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ICEC Tables of Contents: 040506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Entertainment Computing

Fullname:ICEC 2007: 6th International Conference on Entertainment Computing
Editors:Lizhuang Ma; Matthias Rauterberg; Ryohei Nakatsu
Location:Shanghai, China
Dates:2007-Sep-15 to 2007-Sep-17
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4740
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-74873-1 hcibib: ICEC07; ISBN: 978-3-540-74872-4 (print), 978-3-540-74873-1 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality
  2. Computer Games
  3. Image Processing
  4. Mesh and Modeling
  5. Digital Storytelling and Interactive Systems
  6. Sound, Music and Creative Environments
  7. Video Processing
  8. Rendering
  9. Computer Animation and Networks
  10. Game Based Interfaces
  11. Robots and Cyber Pets
  12. Posters

Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality

A Training Oriented Driving Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 1-9
  Chao Sun; Feng Xie; Xiaocao Feng; Mingmin Zhang; Zhigeng Pan
In today's China, a growing number of people have the opportunity to have their own cars. This creates tremendous requirement of training of new drivers. At the same time, recent advances in Computer Graphics and Virtual Reality system have brought the new opportunities for the development of driving simulation. This paper describes a driving simulator named TODS which is the acronym of training oriented driving simulator, developed for rigorous driving training and for Computer Graphics study. TODS is designed under the human-in-the-loop real-time simulation mode providing 120° horizontal FOV (Field of View) and realistic visual feedback to give the driver a realistic feeling of immersion similar to the feeling in a real moving vehicle. TODS utilizes state-of-the-art real-time rendering techniques in Vertex Shader and Pixel Shader [1] to make it more flexible to implement more real-time rendering algorithms in GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) so as to enhance the system function. TODS's scene model is designed and constructed according to the "Driving Test Specification" of China to meet the demands of rigorous driving training. And a kind of modular construction method is used in the work of scene authoring in TODS.
Keywords: Driving simulation; Real-Time Simulation; Real-Time Rendering; Computer Graphics; GPU; Shader; Dynamic Texture Mapping
Ghost Hunter: A Handheld Augmented Reality Game System with Dynamic Environment BIBAKFull-Text 10-15
  Kyusung Cho; Wonhyoung Kang; Jaemin Soh; Juho Lee; Hyun S. Yang
The progress of handheld devices has encouraged many researchers to make efforts to use handheld devices as an augmented reality platform. However, one of the important problems is a lack of immersion and reality due to small display. To overcome this problem, we introduce dynamic environment which consists of some movable structures and their controller that enable changes of virtual world to affect the real world. It has an effect on expanding the user's view limited by the small display of the handheld device. We have also developed the game content, 'Ghost Hunter', which is suitable for this platform.
Keywords: handheld augmented reality; dynamic environment; entertainment system
Tea Table Mediator: A Multimodal Ambient Display on the Table Exploiting Five Senses Convergence BIBAKFull-Text 16-21
  Hyun Sang Cho; Kyoung Shin Park; Minsoo Hahn
In the past, many tabletop systems have used the traditional table augmented with digital technologies to enhance collaborative works such as face-to-face or remote meeting and working. In this paper, we describe the Tea Table Mediator, a multimodal ambient tabletop display designed for five senses convergence experience combined with tea drinking. This ambient display enhances a traditional tea table with multimodal interfaces for intimate small group interaction. This paper describes the design considerations, the details on system implementation, and the discussion of a preliminary user evaluation.
Keywords: Tabletop Display; Sense Convergence; Small Group Interaction
Measuring Game-Play Performance and Perceived Immersion in a Domed Planetarium Projection Environment BIBAKFull-Text 22-27
  Timon Burney; Phillip Lock
Game playing in immersive projection environments such as caves and domes is assumed to offer an enhanced experience but there is little quantitative research that measures this. This paper reports on a study of user performance statistics while playing a computer game projected onto a planetarium dome and compares these with similar measurements taken in a conventional projected flat screen environment. A survey of users' subjective impressions of immersion was also taken and used to compare these display modes. Analysis of users in each mode revealed differences in user experience and some aspects of performance. It was confirmed that dome projection enhanced the player's sense of immersion when compared with flat projection. Navigation speed was found to decline in the dome while other performance metrics showed no significant difference between the environments.
Keywords: Dome-projection; computer games; user interfaces; immersion; game-play performance
Computer Game for Small Pets and Humans BIBAKFull-Text 28-38
  Roger Thomas Kok Chuen Tan; Adrian David Cheok; Roshan Lalintha Peiris; I. J. P. Wijesena; Derek Bing Siang Tan; Karthik Raveendran; Khanh Dung Thi Nguyen; Yin Ping Sen; Elvin Zhiwen Yio
Interactive media not only should enhance human-to-human communication, but also human-to-animal communication. We promote a new type of media interaction allowing human users to interact and play with their small pets (like hamsters) remotely via Internet through a mixed-reality-based game system "Metazoa Ludens". To examine the system's effectiveness: Firstly, the positive effects to the hamsters are established using Body Condition Score study. Secondly, the method of Duncan is used to assess the strength of preference of the hamsters towards Metazoa Ludens. Lastly, the effectiveness of this remote interaction, with respect to the human users as an interactive gaming system with their pet hamsters, is examined based on Csikszentmihalyi's Flow theory [1]. Results of these studies have shown positive remote interaction between human user and their pet friends. This paper provides specific experimental results on the implemented research system, and a framework for human-to-animal interactive media.
Keywords: Human-animal interaction; mixed reality; multimodal interaction; computer gaming; communication

Computer Games

Identification with the Player Character as Determinant of Video Game Enjoyment BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Dorothée Hefner; Christoph Klimmt; Peter Vorderer
In this paper, identification with a game character is discussed as mechanism of computer game enjoyment. Identification is explicated in terms of players' altered self-perception during game play: When identifying with a character or role offered by the game, players change their self-concept by adopting relevant attributes of the character, for instance, they perceive themselves as more courageous, heroic, and powerful during identification with a soldier. Theoretical arguments for the enjoyable quality of such temporary changes of the self-concept are introduced. Computer game interactivity is proposed as important facilitator of strong identification. Subsequently, a pilot experiment with players of "Battlefield 2" supports the assumptions on the relationships between interactivity, identification, and game enjoyment. Implications of the identification concept for research and applications in entertainment computing are discussed.
Keywords: Computer games; video games; enjoyment; identification; experiment
Pass the Ball: Game-Based Learning of Software Design BIBAKFull-Text 49-54
  Guillermo Jiménez-Díaz; Mercedes Gómez-Albarrán; Pedro A. González-Calero
Based on our experience using active learning methods to teach object-oriented software design we propose a game-based approach to take the classroom experience into a virtual environment.
   The different pedagogical approaches that our active method supports, have motivated us to tailor an architecture that supports the creation of different variations of role-play environments, ranging from open-ended trial and error approaches to highly constrained settings where students can not get very far from the solution. We also describe a prototype that instantiates this architecture called ViRPlay3D2.
Keywords: Game-based learning; object-oriented design; role-play
Comparison of AI Techniques for Fighting Action Games -- Genetic Algorithms/Neural Networks/Evolutionary Neural Networks BIBAFull-Text 55-65
  Byeong Heon Cho; Chang Joon Park; Kwang Ho Yang
Recently many studies have attempted to implement intelligent characters for fighting action games. They used genetic algorithms, neural networks, and evolutionary neural networks to create intelligent characters. This study quantitatively compared the performance of these three AI techniques in the same game and experimental environments, and analyzed the results of experiments. As a result, neural network and evolutionary neural network showed excellent performance in the final convergence score ratio while evolutionary neural network and genetic algorithms showed excellent performance in convergence speed. In conclusion, evolutionary neural network which showed excellent results in both the final convergence score ratio and the convergence score is most appropriate AI technique for fighting action games.
Theory to Practice: Generalized Minimum-Norm Perspective Shadow Maps for Anti-aliased Shadow Rendering in 3D Computer Games BIBAKFull-Text 66-78
  Fan Zhang; Hanqiu Sun; Chong Zhao; Lifeng Wang
Shadow mapping has been extensively used for real-time shadow rendering in 3D computer games, though it suffers from the inherent aliasing problems due to its image-based nature. The aliasing errors in shadow mapping consist of perspective aliasing error and projection aliasing error. In this paper, we propose a novel shadow-map reparameterization to reduce perspective aliasing for varying viewer and/or light. This reparameterizing technique keeps the perspective aliasing distribution optimal in possible general cases. Our experiments have shown the enhanced shadow quality using our algorithm in dynamic scenes.
Keywords: Image-based rendering; shadow algorithms; computer games
Kansei Games: Entertaining Emotions BIBAKFull-Text 79-84
  Ben Salem
We introduce and describe the concept of Kansei Game as the implementation of Kansei Mediated Entertainment. In our current approach we translate the classical Zen story of ten Ox herding pictures into a game. We describe the features of such a game and we propose some guidelines for its design and development.
Keywords: Games; Kansei mediation; entertainment; Ox Herding; Zen

Image Processing

An Algorithm for Seamless Image Stitching and Its Application BIBAKFull-Text 85-90
  Jing Xing; Zhenjiang Miao; Jing Chen
Panoramic image stitching used to create virtual environments for many applications is crucial for IBR. In this paper, we introduce a four-step algorithm based on SIFT features which makes some improvements on large exposure difference, large scene motion or other misregistrations when stitching panoramic images. We introduce a new method that is to add the adjacent images according to a weight function to eliminate the seam in the transition region. As a result, we apply the panoramic image to a computer game to enhance the reality of the game environment. Through lots of analyses and experiments we find that our method is simple and effective. Because this method is not sensitive to ordering, orientation, scaling and illumination, its stitching precision is much higher than many other methods.
Keywords: Homography; game environment; SIFT features; panorama
A New Algorithm for Trademark Image Retrieval Based on Sub-block of Polar Coordinates BIBAKFull-Text 91-97
  Bei-ji Zou; Yi Yao; Ling Zhang
The sub-block-based image retrieval method utilizes global and local image features to retrieve trademarks through separating individual an images into some blocks. This paper proposes a sub-block-based trademark image retrieval algorithm under the polar coordinate system. Experiment results show that our algorithm can keep excellent invariance in image translation, scaling and rotation and the retrieved results can satisfy human visual perception very well.
Keywords: trademark retrieval; sub-block image; mirror invariant performance
Image Composition with Blurring Effect from Depth of Field BIBAKFull-Text 98-103
  Hai Liu; Lizhuang Ma
This paper describes a new framework for image composition according to the blurring effect bred by changing depth of field from the target images. The framework involves two stages: a learning phase, in which the target image, with one part of the image purported to be "further" and another part "near", is presented as "learning data" and the learned filter is applied to some objects in source image; and a composition phase, in which those blurred objects of source image are composed into the "further" part of the target image. The framework is based on a simple multiscale Gaussian filter, inspired primarily by recent results in texture synthesis and image editing.
Keywords: Gaussian filter; texture synthesis; Markov random fields; texture transfer; image editing
Temporal Color Morphing BIBAFull-Text 104-114
  Xuezhong Xiao; Lizhuang Ma
Many natural phenomena usually appear in the scenes of movies. They are characterized by color changing smoothly following the time's advancement, e.g. day breaking, leaves' resurgence, foliage greening from yellow or yellowing from green. They are difficult to be captured wholly because of the long time span. Traditional methods for making these types of scenes are inefficient or makeshifts.
   In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic temporal color morphing technique for the simulation of smooth color-changing phenomena. Our temporal color morphing method is based on histogram manipulation -- histogram warping and histogram-based color transformation. For the simplicity of the calculation, we convert the input of the source sequence and target image to lαβ color space. This way we split the three-dimensional problem to three one-dimensional problems. The coordinates are quantized in lαβ space with a limited error condition. For customization of the results by the user we introduce a timing mechanism for controlling the velocities of color morphing. Finally we apply our temporal color morphing technique to the video clips of several representative natural phenomena to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

Mesh and Modeling

A New Progressive Mesh with Adaptive Subdivision for LOD Models BIBAFull-Text 115-120
  Xiaohu Ma; Jie Wu; Xiangjun Shen
Highly detailed models are becoming commonplace in computer graphics. Such models are often represented as triangle meshes, challenging rendering performance, transmission bandwidth, and storage capacities. This paper proposes a new scheme for constructing progressive meshes with adaptive subdivision. Besides, we introduce half-edge collapse simplification and present a new way to calculate error distance. Some experimental results show that our proposed method works well on various meshes.
Topology-Consistent Design for 3D Freeform Meshes with Harmonic Interpolation BIBAFull-Text 121-132
  Bin Sheng; Enhua Wu
One of the most exciting aspects of shape modeling is the development of new algorithms and methods to create unusual, interesting and aesthetically pleasing shapes. In this paper, we present an interactive modeling system for generating freeform surfaces using a 2D user interface. In this paper, we firstly interpret the given 2D curve to be the projection of the 3D curve that has the minimum curvature. Then we propose a topology-consistent strategy to trace the simple faces on the interconnecting 3D curves. By using the face tracing algorithm, our system can identify the 3D surfaces automatically. After obtaining the boundary curves for the faces, we apply Delaunay triangulation on these faces. Finally, the shape of the triangle surface mesh that follows the 3D boundary curves is computed by using harmonic interpolation. Solving Laplace's equations, we are able to construct simple and conceptual 3D models interactively. Although the incorporation of topological manipulation will introduce many new (and interesting) design problems that cannot be addressed in this paper, we show that automatically generated models are both beneficial and feasible.
Implementation and Optimization Issues of the Triangular Patch-Based Terrain System BIBAKFull-Text 133-138
  Choong-Gyoo Lim; Seungjo Bae; Kyoung Park; YoungJik Lee
A new dynamic LOD system is recently proposed to represent fairly large artificial terrains using hierarchical triangular patches[5]. Its mesh structure is unique from other conventional methods because it is designed to reduce the total number of draw primitive calls in a frame rather than the number of primitives. Another distinctive feature is its no-triangulation during the mesh adaptation by using its hierarchical layers and pre-constructed matching blocks. The purpose of the paper is to explain its implementation issues to make the new approach more understandable. Some of optimization issues are also discussed for better implementations.
Keywords: artificial terrain; fairly large terrains; level of details; triangular patches; hierarchical layers; terrain cell windowing; dynamic cell loading
Deforming Surface Simplification Based on Feature Preservation BIBAKFull-Text 139-149
  Shixue Zhang; Enhua Wu
In computer graphics, methods for mesh simplification are common. However, most of them focus on static meshes, only few works have been proposed for simplifying deforming surfaces. In this paper, we propose a new method for the multiresolution representation of time-varying meshes based on deformation area and feature preservation. Our method uses the famous QEM (quadric error metric) as our basic metric. The idea is to modify the edge collapse cost by adding the deformation and sharp feature weight to the aggregated quadrics errors when computing the unified edge contraction sequence, then adjust this sequence slightly for each frame to get a minimum geometry distortion. Our approach is fast, easy to implement, and as a result good quality dynamic approximations with well-preserved fine details can be generated at any given frame.
Keywords: Deforming mesh; LOD; Sharp feature; Mesh simplification
Procedural Modeling of Residential Zone Subject to Urban Planning Constraints BIBAKFull-Text 150-161
  Liying Wang; Wei Hua; Hujun Bao
Besides spatial elements, their spatial configuration is an important factor affecting urban image. In practice of urban planning, good designers do thoroughly consider goals of urban design and constraints of urban planning. In this paper taking the layout problems of a residential zone as background, a framework of procedural modeling and a constrained layout optimization approach is presented to simulate the design procedure of human. The approach represents design goals as cost function subject to planning constraints. We can obtain the design plan by minimizing the objective function. During optimization, we adopt heuristic algorithm to get solutions efficiently for elements layout. Experiments show this approach is able to achieve similar design of residential zone to human work, by using less human resources.
Keywords: Procedural modeling; urban planning; constrained layout optimization

Digital Storytelling and Interactive Systems

Concept and Construction of an Interactive Folktale System BIBAFull-Text 162-170
  Kozi Miyazaki; Yurika Nagai; Takenori Wama; Ryohei Nakatsu
In this paper as one example of a new edutainment system, we propose an "Interactive Folktale System," which makes it possible for people, especially children, to enjoy folktales in various ways. They can appreciate the generation of original tales and variations. Also they can interact with the story by communicating with its characters or by playing one of the characters. Moreover, they can easily create a new folktale by changing the original story or by describing a new story.
Cultural Computing and the Self Concept: Towards Unconscious Metamorphosis BIBAKFull-Text 171-181
  Tijn Kooijmans; Matthias Rauterberg
We are exploring an application for a novel direction in human-computer interaction named 'cultural computing', which aims to provide a new medium for cultural translation and unconscious metamorphosis. The main objective of this project is to create an interactive experience that encourages people in Western culture to reflect on their self-concept. In Western culture the self-concept is generally based on conscious perception of the self. Over centuries the book 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' got continuous attention, and therefore seems to be a promising narrative to address issues like logic, rationality, and self. The user in the role of Alice will go through an interactive experience and meets a Caterpillar, who questions the participant's whereabouts of his/her self-concept. To determine the effect of this experience, we discuss a method that measures changes in a person's implicit self-concept for we predict that the experience will have an unconscious effect towards individual metamorphosis. Using the 'implicit association test' (IAT) we could find a significant effect in the hypothesized direction.
Keywords: cultural computing; interactive experience; unconscious; self-concept
A Role Casting Method Based on Emotions in a Story Generation System BIBAFull-Text 182-192
  Ruck Thawonmas; Masanao Kamozaki; Yousuke Ohno
We first point out a problem in the role casting method of a story generation system called OPIATE and then propose a solution to this problem. The existing casting method does not take into account the emotions of a cast non-player character towards actions that it must perform in its role, leading to a miscast. In the proposed casting method, such emotions are considered, besides emotions towards other characters as done in the existing one. Evaluation results, using an online-game simulator, confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method over the existing one with respect to the number of miscasts.
A Novel System for Interactive Live TV BIBAKFull-Text 193-204
  Stefan M. Grünvogel; Richard Wages; Tobias Bürger; Janez Zaletelj
For the production of interactive live TV formats, new content and new productions workflows are necessary. We explain how future content of a parallel multi-stream production of live events may be created from a design and a technical perspective. It is argued, that the content should be arranged by dramaturgical principles taking into account the meaning of the base material. To support the production process a new approach for content recommendation is described which uses semantic annotation from audio-visual material and user feedback.
Keywords: interactive live television; recommender system; extraction of meaning; dramaturgical principle; content; multi-stream
Using Narrative Cases to Author Interactive Story Content BIBAFull-Text 205-210
  Ivo Swartjes
Interactive storytelling is a rapidly emerging field that tries to reconcile story-like experiences with user control. These forces oppose each other, as story implies predetermination and author intent, and interactivity implies freedom and variability. This paper focuses on unscripted (emergent) narrative and addresses the authoring problem resulting from bringing story development into free form interaction. It discusses the possibility of writing story pieces as input knowledge, portraying both believable character behaviour and interesting story situations. It also discusses how such input knowledge can be a source of inspiration for agents in an emergent narrative simulation to improve its potential for story development.

Sound, Music and Creative Environments

Multi-track Scratch Player on a Multi-touch Sensing Device BIBAFull-Text 211-218
  Kentaro Fukuchi
Scratching with turntables is a popular sound generation technique in today's music scene, especially in hip-hop culture. A conventional turntable system consists of two turntables (record players) and an audio mixer, but the proposed system requires a computer and a multi-touch sensing device, so it is smaller and portable. Moreover, the proposed system enables the use of various novel scratching techniques that are difficult or impossible to perform on existing systems. In this paper we describe the implementation of the proposed system and introduce some scratching techniques that can be used with it.
PanoMOBI: Panoramic Mobile Entertainment System BIBAKFull-Text 219-224
  Barnabas Takacs
This paper presents a panoramic broadcasting system for mobile entertainment using 3G network or WIFI where multiple viewers share an experience but each having full control of what they see independent from other viewers. Our solution involves a compact real-time spherical video recording setup that compresses and transmits data from six digital video cameras to a central host computer, which in turn distributes the recorded information among multiple render- and streaming servers for personalized viewing over 3G mobile networks or the Internet. In addition, using advanced computer vision, tracking and animation features, our architecture introduces the notion of Clickable Content (CC) where each visual element in the image becomes a source for providing further information, educational content or advertising. Therefore the PanoMOBI system offers a low-cost and economical solution for personalized content management and it can serve as a unified basis for novel applications.
Keywords: PanoMOBI; PanoCAST; Clickable Content; Telepresence; Immersive Spherical Video; Mobile Broadcast Architecture (MBA)
Application MDA in a Collaborative Modeling Environment BIBAKFull-Text 225-230
  Wuzheng Tan; Lizhuang Ma; Zhiliang Xu; Junfa Mao
This paper proposes a modeling environment that intends to support service collaboration. In this platform, technology independence is a very important goal to be achieved. Model Driven Architecture and metamodels are some of the resources to provide such independence. Based on [1] and [2], this article offers a modified software development process that would leverage MDA, and studies a web application case of conceptual innovation modeling system.
Keywords: MDA; Collaborative Modeling; Collaborative Modeling Platform; Web Application
Age Invaders: User Studies of Intergenerational Computer Entertainment BIBAKFull-Text 231-242
  Eng Tat Khoo; Tim Merritt; Adrian Cheok; Mervyn Lian; Kelvin Yeo
The design goal of the Age Invaders system is to make a mixed reality interaction platform that can facilitate meaningful social interaction with players, from many backgrounds and demographics, at appropriate levels of physical exertion for their age. This paper discusses a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing the user experience and reassessment of the context of use of the Age Invaders system. This paper tests the effectiveness of the system in promoting the intended design goals and the results show strong support for intergenerational interaction using digital technology. Additionally, the results of the study help to focus the refinements of the existing platform and development of further novel games and interactive applications for this mixed reality system, and provide insights into the user in complex mixed reality experiences.
Keywords: Mixed reality entertainment; social computing; family entertainment; game play; user-centered design

Video Processing

Dynamic Texture Synthesis in the YUV Color-Space BIBAFull-Text 243-248
  Leilei Xu; Hanqiu Sun; Jiaya Jia; Chenjun Tao
Dynamic textures are representations of such textured surfaces that exhibit certain stationarity properties in time. These include sea-waves, smoke, foliage, whirlwind, dense crowds, and traffic scenes. We address the problem of dynamic color texture synthesis which is a natural extending of the state-of-art Linear Dynamic System to the YUV color space by analyzing the intrinsic relationship between the color channels and intensity channel. Our experimental results have shown good performance for the testing examples, which remodel short dynamic texture videos into infinite time domain with similar dynamic behaviors.
Video Affective Content Recognition Based on Genetic Algorithm Combined HMM BIBAFull-Text 249-254
  Kai Sun; Junqing Yu
Video affective content analysis is a fascinating but seldom addressed field in entertainment computing research communities. To recognize affective content in video, a video affective content representation and recognition framework based on Video Affective Tree (VAT) and Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) was proposed. The proposed video affective content recognizer has good potential to recognize the basic emotional events of audience. However, due to Expectation-Maximization (EM) methods like the Baum-Welch algorithm tend to converge to the local optimum which is the closer to the starting values of the optimization procedure, the estimation of the recognizer parameters requires a more careful examination. A Genetic Algorithm combined HMM (GA-HMM) is presented here to address this problem. The idea is to combine a genetic algorithm to explore quickly the whole solution space with a Baum-Welch algorithm to find the exact parameter values of the optimum. The experimental results show that GA-HMM can achieve higher recognition rate with less computation compared with our previous works.
Video Processing and Retrieval on Cell Processor Architecture BIBAFull-Text 255-262
  Junqing Yu; Haitao Wei
A multi-level parallel partition schema and three mapping model -- Service, Streaming and OpenMP model -- are proposed to map video processing and retrieval (VPR) workloads to Cell processor. We present a task and data parallel partition scheme to partition and distribute intensive computation workloads of VPR to exploit the parallelism of a sequential program through the different processing core on Cell. To facilitate the VPR programming on Cell, OpenMP programming model is loaded to Cell. Some effective mapping strategies are also presented to conduct the thread creating and data handling between the different processors and reduce the overhead of system performance. The experimental results show that such parallel partition schema and mapping model can be effective to speed up VPR processing on Cell multi-core architecture.
A Hybrid Image Coding in Overdriving for Motion Blur Reduction in LCD BIBAKFull-Text 263-270
  Jun Wang; Kyeongyuk Min; Jongwha Chong
Overdriving technique enlarges the desired change of the pixel value, the error in general compression methods is enlarged at the same time. Therefore, we propose a novel Adaptive Quantization Coding (AQC) to reduce the error in compression for overdriving technique reducing motion blur. Considering hardware implementation, we develop a hybrid image coding which uses color transform first, and then uses AQC to compress luminance data as well as Block Truncation Coding (BTC) to compress chrominance data. The simulation results shown that the average PSNR was improved 5.676dB as compared with the result of BTC, and the average SD of error was reduced 50.2% than that in the BTC. The proposed algorithm is implemented with the verilog HDL and synthesized with the synopsys design compiler using 0.13µm Samsung Library.
Keywords: LCD; Motion blur; Overdriving; Compression; Block Truncation Coding; Adaptive Quantization Coding
See, Hear or Read the Film BIBAFull-Text 271-281
  Carlos Teixeira; Ana Respicio
Films have been the most entertaining art form during the past century. Sometimes they were inspired in written novels; sometimes they have inspired new written novels. Film scripts are halfway between the film in the screen and the pure world of written imagination. Real time is one of the dimensions lost in the script, breaking the anchors to the time signals of what films are made. This paper presents a full approach for merging these two worlds in the real time dimension. Using subtitles time stamping and a new parallel text alignment algorithm, a time stamped script is produced. This is used to create new enriched narrative films, also presented in the paper.


A Practical Framework for Virtual Viewing and Relighting BIBAKFull-Text 282-287
  Qi Duan; Jianjun Yu; Xubo Yang; Shuangjiu Xiao
Recently many practical applications have concerned with observing objects that have specular reflection properties. They intend to know how the specular reflections and other details vary according to different lighting conditions and view positions. In this paper, we propose an innovative framework combining the novel view synthesis algorithm and the relighting algorithm to fulfill these requirements. Another important feature of this framework is that all the algorithms are based on image without acquiring any 3D model which may contain some high confidential secrets. Meanwhile an image measurement criterion is proposed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the framework.
Keywords: Novel View Synthesis; Image-based Relighting; Image Measurement
Interactive Image Based Relighting with Physical Light Acquisition BIBAKFull-Text 288-293
  Jianjun Yu; Xubo Yang; Shuangjiu Xiao
We present an interactive image-based technique to relight real scene with physical light sources acquisition. Firstly, basis images of the real scene are acquired from a fixed viewpoint. Secondly, light direction is estimated and physical light image is captured. Thirdly, measurement image between the reference light image and the novel light image is computed for relighting scene. We demonstrate the technique by interactively relighting a pre-captured real scene using a hand held spotlight projecting light on a white paper.
Keywords: Interactive; Image-based Relighting; Physical Light Acquisition; Lighting Sensitive Display
Real-Time Rendering of Daylight Sky Scene for Virtual Environment BIBAFull-Text 294-303
  Changbo Wang
Realistic rendering of sky scene is important in virtual environment. Traditional methods are mostly based on skybox, thus failing to realistically simulate the change of sky scene under different weathers and conditions. In this paper, a new sky light model under different weathers for virtual environment is proposed. We first analyze the atmosphere characters of sky scene, and calculate the light path and light intensity into eyes through the atmosphere considering atmospheric scattering and refraction. Then for different weathers, by adapting a path tracing algorithm, the intensity distribution of sky light is gained. we also adopt the scattered volume model and GPU techniques to accelerate the calculation. Finally, various sky scenes in sunny day, foggy day, raining day and that with rainbow under different conditions are realistically rendered in real time.
Robust Dense Depth Acquisition Using 2-D De Bruijn Structured Light BIBAKFull-Text 304-314
  Zhiliang Xu; Lizhuang Ma; Wuzheng Tan
We present a new dense depth acquisition method using 2-D De Bruijn structured light, which is robust to various textures and is able to reconstruct dense depth maps of moving and deforming objects. A 2-D binary De Bruijn pattern is emitted to the target object by an off-the-shelf projector. Fast dynamic programming based stereo matching is performed on images taken from two different views. The depth is obtained by robust least square triangulation. The advantages include that we do not need to take image sequences with different illumination patterns and do not assume that the surface for reconstruction has uniform texture. Experimental results show that shapes can be efficiently obtained in good quality by the proposed approach. We believe that our approach is a good choice in applications of acquiring depth maps for moving scenes with inexpensive equipments.
Keywords: Depth acquisition; range sensing; 3-D model reconstruction; De Bruijn sequence

Computer Animation and Networks

Semiautomatic Rule Assist Architecture Modeling BIBAFull-Text 315-323
  Hua Liu; Hongxin Zhang; Hujun Bao
This paper presents a novel rule-driven architecture modeling technique. Different from grammar based procedural modeling approaches, our proposed method, called rule assist architecture modeling (RAAM), tends to integrate user interactions with implied modeling rules. Construction rules, configure rules and constrain rules are introduced in our method to minimize user interactions and enhance modeling efficiency. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and flexibility of our method to generate villas and skyscrapers.
Online Expression Mapping for Performance-Driven Facial Animation BIBAFull-Text 324-338
  Hae Won Byun
Recently, performance-driven facial animation has been popular in various entertainment area, such as game, animation movie, and advertisement. With the easy use of motion capture data from a performer's face, the resulting animated faces are far more natural and lifelike. However, when the characteristic features between live performer and animated character are quite different, expression mapping becomes a difficult problem. Many previous researches focus on facial motion capture only or facial animation only. Little attention has been paid to mapping motion capture data onto 3D face model.
   Therefore, we present a new expression mapping approach for performance-driven facial animation. Especially, we consider online factor of expression mapping for real-time application. Our basic idea is capturing the facial motion from a real performer and adapting it to a virtual character in real-time. For this purpose, we address three issues: facial expression capture, expression mapping and facial animation. We first propose a comprehensive solution for real-time facial expression capture without any devices such as head-mounted cameras and face-attached markers. With the analysis of the facial expression, the facial motion can be effectively mapped onto another 3D face model. We present a novel example-based approach for creating facial expressions of model to mimic those of face performer. Finally, real-time facial animation is provided with multiple face models, called "facial examples". Each of these examples reflects both a facial expression of different type and designer's insight to be a good guideline for animation. The resulting animation preserves the facial expressions of performer as well as the characteristic features of the target examples.
Predicting Peer Offline Probability in BitTorrent Using Nonlinear Regression BIBAKFull-Text 339-344
  Dongdong Nie; Qinyong Ma; Lizhuang Ma; Wuzheng Tan
BitTorrent is a popular and scalable P2P content distribution tool. This study attempts to analyze the factors that affect the offline probability of BitTorrent peer, and express the probability using these factors. We first collect large data set of BitTorrent peers' activities. Then we use nonlinear least-squares regression to determine the probability distribution function for each of the three factors (download percent, download speed, and local time) and the joint probability distribution function of the three factors, and use another large data set to verify the prediction results.
Keywords: BitTorrent; Offline; Probability Distribution; Regression

Game Based Interfaces

Game Design Guided by Visual Attention BIBAKFull-Text 345-355
  Li Jie; James J. Clark
Visual attention plays a critical role in game playing. A better understanding of the allocation of visual attention can benefit the design of game scenarios. In this paper we propose to design games in different difficulty levels based on the estimation of attention. We use eye movement information in an analysis of attention. Eye fixation and pursuit conditions are considered separately. We find that the image complexity at eye fixation points and the relative position between pursuit direction and disturbance during pursuit eye movements are significant for attention allocation. This result is applied to the design of an interactive 2D game having two difficulty levels. Player response speeds and scores are compared for each difficulty level of the game.
Keywords: game design; visual attention; eye fixation; eye pursuit
Dialogs Taking into Account Experience, Emotions and Personality BIBAKFull-Text 356-362
  Anne-Gwenn Bosser; Guillaume Levieux; Karim Sehaba; Axel Buendia; Vincent Corruble; Guillaume de Fondaumière; Viviane Gal; Stéphane Natkin; Nicolas Sabouret
This paper describes the DEEP project (Dialogs taking into account Experience, Emotions and Personality, adapted to computer games), which started in June 2006. The aim of the project is to provide generic solutions for the integration of autonomous Non Player Characters (NPCs) in next-generation adventure games. DEEP NPCs, equipped with a personality and a believable emotional engine, will use context-based information from the game environment and the player behavior to provide entertaining, rich and relevant dialogs.
Keywords: narrative intelligence; interactive narrative; interactive drama; narrative structures; behavior engine; agents; virtual characters; personality model; emotion model; dialog
Marching Bear: An Interface System Encouraging User's Emotional Attachment and Providing an Immersive Experience BIBAKFull-Text 363-373
  Nagisa Munekata; Takanori Komatsu; Hitoshi Matsubara
We developed an interface system called "Marching Bear," where the robot controller's motions were reflected in the motions of certain characters appearing on a computer display. We then conducted a simple experiment to investigate the effectiveness of this interface system to see whether users felt that this interface system was enjoyable. We used a questionnaire and conducted an observation to determine whether users could direct the robot's arms in such a way as to make the character walk. We also investigated the effectiveness of our interface system with two displays, one large, the other small. The results were that most participants felt this system was enjoyable and that they could direct the robot's arms in the way needed to make the character walk. The larger display had a significantly stronger effect on the participants' emotional aspects; they felt that the character had some emotions and that they could communicate with the character well. Therefore, the interface system, Marching Bear, was not only enjoyable for users because of the robot controls, but also this type of interface system may become a users' companion or be perceived as an independent character.
Keywords: interface system; emotional aspect; independent character; companion
Marble Market: Bimanual Interactive Game with a Body Shape Sensor BIBAFull-Text 374-380
  Kentaro Fukuchi; Jun Rekimoto
A video game application was developed using SmartSkin, a body shape sensing device. The video game uses a table-sized SmartSkin that can recognize players' arms on the tabletop. Sensor values are translated to a virtual potential field and the system calculates dynamics of game characters on the field.
   At most four players can play the game, and the players control many independent game characters displayed on the table using their arms simultaneously.

Robots and Cyber Pets

Concept and Architecture of a Centaur Robot BIBAFull-Text 381-388
  Satoshi Tsuda; Yohsuke Oda; Kuniya Shinozaki; Ryohei Nakatsu
Recently various types of robots are being studied and developed, which can be classified into two groups: humanoid type and animal types. Since each group has its own merits and demerits, a new type of robot is expected to emerge with greater strengths and fewer weaknesses. In this paper we propose a new type of robot called the "Centaur Robot" by merging the concepts of these two types of robots. This robot has a human-like upper body and a four-legged animal-like lower body. Due to this basic architecture, the robot has several merits, including human-like behaviors. It can also walk smoothly and stably even on non-smooth ground. We describe the basic concept of our centaur robot and then explain its hardware and software architectures as well as its merits.
An Embedded System of Face Recognition Based on ARM and HMM BIBAKFull-Text 389-394
  Yanbin Sun; Lun Xie; Zhiliang Wang; Yi An
Face recognition is important for many applications, including security check-up, judicial administration, visual monitoring and intelligent interaction. Current commercial and research systems use software implementation and require a dedicated computer for the image-processing task -- a large, expensive, and complicated-to-use solution. In order to make face recognition ubiquitous, the system complexity, size, and price must be substantially reduced. This paper presents an ARM-based embedded system for face recognition. The float image-pretreatment algorithm was redesigned to enable highly image-pretreatment implementation for ARM9 microprocessor. The system uses a CMOS digital imaging sensor OV7640, a S3C2410A processor and the Linux Operation System for the image processing. A face recognition algorithm based on the HMM is presented. The software can be run in intelligent mobile telephone or PDA directly. This new design is suitable for face detection and recognition, thus making an important step towards low-cost and portable systems.
Keywords: embedded system; Linux; HMM; ARM; Face Recognition
Activity Recognition Using One Triaxial Accelerometer: A Neuro-fuzzy Classifier with Feature Reduction BIBAKFull-Text 395-400
  Jhun-Ying Yang; Yen-Ping Chen; Gwo-Yun Lee; Shun-Nan Liou; Jeen-Shing Wang
This paper presents a neuro-fuzzy classifer for activity recognition using one triaxial accelerometer and feature reduction approaches. We use a triaxial accelerometer to acquire subjects' acceleration data and train the neuro-fuzzy classifier to distinguish different activities/movements. To construct the neuro-fuzzy classifier, a modified mapping-constrained agglomerative clustering algorithm is devised to reveal a compact data configuration from the acceleration data. In addition, we investigate two different feature reduction methods, a feature subset selection and linear discriminate analysis. These two methods are used to determine the significant feature subsets and retain the characteristics of the data distribution in the feature space for training the neuro-fuzzy classifier. Experimental results have successfully validated the effectiveness of the proposed classifier.
Keywords: Acceleration; activity recognition; feature extraction; linear discriminate analysis; neuro-fuzzy system; triaxial accelerometer
GFE -- Graphical Finite State Machine Editor for Parallel Execution BIBAKFull-Text 401-406
  David Obdrzalek; Jan Benda
In this paper we present GFE -- the Graphical FSM (Finite State Machine) Editor based on the Grafcet SFC (Sequential Function Chart) model. The GFE takes advantage of automated code generation and provides strong tools for complex control. At the same time it gives a high-level overview of the entire robotic control architecture. A complex control system may be designed, tested and deployed using visual approach. This is particularly useful for education where the students do not have to start always from scratch, or for young robot builders who are not as experienced in low-level programming. Once a control library is implemented for a particular robot, it may be reused and the robot may be programmed using solely graphical approach, because the most complicated part of controller design -- the state machine -- is automatically generated. This avoids typing errors and allows fast and simple redesign.
Keywords: robot control; automatic finite state machine generation; graphical control design


Media Me: Body and Personal Media Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 407-410
  Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Imiyage Janaka Prasad Wijesena; Adrian David Cheok; Ajith Parakum Madurapperuma; Lochandaka Ranathunga; Mei Gangwen; Miyuru Dayarathna; Srinivasan Mariappan; Lee Rui Jie Jerome
"Media Me" is a media interactive art work which comments on the bidirectional relationship between people and the media through the use of a realtime video mosaic. The elements of the video mosaic could be personal, cultural, historical, and educational. This research can be considered as a combination of creativity, art, and digital entertainment as well as an extension of personal media broadcasting. It comments on the growing trend of personal broadcasting and social media.
Keywords: Video mosaic; interactive media; human-media interaction
Background Subtraction Using Running Gaussian Average and Frame Difference BIBAFull-Text 411-414
  Zhen Tang; Zhenjiang Miao; Yanli Wan
Background Subtraction methods are wildly used to detect moving object from static cameras. It has many applications such as traffic monitoring, human motion capture and recognition, and video surveillance. It is hard to propose a background model which works well under all different situations. Actually, there is no need to propose a pervasive model; it is a good model as long as it works well under a special situation. In this paper, a new method combining Gaussian Average and Frame Difference is proposed. Shadow suppression is not specifically dealt with, because it is considered to be part of the background, and can be subtracted by using an appropriate threshold. At last, a new method is raised to fill small gaps that the detected foreground or the moving objects may contain.
Playing and Cheating in Ambient Entertainment BIBAKFull-Text 415-420
  Anton Nijholt
We survey ways to extract information from users interacting in ambient intelligence entertainment environments. We speculate on the use of this information, including information obtained from physiological processes and brain-computer interfacing, in future game environments.
Keywords: Entertainment computing; nonverbal interaction; cheating
Selfish Search on Playing Shogi BIBAFull-Text 421-426
  Takeshi Ito
If a human faces a complex problem with a large number of potential solutions and calculations, he will not always act logically. In gamble, public lottery, etc., we see a mechanism by which a bookmaker makes a profit probable. There the chances of winning are always overestimated by the human player. For example, in public lottery, some people are allured by ungrounded rumors (such as "it is the turn of the sales store to win"). Other people take superstitious actions grounded on fortune-telling. A fully different example of irrational human decision making in games can be found in the domain of the imperfect information and the chance gambling game Mahjong. A recent study [1] evaluating game records of internet Mahjong concluded that some amateur players treat a professional's remark like a proverb and believe it blindly in spite of a lack of evidence to support the proposition.
The Effects of Network Loads and Latency in Multiplayer Online Games BIBAKFull-Text 427-432
  Jin Ryong Kim; Il Kyu Park; Kwang Hyun Shim
In this work, we performed variety of tests to see the effects of network loads and latency in multiplayer online games. We applied hierarchical load testing architecture using large scale virtual clients to find out the bottlenecks of the game servers. We also investigated the effect of latency on multiplayer online games. We controlled network game packets (i.e. packet delay, packet drop rate, packet duplication rate, packet reordering rate) to see the impact on real-time multiplayer games.
Keywords: Load tests; multiplayer games; MMOG tests; P2P-based tests; network game tests; mean opinion score
Design for Debate in Robotics: Questioning Paradigms in a Techno-social Discourse BIBAKFull-Text 433-436
  Wouter Reeskamp; Katrien Ploegmakers
'Design for Debate' is an emerging approach in the domain of design. This paper proposes a more pragmatic application. A workshop was developed and conducted with experts in the field of social robotics. Concepts for affective robots were visualized to provoke out-of-the-box thinking. During eight workshops, robotic professionals questioned their paradigms.
Keywords: Design for Debate; Critical Design; Social Robotics; Paradigms; Design Parameters; Workshop
Extracting Realistic Textures from Reference Spheres BIBAKFull-Text 437-440
  Zuoyong Zheng; Lizhuang Ma; Zhou Zeng
This paper proposes a method for extracting realistic textures from real-world reference spheres. The BRDF parameters of fundamental materials, as well as a material weight map for the sphere are obtained through a non-linear optimization process. The material weight map can be used as a conventional texture for relighting. With the BRDF models recovered, the real and natural appearances of 3D objects can be reproduced under novel lighting and viewing directions.
Keywords: BRDF; Material Weight; Texture Mapping; Realistic Rendering
Application and Research on Affection Model Based on Bayesian Network BIBAFull-Text 441-444
  Lin Shi; Zhiliang Wang; Zhigang Li
It needs not only intelligence but also emotion for the computer to realize harmonious human computer interaction, which is one of the research focuses in the field of computer science. This paper proposes a hierarchical approach to represent personality, affection and emotion, using Bayesian Network to affection model and show emotion via virtual human's facial expression. The affection model was applied to an affective HCI system, proved to be simple, effective and stable.
A Survey on Projector-Based PC Clustered Distributed-Rendering Large Screen Displays and Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 445-449
  Munjae Song; Seongwon Park
Large screen display systems are common display systems nowadays. Especially projector-based PC cluster large screen display systems share most of large screen display system market and they are main research topics today. A lot of researchers research on cluster algorithms, computation power improvements, high performance graphic rendering technologies, high speed buses, networks, and HCIs. Also, remarkable research results are being published by technical leading groups. Whereas, following groups who want research on large screen display have difficulties even to build a test system. Unfortunately, there are not enough information to build large screen display systems. In this paper, we survey on projector-based PC cluster large screen display technologies that use distributed rendering.
Keywords: Large screen display; Tiled display; PC cluster; Projector-based; Distributed rendering
Automated Personal Authentication Using Both Palmprints BIBAFull-Text 450-453
  Xiangqian Wu; Kuanquan Wang; David Zhang
To satisfy personal interests, different entertainment computing should be performed for different people (called personal entertainment computing). For personal entertainment computing, the personal identity should be first automatically authenticated. This paper proposes a novel approach for automated personal authentication by using both palmprints. The experimental results show that the fusion of the information of both palmprints can dramatically improve the authentication accuracy.
A TV Commercial Monitoring System Using Audio Fingerprinting BIBAFull-Text 454-457
  Seungjae Lee; Jin S. Seo
In this paper, we describe an audio fingerprinting-based commercial monitoring system for TV broadcasting. The goal of the commercial monitoring is to identify commercials being broadcasted and find out the time duration. If there are similar commercials in the fingerprint database, we sometimes have trouble in determining which commercial has been broadcasted. To solve this problem, we propose the partial distance comparison method which identifies commercials and discriminates them from background music. Experimental results show that the proposed method improves commercial-identification performance by discriminating different versions of the same commercial.
Player Immersion in the Computer Game Narrative BIBAFull-Text 458-461
  Hua Qin; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
The main characteristics of the computer game narrative are interactive and nonlinear, so this study proposes a questionnaire aim at studying player immersion in the computer game narrative. To evaluate the questionnaire, a survey was conducted on the Internet. After factor analysis and reliability test, an instrument for measuring player immersion were obtained. This instrument not only can be applied to the computer game narrative, it also ca be used to measure user experience in story-oriented virtual reality.
Music Video Viewers' Preference Evaluation Criteria and Their Characteristics BIBAKFull-Text 462-465
  Maiko Kamata; Michiaki Yasumura
This study investigated music video viewers' characteristics and their preference evaluation criteria. We had detailed interviews based on the evaluation grid method with ten participants. All participants watch music videos frequently. Our participants could be divided into following two types: (1) Singer-based type viewers: they emphasized the importance of the singer(s) singing the song in their preference evaluation criteria. (2) Image-based type viewers: they insisted that the images were the high-priority parameters in their preference evaluation. It is noteworthy that their preference criteria and viewing style were affected by whether they prefer Japanese or English songs.
Keywords: music video; viewer; preference evaluation; detailed interviews
Virtual Consumption: Using Player Types to Explore Virtual Consumer Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 466-469
  Penny Drennan; Dominique A. Keeffe
As virtual economies begin to interact more with real world economies, it is important to consider the in-game activities that players engage in, which create and transfer game currency. Specifically, we examine products and services that players offer to each other within MMORPGs. We use Bartle's taxonomy of player types to illustrate the different behavioral approaches players have in consuming these products and services. We introduce the term virtual consumption to describe these in-game exchanges and highlight the need for further research into this phenomenon.
Keywords: player types; virtual consumption; consumer behavior
Codebook Design of Keyblock Based Image Retrieval BIBAKFull-Text 470-474
  Hui Liu; Cai-ming Zhang
This paper presents an image retrieval method based on keyblocks combing with interest points, furthermore the generation of codebook is also utilized to enhance the retrieval performance, where the balance between the retrieved precision and time cost can decide the codebook size of this CBIR system. Finally, the proposed method is compared with the method that only depends on interest points or keyblocks.
Keywords: CBIR; keyblocks; codebook; retrieved precision
Template Based Image Mosaics BIBAKFull-Text 475-478
  Yoon-Seok Choi; Bon-Ki Koo; Ji-Hyung Lee
We propose an image mosaic method based on tile template. Compared with a conventional mosaic which is comprised of the circle or the square tiles, our approach uses the arbitrary shaped tiles. But an arbitrary shaped tile leaves the excessive gap between tiles in the mosaic construction. Then the gap makes it difficult to preserve the fine detail of an original image. Our approach controls overlap between tiles to minimize the gap by using the mask technique and adopts stackable technique to represent the fine detail of a source image automatically.
Keywords: Non Photorealistic Rendering; Mosaic Rendering; Image Mosaic