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ICEC Tables of Contents: 040506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Entertainment Computing

Fullname:ICEC 2009: 8th International Conference on Entertainment Computing
Editors:Stéphane Natkin; Jérôme Dupire
Location:Paris, France
Dates:2009-Sep-03 to 2009-Sep-05
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5709
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-04052-8 hcibib: ICEC09; ISBN: 978-3-642-04051-1 (print), 978-3-642-04052-8 (online)
Papers:62
Pages:338
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Player's Model
  2. Interfaces and Interactions
  3. Sociology of Games
  4. Interactive Storytelling -- Interactive Art
  5. Interactive Sound
  6. Design and Experience
  7. Interfaces and Interactions
  8. Interaction Design -- Player's model
  9. Programming Interactions
  10. Posters and Demonstrations
  11. Invited Speakers

Player's Model

Player Performance, Satisfaction, and Video Game Enjoyment BIBAKFull-Text 1-12
  Christoph Klimmt; Christopher Blake; Dorothée Hefner; Peter Vorderer; Christian Roth
An experiment (N = 74) was conducted to investigate the impact of game difficulty and player performance on game enjoyment. Participants played a First Person Shooter game with systematically varied levels of difficulty. Satisfaction with performance and game enjoyment were assessed after playing. Results are not fully in line with predictions derived from flow and attribution theory and suggest players to (1) change their view on their own performance with its implications for enjoyment with increasing game experience and (2) to switch strategically between different sources of fun, thus maintaining a (somewhat) positive experience even when performance-based enjoyment is low.
Keywords: Video games; entertainment; enjoyment; performance; flow; attribution theory
Analysis of Area Revisitation Patterns in World of Warcraft BIBAFull-Text 13-23
  Ruck Thawonmas; Keisuke Yoshida; Jing-Kai Lou; Kuan-Ta Chen
This paper analyzes area revisitation patterns in World of Warcraft (WoW). Online-game players roam a number of in-game areas while playing the game and revisit some of them with different personal reasons. To clarify this issue, we conduct a large-scale analysis using WoW access log collected for two years consisting of more than sixty thousand characters and have discovered four main groups of area revisitation patterns. We describe also in the paper how our findings can be utilized to support both game developers and players.
Scaling the Level of Difficulty in Single Player Video Games BIBAKFull-Text 24-35
  Maria-Virginia Aponte; Guillaume Levieux; Stéphane Natkin
In this paper, we discuss the interest and the need to evaluate the difficulty of single player video games. We first show the importance of difficulty, drawing from semiotics to explain the link between tension-resolution cycles, and challenge with the player's enjoyment. Then, we report related work on automatic gameplay analysis. We show through a simple experimentation that automatic video game analysis is both practicable and can lead to interesting results. We argue that automatic analysis tools are limited if they do not consider difficulty from the player point of view. The last section provides a player and Game Design oriented definition of the challenge and difficulty notions in games. As a consequence we derive the property that must fulfill a measurable definition of difficulty.
Keywords: video games; challenge; difficulty; learning; evaluation

Interfaces and Interactions

Dance Motion Control of a Humanoid Robot Based on Real-Time Tempo Tracking from Musical Audio Signals BIBAKFull-Text 36-47
  Naoto Nakahara; Koji Miyazaki; Hajime Sakamoto; Takashi X. Fujisawa; Noriko Nagata; Ryohei Nakatsu
This paper proposes a system that controls and generates a humanoid robot's dance motion in real-time using the timing of beats in musical audio signals. The system tracks changes in tempo and calculate the integration value of a decibel by analyzing audio signals in real-time. It uses the information to add changes to the robot's dance motion. Beat intervals and the integration value of decibels are used to change the tempo and range of the robot's dance motion respectively. We propose a method to synchronize dance motion of robot with musical beat, changing the robot's dance motion interactively according to the input value.
Keywords: Robot; Dance Motion; Beat Tracking; Music Understanding; Human Computer Interaction
Marker-Less Tracking for Multi-layer Authoring in AR Books BIBAKFull-Text 48-59
  Kiyoung Kim; Jonghee Park; Woontack Woo
An Augmented Reality (AR) book is an application that applies AR technologies to physical books for providing a new experience to users. In this paper, we propose a new marker-less tracking method for the AR book. The main goal of the tracker is not only to recognize many pages, but also to compute 6 DOF camera pose. As a result, we can augment different virtual contents according to the corresponding page. For this purpose, we use a multi-core programming approach that separates the page recognition module from the tracking module. In the page recognition module, highly distinctive Scale Invariant Features Transform (SIFT) features are used. In the tracking module, a coarse-to-fine approach is exploited for fast frame-to-frame matching. Our tracker provides more than 30 frames per second. In addition to the tracker, we explain multi-layer based data structure for maintaining the AR book. A GUI-based authoring tool is also shown to validate feasibility of the tracker and data structures. The proposed algorithm would be helpful to create various AR applications that require multiple planes tracking.
Keywords: augmented reality; marker-less tracking; layer authoring; page recognition; AR book; SIFT
Personal Space Modeling for Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 60-72
  Toshitaka Amaoka; Hamid Laga; Suguru Saito; Masayuki Nakajima
In this paper we focus on the Personal Space (PS) as a non-verbal communication concept to build a new Human Computer Interaction. The analysis of people positions with respect to their PS gives an idea on the nature of their relationship. We propose to analyze and model the PS using Computer Vision (CV), and visualize it using Computer Graphics. For this purpose, we define the PS based on four parameters: distance between people, their face orientations, age, and gender. We automatically estimate the first two parameters from image sequences using CV technology, while the two other parameters are set manually. Finally, we calculate the two-dimensional relationship of multiple persons and visualize it as 3D contours in real-time. Our method can sense and visualize invisible and unconscious PS distributions and convey the spatial relationship of users by an intuitive visual representation. The results of this paper can be used for Human Computer Interaction in public spaces.
Technology-Enhanced Role-Play for Intercultural Learning Contexts BIBAFull-Text 73-84
  Mei Yii Lim; Michael Kriegel; Ruth Aylett; Sibylle Enz; Natalie Vannini; Lynne Hall; Paola Rizzo; Karin Leichtenstern
Role-play can be a powerful educational tool, especially when dealing with social or ethical issues. However while other types of education activity have been routinely technology-enhanced for some time, the specific problems of supporting educational role-play with technology have only begun to be tackled recently. Within the eCIRCUS project we have designed a framework for technology-enhanced role-play with the aim of educating adolescents about intercultural empathy. This work was influenced by related fields such as intelligent virtual agents, interactive narrative and pervasive games. In this paper we will describe the different components of our role-play technology by means of a prototype implementation of this technology, the ORIENT showcase. Furthermore we will present some preliminary results of our first evaluation trials of ORIENT.
MusicCommentator: Generating Comments Synchronized with Musical Audio Signals by a Joint Probabilistic Model of Acoustic and Textual Features BIBAKFull-Text 85-97
  Kazuyoshi Yoshii; Masataka Goto
This paper presents a system called MusicCommentator that suggests possible comments on appropriate temporal positions in a musical audio clip. In an online video sharing service, many users can provide free-form text comments for temporal events occurring in clips not for entire clips. To emulate the commenting behavior of users, we propose a joint probabilistic model of audio signals and comments. The system trains the model by using existing clips and users' comments given to those clips. Given a new clip and some of its comments, the model is used to estimate what temporal positions could be commented on and what comments could be added to those positions. It then concatenates possible words by taking language constraints into account. Our experimental results showed that using existing comments in a new clip resulted in improved accuracy for generating suitable comments to it.
Keywords: Audio and language processing; user communication modeling; probabilistic music-comment association; comment generation
MiniDiver: A Novel Mobile Media Playback Interface for Rich Video Content on an iPhone™ BIBAFull-Text 98-109
  Gregor Miller; Sidney Fels; Matthias Finke; Will Motz; Walker Eagleston; Chris Eagleston
We describe our new mobile media content browser called a MiniDiver. MiniDiving considers media browsing as a personal experience that is viewed, personalized, saved, shared and annotated. When placed on a mobile platform, such as the iPhone™, consideration of the particular interface elements lead to new ways to experience media content. The MiniDiver interface elements currently supports multi-camera selection, video hyperlinks, history mechanisms and semantic and episodic video search. We compare performance of the MiniDiver on different media streams to illustrate its feasibility.

Sociology of Games

Children's Choice of Games: The Influence of Prosocial Tendency and Education-Level BIBAKFull-Text 110-119
  Vivian Hseuh-Hua Chen; Weirong Lin; Chiew Woon Ng; Su Li Chai; Angeline Cheok Eng Khoo; Henry Been-Lirn Duh
This study employed the uses and gratifications approach to examine children's choice of gaming genres. The measure of prosocial behavioral tendency was used as an approximation of a child's offline gratification, and this was related to the exposure to three different genres of games (violent, aggressive and prosocial). The influence of education level was also taken into consideration. Data was compiled and analyzed from a survey conducted on Singaporean schoolchildren (N = 2,640). Overall results supported the supplementary model of gratification seeking behavior. Children with higher prosocial scores spent significantly less time playing violent and aggressive games, whereas children of a higher education level spent more time playing games of all genres. The results are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Uses and Gratifications; Games; Prosocial Orientations
Player Experience Evaluation: An Approach Based on the Personal Construct Theory BIBAKFull-Text 120-131
  Francesco Bellotti; Riccardo Berta; Alessandro De Gloria; Ludovica Primavera
The scientific and industrial community related to the videogame (VG) research and business is ever more concerned about the need for proper evaluation and assessment of games. This paper proposes an assessment methodology based on the Personal Construct Theory (PCT). The PCT allows identifying constructs can be processed to define a space where domain-relevant items -- VGs, in our case -- can be positioned. The main praise of PCT is that the test-leading researcher does not supply users with a predefined set of constructs, which may bias the evaluation process. Moreover, PCT joins qualitative aspects with a quantitative evaluation of their relevance, which is particularly useful for an operational approach also to game design. In this paper, we study the application of the PCT to the particular case of the evaluation of whole typologies of VGs. Discussing the results, we draw and highlight that VGs are perceived as engaging challenges where personal abilities are continuously put to the test. This stresses the reactive nature of VGs and the fact that players like being stimulated and developing and testing their reaction capabilities.
Keywords: Videogames; User Experience; videogame testing and evaluation; Repertory Grid Technique; Personal Construct Theory

Interactive Storytelling -- Interactive Art

A Plot-Manipulation Algebra to Support Digital Storytelling BIBAKFull-Text 132-144
  Börje Karlsson; Simone D. J. Barbosa; Antonio L. Furtado; Marco A. Casanova
Plot composition is examined here at a logic design level, an intermediate stage that comes next to the conceptual level wherein the intended narrative genre is specified. An abstract data structure is proposed to represent plots, together with an algebra for manipulating the data structure. Our purpose is to adapt for narratives the strategy applied to databases by Codd's relational model. The basic operators of our Plot-Manipulation Algebra (PMA) are introduced in view of the four fundamental relations between events that we identified in a previous work. A logic programming prototype was implemented in order to run examples using the algebra.
Keywords: storytelling; narratology; plots; logic design; algebraic formalisms
Distributed Episode Control System for Interactive Narrative Entertainment BIBAKFull-Text 145-156
  Jun'ichi Hoshino; Katsutoki Hamana; Shiratori Kazuto; Atsushi Nakano
We propose the massive action control system (MACS) for interactive narrative entertainment. MACS determines the action priorities for characters based in part on their own internal states, such as the motivation behind the action, feeling, and personality. MACS selects a behavior control module, called an episode tree, of about 1000 events, which is divided into action types based on these internal states and external situations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the system with the Spilant World interactive animation contents at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Japan, and NAMCO amusement park.
Keywords: narrative entertainment; massive action; episode tree; lifelike
Virtual Noctiluca: Interaction between Light and Water Using Real-Time Fluid Simulation and 3D Motion Measurement BIBAKFull-Text 157-166
  Kyouhei Aida; Noriko Nagata
In recent years, with the rapid improvement of the performance of computers, new possibilities for real-time simulation technologies are emerging. In this study, we simulated the behavior of water in real time and combined this simulation with a measurement of the user's 3D motion to simulate the interaction between water and light, as observed in Noctiluca. Noctiluca is oceanic plankton that produces light when physically stimulated. Stirring the surface of water containing Noctiluca in a completely dark place causes the surface to glow, and an observer can gain the mystical and fantastic experience of watching the glow becoming dim with the flow of the water.
Keywords: Interactive art; GPU; stereo vision; Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics; animation; illumination

Interactive Sound

Sound and Movement Visualization in the AR-Jazz Scenario BIBAKFull-Text 167-172
  Cristina Portalés; Carlos D. Perales
This paper describes AR-Jazz, an augmented reality application designed to visualize sound and movements in live jazz performances. The augmented scenario is achieved within the program Max MSP Jitter, with an integrated inertial sensor and a microphone. As a display, a cinema screen is used. The application was first shown at the SedaJazz Festival 2007 in Valencia (Spain). In first place, a workshop was made in order the musicians to become familiar with the application. Secondly, a live performance was shown. The experience is described in this paper.
Keywords: augmented reality; jam session; sound visualization; inertial sensor
Experimenting with Sound Immersion in an Arts and Crafts Museum BIBAKFull-Text 173-178
  Fatima-Zahra Kaghat; Cécile Le Prado; Areti Damala; Pierre Cubaud
Technical museums are goods targets for experimenting with sound immersion and soundscape authoring. This paper presents an immersive sound system emitting audio content. Experimentations were conducted with a wired, proof-of-concept prototype and two wireless devices. Our system takes into consideration the position of museum visitors as well as their orientation and visual vector. In contrast with other approaches, tracking and rendering are executed locally and in real-time by the visitor's device.
Keywords: museum; immersion; edutainment; sound spatialization; head-tracking; soundscape
BayesianBand: Jam Session System Based on Mutual Prediction by User and System BIBAFull-Text 179-184
  Tetsuro Kitahara; Naoyuki Totani; Ryosuke Tokuami; Haruhiro Katayose
One kind of pleasure that jam sessions bring is deciding a melody or an accompaniment while mutually predicting what the other participants are going to play. We propose a jam session system, called BayesianBand, which provides this kind of musical pleasure through sessions with computers. With this system, the chord progression in a session is not fixed in advance but rather is determined in real time by predicting the user's melody. The user, while improvising, is also expected to predict the chord progression generated by the system; accordingly, a cooperative jam session based on the mutual prediction will be achieved. To build this system, we constructed a model for melody prediction and chord inference based on a Bayesian network.
v.morish'09: A Morphing-Based Singing Design Interface for Vocal Melodies BIBAKFull-Text 185-190
  Masanori Morise; Masato Onishi; Hideki Kawahara; Haruhiro Katayose
This paper describes a singing design method based on morphing, the design and development of an intuitive interface to assist morphing-based singing design. The proposed interface has a function for real-time morphing, based on simple operation with a mouse, and an editor to control the singing features in detail. The user is able to enhance singing voices efficiently by using these two functions. In this paper, we discuss the requirement for an interface to assist in morphing-based singing design, and develop an interface to fulfill the requirement.
Keywords: Singing voice synthesis; voice morphing technique; user interface design

Design and Experience

New Hitch Haiku: An Interactive Renku Poem Composition Supporting Tool Applied for Sightseeing Navigation System BIBAKFull-Text 191-196
  Xiaofeng Wu; Naoko Tosa; Ryohei Nakatsu
As is well-known, cultures are rooted in their unique regions, histories and languages. Communication media have been developed to circulate these cultural characteristics. As a part of our research "Cultural Computing", which means the translation of cultures using scientific methods representing essential aspects of Japanese culture[1], an interactive Renku poem generation supporting system was developed to study the reproduction of a traditional Japanese Renku by computer. This system extended the functionality of our previous Hitch-Haiku system to the Renku based on same association method and attached more cultural characteristics on it: the Renku verse displayed on the Japanese-style color pattern which represents the same season in Renku Kigo (seasonal reference) and the generated Renku verse including the information of sightseeing place.
Keywords: Haiku; Renku; Renku generation; Interactive art; Association
Using Persuasive Technologies for Energy Consumption Management: A South African Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 197-203
  Pieter Joubert; Sumarie Roodt
In this paper the authors evaluate Chevron's Energyville, as an example of a persuasive technology, which is used to change attitudes and behaviours. The authors want to explore this simulation in terms of it's potential to be transplanted as a persuasive technology into the South African context, given the fact that South Africa is experiencing an energy crisis currently and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future.
Keywords: Persuasive Technology; Energy; Energyville; Captology; Persuasion; Interactive Technologies; Serious Gaming
Designing Interactive Blimps as Puppets BIBAKFull-Text 204-209
  Hideki Yoshimoto; Kazuhiro Jo; Koichi Hori
In this paper we propose four models of unmanned blimps: Robots, Pets, Agents, and Puppets, according to whether they are autonomous or not and whether they are shown to people or not. Robots and Pets are autonomous and Agents and Puppets are not autonomous. Robots and Agents are shown to people and Pets and Puppets are not shown to people. Based on these models, we approach toward interactive blimps as puppets, which visualize performances from people to people with real time effects and motions. We implemented prototype applications where people could make performances through controls of the blimp's light effects and flight motions with voice via mobile phones and a physical controller. We organized observations of these prototypes at a laboratory experiment and demo exhibitions. We also discuss our models based on spectators' experience.
Keywords: Blimp; Airship; Performance; Interaction; Art; Installation
Requirements for Supporting Individual Human Creativity in the Design Domain BIBAFull-Text 210-215
  Uta Lösch; Julie Dugdale; Yves Demazeau
Creativity is an important activity in many professional and leisure domains. This article presents a first step towards a system which will provide a set of tools for enhancing the individual creative abilities of the user in a design task. We have identified aspects which are characterise individual creativity: motivation, domain knowledge, externalization, inspiration and analogies, and requirements handling. Based on these aspects we have defined requirements and suggest associated system functionalities.

Interfaces and Interactions

Sonic Gestures Applied to a Percussive Dialogue in TanGram Using Wii Remotes BIBAKFull-Text 216-221
  Carlos D. Perales; Cristina Portalés; Francisco Sanmartín
TanGram, is an original music score composed by Carlos D. Perales for Percussion Quartet and Nintendo Wii Remotes used as a wireless interface for Live Electronics. This paper examines how this composition explores exiting research in interaction and communication between instruments and digital sound processing discourse to produce a unique music mixed-media score, to explore the sonic possibilities of a multi-timbrical instrument with the integration of the visual gestures of an accessible device using processes of real-time gestural mimesis.
Keywords: Music; Electroacoustic; Live Electronics; Percussion
TNT: Touch 'n' Tangibles on LC-Displays BIBAKFull-Text 222-227
  Ramon Hofer; Andreas Kunz
In this paper, we present TNT (Touch 'n' Tangibles) -- a new combination of several existing hardware technologies, which are integrated into an LC-display. TNT enables users to interact using finger touch and tangible user interfaces at the same time on an active flat panel screen, while maintaining precise identification of all interactive objects and fingers. TNT can accurately distinguish between touch and Tangible User Interfaces input by assigning different time slots to each interactive object using the same sensing technology for both methods. TNT's tracking is not affected by objects on the screen other than fingers and active Tangibles User Interfaces, which makes it ideal for use in brainstorming applications.
Keywords: HCI; Tracking; Sensor; Input Device; Multi Touch; TUI; Interaction
Entertainment Game to Support Interaction between Teachers and Students BIBAKFull-Text 228-233
  Marcos Alexandre Rose Silva; Junia Coutinho Anacleto
A narrative game is described here which main goal is to support children's free expression and socialization considering their cultural background. This game can be used at school, in which students can develop a story together under the teacher's supervision. The idea is to support teachers to create characters and scenarios according to the students' cultural context, expressed in their common sense knowledge, and consequently enabling them to get engaged on developing the story collaboratively. Also, teacher has the common sense's support to conduct the story according to the facts are being narrated, to stimuli the students' communion. This cultural sensitive RPG-like environment intends to promote a closer contact between teacher and students and among students giving them a more contextualized computer tool to be stimulated to freely express their thoughts, desires and to support them to cooperative work with teachers what is desirable for their intellectual and cognitive development.
Keywords: Collaboration; Storyteller; Narrative Game; Context; Common Sense; Education; Educational game
Multi-layer Based Authoring Tool for Digilog Book BIBAKFull-Text 234-239
  Jonghee Park; Woontack Woo
In this paper, we propose multi-layer based authoring tool for Digilog Book. The main feature is that a user can author some properties of printed contents of a paper book. Those properties can be utilized for virtual contents authoring. The proposed authoring tool provides an interface to allocate some properties for printed contents. Those properties are utilized in manipulating virtual contents. As a result, users can author a realistic Digilog Book.
Keywords: augmented reality; authoring; layer; AR book; Digilog Book

Interaction Design -- Player's model

Community Created Narrations as Mobile Entertainment BIBAKFull-Text 240-245
  Marjo Mäenpää; Riikka Kiljunen; Saija Mustaniemi
In this paper we describe short mobile video story tests that have been done by using several authors/ users as story composers in the MoViE platform, which enables users to share, communicate and compose short mobile video stories in a networked community. The starting point of our study is the possibility to create an entertaining, dramaturgically intensive and coherent story from various short mobile videos composed by several authors, if there is some structure or storyline that creates the narrative. The idea was to research how separately filmed mobile videos from the same event or experience could form a dramaturgically intensive story when they are loaded into a web based story generator (MoViE). The test hypothesis was that a community -- whether virtual or non virtual -- could create an entertaining experience through a video montage.
Keywords: mobile media; social media; mobile community; video; experimentation narratology
Hardcore Classification: Identifying Play Styles in Social Games Using Network Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 246-251
  Ben Kirman; Shaun Lawson
In the social network of a web-based online game, all players are not equal. Through network analysis, we show that the community of players in a online social game is an example of a scale free small world network and that the growth of the player-base obeys a power law.
   The community is centred around a minority group of "hardcore" players who define the social environment for the game, and without whom the social network would collapse. Methods are discussed for identifying this critically important subset of players automatically through analysing social behaviours within the game.
Keywords: Social Networking; Online Games; Network Analysis; Hardcore Players; Game Communities
Player Feedback Evaluation: Indicating Mass Public Potential for Pervasive Games BIBAKFull-Text 252-257
  Ivo Flammer; Chen Yan; Wolf Ka; August Flammer; Jean-Paul Cheung; Romain Pellerin
Player feedback data was collected for the pervasive game "Meet Your Heartbeat Twin", an event-type LBS (Location-Based Service) game including affective computing through the player's live heartbeats. Correlation analysis of the data demonstrates broad client profile for pervasive games, covering age, gender and hobbies. The data also shows that Urban Games are clearly a novel experience; they are not an extension neither from video games, nor from mobile phone casual games. Surprisingly, the online sharing of the player's very personal data, player's location and live heart rate was not perceived as a critical issue at all. As expected, game control is crucial: to have fun, players need some adaptation time for GPS orientation and this even for a very low level complexity of mobile phone usage.
Keywords: pervasive games; ubiquitous games; urban games

Programming Interactions

A Real-Time Video Illustration Using CUDA BIBAKFull-Text 258-263
  JiHyung Lee; Yoon-Seok Choi; Bon-Ki Koo; Chi Jung Hwang
According to advancements in video technology, there are lots of needs for various special effects of videos. The conventional image-transform effects could be applied to video streams, but non-photorealistic rendering effects are not easy to apply. For example, cartoon or illustration effects have expensive costs in video transformation which makes it difficult to execute in real-time. In this paper, we suggest a video transformation system with illustration effects. It is designed to apply the illustration effects to the video stream directly and is implemented to achieve real time performances using the GPU hardware with NVIDIA's CUDA.
Keywords: non-photorealistic rendering; video; illustration; real-time; CUDA
A Distributed Render Farm System for Animation Production BIBAKFull-Text 264-269
  Jiali Yao; Zhigeng Pan; Hongxin Zhang
Render farm is widely used in movie industry to solve the long rendering time problem. By parallel computing rendering jobs, render farm can speedup the rendering process in a scalable way. In this paper, we present an efficient design of render farm system name DRFarm in distributed environment. The most important feature of the system is the capacity aware task scheduling strategy. We first introduce the hierarchy tasks subdivision method which ensures flexible merging and dividing tasks. By carefully grouping tasks and dynamically assign them in different modes, the overall parallel rendering time can be reduced by exploiting coherence comparing to conventional methods. Furthermore, to adopt various rendering jobs from different locations, we design a general rendering service interface with unified job definition.
Keywords: parallel rendering; distributed rendering; render farm
Extending the Strada Framework to Design an AI for ORTS BIBAKFull-Text 270-275
  Laurent Navarro; Vincent Corruble
Strategy games constitute a significant challenge for game AI, as they involve a large number of states, agents and actions. This makes indeed the decision and learning algorithms difficult to design and implement. Many commercial strategy games use scripts in order to simulate intelligence, combined with knowledge which is in principle not accessible to human players, such as the position of the enemy base or the offensive power of its army. Nevertheless, recent research on adaptive techniques has shown promising results. The goal of this paper is to present the extension such a research methodology, named Strada, so that it is made applicable to the real-time strategy platform ORTS. The adaptations necessary to make Strada applicable to ORTS are detailed and involve the use of dynamic tactical points and specific training scenario for the learning AI. Two sets of experiments are conducted to evaluate the performances of the new method.
Keywords: Game AI; learning; real-time strategy games
Services in Game Worlds: A Semantic Approach to Improve Object Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 276-281
  Jassin Kessing; Tim Tutenel; Rafael Bidarra
To increase a player's immersion in the game world, its objects should behave as one would reasonably expect. For this, it is now becoming increasingly clear that what game objects really miss is richer semantics, not eye-catching visuals. Current games' lack of semantics is mostly due to the difficulty of game designers to realize such complex objects. This paper proposes a solution to this problem in the form of services, characterizing classes of game objects. An example of this is the service of a vending machine, which exchanges a coin for a soda. A three-phased methodology is presented to incrementally specify and add services to game objects. This approach has been implemented and validated by means of a prototype system, which enables a simple and intuitive definition of services in an integrated environment. It is concluded that game objects aware of their services facilitate more and better object interaction, therefore improving gameplay as well.
Keywords: game worlds; services; semantics; object interaction

Posters and Demonstrations

Glasses-Free 3D Image Viewer by Handmade DIY Craft BIBAKFull-Text 282-283
  Takashi Ohara; Kunio Sakamoto
We developed a glasses-free 3D stereoscopic display using an LCD display panel, a view control film and a grating film for stereoscopic viewing. The display screen is divided in half in order that left and right regions provide the stereoscopic images for left and right eyes. Because both stereoscopic images are not in the same position, it is difficult for the observer to view the 3D image by the stereoviewing. The grating film can solve this problem because it shifts both left and right images to the same position. Moreover the view control film can give us glasses-free 3D viewing. As the result, the observer can watch overlapped stereoscopic images for left and right eyes without special glasses such as polarized glasses.
Keywords: 3D imaging; polarized glasses; overlapping stereoscopic images; optical grating film; 3D adapter; stereoscope
Monocular 3D Vision Using Real-Time Generated Scene with Depth of Field Effect BIBAKFull-Text 284-285
  Takashi Hosomi; Kunio Sakamoto
The human vision system has visual functions for viewing 3D images with a correct depth. These functions are called accommodation, vergence and binocular stereopsis. Most 3D display system utilizes binocular stereopsis. The authors have developed a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.
Keywords: monocular stereoscopic display; real-time stereogram; 3-D display
RFID Painting Demonstration BIBAKFull-Text 286-287
  Olivier Haberman; Romain Pellerin; Eric Gressier-Soudan; Ugo Haberman
This demonstration challenges the conventional art experience. It brings together the fields of art, science, and software integration. The goal was to create a new kind of painting based on embedded technology, experimenting with a new media: paintings augmented with RFIDs. The aim was to achieve interaction between the artist's paintings and art gallery visitors.
Keywords: RFID; interactivity; art; painting; mobile phone
Development and Evaluation of a Digital Vegetation Interaction Game for Children BIBAKFull-Text 288-289
  Akiko Deguchi; Shigenori Inagaki; Fusako Kusunoki; Etsuji Yamaguchi; Yoshiaki Takeda; Masanori Sugimoto
In this study, we develop a new digital sugoroku game that portray the phenomenon of vegetation succession in a forest. The results of the experimental evaluation showed that the game was effective in stimulating the interest of the students who participated in the game.
Keywords: Interaction game; Digital sugoroku; Environmental learning; Vegetation succession
4-Views Display System for Collaborative Tasks on Round Table BIBAKFull-Text 290-291
  Mitsuru Okumura; Kunio Sakamoto
This paper describes 4-views display system that can be viewed from any direction (i.e., the display has four viewing zones so as to perceive a screen view of the display at all directions around a table). The authors have ever researched information display systems involving 3D imaging. However, a conventional monitor display is viewed from one direction, that is, the display has narrow viewing angle and observers cannot view the screen from the opposite side. Hence we developed a tabletop display system for collaborative tasks cooperated by two users. This tabletop display can provide different images to two users surrounding the system utilizing the image splitting technologies for displaying a stereoscopic 3D image. The viewing zones of this display are generated at both sides in front of observers' eyes. But screens on the monitor cannot be viewed correctly by all users from any direction. Thus, conventional display systems enable users not to do collaborative tasks on the round table. To solve this problem, we developed new viewing systems.
Keywords: all around viewing; group work; grating film; table-top display
Invisible Two-Dimensional Code Display for Additional Information BIBAKFull-Text 292-294
  Tomofumi Yamanari; Kunio Sakamoto
The authors have researched a support system of the reminiscence and life review activity. This support system consists of an interactive tabletop display and interface system. Many interaction systems are proposed until now. An invisible code is one of the useful technologies for a computer interaction. The invisible codes provide us with an operating environment using a pen-like device. However, this technology is applied to the only paper media. The authors think we want to realize an interaction using the invisible code on an electrical media. In this paper, we propose a method to display invisible codes using LCD panels and to detect a polarized symbol image with a conventional CCD camera.
Keywords: 2D code; group work; polarized invisible code; polarized light control; table-top display
MobiSpell: Educational Mobile Game Design and Development for Teaching Spelling to Young Children BIBAKFull-Text 295-296
  Menelaos Bakopoulos; Sofia Tsekeridou
A 3D educational mobile game is designed and implemented with the aim to teach hard-to-spell words to young children exploiting their natural affinity towards games entertainment in order to increase the likelihood of useful knowledge acquisition while having fun. The educational game features a fighter plane style environment in which spelling is accomplished by shooting down letters. Incentives and motivation such as points and medals encourage learning and motivate children to develop skills. The J2ME Mobile 3D Graphics library is used with 3D models developed in 3DS MAX, and development taking place in Netbeans.
Keywords: educational game; mobile game; game design; game development
Live Demonstration of the Pervasive Game "GPS Joker" BIBAKFull-Text 297
  Ivo Flammer; David Guyard
From the virtual to the real, everybody is looking for the Joker... your mobile phone guides you through the city. Be the first one to win the Joker. Enter the game and play your session here in Paris!
Keywords: pervasive games; ubiquitous games; urban games
Rapid Interactive Installation Development Using Robust Computer Vision and Image-Based Rendering BIBAFull-Text 298-299
  Denis Perevalov
The paper describes a technique which lets designers implement artistic ideas rapidly into an autonomous interactive art system. The technique consists of two parts: the fixed set of computer vision algorithms and image-based rendering with branching animation sequences.
   Despite some limitations, the technique provides easy implementation of the wide range of fascinating interactive scenes.
Reinforcement Learning for Blackjack BIBAFull-Text 300-301
  Saqib A. Kakvi
This paper explores the development of an Artificial Intelligence system for an already existing framework of card games, called SKCards, and the experimental results obtained from this. The current Artificial intelligence in the SKCards Blackjack is highly flawed. Reinforcement Learning was chosen as the method to be employed. Reinforcement Learning attempts to teach a computer certain actions, given certain states, based on past experience and numerical rewards gained. The agent either assigns values to states, or actions in states. This will initially be developed for Blackjack, with possible extensions to other games. Blackjack is one of the simpler games and the only current game in the SKCards package which needs an Artificial Intelligence agent. All the other games are single player. To test the performance of the Reinforcement Learning agent, several experiments were devised and run.
"Plug: Secrets of the Museum": A Pervasive Game Taking Place in a Museum BIBAFull-Text 302-303
  Michel Simatic; Isabelle Astic; Coline Aunis; Annie Gentes; Aude Guyot-Mbodji; Camille Jutant; Emmanuel Zaza
"Plug: Secrets of the Museum" (PSM) is a game played with NFC-enabled mobile phones inside a museum containing dedicated passive RFID tags. During a PSM session, 8 teams exchange virtual cards representing objects located in the museum. These exchanges are done either with RFID tags or with other teams. PSM game design results in an educational and entertaining game which is much more attractive than the plain old treasure hunt proposed by several museums. Thus PSM is a good companion to discover and even take up a museum.
In-Game Peer Performance Assessment Role That Fosters Metacognitive Agility and Reflection BIBAKFull-Text 304-306
  Elaine M. Raybourn
In this paper we describe the development of a method and system for training metacognitive agility (self-awareness and self-regulated learning) in serious games applications. We introduce a unique design that features a novel role for real-time, in-game peer performance assessment and feedback to encourage user reflection and self-explanation. This approach has been implemented in two serious games currently in use today whose focus is intercultural competence and intercultural sensitivity education.
Keywords: serious game; metacognitive agility; reflection; in-game performance assessment; peer learning; intercultural competence; sensitivity
Edutainment Games for Mobile Multimedia Museum Guidance Systems: A Classification Approach BIBAKFull-Text 307-308
  Areti Damala
This paper proposes a first sketch on the state of the art regarding interactive edutainment games delivered through mobile multimedia museum guidance systems used in the context of a cultural visit. The goal is to identify current practices but also potential functional requirements, through the introduction of a first set of classification criteria emerging from a literature review of representative projects. The issue of related evaluation practices is also discussed.
Keywords: mobile learning; edutainment; mobile museum guides; games
Orpheus: Automatic Composition System Considering Prosody of Japanese Lyrics BIBAFull-Text 309-310
  Satoru Fukayama; Kei Nakatsuma; Shinji Sako; Yuichiro Yonebayashi; Tae Hun Kim; Si Wei Qin; Takuho Nakano; Takuya Nishimoto; Shigeki Sagayama
We present an algorithm for song composition using prosody of Japanese lyrics. Since Japanese is a "pitch accent" language, listener's apprehension is strongly affected by the pitch motions of the speaker. For example, the meaning of Japanese word "ha-shi" changes with the pitch. It means "bridge" with an upward pitch motion, and "chopsticks" with the motion inversed. A melody attached to the lyrics cause an effect similar to the pitch accent. Therefore we can assume that pitches of Japanese lyrics give constraints on pitch motions of the melody. Furthermore, chord progression, rhythm and accompaniment give constraints on the transitions and occurrences of the melody notes. If a certain melody for the lyrics were obtained, the melody would satisfy these constraints. Conversely, we can compose a song by finding the melody which optimally meets the condition.
A Handy Laser Show System for Open Space Entertainment BIBAKFull-Text 311-312
  Toru Takahashi; Miki Namatame; Fusako Kusunoki; Isao Ono; Takao Terano
Big Fat Wand (BFW) is a handy laser show system, which includes a portable laser show device newly developed and a laptop PC with easy-to-use authoring toolkits. This paper describes basic principles and architecture of BFW, then demonstrates how BFW is used in an open space environment.
Keywords: Laser Show Device; Entertainment in an Open Space; Interactive Sessions
Sketch-It-Up! Demo BIBAKFull-Text 313-314
  Bulut Karakaya; Camilo Garcia; Daniel Rodriguez; Manoj Nityanandam; Nadia Labeikovsky; Theyab Al Tamimi
Every creative project needs to have an ideation process. A good ideation process relies on a simple yet effective way of putting ideas on the table and sorting through them, also discarding them easily if necessary. However, for this ideation to be successful it has to be a process in which cheap and simple ways of exploring ideas are used along with tools that are readily accessible to everyone in the field to use.
Keywords: Ideation; Risk free innovation
Automatic Chat Generation of Emotional Entertainment Characters Using News Information BIBAKFull-Text 315-318
  Jun'ichi Hoshino; Tetsuya Saito; Kenichi Hirota
Currently interactive entertainment characters have their conversation topics prepared beforehand by the creator. In this paper, we propose the automatic chat generation engine for emotional entertainment characters using real-time news information. The character emotionally reacts to the news contents based on their interest and feelings so that the users can have intimate feeling. The character also incrementally learns user's interest from their response.
Keywords: chat generation; RSS; emotional character; user learning
Incremental Learning Algorithm for Online Action Game System BIBAKFull-Text 319-322
  Junichi Hoshino; Hiroshi Mori
One of the limitations of computer opponents in action games is that the character AI is constructed in advance, and players may become bored quickly. We have built an online action game system in which a non-player character (NPC) can incrementally learn sequences of action and combinations. NPCs can adopt different fighting strategies for fighting with different players.
Keywords: action game; imitation learning; non-player character
Task-Based Second Language Learning Game System BIBAKFull-Text 323-324
  Jun'ichi Hoshino; Tetsuya Saito; Shiratori Kazuto
In traditional English learning as a second language, learners rarely have the opportunity to practice oral communication, so the acquisition of oral proficiency is a slow process. In this paper, we propose a task-based second language learning game system. The task-based learning method enables learners to obtain communicative skills through the practice of particular "missions" using voice and gesture communications with life-size 3D game character.
Keywords: Task-based language training; Conversational game character; Locomotion control; Negotiation of meaning
Designing a Game Controller for Novice HALO3 Players BIBAKFull-Text 325-326
  Matthijs Kwak; Ben Salem
This paper describes the process of designing and developing an intuitive controller that helps lower the threshold for novice gamers to play Halo 3. To help novices to master the controller, most controls have been replaced with rich and meaningful interaction. To help novices understand the game, extra feedback channels have been added to reinforce information given onscreen so critical information is not missed.
Keywords: Game Controller; HALO3; XBOX 360; Product Design
AZ66: How Can We Play with Emotions? BIBAKFull-Text 327-328
  Stéphan Froment; Mélanie Ginibre; Stéphanie Mader; Antoine Sarafian; Aymeric Schwartz; Delphine Soriano; Alexandre Topol; Jérôme Dupire
Since the early 90's, affective computing researches have mainly been focused on emotions recognition and less on original entertainment contents that could be proposed. We present a prototype resulting from the association of a physiological sensing device with an original game.
Keywords: video game; affective interaction; physiological sensors
WHO AM I? : A Art Ludic Installation in Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 329-330
  Sophie Daste; Karleen Groupierre
This paper presents the Art Ludic Installation in Virtual Reality, named "WHO AM I?".
Keywords: Art; Ludic; Installation; Virtual; Augmented; Reality
Affective Interaction: Challenges at the Ubiquitous Computing Times BIBAKFull-Text 331-332
  Stephane Gros; Jérôme Dupire; Stéphane Natkin
Due to the diversity of studies towards detection of affective state of a user, it is hard to distinguish amongst them toward specific needs. Our approach consists in realizing a comparative study taking in account specificities such as mobility to be able to choose the best settings for a specific set of constraints. These issues will be applied in the context of the PLUG project which aims at creating an ubiquitous affective game that will take place in a museum.
Keywords: Affective computing; biofeedback; physiology; emotion

Invited Speakers

You Are Here BIBAFull-Text 333
  Luc Courchesne
The continuing expansion of the visible domain, increasingly including and giving force (and reality) to the creations of our imagination and to formerly inaccessible places and dimensions of our unfolding universe, has produced a radical shift of the shared concepts of time and space. Suddenly, the statement « you are here » has a very different meaning. Thanks to the proliferation and increased mastery of interactive, immersive and socially engaging media, we have passed beyond the simple curiosity for technologies to find ourselves, as MacLuhan professed, dressed and immersed in them. Immersed indeed we are, collectively engaged in a « reality jam » with the physical, the artificial, the augmented, and the virtual. In the process, we have turned from spectators to users, visitors and now inhabitants of our own crafts. Questions such as « Who am I? », » Who are you? », » Where are we? », » How are we supposed to behave? », are now being asked with new relevance and urgency. Survival skills such as conversation, posture, attitude, or simply what to wear, are being reformulated on the fly by the natives and immigrants of this new territory that does not always perfectly accommodates the biological features we inherited from evolution.
Game Experience May Vary: Understanding Play BIBAFull-Text 334
  Gonzalo Frasca
Why do we call it game research and not play research? For the last decade of videogame studies, most of the attention has been paid to games as formal entities. At first, games seem easier to understand: they generally have clear rules and goals. They would be perfect machineries with formal mechanics if it was not for one factor: humans and their stubborn love for misbehaving. This talk provides an ontological approach to play and games and will analyze the relationship between the two concepts by taking into account the player's mindset. If this sounds too theoretical and abstract, there's no need to worry. It holds the key to better understanding the differences between casual and hardcore games.
The New Pact: How Online Worlds Forge a New Form of Alliance between Players and Designers BIBAFull-Text 335
  Nicolas Gaume
Today's Pop Culture is tomorrow's classic. Entertainment is often able to reflect a society's questions and anxieties of the day. We will discuss how and why today's Digital Generation has replaced their grandparents' heroes and their parents' anti-heroes by their very own avatars. How and why the empathy with heroes that has traditionally been utilized by movies has been gradually overtaken by the personalized and immersive experience of games as lived through the eyes of an avatar? How multiplayer activities are now establishing new social paradigms where these avatars help us all deal with the natural schizophrenia of everyday life by allowing us to explore our possible selves. The Social Networks boom has demonstrated our appetite for connections with others; and games our appetite for second lives, our desire to involve ourselves and master complex worlds. Perhaps, tomorrow new public Agoras will be created from a new generation of Virtual Worlds built using the grammar that video games have forged over the last 40 years...
The International Game Developer Association (IGDA) Education Special Interest Group (EdSIG) BIBAFull-Text 336
  Susan Gold
Developed in 2006 the IGDA EdSIG mission is to create community resources that will strengthen the academic membership of the IGDA while enhancing the education of future and current game developers. Since the inception of the SIG there have been two major projects: 1) 2008 IGDA Curriculum Framework which has become the standard for game education; 2) The Global Game Jam™ where experimentation, innovation and creativity are the main components of it's success. The Global Game Jam™ creates collaborations and partnerships globally to promote game studies.
Story of a Video Game Workshop: "Ico", an Interactive Fairy Tale for Children Less Interaction BIBAFull-Text 337
  Michael Stora
The Since several years, I use the video game as a therapeutic object. This new mediation seems pertinent for children that we qualified "limit". Those children are more in the game in the gambling sense, than in the Winnicot's play. The video game is relevant in a clinic sense for two reasons essential. The first reason is that mediation is in picture and children and adolescents have an intimate attachment to these who have the power to do emerge affects and words that in generally are repressed. The second reason is this meeting between narcissism pathology and the use of video game as a place of virtue's passage in act. The acting becomes symbolic and the conflict showed by the narration of the video game is in a dynamic point between drive and narcissism.
Japan's Arcade Games and Their Technology BIBAFull-Text 338
  Yukiharu Sambe
The Japanese computer entertainment market is $20 billion in size. Of that, the arcade market makes up the biggest share of revenue ($6 billion), with the home market and mobile phone market following at $3.5 billion and $2 billion, respectively. Abroad, however, home console gaming dominates and revenues from arcades make up only a small portion of the total market. In this session, I will introduce the arcade machines and supporting technology, discuss reasons for the enduring widespread popularity of arcade gaming in Japan, and explore potential directions for the future of arcade technology.