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PDC Tables of Contents: 020406081012-112-214-114-2

Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Participatory Design

Fullname:Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Participatory Design
Note:Expanding boundaries in Design
Editors:Gianni Jacucci; Finn Kensing
Location:Trento, Italy
Dates:2006-Aug-01 to 2006-Aug-05
Standard No:ISBN: 1-59593-460-X; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: PDC06
  1. Negotiating processes in PD
  2. Bodies and space
  3. Playful interactions in PD
  4. Whose knowledge counts
  5. Locating and re-locating PD

Negotiating processes in PD

Strings of experiments: looking at the design process as a set of socio-technical experiments BIBAKFull-Text 1-10
  Thomas Riisgaard Hansen
In this paper I show how the classical notion of an experiment can be used as a metaphor to describe and guide the design process. I present socio-technical experiments as a type of experiments that emphasis both the sociological and the technical part of a design. I argue that focusing on socio-technical experiments can greatly benefit in addressing three core identified challenges.
   The socio-technical challenge focus on how to design with a combined technical and social view, the multidisciplinary challenge is about how to structure design processes in multidisciplinary teams and the translating challenge addresses how to design for a context that is going to change with the introduction of the new design.
   Further more boundary zones are presented as an extension of the term boundary objects that address how different design representation are handed over and used between different professions within the design team.
Keywords: boundary zones, multidisciplinary collaboration, participatory design, socio-technical experiments, translating socio-technical network
A participatory design agenda for ubiquitous computing and multimodal interaction: a case study of dental practice BIBAKFull-Text 11-20
  Tim Cederman-Haysom; Margot Brereton
This paper reflects upon our attempts to bring a participatory design approach to design research into interfaces that better support dental practice. The project brought together design researchers, general and specialist dental practitioners, the CEO of a dental software company and, to a limited extent, dental patients. We explored the potential for deployment of speech and gesture technologies in the challenging and authentic context of dental practices. The paper describes the various motivations behind the project, the negotiation of access and the development of the participant relationships as seen from the researchers' perspectives. Conducting participatory design sessions with busy professionals demands preparation, improvisation, and clarity of purpose. The paper describes how we identified what went well and when to shift tactics. The contribution of the paper is in its description of what we learned in bringing participatory design principles to a project that spanned technical research interests, commercial objectives and placing demands upon the time of skilled professionals.
Keywords: busy professionals, gesture recognition, interaction design, multimodal interfaces, participatory design, speech recognition, ubiquitous computing, user-centred design
Towards formalised end-user participation in information systems development process: bridging the gap between participatory design and ISD methodologies BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Samuli Pekkola; Niina Kaarilahti; Pasi Pohjola
Creating requirements specifications is one of the most challenging tasks in the systems development. For a complete specification, different kinds of information are gathered. This includes information about the domain and context specific technical issues, and about multifaceted cultural, political, communicational, motivational, and personal issues. As there is no information systems development (ISD) method that would yield such information comprehensively, it could be achieved by user-oriented approaches, for instance by participatory design (PD). Reciprocally, unfortunately those do not provide detailed instructions for the systems development. In this paper, we will present our experiences from two research projects where user participation was emphasised in the ISD process. We argue that a multi-methodological ISD approach that utilises prototyping and a set of different communication means for gathering and elucidating requirements in a workplace would produce better systems from the end-users point of view. Further, these experiences can be used when developing a formalised user-oriented ISD method.
Keywords: CSCW, ISD methods, end-users, information systems development, participatory design

Bodies and space

Designing an immersive environment for public use BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Toni Robertson; Tim Mansfield; Lian Loke
Bystander is a multi-user, immersive, interactive environment intended for public display in a museum or art gallery. It is designed to make available heritage collections in novel and culturally responsible ways. We use its development as a case study to examine the role played in that process by a range of tools and techniques from participatory design traditions. We describe how different tools were used within the design process, specifically: the ways in which the potential audience members were both included and represented; the prototypes that have been constructed as a way of envisioning how the final work might be experienced; and how these tools have been brought together in ongoing designing and evaluation. We close the paper with some reflections on the extension of participatory commitments into still-emerging areas of technology design that prioritise the design of spaces for human experience and reflective interaction.
Keywords: design case study, design processes, interactive art, multi-disciplinary design teams, museum displays, personas, prototyping, scenarios, script enactment
Embodying design: the lived relationship between artefact, user and the lived experience of design BIBAKFull-Text 41-46
  Laurene Vaughan
This paper will discuss through a discussion of fashion product, what it is to inhabit design. Drawing on a broad body of literature and the reflective practice of making this paper proposes that the lived relationship between user and object is an evolving participatory act that is both temporal and located. The intimate relationship between wearer and clothing will be the focus of the discussion, and it is hoped that colleagues from a broader range of design fields will connect to the ideas as they relate to your fields of expertise and design outcomes.
Keywords: design, fashion, habitation, space
UbiComp in opportunity spaces: challenges for participatory design BIBAKFull-Text 47-56
  Eva Hornecker; John Halloran; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Mark Weal; David Millard; Danius Michaelides; Don Cruickshank; David De Roure
The rise of ubiquitous computing (UbiComp), where pervasive, wireless and disappearing technologies offer hitherto unavailable means of supporting activity, increasingly opens up 'opportunity spaces'. These are spaces where there is no urgent problem to be solved, but much potential to augment and enhance practice in new ways. Based on our experience of co-designing novel user experiences for visitors to an English country estate, we discuss challenges for PD in such an opportunity space. Key amongst these are how to build a working relationship of value when there are no urgent requirements; how to understand and scope the space of opportunities; and how to leave users with new resources of value to them.
Keywords: case study, participatory design, ubiquitous computing

Playful interactions in PD

Designing exploratory design games: a framework for participation in Participatory Design? BIBAKFull-Text 57-66
  Eva Brandt
The dogma of Participatory Design is the direct involvement of people in the shaping of future artefacts. Thus central for designers within this field are the staging of a design process involving participation of people. Organising collaboration between people having various competencies and interests is challenging and therefore designers need frameworks, which can accommodate this work. This paper discusses the use of exploratory design games to organise participation in participatory design projects. Examples of different exploratory design games as sources of inspiration are presented. Through a comparison of different exploratory design games the paper sheds light on the repertoire of possibilities for designers to be aware of when creating their own exploratory design games.
Keywords: designing exploratory design games, framework, game pieces, participation, participatory design processes, rules
Make it so! Jean-Luc Picard, Bart Simpson and the design of e-public services BIBAKFull-Text 67-76
  Andy Dearden; Angela Lauener; Frances Slack; Chris Roast; Steve Cassidy
In this paper, we report on a project applying participatory design methods to include people who have experience of social exclusion (in one form or another) in designing possible technologies for e-(local)-government services. The work was part of a project for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister in the UK, and was concerned with 'access tokens' that can provide personal identification for individuals accessing public services, based on technologies such as multi-functional smartcards, flash memory sticks, mobile phone SIMs or similar devices.
   In particular we report on our experience using the 'pastiche scenarios' technique recently developed by Mark Blythe. Our findings indicate that the technique can be effective and engaging in helping people to create realistic scenarios of future technology use and highlight some possible pitfalls to consider when using this technique.
Keywords: DATES project, e-government, pastiche scenarios, smartcards
The design game in participatory design and design education: chances, risks and side effects BIBAKFull-Text 77-86
  Bettina Törpel
In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used in a way that will be labeled as «interested», rather than in a way labeled as «taking for granted». It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction.
Keywords: design game, forms of work and organization, organizational design game, relations of power, socio-technical textures

Whose knowledge counts

Participatory IT-support BIBAKFull-Text 87-94
  Anne Marie Kanstrup; Pernille Bertelsen
Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support, here coined 'participatory IT-support'. The paper presents characteristics of participatory IT-support and suggests a method for identifying qualified candidates for the support position in organizations.
Keywords: IT in organizations, e-learning, electronic health record, participatory IT-support, participatory design, snowballing
Participation, power, critique: constructing a standard for electronic patient records BIBAKFull-Text 95-104
  Claus Bossen
This paper examines the scope of participatory design on the basis of the case of a national standard for electronic patient records (EPR) in Denmark. The relationship between participatory methods and techniques on the one hand and critical and emancipatory aims on the other is discussed within the framework of participatory design. Some argue that participation in itself entails striving towards democracy; others argue that the tendency to focus upon tools, techniques and the arena of single projects should be supplemented by emancipatory aims such as technology assessment and a critique of dominance. These issues are discussed through the controversies surrounding the test of a prototype application based on BEHR in late 2004, a standard for EPRs (Basic Structure for Electronic Health Records). I argue that participation is valuable, but that the scope of participatory design should also include critical conceptualizations of participation, power, methodology and knowledge. Finally, standards can be crucial cases to examine for participatory design, since they affect the work of many people and call for a focus on arenas beyond the single design project.
Keywords: electronic patient records, knowledge, participatory design, power, standards
Whose participation? whose knowledge?: exploring PD in Tanzania-Zanzibar and Sweden BIBAKFull-Text 105-114
  Pirjo Elovaara; Faraja Teddy Igira; Christina Mörtberg
In this paper we discuss two Participatory Design (PD) projects, one in Tanzania-Zanzibar and the other one in Sweden. In both countries the design process was done through the analysis of work practices involving both designers and users. The discussion focuses on a number of factors such as location, time and scene. We also ask how different projects can be that it is still possible to talk about PD as an overall participation and design approach. If PD is not a singular, definite, closed and fixed approach on the explicit layers, so how do these projects relate to each other when focusing on methods embracing the ambiguities of participation? The paper ends with a discussion of differences and similarities considering participation in the projects.
Keywords: Sweden, Tanzania-Zanzibar, ambiguity, differences, methods, participation, work practices

Locating and re-locating PD

Oppositional and activist new media: remediation, reconfiguration, participation BIBAKFull-Text 115-124
  Leah A. Lievrouw
Over the last decade, the major firms and cultural institutions that have dominated media and information industries in the U.S. and globally have been challenged by people adopting new technologies to intervene and participate in mainstream media culture. In this paper key genres and features of oppositional and activist new media are described and cases are presented, and their implications for participatory design are briefly outlined.
Keywords: access, activism, alternative media, digital arts, hacktivism, indymedia, intellectual property, internet, new media, policy, social movements, social networks
The South Asian web: an emerging community information system in the South Asian diaspora BIBAKFull-Text 125-133
  Ramesh Srinivasan; Katie Shilton
How can principles of participatory design help generate a community information system to serve the South Asian diasporic community of Los Angeles? While participatory design has taken root in the development of information systems for online communities, it has rarely been applied to systems that explore and enhance communication within diasporic communities. We seek to apply principles of participatory design in the creation of a digital media system designed to augment the interaction and cultural communication of the South Asian diaspora in Los Angeles. By integrating diverse community contributions according to community-created ontologies, we will build 'The South Asian Web': a living representation and an interactive means of articulating narratives, future visions, and community goals.
Keywords: communities, diaspora, ethnography, everyday practices, information system, ontologies, social networks
Inside the belly of the beast: the challenges and successes of a reformist participatory agenda BIBAKFull-Text 134-143
  Ellen Balka
Shapiro [38] recently argued that participatory design practitioners should consider pursuing a reformist agenda through engagement with the procurement and development of systems in the public sector. This paper considers the challenges, contradictions and possible arenas for success in the context of a reformist participatory design agenda [38], by reflecting on recent work undertaken from a stance similar to that advocated by Shapiro [38] in a public sector agency. The intention of the paper is to stimulate and extend discussion about arenas in which the political goals that characterized participatory design in its early days can be pursued, and extend discussions about the role of politics in contemporary participatory design [14].
Keywords: challenges, participatory design, politics, public sector, terms of engagement