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PDC Tables of Contents: 020406081012-112-214-114-2

Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Participatory Design

Fullname:Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Participatory Design
Note:Artful Integration: Interweaving Media, Materials and Practices
Editors:Andrew Clement; Peter van den Besselaar
Location:Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Dates:2004-Jul-27 to 2004-Jul-31
Standard No:ISBN: 1-58113-851-2; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: PDC04
  1. Participatory design in various community contexts
  2. Methodological considerations
  3. Cases and experiences

Participatory design in various community contexts

Participatory design in community computing contexts: tales from the field BIBAKFull-Text 1-10
  Cecelia B. Merkel; Lu Xiao; Umer Farooq; Craig H. Ganoe; Roderick Lee; John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson
As technology becomes more embedded in our daily lives, there is a great deal of hope about the use of information technology to achieve positive community outcomes like increasing access to local information, promoting civic engagement, and creating avenues for collaboration and communication. While these technologies provide opportunities for community groups to achieve their own goals, most community computing studies describe community members in fairly passive ways as users of existing systems rather than as meaningful contributors to the design process. The Civic Nexus project is a three year participatory design project that involves working with community groups to increase their capacity to solve local community problems through the use of leading edge computing tools. Our view of participatory design is one in which community members take control of the design process in terms of both directing what should be done and maintaining the technology infrastructure. In this paper, we describe our process of participatory design with three community groups and present associated challenges for designers engaging in participatory design in community computing contexts.
Keywords: community computing, community information systems, participatory design, social impact
The promise and perils of a participatory approach to developing an open source community learning network BIBAKFull-Text 11-19
  Robert Luke; Andrew Clement; Randall Terada; Dominic Bortolussi; Cameron Booth; Derek Brooks; Darcy Christ
This paper describes and analyses the early developmental stages of a community learning network based in an urban community and social service agency. With government funding, the community organization contracted with a small software firm to design and implement participatively a web-based 'community portal' using open source software and techniques. While adopting these progressive development ideals has brought notable benefits, they have also posed significant challenges for the parties involved. In particular, mis-matched expectations, budget squeezes, and slipped schedules have been attributed to the approach being too participatory and too open. We examine these claims and offer insights into community-oriented, participatory, open source development projects.
Keywords: community informatics, community learning networks, open source, participatory design, social services
Artful infrastructuring in two cases of community PD BIBAKFull-Text 20-30
  Helena Karasti; Anna-Liisa Syrjänen
In this paper, we use the notions of artful integrations and infrastructure to analyze two cases of community Participatory Design 'in the wild'. Though the communities are quite different on the outside, they bear surprising similarities when it comes to collaboration in technology design. We identify several features of how the community members artfully integrate their everyday materials, tools, methods and practices into collaborative processes of infrastructuring. The notions of 'artful integrations' and 'infrastructure' sensitize our analysis towards a more conceptual understanding on information system development as multi-relational: socio-material, socio-historical and processual. We conclude by suggesting some refinements to the notions in the context of community PD.
Keywords: artful integrations, community design, dog breeding, ecology, information management, infrastructure, participatory design
Participatory programming and the scope of mutual responsibility: balancing scientific, design and software commitment BIBAKFull-Text 31-41
  Catherine Letondal; Wendy E. Mackay
Over the past seven years, we have been conducting a variety of participatory design activities with research biologists, programmers, and bioinformaticians at the Institut Pasteur in Paris. We first describe the history of these activities and how they have created the beginnings of a participatory design culture. We introduce participatory programming, which integrates participatory design and end-user programming, and examine how it acts as a medium for forging scientific ideas. Finally, we reflect on three poles of activity: the computational medium, scientific hypotheses and participatory design.
Keywords: co-adaptation, end-user programming, participatory design, participatory programming, responsibility, software commitment, software evolution, software psychology, tailoring
Contextuality of participation in IS design: a developing country perspective BIBAKFull-Text 42-52
  S. K. Puri; Elaine Byrne; Jose Leopoldo Nhampossa; Zubeeda B. Quraishi
Participatory approaches to information systems design have evolved over approximately the last three decades, mainly in Scandinavia, Europe, and lately in the US. However there has been limited and peripheral research and debates over participatory design approaches and techniques in developing country settings. This paper explores three case studies in developing countries where participatory approaches have been used in the design and implementation of health information systems. The investigation reveals the politics of design, the nature of participation, and the methods, tools and techniques for carrying out design projects are shaped with respect to the diversity of the socio-economic, cultural and political situations faced in each of these settings. Though common strategies, such as capacity development, could be found that cut across the three case studies it is the importance of the contextual nature of participatory design that emerges most strongly. There is no single algorithmic best practice regarding participatory design in information systems which is applicable to all situations.
Keywords: community IS, developing countries, health information systems, participatory design
Participatory health information systems development in Cuba: the challenge of addressing multiple levels in a centralized setting BIBAFull-Text 53-64
  Jørn Braa; Ola Hodne Titlestad; Johan Sæbø
This paper will address issues of user participation in a large centralistic organization. It is based on one year experience of developing a computerized health information system within the Cuban health services. Relevant literature suggests that participative methods may be less feasible in centralistic environments. This paper confirms this by describing how participation in Cuba is restricted by political and organizational constraints. There is however documented that participatory approaches may be very rewording where such constraints are overcome. Experiences from a broad range of health units and organizational levels in the Cuban project show a trend of weakening centralistic control with regard to hierarchical level and geographic distance, and thus more autonomous organizational units and participating individuals at lower level farther from Havana. The research reported is carried out within a framework of a larger network of similar health information projects being carried out in Africa and Asia, and the case of Cuba is being compared with experience from these countries.
Making sense of imbrication: popular technology and "inside-out" methodologies BIBAKFull-Text 65-73
  Nancy Campbell
We describe a model popular technology education program based on feminist and Freirian principles. Participatory design and research methodologies that position facilitators and participants as co-producers were the basis for a series of collective research projects, which we then analyze for their contribution to the field of participatory design. Finally, we suggest that the democratization of technological citizenship can be best extended not through narrowly construed "technology training" programs but through "popular technology," an empowering and visionary combination of popular education and participatory research and design that emphasizes critical technological literacy.
Keywords: participatory action research (PAR), popular technology education, technological citizenship
Examining a planning discourse: how a manager represents issues within a planning frame and how the others could do the same BIBAKFull-Text 74-82
  Jarmo Sarkkinen
The aim of Participatory Design (PD) is to involve the users in the design. Even though the research has shown the success of PD projects in empowering users, little has been said about PD practices within accountable organizations. To transfer PD practices to these business organizations, we need to understand design as an institutional discourse. This paper discusses a sequence of organizational planning interaction and demonstrates how a manager represents the issues within a planning frame and why other participants are unable to act within this frame. The users and even the designer were marginalized from the planning activity. It is postulated that balancing the existing institutionalized power relationships may be laborious within this kind of context. For this reason, it is, instead, argued that we could approach this task implicitly by strengthening diverse frames and, in this way, to pave the way for a more grounded heterogeneous planning discourse inside accountable organizations. This process could be supported by a human mediator, a frame advocate.
Keywords: discourse, frame, planning, representation

Methodological considerations

Experience clip: method for user participation and evaluation of mobile concepts BIBAKFull-Text 83-92
  Minna Isomursu; Kari Kuutti; Soili Väinämö
This paper describes experiences from using a field testing technique for collecting user experience information for evaluating mobile applications used in everyday life. Our technique is based on the usage of mobile camera phones that are used for capturing video and audio during the use of the mobile application. The users helped researchers in collecting user experience material by shooting the video clips themselves. To our surprise they also started to participate actively by presenting "miniplays" in the clips to make their point clear. Our results show that with this technique we can get richer emotional material and more versatile usage situations than with traditional observation methods, and additionally there is clearly a yet unexplored potential to develop a more systematic design method around participation.
Keywords: mobile application, participatory design, use of video, user experience, user participation
On the spot experiments within healthcare BIBAKFull-Text 93-101
  Erling Björgvinsson; Per-Anders Hillgren
This paper reports the value of On the Spot Experiments with self-produced content and the use of technology within healthcare. On the Spot Experiments are experiments conducted in the setting of on going clinical work and patient care. We begin by relating our work to approaches within ethnography and work place studies which link ethnography and design. Thereafter we describe how we have carried out On the Spot Experiments in two projects where we have explored the possibilities of self-produced learning material. The first project described is within an intensive care unit setting where the staff and designers explored the making of self-produced videos on different procedures and their use in handheld computers. The second project described focuses on patient learning at a hand surgery clinic where we explored the possibilities of individualised video training instructions. In both cases the On the Spot Experiments have shown fruitful results in different aspects of clinical work and how the use of content and technology might affect this work. A key factor has been exploring what relevant content could be. We conclude by outlining some qualities and limits of doing On the Spot Experiments.
Keywords: ethnography, experiments, healthcare, interaction design, patient learning, usefulness
The impact of participation in information system design: a comparison of contextual placements BIBAFull-Text 102-111
  Magnus Irestig; Henrik Eriksson; Toomas Timpka
To compare the outcomes of participatory and user-centered contextual design, case study methods and the Activity Checklist derived from Activity Theory are used to analyze two system prototypes developed in the same organizational setting. Systematic differences between the prototypes are identified regarding focus on tool, organization, individual, and relation to current power structures and organizational practices. The resulting participatory design prototype reflected a sharper focus on collective use, social processes and to pragmatically fit into the organization whereas the user-centered prototype focused on individual use, the computer system and solutions that require substantial changes in work procedures. The differences between the prototypes are discussed and related to the specific aspects of the design methods.
Personas is not applicable: local remedies interpreted in a wider context BIBAKFull-Text 112-120
  Kari Rönkkö; Mats Hellman; Britta Kilander; Yvonne Dittrich
One of the major problems with participatory design is that it is extremely difficult to apply it to current developments. Software development for the mass market is one aspect of current developments which has been addressed. The problem of how to apply participatory design invariably leads to questioning its relevance to present-day circumstances. It is suggested that new patterns of dominance must be revealed. The usability method known as 'personas' has been demonstrated to remedy the problems of including social and political issues in mass market software developments. This paper demonstrates how the application of personas to a mass market software development project failed because of patterns of dominance in the telecom branch which were unrecognised at the time. The identifying of these patterns of dominance contributes to a better understanding of some of the new patterns of power and domination in mass-market software developments that PD stands before.
Keywords: interaction design, mass-market software development, participatory design, patterns of domination, personas
Facilitating collaboration through design games BIBAKFull-Text 121-131
  Eva Brandt; Jörn Messeter
In recent years both companies and research communities call for collaborative work practices and user-centered approaches in various design fields. There are several challenges and issues to take into consideration. For instance there is a need to find ways of collaborating across various competences, interests, responsibilities and perhaps professional languages both within one organization, between several organizations and between the organizations and a group of (potential) users. It is necessary to find ways to learn about users and the contexts of use, and to create a common understanding of the development task. This paper presents a set of four design games, which offers solutions to the challenges mentioned. The design games have been developed in the Space Studio during several projects and years. Here experiences are discussed on the basis of two research projects carried out in collaboration with industrial partners and potential users, and use of the games in three educational settings.
   The overall aim of the design games is to help facilitate a user-centered design process for cross-disciplinary design groups early in the design process. Framing collaborative design activities in a game format, arguably improves idea generation and communication between stakeholders. By shifting focus to the game, power relations and other factors that might hamper idea generation, are downplayed.
Keywords: collaborative design, design games, empowerment, stakeholders
Socio-technical walkthrough: designing technology along work processes BIBAKFull-Text 132-141
  Thomas Herrmann; Gabriele Kunau; Kai-Uwe Loser; Natalja Menold
How can the documentation of concepts for complex socio-technical systems, such as the adoption of groupware, be incorporated into practices of PD? Documents are important in supporting participants in their decision-making and in serving as a guidance for the ongoing project. To create such documents a mix of abstract graphical models and illustrative material can be used. There is evidence which suggests that they can be successfully employed if they are embedded into a communication process which is facilitated in a specific manner: The socio-technical walkthrough (STWT) that supports a participatory process during which concepts of such systems are (re-)considered step by step. A case study describes the challenges and benefits of the STWT paying special attention to aspects such as facilitating strategies, required preparation, training, characteristics of the diagrams, and accompanying work.
Keywords: diagrams, modeling, participatory design, socio-technical systems

Cases and experiences

The workplace as a learning laboratory: the winding road to E-learning in a Norwegian service company BIBAKFull-Text 142-151
  Anders I. Mørch; Bård Ketil Engen; Hege-René Hansen Åsand
Over a 1 1/2 year period, we have participated in the introduction of E-learning in a Norwegian service company, a petrol station division of an oil company. This company has an advanced computer network infrastructure for communication and information sharing, but the primary task of the employees at the petrol stations is serving customers. We identify some challenges to introducing E-learning in this kind of environment. A primary emphasis has been on using participatory design techniques in the planning and early implementation phases of a system prototype. The system development process was evolutionary, starting bottom-up (user participation) and ending top-down (centralized initiatives). We describe a conceptual framework for analyzing the adoption process. The framework has three dimensions: technology, pedagogy and organization. We use video recordings and interview data in the analysis. Preliminary findings indicate difficulties with respect to appropriateness of new technology and lateral cooperation. This paper provides insight into the successful co-existence of old and new technologies and multiple information seeking strategies.
Keywords: e-learning, learning-on-demand, organization of work, role-playing, workplace learning
Social creativity: turning barriers into opportunities for collaborative design BIBAKFull-Text 152-161
  Gerhard Fischer
Design is a ubiquitous activity. The complexity of design problems requires communities rather than individuals to address, frame, and solve them. These design communities have to cope with the following barriers: (1) spatial (across distance), (2) temporal (across time), (3) conceptual (across different communities of practice, and (4) technological (between persons and artifacts). Over the last decade, we have addressed these barriers and have tried to create socio-technical environments to turn them into opportunities for enhancing the social creativity of design communities.
Keywords: artful integration, collaborative design, design, social creativity, social distance, spatial distance, technological distance, temporal distance, turning barriers into opportunities
Lost in translation: a critical analysis of actors, artifacts, agendas, and arenas in participatory design BIBAKFull-Text 162-172
  Rogério DePaula
As computer technologies start to permeate the everyday activities of a continuously growing population, social and technical as well as political and legal issues will surface. Participatory design is asked to take a more critical view of participation, design, technology, and the arenas in which the network of actors and artifacts dialectically construct the social orders. This paper has a much more modest aim of that to contribute the discussion of participation and design in part by a more indepth understanding of the translation problem among different actors who directly participate in participatory design activities. This problem takes place when different actors come to participate in the design activities and when they are to decide whether to adopt and use a designed artifact. By analyzing a multi-year-long effort to understand and provide social and technical means for the use of educational computer technologies in special education, this paper aims to shed new light on the understanding of this problem. The arenas of participation framework is employed to frame the different social orders in which actors act, carry out their work practices, participate in design processes, and ultimately make use of this artifact. While fundamental to the democratization of the design of sociotechnical solutions, participatory design may not be sufficient to reveal all sociopolitical issues of work practices that surface in its adoption and use. It is necessary to take into account the different arenas in which their design and use are carried out.
Keywords: Web2gether, actor-network theory, adoption, arenas for participation, collaboration, legal aspects, participatory design, privacy, social networks, special education, translations
From small scale to large scale user participation: a case study of participatory design in e-government systems BIBAKFull-Text 173-182
  Anne-Marie Oostveen; Peter van den Besselaar
Most experiments with participative design are with small scale, stand alone and not very strategic applications of ICT in organizations. However, modern ICT applications are increasingly based on complex and large scale network technologies. What PD issues arise in this type of projects? What methods can be used for user participation? And, what does this imply for PD strategies?
Keywords: democracy, international e-government, large technical systems, participatory design, user involvement
The weight of space: participatory design research for configuring habitable space for new arrival women in Hong Kong BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Jackie Yan-Chi Kwok
When arriving to Hong Kong from China, the first difficulty of the new arrival women of the grassroots class is usually environmental stress. Their socio-economic situations often limit their expectations related to their living space. In order to enable the women to voice their views, our research group has organized participatory design research to invite new arrival women: (1) to offer comments of their existing living environment; (2) to give design directions of their preferred housing environment; and (3) to propose policy suggestion to the Government in respect to housing and community/neighbourhood planning. This paper introduced five research methods that our research group have conducted: (1) site observation and direct observation; (2) photovoice; (3) semi-structured interview; (4) visual simulation modeling workshops (for interior and exterior environment); and (5) in-depth interview. The paper wishes to demonstrate the validity of the methods used to promote participatory democracy in the context of urban living environment.
Keywords: gender issue in planning, habitable space, new arrival women, participatory design, photovoice research, visual simulation modelling
Ways of grounding imagination BIBAKFull-Text 193-203
  Monika Büscher; Mette Agger Eriksen; Jannie Friis Kristensen; Preben Holst Mogensen
This paper discusses and evaluates use of different participatory design methods in relation to addressing the challenge of grounding imagination. It presents reflections on the use of three participatory design methods, deployed in the WorkSpace project: future laboratories, in-situ prototyping experiments and bricolage. The analysis examines how the methods differ, and how they complement one another, in relation to supporting the process of grounding imagination. The paper introduces 'future laboratories' as a participatory design method, specifically aiming at promoting interdisciplinary collaboration and grounded imagination.
Keywords: PD methods, analytical triangulation, bricolage, future laboratory, grounding imagination, in-situ prototyping experiments
Introducing participatory design in museums BIBAKFull-Text 204-213
  Gustav Taxén
This paper describes how a set of participatory design methodologies have been introduced to and adopted for museum exhibition design. It provides a brief historical account of museums and reviews some current trends in museum exhibition design. Furthermore, the paper outlines a number of reasons why participatory methods may be appropriate for museums, and two such methods are described: one for evaluation of exhibits, and one for exhibition concept development. Evaluation of the methodologies suggests that they are efficient; both in terms of resources and in the richness of the data they produce. In addition, it appears that they are capable of both supporting and extending established museum design practices.
Keywords: concept development, evaluation, museums, participatory design
Participatory design with individuals who have amnesia BIBAKFull-Text 214-223
  Mike Wu; Brian Richards; Ron Baecker
We present experiences and insights into participatory design with individuals who have anterograde amnesia and therefore have extreme difficulty storing new memories. We discuss our design of the design process, and present a set of techniques used to support memory during and between design sessions. From this experience, we identify cognitive assumptions of participatory design that break down when working with amnestics. We generalize these ideas into an analytical framework for researchers and practitioners who intend to use participatory design with persons having various kinds of cognitive impairments. We illustrate the framework by analyzing a cognitive deficit unrelated to memory that we encountered, and an unanticipated benefit from what at first appeared to be a liability in working with this design team.
Keywords: anterograde amnesia, assistive technologies, cognitive prosthetics, memory aids, participatory design, personal digital assistants, user centred design, users with disabilities
Technology trouble? talk to us: findings from an ethnographic field study BIBAFull-Text 224-234
  Ellen Balka; Nicki Kahnamoui
The notion that the design of technology is only fully completed when in use [23] is shared by many who now investigate user participation in design and the domestication of new technologies. Taking this idea as our starting point, we developed a research to action project with a major Canadian hospital. Our goals were to address technology implementation issues that arose as most units in the hospital moved to a new building, in which most technology (ranging from wired beds to drug dispensing machines) was new. This paper reports our findings from this project. Emphasis is placed on how institutional arrangements influenced the range of socio-technical possibilities that could be pursued [7]. Work practice problems are discussed in relation to the meso or organizational contexts, including organizational, vendor and staff actor networks.