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ICEC Tables of Contents: 040506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Entertainment Computing

Fullname:ICEC 2004: Third International Conference on Entertainment Computing
Editors:Matthias Rauterberg
Location:Eindhoven, Netherlands
Dates:2004-Sep-01 to 2004-Sep-03
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3166
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/b99837 hcibib: ICEC04; ISBN: 978-3-540-22947-6 (print), 978-3-540-28643-1 (online)
Papers:82
Pages:617
Links:Online Proceedings
Ludic Engagement and Immersion as a Generic Paradigm for Human-Computer Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 3-13
  Craig A. Lindley
Ludic systems are interactive media productions typically generalised under the heading of computer games, but actually integrating elements of game play, simulation or modeling, and narrative. The success of ludic systems lies in their highly effective modes of player engagement and immersion. Game play, simulation and narrative have their own respective forms of engagement and immersion that have often been overlooked in the development of models for human-computer interaction. As game systems become more ubiquitous, technical platforms will evolve to support more game-like interaction in general. This will facilitate the development of many applications having ludic engagement and immersion modes that dissolve some of the distinctions between work and play, providing the potential for alleviating tedium in many computer-based work tasks.
Realization of Tai-Chi Motion Using a Humanoid Robot BIBAFull-Text 14-19
  Takenori Wama; Masayuki Higuchi; Hajime Sakamoto; Ryohei Nakatsu
Even though in recent years research and development of humanoid robots has increased, the major topics of research generally focus on how to make a robot perform specific motions such as walking. However, walking is only one of the complicated motions humans can perform. For robots to play an active role in society as our partner, they must be able to simulate precisely various kinds of human actions. We chose tai-chi as an example of complicated human actions and succeeded in programming a robot to perform the 24 fundamental tai-chi actions.
Building Better Systems for Learning and Training: Bringing the Entertainment Industry and Simulation Technology Together BIBAFull-Text 20
  William R. Swartout
In 1999, at the University of Southern California the Institute for Creative Technologies (ICT) was established. The ICT was intended to explore a question: what would happen if researchers who understood the technology of simulation and virtual reality worked in close collaboration with people from the entertainment industry who understood how to create compelling stories and engaging characters? What synergies would emerge? Would it be possible to create much more immersive simulation systems for training and learning? In the brief period since the opening of the ICT, we are starting to see the answers to these questions and understand the promise of this approach. In this keynote talk, I will describe some of the insights that have emerged from this collaboration, the major research efforts we have undertaken in areas such as graphics, artificial intelligence and sound, and the integrating virtual reality applications we have produced in areas such as training and leadership development.
Game Intelligence: From Animal Play Behavior to Entertainment Computing BIBAFull-Text 21
  Marion Bönsch-Kauke
Playing a game, cooperative, competitive or mixed motive, keeps our attention; good vibrations and a sense of humor 'arouse' interests; desire leads to approach (AIDA): this entertains you. This remark is only true if the state of the art of entertainment computing must be taken into consideration when developing present and future activities in play, gamble or game to achieve real "playing" from a psychological point of view. Profound, extended and long-lasting scientific studies from animal play behavior to progress in culture of mankind have investigated childhood, adolescence and late adulthood up to simulations in cyberspace century. The results of these studies show clearly that game behavior can be described in at least five stages: 1. Relaxed field; 2. Quasi-experimental operating; 3. Imitating and imagining a "make-believe" world; 4. Selection of regularities; 5. Fairness (respect for the rules: moral and responsibility). The peak or crown of game behavior is called "Game Intelligence". The social-psychological facts of entertainment computing must be taken into consideration when developing present and future inventions.
Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Helping Behavior, Aggressive Thoughts, Angry Feelings, and Physiological Arousal BIBAFull-Text 22
  Brad Bushman
Meta-analytic procedures were used to review the results from 85 studies on violent video game effects. Violent video games increase aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, and arousal levels, and decrease helpful behaviors. The effects occurred for both children and adults and for both males and females. The more violent the video game, the stronger the effects. Violent video game effects are also increasing over time.
New Behavioural Approaches for Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 23-31
  Marc Cavazza; Simon Hartley; Jean-Luc Lugrin; Paolo Libardi; Mikael Le Bras
We describe a new approach to the behaviour of 3D environments that supports the definition of physical processes and interactive phenomena. The work takes as a starting point the traditional event-based architecture that underlies most game engines. These systems discretise the environments' Physics by separating the objects' kinematics from the physical processes corresponding to objects interactions. This property has been used to insert a new behavioural layer, which implements AI-based simulation techniques. We introduce the rationale behind AI-based simulation and the techniques we use for qualitative Physics, as well as a new approach to world behaviour based on the induction of causal impressions. This is illustrated through several examples on a test environment. This approach has implications for the definition of complex world behaviour or non-standard physics, as required in creative applications.
"Kuru-kuru Pitcher": A Game for the Schaire Internet Chair BIBAKFull-Text 35-45
  Kazuya Adachi; Michael Cohen; Uresh Duminduwardena; Kayoko Kanno
We have developed second-generation prototypes of the Internet Chair, a novel internet appliance. The first generation explored using the chair as an input device; "Schaire," the prototype described here is a pivot (swivel rotating) chair deployed as an output device a rotary motion-platform information appliance. Its haptic display modality is yaw dynamically synchronized with wireless visual displays spatial audio in a rotation-invariant virtual space. In groupware situations -- like teleconferencing chat spaces or multiplayer gaming -- such orientation is also used to twist iconic representations of a seated user avatars in a virtual world enabling social situation awareness. Using its audio display modality transaural speakers (without crosstalk) "nearphones" embedded in the seat headrest the system can present unencumbered binaural sound with soundscape stabilization for multichannel sound image localization. As a haptic output modality chairs with servomotors render kinesthetic and proprioceptive cues twisting under networked control to direct the attention of a seated subject orienting seated users like a "dark ride" amusement park attraction or under active user control local and/or distributed. The Schaire, manifesting as personal LBE (location-based entertainment) can be used in both stand-alone networked applications. We have developed a multiplayer game that exploits some unique features of our networked rotary motion-platform loosely resembling a disk/disc access driver in which "spindled" players race to acquire circularly arrayed dynamically arriving targets.
Keywords: (augmented and enhanced and hybrid and mediated and mixed) and reality/virtuality; haptic interface; information furniture; location-based entertainment (LBE); motion platform; networked appliance; soundscape stabilization
Fun and Sports: Enhancing the Home Fitness Experience BIBAFull-Text 46-56
  Wijnand IJsselsteijn; Yvonne de Kort; Joyce Westerink; Marko de Jager; Ronald Bonants
The current paper describes research that is aimed to elucidate our understanding of technology factors that may help users of home exercise equipment to stay motivated for doing regular work-outs. In particular, we investigated the effects of immersion and coaching by a virtual agent on intrinsic motivation and the sense of presence of participants cycling on a stationary home exercise bike. A basic two-by-two within-subjects experimental design was employed whereby participants were presented with a virtual racetrack with two levels of immersion (high vs. low) and two levels of a virtual coach (with vs. without). Results indicate a clear positive effect of immersion on both motivation and presence. The virtual coach significantly lowered the perceived control and pressure/tension dimensions of intrinsic motivation, but did not affect the enjoyment dimension. The presence of the virtual coach also reduced negative effects associated with VEs.
Manipulating Multimedia Contents with Tangible Media Control System BIBAFull-Text 57-67
  Sejin Oh; Woontack Woo
We propose Tangible Media Control System (TMCS), which allows users to manipulate media contents with physical objects in an intuitive way. Currently, most people access digital media contents by exploiting GUI. However, it provides limited manipulations of the media contents. The proposed system, instead of mouse and keyboard, adopts two types of tangible objects, i.e. RFID-enabled object and tracker-embedded object. The TMCS enables users to easily access and control digital media contents with the tangible objects. In addition, it supports an interactive media controller which can be used to synthesize media contents and generate new media contents according to users' taste. It also offers personalized contents, which is suitable for users' preferences, by exploiting context such as a user's profile and situational information. Accordingly, the TMCS demonstrates that a tangible interface with context can provide more effective interface to fulfill users' satisfaction. Therefore, the proposed system can be applied to various interactive applications such as multimedia education, entertainment and multimedia editor.
"Tangible Influence": Towards a New Interaction Paradigm for Computer Games BIBAFull-Text 68-79
  Marco Vala; Ana Paiva; Rui Prada
As AI techniques become more widespread in computer games, and the area of synthetic characters matures, avatars in such computer games also tend to gain autonomy and become more clever. However, this autonomy may bring also some change in the interaction between users and game characters. Players may become less in charge of their characters and lose the power of complete motion or behavior control. On the other hand, characters may become more clever exhibiting much more interesting autonomous actions and behaviors. This paper presents, defines and discusses the concept of "influence", as an alternative to "direct" control of game characters, describing how influence can be achieved in computer games. To illustrate the notion of "influence" we will present a game called FantasyA where players interact with it by influencing the emotions of they semi-autonomous avatars using a tangible interface called SenToy. We show how "influence" was built into this game, the role of SenToy as an influencing device, and the reactions of the users to this type of control.
Computer Supported Collaborative Sports: Creating Social Spaces Filled with Sports Activities BIBAFull-Text 80-89
  Volker Wulf; Eckehard F. Moritz; Christian Henneke; Kanan Al-Zubaidi; Gunnar Stevens
We present the newly emerging research field of Computer Supported Collaborative Sports (CSCS). By applying innovative input and output technologies, it enables players to experience sportive activities in a shared computerized environment. Important dimensions in the design space of CSCS applications are discussed. Finally we present the FlyGuy, a prototypical realization of a CSCS device.
Optical-Flow-Driven Gadgets for Gaming User Interface BIBAFull-Text 90-100
  Zoran Zivkovic
We describe how to build a VIDEOPLACE-like vision-driven user interface using "optical-flow" measurements. The optical-flow denotes the estimated movement of an image patch between two consecutive frames from a video sequence. Similar framework is used in a number of commercial vision-driven interactive computer games but the motion of the users is detected by examining the difference between two consecutive frames. The optical-flow presents a natural extension. We show here how the optical-flow can be used to provide much richer interaction.
The Human-Information Workspace (HI-Space): Ambient Table Top Entertainment BIBAFull-Text 101-107
  Andrew J. Cowell; Richard May; Nick Cramer
This paper introduces the Human Information Workspace (HI-Space) as a test-bed for evaluating new information exploration mechanisms. In moving from dated interaction devices and small computer monitors, we aim to utilize more natural surfaces such as tables and walls as our interaction space. In testing our theories, we have produced a number of gaming applications as test cases. Here, we report on our most popular application, Virtual Hockey.
Game-Driven Intelligent Tutoring Systems BIBAFull-Text 108-113
  Marco A. Gómez-Martín; Pedro P. Gómez-Martín; Pedro A. González-Calero
With the increase of computer capabilities, many learning systems have become complex simulators with advanced interfaces close to game quality. However, many games features have not been added to them. This paper focus on this area, listing what games can provide to simulation-driven tutoring systems. We also describe JV2M as an example of a game-driven intelligent tutoring system to teach the compilation process of Java programs.
Practice! YUBIMOJI AIUEO for Japanese Hand Language Learning BIBAKFull-Text 114-119
  Takao Terano; Fusako Kusunoki; Yasushi Harada; Miki Namatame
In paper, we describe a PC-based Japanese hand alphabet learning system: Practice! Yubimoji AIUEO (PYA) to let ordinary elementary school pupils learn basic character expressions (AIUEO) of the Japanese hand characters (Yubimoji). PYA is a very simple system both from technical and educational points of view. Experiments in an elementary school shows that pupils have really enjoyed the system and learning, thus, we believe PYA is effective as an edutainment tool.
Keywords: Visual Interface; Edutainment for Elementary School Pupils; Learning Hand Characters; Classroom Experiments
The Bush Telegraph: Networked Cooperative Music-Making BIBAFull-Text 120-123
  Rodney Berry; Mao Makino; Naoto Hikawa; Masami Suzuki
The Bush Telegraph is based on the Music Table, a system that allows people to make music by arranging cards on a table. Because the user manipulates a schedule for note events rather than directly initiating them, this schedule can be shared between two remotely linked systems. The Bush Telegraph allows remote players to play together without timing problems due to network delays. Shared music making is made very easy but still allowing for creative freedom. We see this type of system becoming a fixture in dance club environments.
Live Role-Playing Games: Implications for Pervasive Gaming BIBAFull-Text 127-138
  Jennica Falk; Glorianna Davenport
Live role-playing (LRP) games stand as powerful metaphorical models for the various digital and ubiquitous forms of entertainment that gather under the term pervasive games. Offering what can be regarded as the holy grail of interactive entertainment -- the fully immersive experience -- LRP games provide a tangible and distributed interface to a gaming activity that is emergent, improvised, collaboratively and socially created, and have the immediacy of personal experience. Supported by studies of LRP games, specifically aspects of costume, set design and props, we outline the interface culture specific to LRP and in which ways this culture may inform the design of pervasive games.
Animating Conversation in Online Games BIBAFull-Text 139-150
  Hannes Högni Vilhjálmsson
When players in online games engage in conversation with each other, often through a chat window, their graphical avatars typically do not exhibit interesting behavior. This paper proposes using a model of face-to-face communication to automatically generate realistic nonverbal behavior in the avatars based on what is going on in the conversation. It describes Spark, a flexible XML based architecture that makes this possible and reports on a user study that shows how such avatars could significantly improve online conversations.
From Artistry to Automation: A Structured Methodology for Procedural Content Creation BIBAFull-Text 151-156
  Timothy Roden; Ian Parberry
Procedural techniques will soon automate many aspects of content creation for computer games. We describe an efficient, deterministic, methodology for procedurally generating 3D game content of arbitrary size and complexity. The technique progressively amplifies simple dynamically generated data structures into complex geometry. We use a procedural pipeline with a minimum set of controls at each stage to facilitate authoring. We show two examples from our research. Our terrain generator can synthesize massive 3D terrains in real-time while our level generator can be used to create indoor environments offline or in real-time.
Commedia Virtuale: Theatre Inspiration for Expressive Avatars BIBAFull-Text 157-162
  Ben Salem
We are investigating face, hand and body expressions to be applied to avatars to improve their communication capabilities and enrich and facilitate their perception by users of a virtual environment. We support the idea that avatars have to be designed in such a way as to express state of mind, mood and emotions that are easily understood. We report on our work based on obtaining inspiration from the world of theatre. In this perspective Commedia dell'Arte and Noh theatre have been the focus of our attention. The outcome of this work is a visual language for avatars made up of postures, gestures and appearances.
Take the Money and Run? An Ethical Approach to the Relation Between Game Research and Game Industry BIBAFull-Text 163-167
  Miguel Sicart
This article tries to give some light to the ethical issues concerning the relationship of research and industry in the field of computer game research. No conclusive answers are reached. The ethical issues addressed here concerned basically the independence of academic institutions as a key feature for the quality of research. While the most common ethical approach, consequentialism, seems not to provide meaningful answers to this questions, a deontological approach seems to be a possible option. Nevertheless, much is yet to be done. Perhaps the most important conclusion of this paper is the relevance of independence for the well developing of the discipline.
Moved by Movements: How Character Movements Cue Us to Form Specific Genre and Affective Impressions BIBAFull-Text 168-171
  Valentijn Visch
When we see a feature film scene, it is usually not very hard to tell to which genre the film might belong. Our research focuses on the role of bodily movements of actors in the genre recognition process. We aim to identify by means of empirical experiments using 3-D animated scenes, which parameters of bodily movements -- and which configurations of these -- are responsible for what generic and affective viewer impression. The following set of parameters is varied in an animated and abstracted "running chase" scene: velocity, efficiency, fluency, detail and body proportion. As the experiment is running at this moment of writing, the results shall be presented during the conference.
Improvisation in Theatre Rehearsals for Synthetic Actors BIBAFull-Text 172-175
  Tony Meyer; Chris Messom
Although the use of computers to create otherwise impossible characters has long been a staple of film, corresponding use in live stage performance is uncommon, and such characters have typically been only electronic puppets. Improvisation is an essential part of rehearsals for a live stage (scripted) performance, providing development of character and plot; in addition, the rehearsal process provides a training ground for the actors involved with the performance. The author aims to develop synthetic characters capable of taking full part in this process. Initial experiments (dynamically adding an affect component to scripted speech, and evolving variations of movement) have been promising, and form the beginnings of the larger system, which will autonomously build up a model of the character that the synthetic actor is portraying, with the aim of presenting continually improved performances.
Enjoyment and Entertainment in East and West BIBAFull-Text 176-181
  Matthias Rauterberg
From a users' perspective entertainment is based on enjoyment in using these products or services. How and which cultural differences between eastern and western cultures are influencing enjoyment and the design of entertainment technology is described in this paper. In particular the underlying religious structures are discussed and compared.
Interactive Props and Choreography Planning with the Mixed Reality Stage BIBAFull-Text 185-192
  Wolfgang Broll; Stefan Grünvogel; Iris Herbst; Irma Lindt; Martin Maercker Jan Ohlenburg; Michael Wittkämper
This paper introduces-the Mixed Reality Stage-an interactive Mixed Reality environment for collaborative planning of stage shows and events. The Mixed Reality Stage combines the presence of reality with the flexibility of virtuality to form an intuitive and efficient planning tool. The planning environment is based on a physical miniature stage enriched with computer-generated props and characters. Users may load virtual models from a Virtual Menu, arrange those using Tangible Units or employ more sophisticated functionality in the form of special Tools. A major feature of the Mixed Reality stage is the planning of choreographies for virtual characters. Animation paths may be recorded and walking styles may be defined in a straightforward way. The planning results are recorded and may be played back at any time. User tests have been conducted that demonstrate the viability of the Mixed Reality Stage.
The Interactive and Multi-protagonist Film: A Hypermovie on DVD BIBAFull-Text 193-203
  André Melzer; Sebastian Hasse; Oliver Jeskulke; Inga Schön; Michael Herczeg
The interactive and multi-protagonist (IMP) film is a novel concept that extends the hypermovie genre. The IMP film is based on the common structures of linear narrative storytelling and provides the viewer with various decision points within the evolving story that support an active choice among different protagonists' views. The viewer will thus be elevated to the role of a decision maker. They individually and actively determine the story flow. The IMP film substantially extends the currently offered interactivity of DVDs which is primarily limited to navigation. The production process of an IMP film will be illustrated by presenting Deine Wahrheit (Your Truth), a DVD-based movie. The results of an empirical study support the advantages of the IMP film compared to a traditional single-protagonist version of the film. The potential of the IMP film as a new genre in hypermovie will be discussed.
Apply Social Network Analysis and Data Mining to Dynamic Task Synthesis for Persistent MMORPG Virtual World BIBAFull-Text 204-215
  Larry Shi; Weiyun Huang
This paper describes a new scheme for designing MMORPG virtualworld that assigns dynamically synthesized tasks and scripts to avatars in a MMORPG. Different from most current MMORPGs, the new scheme tries to bridge the gap between a real social world with a virtual RPG social world by introducing social relationship, social structure, and avatar personality into the game play. Adaptation of social network analysis to MMORPG virtual world design is also discussed. The objective is to increase a game's long term appeal to players. Moreover, the paper also proposes a method to use data mining technique for intelligently selecting dynamically synthesized tasks so that the tasks will be most likely interesting to the players. The paper represents an endeavor to forge a common research ground for virtual world game design, social network analysis, artificial intelligence, and traditional data mining research.
How Realistic is Realism? Considerations on the Aesthetics of Computer Games BIBAFull-Text 216-225
  Richard Wages; Stefan M. Grünvogel; Benno Grützmacher
One of the major goals in the development of virtual environments in recent years has been to create more and more realistic scenery, characters and natural human forms of interaction with the environment. We question this approach especially for the domain of computer games for two main reasons. Firstly we argue the following: When the absolute difference between reality and virtual environments decreases one would expect the latter to become increasingly believable for a spectator. Paradoxically often the opposite is true since the attention of the spectator gets drawn to the remaining differences to a greater extent. Secondly we ask ourselves why of all things computer games which are created for entertainment should be limited with real world constraints and are not used to experience features that are only possible in virtual environments. We conclude with a 'manifesto' for the renovation of computer games.
Read-It: A Multi-modal Tangible Interface for Children Who Learn to Read BIBAFull-Text 226-234
  Ivo Weevers; Wouter Sluis; Claudia van Schijndel; Siska Fitrianie; Lyuba Kolos-Mazuryk; Jean-Bernard Martens
Multi-modal tabletop applications offer excellent opportunities for enriching the education of young children. Read-It is an example of an interactive game with a multi-modal tangible interface that was designed to combine the advantages of current physical games and computer exercises. It is a novel approach for supporting children who learn to read. The first experimental evaluation has demonstrated that the Read-It approach is indeed promising and meets a priori expectations.
Exploiting Films and Multiple Subtitles Interaction for Casual Foreign Language Learning in the Living Room BIBAFull-Text 235-240
  Victor Bayon
Films at the cinema, at home or on the computer screen are a fundamental part of today's entertainment culture. The careful listening and watching of foreign films with or without subtitles is often used as an aid for the learning of foreign languages. This paper presents the ongoing development of an entertainment/learning computer based DVD subsystem for the home environment that has been extended with the aim of further enabling the learning of foreign languages while watching films. By providing a "DualSubsView" of subtitles of 2 languages (native and foreign) as the film plays, users can become more familiar with the vocabulary of the foreign language that they want to learn. With this approach, vocabulary in a foreign language is presented as extra information embedded into the film and learners can exploit the information directly or indirectly for entertainment and for learning. Potential users of the system were involved in the initial design stages and in the informal evaluation process of the initial prototypes.
CLOVES: A Virtual World Builder for Constructing Virtual Environments for Science Inquiry Learning BIBAKFull-Text 241-247
  Yongjoo Cho; Kyoung Shin Park; Thomas Moher; Andrew E. Johnson; Juno Chang; Min Cheol Whang; Joa Sang Lim; Dae-Woong Rhee; Kang Ryoung Park; Hung Kook Park
This paper presents the motivation, design, and a preliminary evaluation of a virtual world builder, CLOVES. CLOVES is designed to support rapid construction of data-rich virtual environments and instruments for young children's science inquiry learning. It provides a layered programming interface such as a visual design environment, scripting layer, and low-level application programming interface targeting for multiple levels of programming expertise. It is also intended to be a collaborative medium among interdisciplinary domain experts such as educators, modelers and software developers. A case study was conducted to evaluate the capabilities and effectiveness of CLOVES. The results showed that designers actively participated in decision making at every stage of the design process and shared knowledge among one another.
Keywords: Interactive learning; virtual reality environment
SEITV -- Interactive Multimedia Leisure/Educational Services for Digital TV in MHP BIBAFull-Text 248-253
  Julián Flórez; Igor García; Iker Aizpurua; Céline Paloc; Alejandro Ugarte; Igor Jainaga; Jesús Colet; Xabier Zubiaur
Interactive TV is expected to revolutionize the TV market, providing a host of new services to the consumer homes. While being theoretically a promising technology, the design and implementation of interactive TV platforms are bringing new challenges to the IT society, due to the fundamental differences between TV sets and PCs environments. The SEITV project is presented in this paper, where a set of design considerations for interactive digital TV have been analyzed and applied to the creation of interactive services for entertainment and education.
Tangible Augmented Reality Modeling BIBAFull-Text 254-259
  Ja Yong Park; Jong Weon Lee
A Tangible Augmented Reality Modeling (TARM) system is a novel modeling system that uses Augmented Reality (AR) and Tangible User Interface (TUI). The TARM system provides users a unique interactive approach to create 3D models. AR and TUI are applied to mimic real-life interactions. A user creates models by manipulating physical blocks. The patterns in the real environment are captured and applied to models in real time to enhance reality. The system also provides a real pen to draw curves or surfaces directly on models. Using these approaches, the TARM system provides users natural ways to create models and allows novice users to create models easily and quickly with little practice.
Human Body Tracking for Human Computer Intelligent Interaction BIBAFull-Text 260-265
  Jong-Seung Park; Sang-Rak Lee
For interactive mixed reality applications, a novel human body detection and tracking method is presented. The method automatically detects moving body regions and tracks them continuously until they disappear from the camera field of view. Two main cues, skin color and motion, are used to track visual attentions. The method can be used for applications of the attention based human-computer interfaces where attentions are mostly focused on human body parts. In our experiments, the method provided correct results whenever at least a patch of moving body parts was disclosed with skin color.
A Graphical System for Interactive Rendering of Objects in an Augmented Reality Scenery BIBAFull-Text 266-269
  Uwe Berner; Norbert Braun; Sofia Kolebinova
We describe the rendering functions of the Augmented Reality System GEIST. GEIST is a 3D based narrative education system, an installation at the castle of Heidelberg, Germany, based on digital storytelling, GPS localization and interactive rendering. The rendering is interactive, as it is driven by user interaction, e.g. GPS position, head movement and line of sight as well as direct interaction (yes/no to questions of Virtual Characters).
TEAM: The Team-Oriented Evolutionary Adaptability Mechanism BIBAFull-Text 273-282
  Sander Bakkes; Pieter Spronck; Eric Postma
Many commercial computer games allow a team of players to match their skills against another team, controlled by humans or by the computer. Most players prefer human opponents, since the artificial intelligence of a computer-controlled team is in general inferior. An adaptive mechanism for team-oriented artificial intelligence would allow computer-controlled opponents to adapt to human player behaviour, thereby providing a means of dealing with weaknesses in the game AI. Current commercial computer games lack challenging adaptive mechanisms. This paper proposes "TEAM", a novel team-oriented adaptive mechanism which is inspired by evolutionary algorithms. The performance of TEAM is evaluated in an experiment involving an actual commercial computer game (the Capture The Flag team-based game mode of the popular commercial computer game Quake III). The experimental results indicate that TEAM succeeds in endowing computer-controlled opponents with successful adaptive performance. We therefore conclude that TEAM can be successfully applied to generate challenging adaptive opponent behaviour in team-oriented commercial computer games.
Size Variation and Flow Experience of Physical Game Support Objects BIBAFull-Text 283-295
  Loe Feijs; Peter Peters; Berry Eggen
This paper is about designing and evaluating an innovative type of computer game. Game support objects are used to enrich the gaming experience [7]. The added objects are active but are simpler than real robots. In the study reported here they are four helper ghosts connected to a traditional Pacman game. In earlier projects we already found that children consider such type of additions attractive. We also found that the computer screen tends to draw the user's attention away from the support objects; therefore, the new set-up described here was designed to facilitate simultaneous screen and object-based interactions. The object interaction is essential for playing the game and not just an add-on. In order to develop a better understanding of this type of interaction and thus create future games more systematically, we did a formal user test in which we systematically varied one parameter. Three different versions of the system have been built and tested; they differ in the size of the ghosts (42cm, 15cm, 6cm high). We report on the playability of the new game, the embodiment of the interaction, the degree of flow that could be achieved and the effect of the size of the game support objects on both flow and scores. The lessons learned include a number of insights regarding the design of physical game extensions. The most important finding is that the size of the objects is relevant with respect to fun. No significant effects of size on flow were found. Visibility and distances are critical, however. Observations and interviews indicate that certain ergonomic aspects of the interaction, which are a consequence of the size parameter variation, are really decisive, not the perception of size as such.
Enhancing the Performance of Dynamic Scripting in Computer Games BIBAFull-Text 296-307
  Pieter Spronck; Ida Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper; Eric Postma
Unsupervised online learning in commercial computer games allows computer-controlled opponents to adapt to the way the game is being played. As such it provides a mechanism to deal with weaknesses in the game AI and to respond to changes in human player tactics. In prior work we designed a novel technique called "dynamic scripting" that is able to create successful adaptive opponents. However, experimental evaluations indicated that, occasionally, the time needed for dynamic scripting to generate effective opponents becomes unacceptably long. We investigated two different countermeasures against these long adaptation times (which we call "outliers"), namely a better balance between rewards and penalties, and a history-fallback mechanism. Experimental results indicate that a combination of these two countermeasures is able to reduce the number of outliers significantly. We therefore conclude that the performance of dynamic scripting is enhanced by these counter-measures.
Open-Source Game Development with the Multi-user Publishing Environment (MUPE) Application Platform BIBAFull-Text 308-320
  Riku Suomela; Eero Räsänen; Ari Koivisto; Jouka Mattila
The Multi-User Application Platform (MUPE) is a platform for rapid development of mobile multi-user context-aware applications. MUPE server implements a persistent user-authenticated service that can be customized into a game server. The game logic is written to the MUPE server and the end-users download the game User Interface (UI) to their terminals. This paper studies how MUPE can be used to create mobile multi-player games. This paper analyzes the important aspects of MUPE in game development and the different parts involved in developing games with MUPE. Two games made with MUPE are introduced and analyzed. The games presented in this paper and the MUPE system are available at the MUPE website http://www.mupe.net under the Nokia open source license version 1.0a.
Player-Centered Game Environments: Assessing Player Opinions, Experiences, and Issues BIBAFull-Text 321-332
  Penelope Sweetser; Daniel Johnson
Game developers have identified, explored and discussed many of the key issues that arise for players interacting in game worlds. However, there is a need to assess the thoughts and opinions of game-players on these issues, through structured, empirical studies. This paper reports the results of two player-centered studies aimed at investigating these issues from the player's perspective. The first study, a focus group, supports some of the issues identified by game developers; consistency, intuitiveness and freedom of expression, and identifies new issues; immersion and physics. The second study, a questionnaire, examined the relationship of these issues to game-type preference and game-playing experience. This paper represents important initial exploratory research that supplements the existing literature by focusing on the player's perspective and exploring which issues and context have the most impact on player enjoyment.
An Application of Game-Refinement Theory to Mah Jong BIBAKFull-Text 333-338
  Hiroyuki Iida; Kazutoshi Takahara; Jun Nagashima; Yoichiro Kajihara; Tsuyoshi Hashimoto
This paper presents an application of the game refinement theory to a class of multi-person incomplete-information games, especially in the domain of Mah Jong that is an old Chinese four-person incomplete-information game. We have developed a computer program to analyze some statistics on the number of the possible options and the game length. The results of the analysis show that the measure of the game-refinement for Mah Jong has an appropriate value as well as other refined games such as chess and Go.
Keywords: game-refinement theory; multi-person games with incomplete-information; Mah Jong
The Design and Implementation of Multi-player Card Games on Multi-user Interactive Tabletop Surfaces BIBAFull-Text 339-344
  Shwetak N. Patel; John A. Bunch; Kyle D. Forkner; Logan W. Johnson; Tiffany M. Johnson; Michael N. Rosack; Gregory D. Abowd
We present the design and implementation of a card game architecture for multi-user interactive tabletop surfaces. Our system is built on the DiamondTouch, a touch-sensitive input surface that allows several users to interact with a program at the same time. We describe the software architecture and present Blackjack as a sample implementation using this framework.
Entertainment Feature of a Computer Game Using a Biological Signal to Realize a Battle with Oneself BIBAFull-Text 345-350
  Shigeru Sakurazawa; Nagisa Munekata; Naofumi Yoshida; Yasuo Tsukahara; Hitoshi Matsubara
A novel computer game was developed in which a player challenges him- or herself using the skin conductance response to make the player aware of his or her own agitation. This game was developed as a paradoxical system in which their desire to win makes it more difficult to win. This type of game was found to have the following characteristics. First, players find uncontrollable themselves due to viewing their biological signals. In this situation, a kind of self-reference system is constructed. Second, the environments changed how the game was enjoyed. Third, the game system reveals differences of context between player and observer. From these characteristics, it is thought that the use of biological signals is attractive for entertainment computing.
AI: the Missing Link in Digital Game Interface Design? BIBAFull-Text 351-354
  Darryl Charles; Daniel Livingstone
The central problem that this paper addresses is how to manage dynamic change within game environments in response to variable player requirements and ability. In particular, we discuss the role of a game AI to enable game systems to learn about individual user patterns, behaviours, desires or moods in order to adapt the environment in reaction to the user's interaction with the environment. We discuss the role that AI may play in the design of the game interface in order to enhance the dynamic and responsive nature of the game system with respect to individual users and leading to more rewarding and immersive game experiences.
Engaging Game Characters: Informing Design with Player Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  Penelope Drennan; Stephen Viller; Peta Wyeth
The behavior of characters in current computer games is generally scripted and predictable. This paper discusses some issues related to creating game characters that enhance player engagement and identifies the need for a more player-centered approach to game character design. This paper reports the results of a focus group that was carried out with experienced game players to determine what game character behaviors would enhance their engagement in a game. The four general areas of concern that came out of this discussion were consistency with context, player expectations, social interactions and consistency with the environment. This paper discusses these issues and their implication for game character design with a view to creating engaging game characters.
Emergent Stories in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: Using Improvisational Techniques to Design for Emotional Impact BIBAFull-Text 359-362
  Brenda Harger; David Jimison; Eben Myers; Ben Smith; Shanna Tellerman
In this poster, we discuss the application of Theatrical Improvisational Techniques to address game design challenges of Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs), and we suggest how applying these techniques can create structure for emergent storytelling. We propose a common improv structure, CROW (Character, Relationship, Objective, Where), as a framework for designing MMOGs with compelling emergent stories.
Towards a Framework for Design Guidelines for Young Children's Computer Games BIBAFull-Text 365-376
  Wolmet Barendregt; Mathilde M. Bekker
This paper describes a number of general design problems with adventure-like computer games for young children in order to demonstrate the need for specific design guidelines for this type of products. These problems were experienced by children participating in a number of user tests of existing computer games. By providing a generalization of these problems some first directions are given for the nature of the design guidelines that could be developed. Furthermore, a first proposal for a unifying framework to organize these guidelines is given.
Social Translucence of the Xbox Live Voice Channel BIBAFull-Text 377-385
  Martin R. Gibbs; Kevin Hew; Greg Wadley
In this paper we use the concept of 'social translucence' to understand users' initial reaction to, and use of, the voice communication channel provided by Xbox Live. We found that although users expected voice to be an advance over text-based communication, in practice they found voice difficult to use. In particular, users experienced difficulties controlling the voice channel and these difficulties are indicative of usability and sociability problems with the configuration of the voice channel in some Xbox Live games. We argue that game developers will need to address these problems in order to realize the potential of voice in online multiplayer videogames. We believe these problems can be addressed by designing the voice channel so that socially salient information is made available to participants according to interactional affordances and constraints that are sensibly designed and well understood by users.
Artifact-Based Human-Computer Interface for the Handicapped BIBAFull-Text 386-392
  Ki-Hong Kim; Hong-Kee Kim; Wook-Ho Son
Artifacts mixed with EEG signals, which are measured from around the edge part of each eye, are used as the new interfacing means for the handicapped. Artifacts utilized in the experiment are the ones caused by chewing or biting teeth and blinking eyes. These signals might be generally eliminated while analyzing EEG signals because they are regarded as the unwanted ones or the noises. But from the viewpoint of developing an interface applicable in the real world, those signals can be more useful compared to the weak and subtle EEG signals because of their characteristics such as the easiness in creation and the clearness in shape. In this paper, the possibility and validity of using those signals for the communication with computer are examined.
A Home Page Is Where the Heart Is: Using Games Based Design Techniques to Enhance Contact Centre Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 393-397
  Nicola J. Millard; Paul K. Buckley; Faye Skinner; Rosita Venousiou
The demands for interface design for a time pressured and volatile environment such as a contact centre are not purely around usability and efficiency. Customer Service Representatives require interfaces that provide them with knowledge about the customer, products and services and company procedures in a way that is fast, easy to digest and easy to use. However, usability and efficiency have proved to be insufficient for such tools to be used in an operational environment. This study shows how the redesign of a knowledge system for a contact centre using designs inspired by computer games can be used to address issues of usage and acceptance. Two new designs were produced; one for use whilst online with the customer, emphasising the need for efficiency, speed and usability of knowledge access and another for use whilst offline which was more about having fun, knowledge sharing, personalisation and exploring the knowledge space.
Avoiding Average: Recording Interaction Data to Design for Specific User Groups BIBAFull-Text 398-401
  Nick Fine; Willem-Paul Brinkman
Designing domestic user interfaces for broad user populations means designing for the average user. To design for more personally intuitive interfaces detailed interactive behaviours need to be captured and described in order to better inform the design process. By utilising technologies such as interface skins, log file analysis and user interface description languages, the PROSKIN project is developing an empirical tool for quantitative capture, description and analysis of interactive behaviour in a non-invasive and situated context. The purpose of the tool is to identify user groups by distinguishing behaviour or trait which will allow designers to develop more personally relevant user interfaces. The tool itself facilitates the analyses of large datasets of users and their interactive behaviours. This will allow designers to produce interface skins for user groups of similar interactive profile and subsequently providing a less average user experience.
Physiological Response to Games and Non-games: A Contrastive Study BIBAFull-Text 402-405
  Karina Oertel; Gösta Fischer; Holger Diener
We performed an experiment to verify the hypothesis that users are interacting more aroused and more pleased with games than with non-games. Therefore we used rating-scales and physiological measurements during a playing task in comparison with a writing task. The experiment, in which a total of 10 subjects participated, took place in a laboratory environment. Main finding is that playing a computer game causes that users feel emotional and physical stimulated, but do not imply a high physical arousal.
Probabilistic Opponent-Model Search in Bao BIBAFull-Text 409-419
  Jeroen Donkers; Jaap van den Herik; Jos Uiterwijk
In Probabilistic Opponent-Model search (PrOM search) the opponent is modelled by a mixed strategy of N opponent types ω0 ... ωN-1 The opponent is assumed to adopt at every move one of the opponent types ωi according to the probability Pr(ωi). We hypothesize that PrOM search is a better search mechanism than Opponent-Model search (OM search) Minimax search. In this paper we investigate two questions: (1) to which extent is PrOM search better than OM search and Minimax search in the game of Bao? and (2) which opponent type is most advantageous to use? To answer the second question we constructed Five evaluation functions which we applied in a tournament consisting of 352,000 games. Our conclusions are twofold: (1) in Bao PrOM search performs better than OM search and sometimes also better than Minimax search even when no perfect information of the opponent is available (2) for an adequate performance of PrOM search emphasis on the own evaluation function in the opponent model should be higher than assumed so far.
Agent Wars with Artificial Immune Systems BIBAFull-Text 420-428
  Gayle Leen; Colin Fyfe
In this paper we discuss the use of concepts from Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) in computer games. The computer player in such games is typically called the AI but the AI is rarely truly intelligent which detracts from human enjoyment of such games. We illustrate making the AI truly intelligent in the context of simplified games by having two AIs play against each other when they are adapted using methods suggested by AIS.
MMOG Player Classification Using Hidden Markov Models BIBAFull-Text 429-434
  Yoshitaka Matsumoto; Ruck Thawonmas
In this paper, we describe our work on classification of players in Massively Multiplayer Online Games using Hidden Markov Models based on player action sequences. In our previous work, we have discussed a classification approach using a variant of Memory Based Reasoning based on player action frequencies. That approach, however, does not exploit time structures hidden in action sequences of the players. The experimental results given in this paper show that Hidden Markov Models have higher recognition performance than our previous approach, especially for classification of players of different types but having similar action frequencies.
Expanding Spheres: A Collision Detection Algorithm for Interest Management in Networked Games BIBAFull-Text 435-440
  Graham Morgan; Kier Storey; Fengyun Lu
We present a collision detection algorithm (Expanding Spheres) for interest management in networked games. The aim of all interest management schemes is to identify when objects that inhabit a virtual world should be interacting and to enable such interaction via message passing while preventing objects that should not be interacting from exchanging messages. Preventing unnecessary message exchange provides a more scalable solution for networked games. A collision detection algorithm is required by interest management schemes as object interaction is commonly determined by object location in the virtual world: the closer objects are to each other the more likely they are to interact. The collision detection algorithm presented in this paper is designed specifically for interest management schemes and produces accurate results when determining object interactions. We present performance figures that indicate that our collision detection algorithm is scalable.
Electronic Augmentation of Traditional Board Games BIBAFull-Text 441-444
  Clim J. de Boer; Maarten H. Lamers
Manufacturers of traditional board games are looking for ideas to innovate their products and keep up with the popularity of modern computer games. We developed an idea of how traditional board games can be augmented with modern technology and how electronics can increase the level of excitement and board game pleasure. The concept of a self-conscious gameboard is proposed and its viability demonstrated through a case study in which the popular board game Settlers of Catan was electronically enhanced.
Strategy Selection in Games Using Co-evolution Between Artificial Immune Systems BIBAFull-Text 445-450
  Donald MacDonald; Colin Fyfe
In this paper, we create a simple artificial computer game in order to illustrate a means of making software players in computer games more intelligent. Despite being known as AIs, the current generation of computer players are anything but intelligent. We suggest an algorithm motivated by concepts from Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) in which an attack from one opponent is met with a response from the other which is refined in time to create an optimal response to that attack.. We refine the AIS algorithm in that we model the response with a probability vector rather than a population of antibodies. Some typical results are shown on the simple computer game.
Level of Detail Modelling in a Computer Game Engine BIBAFull-Text 451-454
  Francisco Ramos; Miguel Chover
The representation of meshes at different levels of detail is an important tool in the rendering of complex geometric environments like video games. Most works have been addressed to the multiresolution model representation by means of triangle meshes and discrete representations in games. Nowadays, models that exploit connectivity have been developed and in this paper a multiresolution model that uses triangle strips as primitive is presented and implemented in a game. This primitive is used both in the data structure and in the rendering stage, which lowers storage cost and accelerates rendering time. This model was implemented in a game engine as a method of testing its suitability for video games.
Networked Mobile Gaming for 3G-Networks BIBAFull-Text 457-467
  Amjad Akkawi; Sibylle Schaller; Oliver Wellnitz; Lars Wolf
Mobile devices offer the opportunity to play games nearly everywhere. Moreover, networked games allow individual players to interact with other people and to participate in a larger gaming world, which also provides for new business opportunities. Hence, we currently see an increased interest from game developers, providers and players in mobile games. However, due to the inherent nature of wireless networks, many challenges have to be addressed. 3G technology combines two of the world's most powerful innovations, wireless communications and the Internet. This paper proposes an architecture for multiplayer games in 3G networks. It uses the capabilities and functionality provided by the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). A prototype implementation demonstrates the feasibility of our approach.
Mobile Games for Training Tactile Perception BIBAFull-Text 468-475
  Grigori Evreinov; Tatiana Evreinova; Roope Raisamo
Tactile interactive multimedia propose a wide spectrum of developmental games both for visually impaired children and adults. While some simulators can produce strong vibro-tactile sensations, the discrimination of several tactile patterns remains quite poor. Skin sensitivity is not enough for remembering and recognizing vibration patterns (tactons) and their combinations. Short-term tactile memory is the crucial factor in educational and vocational environments for deaf and blind people. We designed a vibro-tactile pen and software to create tactons and semantic sequences of vibro-tactile patterns on mobile devices (iPAQ pocket PC). We propose special games to facilitate learning and manipulation by tactons. The techniques are based on gesture recognition and spatial-temporal mapping for imaging vibro-tactile signals. The proposed approach and the tools implemented allow creating a new kind of mobile communication environment for deaf and blind people.
Emotionally Loaded Mobile Multimedia Messaging BIBAFull-Text 476-486
  Timo Saari; Marko Turpeinen; Jari Laarni; Niklas Ravaja; Kari Kallinen
Mobile messaging is an increasingly important way of social interaction as people use their mobile phones for communicating with each other with textual and multimedia messages. Often with these messaging systems people have the need to communicate their own emotions or facilitate a given emotion in the receiver of their message. This paper will describe an information personalization system that may facilitate emotional communication especially in mobile multimedia messaging systems, thereby making the communication "emotionally loaded".
"Why Is Everyone Inside Me?!" Using Shared Displays in Mobile Computer Games BIBAFull-Text 487-498
  Johan Sanneblad; Lars Erik Holmquist
We have investigated the use of shared mobile displays to create a new type of computer games for mobile devices -- Collaborative Games, which require players to physically coordinate their activities to succeed. Collaborative Games are played on mobile devices connected in wireless networks where users can start, join and leave games ad hoc. In a user study, one of these mobile games was made available in a café frequented by high school students for a period of two weeks. During the test period we noted several new forms of interaction emerging, such as players running away with their displays to avoid other players from accessing them. We also found interesting verbal exchanges, such as the use of "me" to refer to both the user's handheld display and her on-screen representation. We believe that these new ways of interaction is a result of using the shared display in a new domain.
Associated Emotion and Its Expression in an Entertainment Robot QRIO BIBAFull-Text 499-504
  Fumihide Tanaka; Kuniaki Noda; Tsutomu Sawada; Masahiro Fujita
We human associate and memorize situations with emotional feelings at the time, and these experiences affect our daily behaviors. In this paper, we will present our attempt to design this character in an entertainment robot QRIO aiming for more genuine Human-Robot interaction.
Position-Aware IEEE 802.11b Mobile Video Services BIBAFull-Text 505-508
  Rafael Asorey-Cacheda; Francisco J. González-Castaño; Enrique Costa-Montenegro; Ignacio López-Cabido; Andrés Gómez-Tato; José Carlos Pérez-Gómez
In this paper, we present an experimental position-aware IEEE 802.11b mobile video service. For example, it may be used to deliver TV channels to PDAs in airport terminals. Instead of implementing progressive encoding -- which increases content bandwidth -- we rely on transcoding rate adaptation to support position-awareness.
A Human-Pet Interactive Entertainment System over the Internet BIBAFull-Text 509-512
  Lee Shang Ping; Farzam Farbiz; Adrian David Cheok
We developed an interactive entertainment system for human and pet over the Internet. The system consists of a Backyard and an Office. The Backyard houses a rooster (the pet) and cameras which capture the movement of the rooster. The rooster wears a small wearable-computer dress equipped with vibrators and wireless camera. The Office has a mechanical positioning system which carries a doll, resembling the rooster. Inside the doll are touch-sensitive sensors. Both spaces are interconnected only by Internet. As the rooster walks, the doll is moved by the positioning system, imitating the path taken by the rooster. At the same time if the human at the Office fondles the doll, the rooster feels the tickling as the vibrators are activated. The video images of the Backyard and that as seen by the rooster, are constantly sent to the Office display.
Developing and Evaluating Mobile Entertainment Applications: The Case of the Music Industry BIBAFull-Text 513-517
  Vasilios Koutsiouris; Pavlos Vlachos; Adam Vrechopoulos
The rapidly evolving landscape in the music and mobile commerce industry fueled by the development of innovative commercial mobile music services calls for developing suitable evaluation frameworks towards measuring the performance of such kind of services. This paper elaborates on the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) established evaluation methods in order to provide a tailored evaluation framework to the peculiarities of the mobile music services. The framework provides an integrated view of the key variables involved the user-mobile interaction process both from a business and a technical perspective. Direct avenues for further research are provided at the end.
An Entertaining Way to Access Web Content BIBAFull-Text 518-521
  Giacomo Poretti; Alberto Sollberger
This paper describes the 3D-Enter project's innovative findings. The project is aimed at simplifying the access to web content and at defining an entertaining way to make use of Internet and mobile services. This software application implements an interpreter and a graphic engine, which allows the interaction with business data to be searched and viewed as a "game-like" 3D graphical representation. It offers a feeling of involvement directly with a world of objects. It simplifies the usability of computer systems, improving information comprehension, thus increasing end-users' acceptance and immersion.
Design of an Interface for Technology Supported Collaborative Learning -- The RAFT Approach BIBAFull-Text 522-525
  Lucia Terrenghi; Marcus Specht; Moritz Stefaner
In the Remote Accessible Field Trips (RAFT) project described in this paper, we aim to support high school students' field trips with mobile technology and to enable real-time remote collaboration with the classroom. therefore we look at the pedagogical issues and consequences for the interface design and propose a role-centred interface design approach, aiming at the development of dedicated tools and interfaces.
iFP: A Music Interface Using an Expressive Performance Template BIBAFull-Text 529-540
  Haruhiro Katayose; Keita Okudaira
This paper describes a performance interface called iFP that enables players to play music as if he or she had the hands of the virtuoso. iFP is a tapping-style musical interface and refers to a pianist's expressiveness described in a performance template. The paper describes the scheduler that allows a player to mix her/his own intension with the expressiveness in the performance template and the user interfaces. The results of a subjective study suggest that using the expression template and the tapping-style interface contribute to the subject's joy of playing music. This result is also supported by a brain activation study that was done using near-infrared spectroscopy.
Sound Pryer: Adding Value to Traffic Encounters with Streaming Audio BIBAFull-Text 541-552
  Mattias Östergren
We present a novel in-car entertainment application that is inspired by listening to music and the social interaction of manoeuvring in traffic. The Sound Pryer is a peer-to-peer application of mobile wireless ad hoc networking for PDAs with the intent of adding value to mundane traffic encounters. In essence it works like a shared car-stereo. Besides playing your own music, it allows prying on the music played by other Sound Pryer applications in other cars close-by. It accomplishes this during brief traffic encounters by peer-to-peer RTP multicast streaming MP3 music files. Through field trial we found that user appreciated the concept, but the prototype needs some improvements, foremost in terms of audio playback.
Harmonics Table: Audiovisual Expression of Group Interaction on a Sensing Table BIBAFull-Text 553-558
  Sangwoong Hwang; Hyunchul Park; Chansuk Yang; Manjai Lee
Motion graphics in general is played on a screen. The technology of a sensing table brings this on a table. Mouse pointing on a monitor is changed to cup-shaped pointing devices on a table and the table detects the positions of the cups. According to the movements of the cups, particle animations and sounds are generated on the table. The Harmonics Table is a system which a group of users can experience a harmonized audiovisual expression. This paper introduces an application of interactive motion graphics on the Harmonics Table and describes how a group of users enjoy it in a real life situation.
Hello-Fish: Interacting with Pet Fishes Through Animated Digital Wallpaper on a Screen BIBAFull-Text 559-564
  Sunyean Jang; Manjai Lee
Real life forms have not been seriously considered to be an essential part in ubiquitous computing. Hello-Fish is an Internet-based application that monitors and feeds our fishes which are part of lovely pets. This system allows people to feel the mood interpreted by the movements of the fishes from anywhere. We propose a new interactive system for getting in touch with the living creatures around us in a ubiquitous computing environment.
Background Music Generation Using Music Texture Synthesis BIBAFull-Text 565-570
  Min-Joon Yoo; In-Kwon Lee; Jung-Ju Choi
This paper suggests a method to synthesize a long background music sequence from a given short music clip in real-time. The copies of input clip are placed with overlapped region, the length of which is computed by random or clip matching method. Based on pitch, rhythm and chord cut criteria, the cutting point of the two clips is computed within the overlapped region. As a result, the two clips are concatenated at the cutting point. Generating some variations such as mirroring, retrograding and transposing of the given music clip makes the synthesized result much more dynamic. Suggested method is especially useful for interactive and real-time applications such as games and web contents.
A Progressive Sounding Object Model in Virtual Environment BIBAFull-Text 571-576
  Qiong Zhang; Taiyi Chen
Realistic audio is a requisite part of an immersive VR system. Previous research primarily focused on sound transmission modeling, e.g. room acoustics modeling. A progressive sounding object model based on modal synthesis is proposed in this article to integrate sound source modeling with sound transmission simulation. It is characterized by direct construction from geometry data plus a handful of material properties of the virtual object, progressive representation in multiple levels and natural binaural modeling.
Automatic Visual Data Management System BIBAFull-Text 579-585
  Jae-Ho Lee; Sung-Hoon Park; Young-Jin Choi; Whoi-Yul Kim
In this paper, we introduce an automatic video management system for personal video recorder. With the system, visual data can be summarized and indexed based on the face recognition techniques. The developed system also supplies basic summarizing, indexing, and retrieving functionalities for visual data. Several conventional algorithms are adapted for cut detection and video summarizing. And MPEG-7 visual descriptors are utilized to retrieve similar scene. For face detection in real-time, the Haar-like feature method is applied and PCA/LDA method is selected for face recognition. The resulting index generates not only a preview of a movie, but also allows non-linear access with thumbnails. Moreover, implemented face recognition techniques makes character based video summarization and indexing possible in stored video data.
Development of Extemporaneous Performance by Synthetic Actors in the Rehearsal Process BIBAFull-Text 586-591
  Tony Meyer; Chris Messom
Autonomous synthetic actors must invent variations of known material in order to perform given only a limited script, and to assist the director with development of the performance. In addition, the synthetic actors need to learn through the rehearsal process, as their human counterparts do, via feedback from the director. Through the production of two performances, involving both human and synthetic actors, a variety of methods of creating extemporaneous performance and utilising feedback to select the most effective performance variations will be examined. One method of varying the performance is the manner in which lines of dialogue are delivered. The paper outlines use of a statistical technique to create three variations of a performance; each variation was then ranked, and these rankings used to weight the variances in individual lines to create a superior variation. This allowed quick evaluation of many lines, without having to score each individual line.
An Efficient CLOD Method for Large-Scale Terrain Visualization BIBAFull-Text 592-597
  Byeong-Seok Shin; Ei-Kyu Choi
Terrain visualization requires a lot of processing time and storage since terrain information contains huge amount of height-field data. One of the optimization methods is quadtree-based continuous level-of-detail (CLOD). Although it can produce moderate quality of images in real-time, flickering may occur in consecutive frames due to inadequate feedback. We propose a method to maintain constant frame rate without flickering by controlling the number of triangles in view frustum. It avoids abrupt change of the amount of triangles using temporal coherence.
Integrating Ideas About Invisible Playgrounds from Play Theory into Online Educational Digital Games BIBAFull-Text 598-601
  Darryl Charles; Moira McAlister
This paper explores novel ideas about the use of modern digital games for educational purposes, and especially online games. We propose a framework that utilises an approach related to invisible playgrounds, so that a game is not only played within the virtual space provided by individual computers but is distributed across both digital and non-digital formats. We argue that educational games constructed on this sort of multi-modal, distributed framework can be extremely effective at engaging and immersing students in an educational process.
EffecTV: A Real-Time Software Video Effect Processor for Entertainment BIBAFull-Text 602-605
  Kentaro Fukuchi; Sam Mertens; Ed Tannenbaum
EffecTV is a real-time software video effect processor based on motion detection and image processing techniques. EffecTV was released in 2001 as an open source software, and has been growing the number of features and effects through contributions from the open source community. EffecTV has been used for various purpose -- desktop toy applications, by visual jockeys (VJs), in theatrical plays and other stage performances. In this paper, we describe the implementation of EffecTV and some case studies.
Web-Based Tool for Analyzing Emotions Through Images and Generating a Music Therapy System BIBAFull-Text 606-609
  Taesik Kim; Hyeyoung Kim
A web-based tool that can be used to generate music therapy system is proposed. The tool can generate a psychological testing system and users can select images that represent best their psychological state. After completing some stages, the user can listen the most adequate music for their current psychological situation. This tool makes it possible for a developer to input and arrange questions using images and stages. It is possible to offer various skills to a developer through this tool for developing desired types during all processes. This tool consists of five database tables that store information about hierarchical structure, image, music and has seven modules written with ASP. The tool has an especially considerable merit in cases of enlargement or functional substitution, because a developer who designs a system can change the imaging of questions and it is possible to register, modify and delete new image and music easily.
Turning Photo Annotating Tasks into Instant Messaging Fun: Prototyping, User Trials, and Roadmapping BIBAFull-Text 610-613
  Yuechen Qian; Loe M. G. Feijs
In this article we report on our research that integrates photo annotation tasks into online chatting. Users of our system can share and annotate digital photos online while chatting. There are two major innovations: first, users can add annotations and comments to photos in a collaborative manner and secondly, the software itself extracts information from conversations to generate extra annotations. The boring and tedious task of annotating photos is turned into an essential part of an attractive fun activity, viz. online chatting. This article also provides a roadmap towards a systematic analysis of linguistic aspects of automated interpretation of message conversations.