The workshop is designed to discover ways that these two research areas might better inform one another by exploring and sharing theories, experiences, methods, literature, and emerging work. Equally important is to develop relationships between emerging scholars in PD and SI for future collective academic endeavors.
    Including social contexts when broadening computing education BIBAKFull-Text 303-304
      Vincenzo D'Andrea; David Hakken; Erik Stolterman
    The technical conception of computing education results in social knowledge being in general marginalized. However, Participatory Design is only one of many aspects of good computing practice that depend upon skill with things social. This has led to several deliberate attempts to integrate the social into computing education. Much can be learned by trying to share and evaluate these experiences, and trying to articulate what has been learned in terms of design principles. In this workshop, we will share experiences incorporating social perspectives and research methods into education in computer science and related disciplines, as part of a program to broaden these fields. We will conclude the workshop by exploring whether further networking around these issues would be productive.
    Keywords: computing education, social perspectives
    Participatory prototyping proposal: performance methods for engaging in design BIBAKFull-Text 305-306
      Lois Weaver; Ann Light; Patrick G. T. Healey; Gini Simpson
    This prototyping workshop will use methods adapted from contemporary performance to engage people in designing 'networks of things'. These methods have been designed to widen participation in the design process and to help people envision and articulate the alternative social and political worlds that technology engenders.
    Keywords: design, performance, technology


    Dialogic design: harnessing collective wisdom for democratic design and action BIBAKFull-Text 307-308
      Peter H. Jones
    The proposed tutorial presents a half-day experiential process engaging participants in learning Structured Dialogic Design (SDD). Dialogic design is a radically democratic design perspective and set of methods for engaging mixed stakeholders in design and consensus action for complex sociotechnical problems shared in common. Based on a systems thinking methodology developed from principles of communicative action, dialogic design facilitates diverse groups in disentangling core issues from complex, interconnected problem areas and leads to genuine consensus for action. The SDD method deploys a mix of dialogue types with computer-assisted information displays to generate and maintain a shared common ground throughout dialogue.
    Keywords: boundary-spanning, design, dialogue, mixed-stakeholder engagement, sociotechnical systems, wicked problems
    Introduction to PD: old and new challenges, motivations, opportunities BIBAFull-Text 309
      Monika Büscher; Preben Holst Mogensen
    Since its beginnings, participatory design has argued that users and designers must work together if the transformative potential of new technologies is to be realised. However, since the 1970s, almost all dimensions of user-designer relations -- economical, political, technical, philosophical, and practical -- have changed, and new ones have become important. In this introduction to participatory design, we examine past, present, and future challenges, motivations and opportunities for PD. We focus on three increasingly interconnected areas of socio-technical innovation -- mobile, location sensitive, and pervasive computing -- to revive, revisit and review established PD practices and to explore and shape new ones. Topics to be discussed include:
  • Beyond work and the workplace: designing for work and non-work activities
  • Changes in political context and motivations
  • The move from 'systems' to ubiquitous computing
  • Everyday innovation: designing for unanticipated use
  • Methods: participatory or collaborative design? The objective of the tutorial is collaborative learning. The format reflects this by placing an emphasis on interaction around concrete examples.
  • Participatory art installations

    Proposal for a participatory performance: a long table on design at the margins BIBAKFull-Text 310-311
      Lois Weaver; Ann Light; Patrick G. T. Healey; Gini Simpson
    Contemporary performance techniques have developed new forms that aim to promote social and political engagement. The Long Table is one example of this approach that uses a combination of metaphor, stylized physical environment and an etiquette that encourages open dialogue on a topic. The PDC2008 Long Table will engage participants in a discussion 'on the margins of technology'. Building on an earlier performance as part of the Democratising Technology project this Long Table will explore the problem of widening the franchise of design to people who are often neither consulted nor considered in the design process.
    Keywords: design, dialogue, performance, technology
    addingPositivity BIBAFull-Text 312-313
      Sareena Sernsukskul; Ann McDonald
    For inclusion in ParticipART 2008, we propose a collaborative participatory installation which is part of a larger project framework titled addingPOSITIVITY. As artist and designers we are collaborating across cultures and time zones, creating a project that is dependant upon audience participation -- a global framework that is fueled by the dynamics of many diverse individuals with the overall intent of adding positivity to the world.
    Paper boats: PDC 08, Bloomington, IN BIBAFull-Text 314
      Hugh Musick
    Set up tables along the shore of the pond of in Miller Park or at the Showalter Fountain with white paper. Provide instructions for making paper boats. Participants are invited to write their hopes upon the boat before launching them. During the course of the day the pond will become increasingly filled with boats. At sunset the boats will be collected and removed from the pond.
    Body-technology interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 315-316
      Rebecca Stern; Aisling Kelliher
    Our interactions with personal electronic devices provoke a broad range of emotional states from frustration to confusion to feverish obsession. Increasingly, these devices mediate our everyday work activities, our social network development and our personal communications. In this paper, we propose a participatory installation that aims to bring critical awareness and consideration to the complex relationship between people and their technological artifacts. Based on participant interview data, we will create Body-Technology Interfaces' in the form of hand-knitted custom wrappers for personal electronic devices. Each BTI will reflect salient interaction behaviors between the participant and their chosen device. Analyzed participant interview data, BTI designs and overall participant response to the project will be documented and shared online.
    Keywords: craft, critical design, cultural computing, participatory design, personal narratives
    Supacollager: a ParticiPART installation proposal for enabling multi-user defined web-image collages BIBAKFull-Text 317-319
      Sarah Hatton; Joseph Adams; Isaac Wallis
    In this proposal, we describe how an original collage generator entitled Supacollager will be used at the 2008 Participatory Design Conference during the ParticiPART installation series. The Supacollager system generates web-image collages through gesture-based recognition. For the 2008 PDC, we will devise a Flickr group for conference attendees, such as PDC 2008 Images, to upload images and thus query from a set of images that are situated in the event. Importantly, we describe in this proposal how presenting Supacollager at the PDC relates to the 2008 theme of "Experiences and Challenges." We believe that Supacollager provides users with an experience of making meaning in a type of art that is open and accessible. Additionally, conference attendees will be able to witness the collages change and grow over time; thus, their artwork will be in a constant state of flux.
    Keywords: Flickr, ParticiPART, Python, challenge, experience, gesture recognition, installation, participatory art and design, web-image collage

    Posters and interactive demonstrations

    Designing wearable educational games for children BIBAKFull-Text 320-321
      Uttam Kokil; Joelle Jeanne
    In this paper, we describe how the prospective users (children) are involved at every developmental stage in the creation of a garment design, and how this can influence the design of a set of garments fitted with educational games. This is an experimental and creative project to encourage children to familiarize themselves with numerical, alphabets and shapes at an early age, with the objective to enhancing a particular set of learning styles.
    Keywords: children's outfits, design collection, games, learning styles
    Stepwise development of survivor confirmation system in Nagoya University and its analysis from participatory design BIBAKFull-Text 322-323
      Shoji Kajita; Kenji Mase
    This paper describes a survivor confirmation and management system developed at Nagoya University and its analysis based on Participatory Design (PD) among four stakeholders; top-level managers, disaster management specialists, ICT specialists and actual users. Nagoya University determined the following five points in performing survivor confirmation after a major disaster crisis: (1) getting credible information by user authentication, (2) high availability even after a major disaster crisis, (3) being provided by multiple access methods such as PCs and mobile phones, (4) having the capabilities to input, search, and summarize confirmation information, (5) informing our constituencies of the start of input. To attain these functionalities, we started implementing the system at the top of Nagoya University's institutional Web portal architecture, and we have been step-wisely implementing it through actual disaster drills (three times so far since October 2006) with the participation of the above four stakeholders. Based on this experience, we discuss a PD framework for ICT services in a large research university.
    Keywords: business continuity, disaster management, institutional portal, open source, participatory design, survivor confirmation
    Hello: bracelets communicating nearby presence of friends BIBAKFull-Text 324-325
      Petra Ahde; Jussi Mikkonen
    In this paper we will describe an initial concept of bracelets which are communicating with each other. By these bracelets the possessors will be aware of the nearby presence of their friends. The wearers will also communicate about their social network when wearing the bracelets. The initial idea of the concept of the bracelets is from an earlier study of teenager girls' jewellery.
    Keywords: bracelet, interactive prototype, technology probe
    Wagnerpedia: a study of social cognition and wikis, linking academic courses and community partners BIBAKFull-Text 326-327
      Jeffrey Gutkin; Patricia Schoknecht
    Wagnerpedia was created for Wagner College to offer a place for students, faculty, and administrators to create and edit dynamic web content. Its design and implementation are based on participatory design theory, social cognitive theory, and web 2.0 technology. An ongoing mixed model study of Wagnerpedia is being conducted as part of a three-semester-long doctoral certificate program. In this study the process in which Wagnerpedia has evolved is being examined. The poster presented represents several milestones Wagnerpedia has undergone since its implementation in Spring of 2008.
    Keywords: collaboration, community, partnership, sustainability publications, wiki
    Interactive demonstration of PIPWatch: the collaborative privacy enhancing and accountability toolbar BIBAKFull-Text 328-329
      Andrew Clement; Terry Costantino
    We will demonstrate PIPWatch, a Firefox extension that enables web users to monitor the privacy policies and practices of the websites they visit, using data contributed by previous visitors and site privacy officers. Conference attendees will be encouraged to use the toolbar themselves, provide feedback about the toolbar but, more importantly, to offer ideas about how to proceed participatorily with future development.
    Keywords: Firefox extension, participatory design, privacy enhancement, social navigation, web 2.0