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PDC Tables of Contents: 020406081012-112-214-114-2

Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Participatory Design

Fullname:Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Participatory Design
Note:Participation and Design
Editors:Thomas Binder; Judith Gregory; Ina Wagner
Location:Malmö, Sweden
Dates:2002-Jun-23 to 2002-Jun-25
Publisher:CPSR
Standard No:ISBN: 0-9667818-2-1
Papers:77
Pages:469
Links:Conference Website | PDC 2002 Proceedings PDF
Summary:Since 1990, the Participatory Design Conferences have brought together researchers and practitioners from a variety of disciplines and work traditions, probing the social scope and practices of design of technology. A core concern has been to understand how collaborative design processes can be based on participation of the people affected by the technology designed.
    The involvement of users and the focus on human-centered design, addressing the design of technology 'through the interface', were pioneered by contributions to the Participatory Design Conferences. Debates within the participatory design community have contributed to the development of a new IT design field emphasizing simultaneously the need for thorough studies of the context of use, the relevance of an open and participatory design process, and concern for the political aspects of the technology in use.
    Today the collaborative nature of the design process and the need to involve a large variety of stakeholders has gained wider acceptance. At the same time a fundamental uncertainty concerning the scope and directions for the design of technology has created a growing interest in innovative approaches to participation and design.
    With the theme Participation and Design, the Participatory Design Conference 2002 invited researchers, designers and other practitioners to present inquiries into the politics, contexts and practices of collaborative design work. We invited contributions from all design fields such as architecture, urban planning, engineering, interaction design and others (such as the fine arts) with a focus on understanding collaborative design work. The contributions assembled in these proceedings reflect this invitation.
  1. Keynote Summaries
  2. Plenary Papers
  3. Papers: Track A1
  4. Papers: Track B1
  5. Papers: Track C1
  6. Papers: Track A2
  7. Papers: Track B2
  8. Papers: Track C2
  9. Work in Progress Theme A: Urban Planning
  10. Work in Progress Theme B: Health Care
  11. Work in Progress Theme C: Architectural and Industrial Design
  12. Work in Progress Theme D: Methods and Tools
  13. Work in Progress Theme E: Representing users
  14. Work in Progress Theme F: Adult education
  15. Work in Progress Theme G: Large distributed systems
  16. Work in Progress Theme H: Design cases
  17. Work in Progress Theme I: Studies of design practice
  18. Art Work
  19. Art Work Track 1
  20. Art Work Track 2
  21. Art Work Track 3
  22. Workshops
  23. Tutorial

Keynote Summaries

The way artifacts evolve in use -- participation as a key to a new professionalism BIBA xii
  John Habraken
To have a healthy living environment the energies of inhabitation must animate environmental change. The 'Open Building' approach, as supported by a network of practitioners and academics, seeks to re-introduce the powers of inhabitation in residential construction. They see the fine-grained large project as the future. Participation, recognizing inhabitation as the key factor, is not a goal by itself but a means to achieve a healthy and sustainable environment. It leads to new professional skills and knowledge:
   1) Understanding environment. Knowledge of the built environment as an autonomous and complex phenomenon should justify architectural intervention, much in the way knowledge of the human body must justify medical intervention. As always, patterns of change reveal constant laws. Transformation, therefore, is the key to our knowledge of environment. The concept of 'dominance' reveals itself as one of the major constants in environmental dynamics and is discussed by way of example.
   2) Design methodology Environmental change also demands distribution of design intervention. The reality of this distribution challenges Modernism's top-down centralized design ideology. Wherever design distribution takes place, coordination and interface management become important concerns. Methodology provides tools in response to them. Here again, 'dominance' is illustrative. It allows us to finally discard 'function' as the basis for design, and to achieve a more open ended way of working by looking for 'capacity'.
   3) Form behavior Environmental transformation is bound to social convention as well as to physical reality. Our interventions, therefore, are not random but reflect 'form behavior' that we are innately familiar with. A new generation of CAD programs is needed to make the computer understand such 'behavior of form' as well. Once more, the concept of 'dominance' is important. It allows us to convey behavioral knowledge to the computer, making the latter a true design participant.
"May I show you my stamp collection?" -- the artist as invited guest with unpredictable outcome BIBA xiii-xiv
  Barbara Holub
our western society is based on principles of control, evaluation, validation or success, which implies that the individual is constantly called upon to mirror himself/herself according to the specific rules imposed upon him/her by his/her respective social and cultural context. this means that all our actions are much rather guided by the notion of control and awareness of "performance" commensurate with the image of the company than the "enactment of the self"*. my projects aim at questioning these roles as well as the role played by the artist in the game, and at giving space to "what doesn"t fit".
  • in this presentation I would like to give you an overview of some recent
        projects to show my artistic interest in direct "enactment", the strategies I've been developing, and how the projects can be read as an inbetween for engaging in almost childlike play and yet at the same time expose precise structures of the environment or "set" I'm investigating.
  • i usually try to place and/or communicate the projects both in the art context
       as well as in that of an enterprise or specific professional environment. questions regarding access to the situation I choose as field of artistic investigation, differ according to the given parameters. whom do I tell what? what are the expectations of the people participating -- what are my expectations? what do I make visible/communicate to the viewer, and which experience remains visible only to the participants?
  • the art practice I've been developing is based on creating specific sets,
        offering an experience to the participants, which they might not have had in their everyday life. the seemingly harmless question posed by the title of this presentation itself addresses the hidden potentials of the situation it points at. the crucial question is: what happens then? the moment of seduction, of giving up control, of submerging in the situation opens up a field of unforeseen developments.
  • Plenary Papers

    Participatory Design and the Collective Designer BIBAK 1-10
      Pelle Ehn; Richard Badham
    Is and should there be a place for the Aristotelian virtue of phronesis in contemporary participatory design practice and for design as an act of anxious love? In this paper we take a critical look at participatory design and reflect upon the virtues of the collective designer. Towards a background of the dreams and lost utopias of some related collective designers of the past: the Bauhaus, Nordic design and Scandinavian collective systems design, we suggest that our attention should not be on the great espoused design ideals but on the politics-in-practice of the collective designer. The really interesting collective designer in practice might very well be much more of a "Machiavellian" reflective practitioner than an objective scientist or politically correct utopist.
    Keywords: Bauhaus, collaboration, design, participation, phronesis, power, Nordic design, ethics, politics, Scandinavian collective systems design, utopia, virtue
    Representations in Establishing and Maintaining a Rhetorical Participation Structure BIBAK 11-21
      Jarmo Sarkkinen
    Representations are considered to be means for better communication and collaboration in determining software requirements. Uses of representations have normally been studied in artificially created situations characterized by a harmonic common interest. Representations then can be seen as props for hearing the users' voice in requirements analysis. Two episodes in a 'real world' requirements determination session are analyzed not only in a responsive but also in a rhetoric light. A high-fidelity prototype as a representation in concert with a free flow of control could be seen to hinder the democratic determination of the requirements, and to enable rhetorical persuasion.
    Keywords: Representations, requirements, participation, interaction
    Design is a Game: Developing Design Competence in a Game Setting BIBAK 22-28
      Ole Sejer Iversen; Jacob Buur
    In this article we propose design games as a way of building design competence for design students as well as for practitioners. We report on four experiments in which game playing, game creation and game reflection has revealed a potential in developing design competence. We show how the use of games can contribute to talking about collaborative design processes, modelling design situations, exploring real life design and improving an existing design practice. Our findings are derived from both educational and industrial settings.
    Keywords: Design games, Silent Game, participatory design, design representations, design teaching
    Extreme Participation -- Moving Extreme Programming Towards Participatory Design BIBAK 29-41
      Markus Rittenbruch; Gregor McEwan; Nigel Ward; Tim Mansfield; Dominik Bartenstein
    Extreme Programming (XP) is a lightweight software development methodology that has risen to prominence in the last few years. XP and Participatory Design are related in motivation and approach but complimentary in many ways. The authors believe that integrating some Participatory Design approaches into XP substantially improves XP and may even bring some advantages to Participatory Design. This paper summarises XP, compares the two approaches, outlines our experience with XP, draws out some problems with classic XP and suggests some modifications based on Participatory Design.
    Keywords: Extreme Programming, User stories, Participatory Design
    Probing the Probes BIBAK 42-50
      Terry Hemmings; Karen Clarke; Mark Rouncefield; Andy Crabtree; Tom Rodden
    Ethnographic studies of technology have focused on trying to understand the socially organised, naturally occurring uses of technological artifacts in socio-technical systems. This paper describes the design work of two separate research groups utilising 'cultural probes' as a mode of participatory design for domestic settings. The first group created specially designed probes to analyse the motivations that shape home life, to inspire future designs. The second group used a cultural probe derivative as an adjunct to an ethnographic study of a sensitive 'home' setting -- a sheltered housing complex -- and used them for 'information' rather than 'inspiration'. The paper outlines an innovative evaluation of the production, use and methods that inform the use of probes for a participatory design and explore the ways in which cultural probes and probes hybrids might present alternative strategies for exploring 'sensitive' settings.
    Keywords: Methodology, participatory design, cultural probes, domestic probes, ethnography, art and design, design practice, home, workplace
    A Pattern Language for Living Communication BIBAK 51-61
      Doug Schuler
    This is the first report on an ambitious participatory project, currently in work, whose goal is the construction of a "pattern language," a large structured collection of knowledge that represents the "wisdom" of a widely distributed, very loosely knit community of activists, researchers, policy-makers, and technologists. This report provides an important first step as it outlines our hopes, expectations, planned tasks, and research hypotheses. A second report in late 2002 or early 2003 will bracket this report with a discussion of actual activities, evaluation, and recommendations.
    Keywords: Pattern Language, patterns, participation, democratic communication, collective knowledge base, constructivism

    Papers: Track A1

    Improved Crane Operations and Competence Development in a Community of Practice BIBAK 63-73
      Vidar Hepsoe; Rune Botnevik
    This paper describes the lessons learnt in a five year effort to improve health, environment and safety (HES) in crane and lifting operations in the North Sea. We focus in particular on the roles of groupware tools and a crane simulator in skills development of a particular community of practice, and their role in sustaining and improving crane and lifting operations. This work shows the potential of participatory approaches to design in several respects: the combination of action research and ethnography, stakeholder involvement, dialogue in various arenas, development of new work practices and artefacts, and finally, the politics involved in changing existing work practices and the implementation of new approaches to skills development and the improved quality of working life. We describe the context in which groupware tools and simulation training can become integrated in the operating business in order to improve the development of skills and the quality of working life for offshore crane operators, banks men and supply boat crew.
    Keywords: Action research, e-learning, groupware, (HES) health, environment and safety, knowledge management, LOTUS DOMINO, simulation training, virtual communities, quality of working life
    A cognitive analysis of collective decision making in the participatory design process BIBAK 74-83
      Françoise Darses
    In this paper, we examine, from a cognitive standpoint, the issue of collective decision-making in participatory design groups. These multi-occupational group (manufacturing operators, foremen, maintenance mechanics, the method agent, the shop foreman, draftsmen, etc.) are asked to redesign the equipment of a production line in a factory manufacturing steel tubes.
  • Our analysis is focused on the cognitive side of the redesign activity, and especially on the collective evaluation processes. From the transcripts of the meetings, we have examined how the co-designers come to an agreement about the redesigned equipment. We show that the criteria spontaneously used for the evaluation of the solutions are far wider (quantitatively and qualitatively) than the list of functional criteria prescribed to the co-designers for the decision-making process. This study has led to the development of an evaluation method, named CRITERIA, which is briefly described.
    Keywords: collective design process, cooperation, collective decision-making, evaluation, criterion
  • Papers: Track B1

    Designing for an Ecological Agricultural Association -- A PD case study BIBAK 84-92
      Edla Maria Faust Ramos; Sandro da Silva Santos; Antônio Carlos Mariani; Jorge Alberto Timmerman; A Denise; A Cord; Maria Margareth Lins; Rafael Ulguim de Oliveira
    In this paper, we describe a case study of the participatory design process of an information system for an "ecological" farmers association. It describes how the techniques of PD were applied and adapted to analyze its viability in the design of information and communication systems for complex democratic organizations.
    Keywords: action research, participatory design, requirements analysis, democratic organizations
    Contextualizing Power in a Collaborative Design BIBAK 93-103
      Sampsa Hyysalo; Janne Lehenkari
    Power relations are a major concern in participatory design (PD). We explore how power relations are played out in a commercial collaborative design project that has not been influenced by PD techniques or interests. The case reconfirms many of the underlying principles of PD in handling power. At the same time, our Foucault-inspired analysis of the contextual dynamics and hidden power structures in user practices suggests certain extensions and improvements to the analysis of power relationships in PD projects.
    Keywords: Collaborative design, Participatory design, Context, Power, Foucault

    Papers: Track C1

    Using Pattern Languages in Participatory Design BIBA 104-113
      Andy Dearden; Janet Finlay; Elizabeth Allgar; Barbara McManus
    In this paper, we examine the contribution that pattern languages could make to user participation in the design of interactive systems, and we report on our experiences of using pattern languages in this way.
  • In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of patterns and pattern languages in the design of interactive systems. Pattern languages were originally developed by the architect, Christopher Alexander, both as a way of understanding the nature of building designs that promote a 'humane' or living built environment; and as a practical tool to aid in participatory design of buildings.
  • Our experience suggests that pattern languages do have considerable potential to support participatory design in HCI, but that many pragmatic issues remain to be resolved.
  • Enabling factors for participatory design of socio-technical systems with diagrams BIBAK 114-123
      Kai-Uwe Loser; Thomas Herrmann
    Several authors report failures when using diagrams with a defined notation for participatory design processes. Our experience in various projects was different: diagrams with graphical notations are artefacts which can be used participatively to design socio-technical systems. In this paper we describe our experience from two projects where models of socio-technical systems are designed participatively. The used methods are based on a special view on socio-technical systems. Both theory and case studies provide the basis to derive relevant factors for the process and the notation to enable participation in projects where modelling methods are used.
    Keywords: Participatory Design, Socio-technical Systems, Diagrams, Modelling

    Papers: Track A2

    PD in the Wild; Evolving Practices of Design in Use BIBAK 124-134
      Yvonne Dittrich; Sara Eriksén; Christina Hansson
    The when and where of participatory design has traditionally been set, primarily, by the software design project. However, modern IT networks with a variety of applications from different software providers, new web-design tools, and the integration of customization processes with ongoing version management, are just a few of the developments that are moving participation around IT design issues beyond the traditional software project. Using examples from a research project focusing on existing work practices and IT in use in public service administration, we explore various understandings of design, which challenge some of the assumptions underlying the basic framework of participatory design.
  • If design is seen as continually on-going, and intricately interwoven with use, this raises several important issues for participatory design. It highlights design for change. It points towards the need for reconsidering software design processes. It brings into focus issues of coordination between use, design in use and adaptation and development. Crucially, it raises issues about shop floor IT management, that is, organizational and technical support for local adapting, and continual design and development in use, of IT, and the need for models and methods for sustainable, distributed co-constructive design processes.
    Keywords: Design in use, evolutionary design, shop floor IT management, public services, one-stop shops
  • Seeding, Evolutionary Growth, and Reseeding: Enriching Participatory Design with Informed Participation BIBAK 135-143
      Gerhard Fischer; Jonathan Ostwald
    Historically, participatory design (PD) has focused on system development at design time by bringing developers and users together to envision contexts of use. But despite the best efforts at design time, systems need to evolve at use time to fit new needs, account for changing tasks, and incorporate new technologies. In this paper, we argue that systems should be designed as seeds that are able to evolve.
  • The evolutionary growth of the seed is driven by informed participation, in which active users explore complex design problems and, in the process, create new information. When evolutionary growth can no longer proceed efficiently, a reseeding phase is required to organize, formalize, and generalize information so that it may support a new period of evolutionary growth.
  • Informed participation requires social changes as well as new interactive systems that provide the opportunity and resources for social debate and discussion rather than merely delivering predigested information to users. This paper presents key issues for designing new media in support of informed participation. These issues have been explored through several applications of the DynaSites system in contexts including collaborative design and courses-as-seeds.
    Keywords: informed participation; seeding, evolutionary growth, reseeding; collaborative design practices; meta-design; open systems; evolving information repositories; courses-as-seeds; consumer and designer mindsets
  • Papers: Track B2

    Personas, Participatory Design and Product Development: An Infrastructure for Engagement BIBAK 144-152
      Jonathan Grudin; John Pruitt
    The design of commercial products that are intended to serve millions of people has been a challenge for collaborative approaches. The creation and use of fictional users, concrete representations commonly referred to as 'personas', is a relatively new interaction design technique. It is not without problems and can be used inappropriately, but based on experience and analysis it has extraordinary potential. Not only can it be a powerful tool for true participation in design, it also forces designers to consider social and political aspects of design that otherwise often go unexamined.
    Keywords: Persona, design method, scenario, user-centered design
    Note: This paper repeats on pages 153-161
    Partner Engaged Design: New Challenges For Workplace Design BIBAK 162-172
      Martin Johansson; Peter Fröst; Eva Brandt; Thomas Binder; Jörn Messeter
    The spatial organization of the workplace affects the work going on there. The technology used, changes the work practice. This paper describes a design process where different aspects of workplace design for project-based office work have been combined into one multi-stakeholder project, integrating the spatial aspects, the furniture, the information technology, and the IT-services that are connected to work. To have several different partners with different interests and competencies collaborating in a future oriented design process puts certain demands on the setup of the process and the tools being used. Taking a starting point in existing work practice, we have driven this project with techniques most often used for user-involvement. Scenario building played a crucial role in tying the process together. The concrete result is a completed concept proposal for an actual "office of the future" layout, which integrates advanced information technology and service solutions. The case shows that it is possible to reach innovative consensus-anchored results with the described design method.
    Keywords: Workplace design, Work practice based design, Collaborative inquiry and design, Architectural design

    Papers: Track C2

    Centering Diversity; An ethnographic dissection of hemophilia care BIBAK 173-182
      Teun Zuiderent
    In this paper, I describe my entry as a 'change agent' in the dynamic site of a hemophilia care center (HCC) in a Dutch university hospital. I discuss the importance of using participant observation to create insight into the interpretative flexibility of the site, by showing the presence of diverse interpretations by various actors on different moments of 'what the HCC is' and what it means to 'make it work'. This reality contributed to a variety of roles that were ascribed to the researcher -- a process which I took as a valuable source of information on the site. I conclude that, for interventionist research in a complex setting, it is of utmost importance to use a methodology that sensitizes the researcher for the different and changing views that exist on that setting. This allows one to become aware of the various roles that one is asked to play, and the solutions one is expected to come up with. With this sensitivity, a researcher can choose to intervene by giving voice to a certain interpretation, or at least avoid suggesting solutions that are bound to fail because they are contradictory to interpretations of strong actors on the nature of the setting.
    Keywords: Ethnography, interpretative flexibility, ethnographically informed IT design, hemophilia care centers
    Promises, Premises and Risks: Sharing Responsibilities, Working Up Trust and Sustaining Commitment in Participatory Design Projects BIBAK 183-192
      Monika Büscher; Dan Shapiro; Mark Hartswood; Rob Procter; Roger Slack; Alex Voß; Preben Mogensen
    While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope of what is achievable. In this paper, we report on our various experiences of 'boundary crossing' in four very different participatory design contexts. We argue that in each setting a key task consists of enlisting the effort, imagination, trust and commitment of users, and the sharing of risks and responsibilities. We compare and discuss the different strategies, methods we have devised to achieve this within the local politics of each setting.
    Keywords: Participatory design, co-realisation, risk, trust, commitment, system biographies

    Work in Progress Theme A: Urban Planning

    Human-Centered Public Transportation Systems for Persons with Cognitive Disabilities -- Challenges and Insights for Participatory Design BIBAK 194-198
      Gerhard Fischer; James F., Jr. Sullivan
    In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford persons with cognitive disabilities the opportunity to use mainstream public transportation systems. This project faces two unique challenges: (1) there are no true "experts" who understand all facets of public transportation system design, operation, and maintenance; and (2) each person with cognitive disabilities represents a "universe of one," preventing the technology designer from thinking in terms of typical "user classes." Participatory "in-the-world" design is therefore a necessary and critical facet of this research, and the design process must include members from diverse communities. Our design team participants include assistive care specialists and family support organizations, urban transportation planners and managers, hardware and information technology designers, and university researchers. Designing for a diverse user population or a complex system acts as a "forcing function" for using a participatory approach, and it is simply impossible to create a good design without it. This paper will highlight insights from this process that have illuminated our research efforts.
    Keywords: participatory design, transportation systems, technologies for persons with cognitive disabilities, caregivers, "universe-of-one," personalization, universal design
    Improving the language of electronic dialogue in participatory projects BIBAK 199-203
      Michael Mullins; Steen Holmgren
    Residents affected by urban interventions and development projects have in South Africa's recent history, frequently challenged the legitimacy of development decisions. In a South African context, the process of intervention is itself often a primary factor in rediscovering social, cultural and spatial identity. A subsequent polarization between the professionals' and publics' roles is detrimental to the participatory process. Formative communication between participants, for example architects, residents and planning authorities, contributes to consensual decision-making, empowerment of residents, and a sustainable improvement of living environments. The objective of relating architectural design to context therefore invites a closer inquiry into the nature of the residents' everyday experience of their environment, that is to say the identity of place, and consequently into the nature of emerging information and communication tools used in that inquiry. This paper looks at examples of participatory projects where digital information and communication tools have been used and indicates areas of current and future research to improve the dialogue between 'experts' and 'users'.
    Keywords: Community Participation, Dialogue Methods, Virtual Representation

    Work in Progress Theme B: Health Care

    Mediation, Non-Participation, and Technology in Care Giving Work BIBAK 204-214
      Eevi Beck
    Demographic changes are placing increasing emphasis in Nordic and other countries on the provision of care for elderly and other people in their homes. In this paper, the possibilities for a group of home helpers to act as mediators for the needs of assistees is discussed within a context of the changing information technological regimes of the local government.
    Keywords: E-governance, IT, democracy, political mediation, public services
    Note: (Introductory full paper)
    Digital tools for community building -- towards community driven-design BIBAK 215-220
      Andrea Botero Cabrera; Iina Oilinki; Kari-Hans Kommonen; Mariana Salgado
    This paper describes our participatory design approach with two communities of interest. We discuss the tools and context of conversation and design we have been experimenting with within our research project. The paper presents a working idea of application patterns, as a useful concept for pursuing holistic interpretations of people's needs. We believe that participatory design processes driven by communities, that are developing new ways of solving their needs, might result in the emergence of new and creative applications of future digital technologies.
    Keywords: Communities, design partnerships, digital exchanges, interactive scenarios, application patterns, digitalization, digital media participatory design
    Readymade design at an Intensive Care Unit BIBAK 221-225
      Per-Anders Hillgren; Erling Bjarki Bjorgvinsson
    Marcel Duchamp invented the idea of using existing artifacts as art objects by recreating their meaning. These artifacts he called readymades. This article uses his ideas about readymades and applies them on a design project at an intensive care unit. Through negotiation with the staff and among the staff themselves the meaning of already existing artifacts was co-constructed, transforming them into educational tools in their daily work. Self-produced videos accessible through barcodes out in the context and viewed on handheld computers support their ongoing oral learning culture and function as a common point of reference where their work practice is negotiated.
    Keywords: Healthcare, work place learning, self-produced contextual video, handheld computers, readymade design

    Work in Progress Theme C: Architectural and Industrial Design

    Aligning Design and Technology Infrastructures for a Collaborative Workplace: Considerations in Architecture and Design Practice BIBAK 226-230
      Luke Yeung; Singh Intrachooto; Lora Kim
    How may design address the conditions of change and creativity in today's workplace environment, particularly in large (200+) organizations?
  • Based on investigations of workplace designs for high technology companies, this research project supports the notion that in order to develop effective workplaces, architecture and related design professions not only need to respond to the physical requirements at hand but also need to expand on the role of individual users, supporting technologies and factor in the changing nature of the work space itself.
  • The paper reports on findings of two case studies that represent conventional design workflows in workplace design. Based on these findings, the paper proposes key criteria for the development of an alternative design model where users could increase their level of participation in the design process and shape their environments within parameters of a negotiated framework. The paper describes opportunities where this multidisciplinary approach could be taken to facilitate for direct and meaningful exchange of creative ideas, knowledge, and physical resources between all project participants and also illustrates an emerging model of workplace design that can leverage technology investments for design benefit and user collaboration in today's increasingly networked office.
    Keywords: Design Process, Architecture, Design Collaboration, Workplace Design, Space Planning
  • Trial-and-Error based Innovation: Physical Iteration Games as Collaborative Strategy in Product Design BIBAK 231-237
      Jan Capjon
    Phenomenology opens for seeing mind and body as inseparable in design action. Scandinavian researchers have shown that such an anti-dualistic approach to design is facilitated by employment of physicality as a communication tool. This participatory action research project is arranged to explore the potentials of using Rapid Prototyping (RP)-produced physicality as a tool for the facilitation of creative collaboration between dissimilar stakeholders of design teams. It is found that product design procedures can be supported by RP technology in iterative patterns, which seem to catalyse 'mind/body experiences' and understanding of individual and integrated contributions to the totality. Such 'physical iteration games' are integrated in the 'language games' we play in design, in procedures where 'sense-based' and 'word-based' languages of the actors seem to merge. Two concrete design research projects will be described and the findings elaborated.
    Keywords: Collaborative design, Rapid Prototyping, Iteration
    Dialogue in the early stages of the design task -- Worlds and pictures as tool for exploration and communication of concepts BIBAK 238-242
      Saddek Rehal
    The problem with the design process when carried out collectively is, on the one hand, the linguistic barriers that make interdisciplinary dialogue difficult, and on the other hand, the diffuse conception of the future artefact on the part of the actors during the early stages of the process. From this perspective, the process of designing is regarded as a transition from a diffuse sphere of concepts towards a sphere of concepts of more concrete character. An abrupt transition from the verbal formulations of those commissioning to the architect's graphic representations may hinder, or be the reason why, the participants are not able to develop their own comprehensible images and visions. One means of eliminating this unsatisfactory state of affairs is to construct a dialogue able to be carried out between the actors involved, before the architect comes into the process. This article deals with the development of a method that uses images or pictures for discussing aspects or phenomena considered to be important for the situation in question. The objective is to provide a richer content for the commission, and a good point of departure for a stimulating dialogue with the architect.
    Keywords: Design, participation, dialogue, diffuse concept

    Work in Progress Theme D: Methods and Tools

    In MY situation I would dislike THAAAT! -- Role Play as Assessment Method for Tools Supporting Participatory Planning BIBAK 243-247
      Eva Hornecker; Hal Eden; Eric Scharff
    The transitory nature of some participatory planning settings means that traditional PD methods are not feasible during early stages of technology development. Role-play represents a promising technique for addressing this situation. We present our experiences in using role play as a participatory assessment method on two variants of a system for participatory planning. We summarize system-related assessment results and discuss limitations and potential improvements of this method.
    Keywords: role play, assessment methods, PD, system design, urban planning, group support, graspable interfaces
    Transforming Narratives for the Improvement of Infrastructures BIBA 248-253
      Bettina Törpel; Meik Poschen
    In this contribution we are introducing the method of Narrative Transformation by first outlining the contexts for which Narrative Transformation is useful, then describing how to proceed and, finally, reporting from practical experiences with Narrative Transformation.
    The performativity of design participatory design of new practices BIBAK 254-259
      Dagny Stuedahl
    This paper will discuss consequences of different theoretical approaches to practical design work. A special concern is to understand group- and teamwork from the perspective of language and speech-act analysis -- in contrast to the perspective of behavior and performance. Does focus on language give us the understandings we need for building up a good co-operation in design teams? The paper questions if focus on language can give us understanding of hidden and underlying phenomena that have relevance to design work. How can we capture nonverbal resistance and power games in design groups? The notion of performativity used in anthropology, sociology and cultural history is discussed as a tool to capture the situational adjustment, resistance, display and evaluation that normally have influence on collective co-operation.
    Keywords: Philosophical foundation of design, language-games, performativity

    Work in Progress Theme E: Representing users

    CAD Models as a Co-Design Tool For Older Users: A Pilot Study BIBAK 260-265
      Rebecca Cain; Diane Gyi; Ian Campbell
    The UK population is ageing, and currently, the design needs of older adults are not being met. Increased older user participation is required in design. It is proposed that CAD (Computer Aided Design) and Rapid Prototyping (RP) models can be used as a tool to facilitate user involvement early in the design process. This paper explores the potential for a computer-aided participatory-design process for older adults. It questions older users' understanding of CAD models of products in terms of 'physical product properties' such as perceived size, weight, colour, surface properties and 'subjective attributes' such as perceived quality. It aims to establish how far older adults are able to understand CAD models shown on a computer screen. This work-in-progress paper discusses the current literature in relation to ageing and CAD, and goes on to describe the methodology for a pilot study, which forms part of the first stage of PhD research.
    Keywords: Ageing, Computer Aided Design (CAD), Ergonomics, Design, Rapid Prototyping
    Empathy Probes BIBAK 266-271
      Tuuli Mattelmäki; Katja Battarbee
    Design empathy is needed when going from rational and practical issues to personal experiences and private contexts. Probes are specifically designed material packages given to the potential users to document their private lives, contexts and experiences. This paper describes a case study of experimenting with the probes approach, combining it with interviews and a projective tasks. The study was done in collaboration with Polar Electro Oy. The aim was to gain a holistic and empathic understanding of the people who exercise for wellbeing. This paper describes the study and the gained experiences on building and sharing design empathy.
    Keywords: User centered design, user study, probes, collages, self-photography, design empathy
    How Young Can Our Technology Design Partners Be? BIBAK 272-277
      Allison Farber; Allison Druin; Gene Chipman; Dawn Juilan; Sheila Somashekhar
    For this work-in-progress presentation, we report on our experiences working with young children as technology design partners. Our team from the Human-Computer Interaction Lab has extensive participatory design experience in working with 7-11 year old children. Here we describe our first year working with 4-6 year old children and the ways that we altered our methodologies to meet the unique needs of our younger design partners.
    Keywords: Children, Participatory Design, Educational Applications

    Work in Progress Theme F: Adult education

    PD in Ponty: Designing-by-Doing in Adult Basic Education BIBAK 278-283
      Steven Robert Harris
    This work-in-progress report gives a short account of the participatory design of ICT supported Adult Basic Education (ABE) courses in the South Wales Valleys region of the UK, a post-industrial area with low levels of educational attainment, widespread illiteracy and innumeracy in the adult population, and a growing digital divide. In the 1990s ABE provision in the region was expanded through the establishment of community-based Open Learning Centres (OLCs) dedicated to teaching adults basic literacy, communication and numeracy skills. The introduction of a network of personal computers with broadband Internet connectivity to one such center in 1997 led to the design and development of a number of innovative courses built around the use of new media technologies. Established practices in ABE supported the increasing participation of learners, tutors, and volunteers in this design process resulting in changes to the structure and content of ABE provision at the centre.
    Keywords: Participatory design, adult basic education
    Projeto Crisálida (Chrysalis Project): participatory interdisciplinary educational proposal for intervention in the female prison system of southern Brazil BIBAK 284-287
      Elaine Maria Luz Barth; Hamilcar Boing
    This article describes an interdisciplinary research project for intervention in the rehabilitation of women inmates in Brazil. The study proposes an educational program in the use of digital technologies as a pathway for women inmates to find meaningful work and rejoin society. The use of technology is seen as a factor that minimizes social exclusion through the development of an educational program of technological teaching and of preparation for work. The program generates a proposal inspired by Activity Theory and Participatory Design. The project includes the construction of a software specific for the prison clientele, according to a methodology based on a participatory approach and gender focus.
    Keywords: Education, technological literacy, interdisciplinary, software, gender, activity, participatory design
    Increasing the Participation of Indigenous Australians in the Information Technology Industries BIBAK 288-294
      Toni Robertson
    Indigenous Australian people continue to experience chronic disadvantage relative to the living standards and well-being of non-Indigenous Australians. Despite the increased availability of education to Aboriginal Australians, their participation in Information Technology programmes is very low, as is their awareness of the options available in the Information and Communications industries. In this paper we report our findings and recommendations from a project designed to investigate how to increase the participation of Indigenous Australians in Information Technology courses. We sought out existing examples of successful Indigenous education initiatives and considered how appropriately situated variations could be developed within an Information Technology Faculty. We have learned that successful initiatives to improve the lives of Indigenous Australians depend on the active participation of Indigenous people. The insights from Participatory Design practices, including the tools and techniques for involving participants in the design process, whatever is being designed, will continue to inform the evolution of this project.
    Keywords: Access and equity issues, Indigenous participation, Education and training, ethics and social justice

    Work in Progress Theme G: Large distributed systems

    Consulting the citizens. Relationship-based interaction in e-government BIBAK 295-299
      Annelie Ekelin
    This work-in-progress report explores the multi-layered discourse on interaction within the field of e-government, heavily influenced by marketing-, and democracy-related values. The discourse hold out the prospect of an on-going transformation towards what could be labeled "relationship-based interaction", aiming at involving citizens actively in development of public information and services on regular basis. Municipalities and official authorities are taking various initiatives to reconfigure their relations with the citizens on local and regional as well as on a national level in Sweden, of which some local examples are presented in this paper. This article also reflects upon possible ways to promote public involvement in development of government, by the use of participatory design influenced methods and tools.
    Keywords: 24x7 service, relationship-based interaction, service design, e-government, public administration, discourse analysis
    Framing Participatory Design Through e-Prototyping BIBAK 300-305
      Wolf-Gideon Bleek; Martti Jeenicke; Ralf Klischewski
    The paper discusses how a new way of prototyping can serve as a method to support a participatory and evolutionary design approach within Web projects. "e-prototyping" is meant to frame participation of Web users and other stakeholders in the design process through providing and maintaining a variety of communication channels for (user) feedback on frequently released software versions as well as establishing a steering board which takes into account the users voice in sorting out the feedback and setting priorities for the following design effort. From the software process perspective, e-prototyping supplies the development arena with the information needed (i.e. requirements), thus embedding the design activities in a loop of continuous communication and learning.
    Keywords: Participatory design, e-prototyping, Web projects, software development
    Negotiating Information Technology: Politics and Practices of a Web Site BIBAK 306-310
      Pirjo Elovaara
    In this paper I do a preliminary investigation of the web production in one Swedish municipality. I implement Gärtner & Wagners suggestion of thinking through three arenas when studying design processes: Arena A for individual projects, Arena B for the organisational layer and Arena C for the national arena. The arena C, the National politics draws up the ideological scene available for the information technology translations at the local level. The Arena B is a municipal political IT-vision document. The arena A is the analysis of an interview with a municipal web developer. I implement the analytical tools of the actor-network theory (ANT). I suggest that the web design process is a network of negotiations, where political documents, web producers, private companies, software, and time meet.
    Keywords: Politics, public sector, web production, Sweden
    A participatory design approach for the development of support environments in e-Government services to citizens BIBAK 311-316
      Maurizio Marchese; Gianni Jacucci; Mike Martin; Bridgette Wessels; Yvonne Dittrich; Sara Erikseé
    The introduction of eGovernment services and applications leads to major changes in the structure and operation of public administrations. In this paper we describe the work in progress in an Italian project called "SPO.T." aimed at the analysis, development, deployment and evaluation of tools and environments to support the people who plan, deliver, use and evaluate user-centred provision of One-Stop-Shop services to citizens. The "SPO.T." project has focused on two requirements: 1. the support tools and environments must facilitate the active involvement of all stakeholders in the definition and evolution of eGovernment applications and services, and it is argued that through participatory design changes of structure, process and culture can be delivered effectively; 2. they must embody a set of architecturally coherent resources which reflect the new roles and relationships of public administration and which are sufficiently generic to be relevant to a wide range of local contexts across the community.
    Keywords: eGovernment services, Support tools and environments, Design in use
    Dynamic Interactive Scenario Creation: a method for extending Participatory Design to large system development projects BIBAK 317-322
      Magnus Irestig; Toomas Timpka
    Basing our findings on experience from a participatory system development process in the Swedish project Distance Supported Learning for Local Knowledge Needs (DLK) we present and discuss the DISC-method for participatory scenario creation. We argue that, in large and distributed Participatory Design projects, the method can be suitable to aid participant selection and create a shared understanding of the current situation while preserving the democratic and multi-disciplinary character of Participatory Design.
    Keywords: Participatory Design, Scenarios, Methods, Organisation analysis

    Work in Progress Theme H: Design cases

    A User-Oriented Approach to Building a Video Community in a Distributed Workplace BIBAK 323-327
      Sören Lenman; Minna Räsänen; Björn Thuresson
    study on the possible creation of a communication environment (Media Space) between the three different locales of a distributed Call Centre. A spectrum of user-oriented methods was used in the study, and the staff at the Call Centre took part through interviews, discussions, and a workshop. The approach yielded useful information, and the feedback from the user group was very positive. Some pitfalls and risks were identified, such as technology focus, and to come up with solutions rather than to reflect on needs. A useful foundation was laid for the continuation of the project, which includes continued co-operative design work and the establishment of a communication environments in the workplaces.
    Keywords: Video-mediated communication, distributed workplace, community, media space, design process, participatory design, video routing, fibre-link network
    Designing Future Scenarios for Electronic User Manuals BIBAK 328-332
      Werner Sperschneider; Niels Thede Schmidt-Hansen
    This paper addresses ways of applying new perspectives on the electronic documentation of technical literature. It draws on inspirations from a research project aiming at creating a vision for technical literature that is electronically accessible. The goal was to investigate the potential of electronic user manuals and database user manual production.
  • We will illustrate how a variety of scenarios were helpful to add on intensive ethnographic field studies, helping developers coordinate design action and reflection. The design and implementation of electronic user manuals is beyond the scope of this paper.
    Keywords: System development, ethnographic field study, qualitative methods, scenario-based design
  • Non user centered design of personal mobile technologies BIBAK 333-337
      Jo Herstad; Dagny Stuedahl; Do Van Thanh
    During design and development of personal mo bile communication technologies, various user centered design approaches are frequently used. Based on results from three ethnographic studies of bike messenger operations, bike police operation and field engineering operations, we argue that understanding of the non-user and the relation between the user and the non-user is important. The cellular telephone is used as an example of a personal mobile technology throughout the paper to talk about the role of the non-user and the relation between the user and the nonuser.
    Keywords: Mobility, system development, contextual inquiry

    Work in Progress Theme I: Studies of design practice

    Ethnography in design: tool-kit or analytic science? BIBAK 338-343
      Claus Bossen
    The role of ethnography in system development is discussed through the selective application of an ethnographic easy-to-use toolkit, Contextual Design, by a computer firm in the initial stages of the development of a health care system.
    Keywords: Contextual Design, ethnography, system development
    Contextual Workshops: A Case Study in the Home Environment BIBAK 344-348
      Johanna Hultcrantz; Aseel Ibrahim
    Involving the users in the design process in order to understand their current situation and to generate new ideas for the development of future products and services is highly relevant to achieve a good result. There are several Participatory Design activities available for generating new ideas and concepts. There are also several activities available for the development of specific concepts and ideas. However, there are few if any activities available that address the choice of which concepts and ideas that should be further developed when there are several alternatives.
  • In this paper we present an activity designed for this purpose: Contextual Workshop. The activity uses visual presentations of ideas and concepts as a basis for focus group meetings with presumptive users. Furthermore the focus groups consist of members who already know each other and the workshops are conducted in the context of use for the presented ideas and concepts. Several advantages but also drawbacks with the activity Contextual Workshops are possible to identify and these are also discussed in this paper.
    Keywords: user participation, concept evaluation, context of use, focus group, affinity diagram
  • Design for Dummies -- Understanding Design Work in Virtual Workspaces BIBAK 349-355
      Kristian Billeskov Bøving; Lone Hoffmann Petersen
    New IT artifacts and new ways of designing artifacts challenges the common distinction between design and use. The extensive use of general packaged software changes the conditions under which users influence the design process of the IT artifact. We report from a longitudinal case study of the introduction and use of a packaged web-based groupware product in a financial services corporation. The case study is based both on interviews, a questionnaire and http-log analysis. Our case study suggests that we need to extend our understanding of IS-design as something that continues in what we usually call the use situation. We propose to define this activity as end-user design, and argue for the usefulness of the concept, drawing on Wanda Orlikowskis notion of technology-in-practice.
    Keywords: Design theory, use, Virtual work

    Art Work

    ART/WORK STRAND INTRODUCTION BIBA 357
      Pelle Ehn; Maureen Thomas
    The Participatory Design Conference 2002 Art/Work strand (theme: Participation and Design) includes an expo exhibiting artwork created as part of a research process. Each exhibit is accompanied by a 3-page paper, addressing the questions:
  • To what extent can Art be participatory?
  • Where is the border between Art and Design? Practice-based research in art and design has grown increasingly with the development of digital tools and media. Can it create artistic work whose aesthetics and originality place it in the same league as pieces produced primarily to demonstrate creative talent, qualifications and skill (as in graduation or design doctorate show material), or work intended purely for exhibition or cultural production? Should it aim to do so?
       As well as interrogating the place of Art/Design in practice-based research, the Art/Work strand is designed to provoke fruitful discussion of cross-discipline endeavour and research funding structures in the art/design environment.
       Exhibits range from tangible interface-based interactive products through augmented space and distributed 'conversational' narrative installations -- factual, architectural and fictional -- to digital hypermovie, children's interactive play, and constructible avatars. Some of the exhibits represent participatory artwork as such, while others demonstrate the participation of art and artists in a research and design process of which the exhibit is an outcome but not necessarily the final goal. Some exhibits participatory activity to tradition in the context of the evolving practice of the 21st century, stretching the borders of the term 'participation' to include and highlight personal interactions with or through art and design, individual development, and active or collaborative 'performance' including artefacts.
       The Art/Work Expo is designed to run in the exhibition space for the duration of the conference, and in addition each exhibitor will give a short paper to the conference participants on their work. The exhibits will also serve as the focus for a round-table discussion: Spatiality and Conversation as Models for Design/Art, around art as process, collaborative authorship, and interactivity.
  • Art Work Track 1

    Moving Stories BIBAK 358-361
      Eva Brandt; Maria Hellström; Anna Brag; Isa Hardemo
    Today, designing for home environments call for new design approaches, which are able to more fully embrace the complexity of modern living. The preliminary methodological 'thesis' of Moving Stories is that the interrogation of spaces of experience and reflection, of lifeworlds, require design approaches and forms of representations that are likewise experiential and reflective. In the Moving Stories project ethnographically inspired methods were mixed with artistic ways of working, as an alternative way of organizing and representing the design process. The result includes a video-installation and a series of booklets with stories based upon material gathered from five households in the process of moving from one home to another. The participating researchers represented the three different professional fields of engineering, art and interaction design reflecting different perspectives on both methods and goals. The informants were at various stages in life, and the moves made them reflect upon different aspects of both time and space. Finally, the combinatory installation as a form of representation, is in this case not an attempt to make art, but an answer to the interdisciplinary field as well as to the manifold time-space of relocating -- on the one hand an intermediary recess between the past and the future, on the other a space in formal transition.
    Keywords: Design approaches, home environments, life world experiential space, intermediary space, ethnography, art and action research, installation as combinatory display
    IS IT -- a diorama BIBAK 362-365
      Gunnar Sandin
    The concept of place may be approached and theorized through the idea of placing oneself at a location, in order not only to be there, but to mediate the spatial circumstances and the self-place interaction as such. This paper reviews findings on the thematic of place-construction and self-placing as results of a mediating act performed in art context. As a generative part of a practice-based research project, an installation was realized at an art gallery, which influenced the writing of a dissertation on the thematic of place and self-placing.
    Keywords: Art, research, place, self
    Vala's Runecast an interactive hypermovie BIBAK 366-371
      Maureen Thomas
    Electronically supported interactive narrativity is so young and relatively unexplored, that experimental work like the Vala's Runecast hypermovie, produced under Studio research conditions (without insistent commercial pressure), is necessary to help build a bridge between traditional linear movie origination and production, and hypermovie/other interactive narrative in the digital environment. This paper summarises how practice-based research identifies and formulates the functions of art, aesthetics and design in the processes of content-creation, production and delivery, as well as in the participative, creative enjoyment of digital interactive hypermovie. The example of Vala's Runecast suggests that both the production and the experience of interactors (users) constitute parts of a participatory design process for collaborative dramatic narrativity; and that in content-led research the highest aesthetic standards must be observed in proof of concept prototyping for the results to be viable.
    Keywords: Oral tradition, hypermovie production, digital media, interactive narrative drama, collaborative narrativity
    Space Blanket BIBA 372-374
      Lorella Di Cintio
    Space Blanket is a malleable fabric-like fragment. This element is often referred to as a 'geometric protoplasm': a simple grid system with a slippage mechanism, offering fluid properties.
  • I have delved abstractly into the realm of surfaces and structures whilst discovering the individual's desire to mould one's own space.
  • This work challenges conventional ideas about constructed space versus dynamic space. The intention is to question psychological experiences and memories of personal space.
  • Art Work Track 2

    The Faculty of Mimesis BIBAK 375-376
      Lars-Henrik Ståhl
    This paper originates from a text that was developed in close relation to one of my works of art, with the title Audience point of view. Like this work, my text is an argument for a profound change in attitude concerning mimetic representation, where neglected associations in every day life provide a resource in planning of society and its design processes. This change embraces a higher sensitivity towards small spaces and events that are going on in a minor scale. My opinion is that the architectural model by this gets a new meaning. It is no longer just a mockup, second to what might be called real architecture. It is central in several types of design processes.
    Keywords: Mimesis, representation, architecture, art, model
    "Psst"-ipatory Design: Involving artists, technologists, students and children in the design of narrative toys BIBAK 377-380
      Åsa Harvard; Simon Løvind
    The aim of the Narrative Toys project is to develop new concepts for toys/play environments that support children in reformulating stories, through a combination of physical artifacts and digital media. The focus of the project is how toys act as a storytelling medium, and in particular the exchange between stories inscribed in toys by toy manufacturers and stories invented by children during play. The project is also characterized by its aim to accomplish "creative research"- using artistic means to create and convey knowledge. This paper describes two prototypes, Psst and the AudioTheatre, and how they relate to research aims and artistic creation.
    Keywords: Interactive toys, play, narrative, design
    Evolving Stories BIBAK 382-385
      Lila Pine; Emi Kolompar
    New media technologies allow us to produce works which are complex systems rather than static objects, interactive works which require the participation of the viewer, and collaborative works over distance through the use of the Internet. Our research addresses these basic shifts and new opportunities in a wide array of applications such as: emerging models of database supported artworks, network-based interactive work, narrative as a temporal process and interactive installations and performances.
    Keywords: Interactivity, non-linearity, community, participatory, broadcast, narrow-cast, communal story, installation, women, medicine, digital, media, new media art, network environment, cyber culture, virtual environment, interactive database, interactive documentary, virtual presence
    Building Cuthbert Hall Virtual College as a dramatically engaging environment BIBAK 386-389
      Michael Nitsche; Stanislav Roudavski
    This paper outlines the interdisciplinary nature, collaborative work patterns and role of aesthetics in the Cuthbert Hall Virtual College research project at the Cambridge University Moving Image Studio (CUMIS) and the Centre for Applied Research in Education Technology (CARET). The project identifies key properties of dramatically engaging real-time three-dimensional virtual environments (RT 3D VE) and how the holistic experiential phenomenon of place is organised and mediated through spatial narrative patterns. Interdisciplinary by nature, the project requires a collaborative approach between science, engineering, media and architecture, and the results are revealing for all these areas. The Cuthbert Hall project invites discussion of the importance in the creation and use of RT 3D VE's -- under single and multi-user conditions -- of articulate aesthetics (the quality of architectural, visual and audio design; the production and incorporation of dramatic properties) and of the conditions required for collaborative, communicative use of the environment. The full theoretical and technical discussions as well as the evaluation results are outside the scope of this submission.
    Keywords: Real-time virtual environment, computer game, place, architecture, mediation, narrative, expressive space
    *The Picnic* BIBA 390-395
      Caroline McCaw
    In this paper, I discuss a collaborative, interactive public art project called *The Picnic* that was performed simultaneously as an event in various locations. This paper examines relationships between conceptual art and community building practices by using *The Picnic* as a model of a participatory art practice that connects people, places and ideas of urban cultural activity.

    Art Work Track 3

    52 Events -- A Participatory Art Work BIBAK 396-400
      Ken Friedman
    This presentation describes a participatory art project initiated in the 1960s for publication by the international laboratory for intermedia art known as Fluxus. The project has been realized again in the 1990s using the World Wide Web.
    Keywords: Events, scores, intermedia, Fluxus, participatory art
    Tangible Viewpoints: Physical navigation through interactive stories BIBAK 401-405
      Ali Mazalek; Glorianna Davenport; Hiroshi Ishii
    Over the centuries, stories have moved from the physical environment (around campfires and on the stage), to the printed page, then to movie, television and computer screens. Today, using wireless and tag sensing technologies, researchers and storytellers are able to bring digital stories back into our physical environment. The Tangible Viewpoints system explores how physical objects and augmented surfaces can be used as tangible embodiments of different character perspectives in an interactive tale. These graspable surrogates provide a direct mode of navigation to the story world, a means of bridging the gap between cyberspace and our physical environment as we engage with digital stories.
    Keywords: Tangible interface, interactive narrative, collaborative storytelling, physical interaction, multiple point-of-view
    How to win and loose beyond classifications BIBAK 406-407
      Riikka Pelo; Andrea Botero Cabrera; Ellen Kotanen; Heidi Tikka
    The Game of Imaginary Beings was an artistic outcome of the Cultural Usability-research project carried out at the Media Lab, University of Art and Design Helsinki, UIAH, during 2000 and 2001. The collaborative research focused on the questions of how the user is constructed in design of the interactive computer mediated environments and how the critical cross-disciplined theory and the design practice could be brought together. In this paper I am focusing on the question of how collaborative agency is constructed in The Game of Imaginary Beings as a work of interactive art. How the illusion of participation and agency, the role of the user as a designer, is created in the process of constructing an imaginary being and what kind of meanings the aesthetics of these interactive mirror-images suggest?
    Keywords: art as collaborative process, interactivity, aesthetics, agency, surrealism
    GIGANT -- an interactive, social and mobile game BIBAK 408-410
      Fredrik Ramsten; Janna Lindsjö
    The purpose of this project has been to design a mobile, interactive game where players physically move around in order to solve different assignments. Another essential goal was to create a game structure that didn't forced the player to act in pre-defined way; we wanted to draw a game that made it possible for free action choices and provide possibilities for the players to cooperate and develop strategies and interact face-to-face with each other.
    Keywords: Ubiquitous gaming, play, computer-supported collaborative play, Interaction design, artwork
    "Spinning of Computers" or the Art of Conversation BIBAK 411-414
      Antje Eske; Tatjana Beer
    As a part of the "Hamburger Datenkunstbewegung der 80er" (hamburgian data art movement of the eighties) we experimented in a playful way with computers and telecommunication systems to use them for human exchange. As a result we are now "Spinning at Computers", what means, having a playful "to and fro" between people in tangible and associative ways. This is an artistic process, created by the involved persons, an art without spectators. "Spinnen am Computer" (Spinning at Computers) is the name of a seminar at the Hochschule für bildende Künste in Hamburg, in which Prof. Antje Eske has been working for more than ten years to develop conversational Net.art. Conversational games or parlor games are based on the games played in the historical salons. Together with the art facilitator Tatjana Beer, she tested these games for use in intercultural communication in two Spinning seminars of the International Women's University, ifu. A playful "to and fro" as well as testing forms of social contact and expression means in our case using sound, color and short films or the possibility to express oneself by utilizing links, graphics and word processing. The conversational interchange happens via parlor games, IRCor swiki-chat, et al.
    Keywords: Art as a collaborative process, aesthetics, interactivity

    Workshops

    The Pea Project -- Design Stimulus BIBAK 415-417
      Daria Loi; Peter Burrows; Michael Coburn
    Can a simple green legume, an ordinary garden pea, open up the field of design? Can the humble pea help us to escape from 'defined methods' into another realm? Can we discover in the palm of our own hands something about ourselves and in turn change the way we see the world around us?
    Keywords: Reflective practice, creative thinking, phenomenological awareness, innovative teaching and learning practices, participative design studies
    Participatory Design of Information / Communication Infrastructures BIBA 418
      Andrew Clement
    This describes a two-part workshop on the participatory design of information/communications infrastructures. Participants are invited to share and reflect on their participatory design experiences in light of recurring issues of infrastructure development.
    Creating, sharing & using collections of PD procedures BIBA 419
      Bettina Törpel; Steffen Budweg
    The workshop is meant to serve for exchange about ideas for and experiences with collections of PD procedures.
  • Topics include the selection of relevant procedures, possible distribution channels and the interactive use and enhancement.
  • It is intended to use the results of the workshop as a basis for the design of a web-based interactive collection of PD procedures. We invite interested practitioners and researchers to participate in this process.
  • Working on sorting things in -- and out: Real-world complexity meets computer formalism BIBA 420
      Tone Bratteteig
    Information systems development makes use of a variety of methodologies for understanding work practices. Each of the methodologies emphasizes a particular set of work characteristics and thus results in one particular representation of the work. Many of the methodologies result in representations that make design easier, emphasizing formalizations and selection of aspects relevant to information systems developers. Members of the participatory design community claim that developers need to work with users in order to develop a rich picture of their work practices, and to preserve the many interests users may have in the information system. Systems development therefore should aim to design a variety of representations of work. Handling a multitude of interests may not make design easier or more straightforward, but the resulting information system will be better and better fit the work.
  • In this workshop we want to discuss the work that systems developers do in order to understand users' work practices. We want to discuss systems analysis as work on the relation between the rich complexity of somebody's work and the simplified, formal, machine-oriented specifications of a computer system (which results from systems development analysis).
  • Training the Bull In the China Shop -- or Outside? New Student Exercises for Participatory Design BIBA 421-423
      Ole Sejer Iversen; Jacob Buur; Ellen Christiansen; Arne Kjaer
    Organising collaboration is an important part of the participatory design competence. Most university programmes that teach participatory design rely on student design projects to establish this skill. Students try out methods by studying people at work in the local community and by involving them in design activities. But isn't this trying to train the bull in the china shop? Are there ways of providing students with hands-on experience in safe environments before they go out and try out their new social skills with 'real' people?
  • The aim of this workshop is to create an opportunity for teachers of participatory design to get peer review of design didactic issues concerning participatory design: How does one teach how to create collaborative participatory design sessions? Based on hands-on experience with selected student exercises we will seek to establish criteria for a repertoire of suitable exercises.
  • Interactive Spatial Design -- using Images to communicate Qualities BIBA 424-425
      Peter Fröst; Saddek Rehal
    Intended participants are researchers and practitioners interested in the problems of how to set up multi competence collaborative design environment within the architectural domain. How can you establish a common ground for dialogue and provide tools, which can help describe the qualities that you want to achieve? How can new digital tools be facilitated in these design environments?
    Symmetry of Ignorance and Informed Participation -- Analyzing the Synergy of Related, But Different Approaches to Participatory Design of three Research Centers BIBA 426-428
      Pelle Ehn; Yrjö Engeström; Jaakko Virkunen; Gerhard Fischer
    The workshop will explore the further broadening of the concept of participatory design beyond information system and digital technology design to collaborative work and collaborative learning. This will be done by describing, discussing, and contrasting the work of three major research centers. These researchers centers
  • share some common basic beliefs and objectives (e.g.
  • with regards to participation, learning, and democracy),
  • but they also have their own identity and focus (e.g.
  • with regards to work, technology, and art). The workshop will explore the synergy resulting from a comparison and integration of these different research perspectives and objectives.
  • Visual Construction BIBAK 429-431
      Mads Mommsen; Jesper Thomsen; Asger Østerb&aulig;k
    The idea behind Visual Construction, VC, is derived from a use of visual material in participatory design. The use of VC is a natural development of the qualitative user-centred design tradition. We wish to address the potential of visual anthropology within the boundaries of participatory design. Furthermore it is necessary with an explanation of the potential of the 'picture' -- hereby meaning the visual material we have worked with e.g. the photograph, stills, art and sketches. With a correct understanding and use of pictures, it can function as a building bridge between the designer and a user. The interpretation and use of different pictures facilitates a context-awareness that can help to minimize the gap between the user and the designer. The goal for VC is to extend the field of participatory design with a visual anthropological perspective and to introduce a use of the picture, that will extend cultural-awareness of the designer.
    Keywords: Visual Anthropology, cultural visualization, qualitative interviewing, visualization in design, cultural awareness
    E-voting for citizenship in the Information Society: experiences, technologies, strategies BIBAK 432-433
      Fiorella de Cindio; Peter van den Besselaar
    Recently, the interest for electronic voting has significantly increased: it is no longer a topic of interest for researchers and technologists only, but also media discuss, promote and criticize e-vote. In the framework of its Information Society Technology (IST) program, the European Commission has funded several projects which deal with electronic voting, mainly focusing on the technical and economical aspects. The aim of the workshop is to stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about important sociotechnical issues related to e-voting.
    Keywords: E-voting systems, citizenship, social choice
    A Pattern Language for Living Community: Deepening participation BIBAK 434-436
      Doug Schuler
    This workshop is directly tied into an ambitious, global, strongly participatory project organized by the Public Sphere Project (PSP) of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. The intent is to build a coherent and compelling "pattern language for living communication" which reflects the collective wisdom of a very loosely knit community of activists, researchers, policy-makers, and technologists worldwide currently engaged in a wide range of technological and social activities to develop a communication and information infrastructure that supports social and environmental amelioration by civic society. The objectives of the workshop are as follows: move pattern language forward (refine patterns and/or language; make process more participatory), get participatory design community involved in a long-term way on project, evaluate and critique the project so far, surface ideas for deeper and more effective participation in process, and add new patterns (especially related to participatory design) and insert more participation within the patterns themselves.
    Keywords: Pattern Language, participatory design, public sphere, knowledge structure
    Towards IT-support for shop floor working groups BIBAK 437-438
      Peter H. Carstensen; Kjell Schmidt
    Many manufacturing enterprises introduce various forms of flexible work organization on the shop floor. However, existing computer-based production planning and control systems pose severe obstacles for self-governing or autonomous working groups and other kinds of shop floor control to become reality. The intention of this workshop is generate discussions on how to support responsible self-governing groups of workers in their situated planning, management and coordination of the activities on the shop floor. Findings from field studies of self-governing working groups in six manufacturing companies are reported and will be used for initiating the discussions.
    Keywords: Shop floor work, self-governing groups, coordination, work planning and management, IT-support
    Designing Tangible User Interfaces to Support Participation BIBAK 439-441
      Hal Eden; Eva Hornecker; Lone Malmborg
    This workshop addresses design aspects of tangible user interfaces (TUIs). Particular focus is put on TUIs that support collaboration, and on how a participatory design process for such TUIs can be organized. The workshop will demonstrate examples of collaborative, tangible user interfaces, and allow participants for hand-on experiences with the examples. Further, participants at the workshop will discuss possibilities and experiences of using role plays during the design process for enhancing understanding of the system. Finally participants will discuss questions raised by the organizers in this proposal and by participant during the workshop or in positions statements.
    Keywords: Tangible user interfaces, collaborative interfaces, participatory design, role plays
    Social Formations of PD -- Living Archaeology BIBAK 442-443
      Sisse Finken; Katie Vann
    This workshop is organized to contextualize technology development movements like PD as contingent, sociopolitical formations, and to construct alternative questions to be asked of such technology development efforts.
    Keywords: History, technology development, dominant paths, reflexivity, contingency

    Tutorial

    Introduction to Participatory Design BIBA 444
      Annelie Ekelin; Pirjo Elovaara; Sara Eriksén
    This tutorial gives an introduction to Participatory Design (PD) for newcomers to the field. It will be held in the form of a combined seminar/workshop, offering participants a brief history of PD as well as hands-on experience of some of the methods used in PD practice. The instructors are researchers who have taught PD courses for graduate students as well as used PD methods in their own research projects for a number of years.