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HCII Tables of Contents: 13-313-413-513-613-714-114-214-314-414-515-115-215-315-415-5

HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on HCI, Part I: Design and Evaluation

Fullname:HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Design and Evaluation
Note:Volume 1 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9169
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20901-2 hcibib: HCII15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-20900-5 (print), 978-3-319-20901-2 (online)
Papers:51
Pages:556
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on HCI, Part II: Interaction Technologies

Fullname:HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Interaction Technologies
Note:Volume 2 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9170
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20916-6 hcibib: HCII15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-20915-9 (print), 978-3-319-20916-6 (online)
Papers:73
Pages:812
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on HCI, Part III: Users and Contexts

Fullname:HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Users and Contexts
Note:Volume 3 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:3
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9171
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21006-3 hcibib: HCII15-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-21005-6 (print), 978-3-319-21006-3 (online)
Papers:52
Pages:566
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on HCI: Posters' Extended Abstracts, Part I

Fullname:HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Posters Extended Abstracts, Part I
Note:Volume 27 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:4
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Communications in Computer and Information Science 528
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21380-4 hcibib: HCII15-4; ISBN: 978-3-319-21379-8 (print), 978-3-319-21380-4 (online)
Papers:129
Pages:778
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on HCI: Posters' Extended Abstracts, Part II

Fullname:HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Posters Extended Abstracts, Part II
Note:Volume 28 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:5
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Communications in Computer and Information Science 529
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21383-5 hcibib: HCII15-5; ISBN: 978-3-319-21382-8 (print), 978-3-319-21383-5 (online)
Papers:121
Pages:730
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 1
    1. HCI Theory and Practice
    2. HCI Design and Evaluation Methods and Tools
    3. HCI Design and Evaluation Methods and ToolsInteraction Design
    4. Interaction Design
    5. Emotions in HCI
  2. HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 2
    1. Gesture and Eye-Gaze Based Interaction
    2. Touch-Based and Haptic Interaction
    3. Natural User Interfaces
    4. Adaptive and Personalized Interfaces
    5. Distributed, Migratory and Multi-screen User Interfaces
    6. Games and Gamification
    7. HCI in Smart and Intelligent Environments
  3. HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 3
    1. Interaction and Quality for the Web and Social Media
    2. HCI in Business, Industry and Innovation
    3. Societal and Cultural Impact of Technology
    4. User Studies
  4. HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 4
    1. Design and Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Tools
    2. Cognitive and Psychological Issues in HCI
    3. Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality
    4. Cross-Cultural Design
    5. Design for Aging
    6. Children in HCI
    7. Product Design
    8. Gesture, Gaze and Motion Detection, Modelling and Recognition
    9. Reasoning, Optimisation and Machine Learning for HCI
    10. Information Processing and Extraction for HCI
    11. Image and Video Processing for HCI
    12. Brain and Physiological Parameters Monitoring
    13. Dialogue Systems
  5. HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 5
    1. Mobile Interaction and Smart Devices
    2. Social Media
    3. HCI in Business and Innovation
    4. Learning Technologies
    5. HCI in Health
    6. Assistive Technologies and Environments
    7. Fitness and Well-Being Applications
    8. Location and Context Awareness
    9. Urban Interaction
    10. Automotive and Aviation
    11. Design and User Studies

HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 1

HCI Theory and Practice

An Activity Theory Approach to Intuitiveness: From Artefact to Process BIBAKFull-Text 3-13
  Sturla Bakke
Intuition is a widely employed term when describing or evaluating user interfaces in an HCI context. It is used in by most people in their daily life, regardless of technology use; it is applied by users in various socio-technical contexts; it is even utilized by developers themselves. While Susanne Bødker and others brought activity theory into the HCI discourse, in much of the literature, intuition has largely remained within the cognitive science discourse. In an activity theoretical approach, this paper attempts to connect intuitiveness to activity and pointing out the changing perception of the concept of intuitiveness in relation to skill levels; changing from being connected primarily to artifacts at an unskilled level, to being linked exclusively to tasks and processes at expert level.
Keywords: Intuitive use; User interfaces; Activity theory; Experience
The Closer the Better: Effects of Developer-User Proximity for Mutual Learning BIBAKFull-Text 14-26
  Sturla Bakke; Tone Bratteteig
In this paper we report from a software development project, where much attention was given to the users -- so much, in fact, that the developers moved in with them and stayed. Our aim has been to understand the effects of this level of proximity in the cooperation between developers and users. We discuss the impact on continuous knowledge exchange, organisational structure and accountability when the developers move in. How do the participants experience the mutual learning process? Based on the findings, we offer the two suggestions: (1) that the mutual learning necessary for establishing a common understanding of the character of a user-centred software system and its intuitive operation has a greater possibility of succeeding when developers and participating users are located in the immediate vicinity of each other, and (2) the impact on user interface design is visible through early user participation, leading to the sense of user interfaces facilitating an immediate user interaction.
Keywords: Participation; Reciprocal learning; Organisational structure
How to Join Theoretical Concepts, Industry Needs and Innovative Technologies in HCI Courses? The Big Challenge of Teaching HCI BIBAKFull-Text 27-36
  Clodis Boscarioli; Sílvia Amélia Bim; Milene S. Silveira; Simone D. J. Barbosa
The relation between HCI Education and the Industry needs is a challenge to the HCI community. HCI professors should be aware of their role to persuade students that user experience and experience design are cross-cutting concepts, which therefore influence all other areas involved in innovative product and service development, from conceptual design to implementation and testing. In this paper we present a revised HCI Brazilian syllabus for undergraduate Computer Science courses, discussing HCI requirements for UX professional and academic formation of the students. We also describe some research questions that have been raised in this context.
Keywords: HCI education and industry needs; Syllabi recommendations; HCI in Brazil
Challenges for Human-Data Interaction -- A Semiotic Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 37-48
  Heiko Hornung; Roberto Pereira; M. Cecilia C. Baranauskas; Kecheng Liu
Data has become ubiquitous and pervasive influencing our perceptions and actions in ever more areas of individual and social life. Data production, collection and editing are complex actions motivated by data use. In this paper we present and characterize the field of study of Human-Data Interaction by discussing the challenges of how to enable understanding of data and information in this complex context, and how to facilitate acting on this understanding considering the social impact. By understanding interaction with data as a sign process, and identifying the goal of designing human-data interaction as enabling stakeholders to promote desired and to avoid undesired consequences of data use, we employ a semiotic perspective and define research challenges for the field.
Keywords: Human-data interaction; Semiotics; Digital display
Relationship Between Trust and Usability in Virtual Environments: An Ongoing Study BIBAKFull-Text 49-59
  Davide Salanitri; Chrisminder Hare; Simone Borsci; Glyn Lawson; Sarah Sharples; Brian Waterfield
Usability and trust have been observed to be related in several domains including web retail, information systems, and e-health. Trust in technology reflects beliefs about the attributes of a technology. Research has shown that trust is a key factor for the success of different systems -- e.g., e-market, e-commerce, and social networks. Trust in technology can be supported or prevented by the perceived usability. Therefore, a low level of usability could compromise an individual's trust in their use of a technology, resulting in a negative attitude towards a product. Even if this relationship has been seen as important in the fields listed above, there is limited research which empirically assesses trust and usability in virtual reality (VR). This work will present the first set of data on the relationship between usability and trust in VR. To gather this data, three different VR systems (Desktop 3D tool, CAVE, and a flight simulator) were tested. The findings show that (i) the best-known questionnaire to measure usability and trust could be applied to VR, (ii) there is a strong relationship between people's satisfaction and trust in the use of VR, (iii) the relationship between usability and trust exists for different systems.
Keywords: System usability scale; Trust; Trust in technology measures; Virtual reality; Usability
Cultural Issues in HCI: Challenges and Opportunities BIBAKFull-Text 60-70
  Luciana Salgado; Roberto Pereira; Isabela Gasparini
Culture strongly influences people's values, expectations, behavior, and even perceptions and cognitive reasoning. Although HCI researchers recognize culture as an important factor, the research about cultural issues and HCI needs to go further. This paper discusses why culture should not be viewed as a threat or something that is better to relegated to minor importance in Human-Computer Interaction, but that has a key role in the investigations and development of new theories, methods and techniques. In the light of the grand challenges prospected in GranDIHC-BR by the Brazilian HCI community, we explore some of the opportunities and challenges culture brought to HCI as a research area.
Keywords: HCI and culture; Cultural aspects of HCI; Research challenges in HCI
Biologically Inspired Artificial Endocrine System for Human Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 71-81
  Hooman Samani; Elham Saadatian; Brian Jalaeian
The aim of this paper is to illustrate the design process and development of a novel model for cause-effect artificial intelligence system, which is based on the digital endocrine model in human computer interaction. The model is inspired by the architecture of the endocrine system, which is the system of glands that each of them secretes different type of hormones directly into the bloodstream. The digital hormonal model can provide a new methodology in order to model various advanced artificial intelligence models for predictive analysis, knowledge representation, planning, learning, perception and intelligent analysis. Artificial glands are the resource of the causes in the proposed model where the effects can be modeled in the data stream. In this paper such system is employed in order to develop a robotic system for the purpose of language translation.
Keywords: Artificial endocrine system; HCI; Translation robot
Improving IT Security Through Security Measures: Using Our Game-Theory-Based Model of IT Security Implementation BIBAKFull-Text 82-95
  Masashi Sugiura; Hirohiko Suwa; Toshizumi Ohta
We developed a quantitative model based on game theory related to IT security promotion and implementation in an organization. This model clarified the kinds of organizational conditions in which an employee does or does not carry out security measures. We also clarified the desired and undesired conditions for security implementation in an organization. In addition, we showed that an extremely undesirable dilemma that hitherto has not attracted attention might occur. Then we applied this model to an incident that occurred at a certain school. Using public information and survey data, we calculated the parameters of the model quantitatively. Then we found what kinds of changes to the parameters would be effective for making security improvements. Furthermore, we used the model to show the appropriate order of promoting security measures.
Keywords: Security; Incident; Game theory; Model; Dilemma; Organization
A Psychological Approach to Information Security BIBAKFull-Text 96-104
  Katsuya Uchida
Information Systems are composed in four main portions, people, information, appliance and facilities. These four portions are called information assets. Information security protects information assets and keeps safe them from the view point of Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA).
   Recently, cyber-attacks to people in specific organizations are called advanced persistent threat (APT) or targeted attacks. APT attacks are attacks using psychological and behavioral science weakness of people, are not technical attacks.
   Kevin Mitnick, the most competent and the most famous attacker for people says "Security is not a technology problem. It is a human and management problems" in his book.
   By using the knowledge of psychology, behavioral science and criminology, the attackers attack people, and achieve the purposes. Targets of the attacks are not only the direct objects that are theft or destruction of information, but also the indirect objects that obtain the information necessary to achieve the goal.
   Sun Tzu, a Chinese military general, strategist and philosopher said "If you know your enemies and know yourself, you can win a hundred battles without a single loss".
   Attackers and victims are classified into people, appliance (hardware and software) and hybrid (people and appliance).
   The methods of attackers for each attack and cases of attacks are classified in this paper.
   Some organizations are beginning to use the elements of games and competitions to motivate employees, and customers. This is known as gamification which is the application of game elements and digital game design techniques to non-game problems, such as business and social impact challenges.
   Gamification is very useful for awareness training of information security, I believe.
   This paper attempts to classify and systematize attackers, victims and the methods of attacks, as by psychology, behavioral science, criminal psychology, and cognitive psychology I have proposed some ideas for education, training and awareness for information security using the findings of psychology and behavioral science.
Keywords: Information security psychology; Social engineering; Deception
Cross-Over Study of Time Perception and Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 105-116
  Huizhong Zhang; Guanzhong Liu; Hai Fang
Pace of life is getting faster today, and it even affects the quality of people's life. Time is so important to human while it also troubles us a lot. Sometimes time seems so valuable that we take everything to earn more seconds. However, during a vacation, we ignore the passing of time. We are willing to consider what kind of pace of life can bring us more happiness. Time sense becomes an important experience in our daily life. This research is trying to improve our time experiences of interaction with interface design. As we know, people without specialized training cannot count time precisely without a clock, while they surely have an individual habit of perceiving time. Psychology of time is a psychology about human's time perception. Therefore, the research is a cross-over study of interaction and time psychology in terms of knowing how design can improve people's time experiences.
   This study takes some time psychology theories as a foundation to know about the principles of human's perception of time. With the purpose of elevating the time experiences of people, three aspects are considered having effects on it: signal stimulus, time information processing and personal psychological condition.
   Signal stimulus -- human's perception of time always depends on some time signals, which are necessary materials of the brain processing. They could be numbers, visual dimensions, colors, temperatures, sound volumes, frequency of motion and so on.
   Time information processing: several time processing models and calculative strategies of the time duration explain basic rules of processing time information in a human brain.
   Personal psychological conditions: different time perceptions can trigger different emotions. And people in different moods can have different feelings about the same time interval.
   In the study, the author summarized four possibilities to bring people better time experiences.
   Following that, some assumptions in accordance with the research were made. Based on these assumptions, several experimental products, which are calendar design and traffic lights design, are designed. Finally, some experiments were conducted to test if the new designs can indeed create better time experiences. And one of the experiments would be reported in this article.
Keywords: Interactive design; Psychology of time; Time experiences of users; Experiments

HCI Design and Evaluation Methods and Tools

Guidelines to Integrate Professional, Personal and Social Context in Interaction Design Process: Studies in Healthcare Environment BIBAKFull-Text 119-131
  Janaina Abib; Junia Anacleto
In this paper we're presenting the formalization of a set of guidelines to support interaction designers in their activities during the processes to design applications. We are using these guidelines in the construction phase of the design process and these strategies are being applied to support the interaction design of user's workflow, integrating professional, personal and social contexts. These strategies were used in a hospital for treatment of chronic mental illness in Brazil. During this study we observed healthcare professionals in their daily activities and with these data we developed information and communication solutions to bring new technologies into their day-by-day activities, in the way not to interrupt their routines. After some data collection and analysis we evaluated the results of our research. These analyses helped us to understand some weak points in the design process that do not simplify the integration of the different contexts in which users are naturally inserted. Thus, we proposed a set of guidelines to an interaction design process with the objective of supporting interaction designers in their work of developing natural solutions, integrating the different contexts of the users. Also, with the integration of contexts, we promote the extending of user's abilities.
Keywords: Design process; User interface; Interaction design; Non ICT user
Practices, Technologies, and Challenges of Constructing and Programming Physical Interactive Prototypes BIBAKFull-Text 132-142
  Andrea Alessandrini
The prototyping process is a key phase in the design of interactive systems. Designing connections and communications for computational elements is a challenging part of constructing physical interactive prototypes. The goal of this study is to explore and describe the practices and technologies used in the construction of physical interactive prototypes in a university course on interaction design. This study reviews constructed physical interactive prototypes, presents excerpts of interviews with students, and analyses students' blogs. In particular, the study describes and analyzes how connections and communications were made and which components and technologies were used in a course on interaction design. Finally, the implications of the findings of this study are discussed.
Keywords: Interaction design; Prototyping; Design
ISO 9241-11 Revised: What Have We Learnt About Usability Since 1998? BIBAKFull-Text 143-151
  Nigel Bevan; James Carter; Susan Harker
A revision is currently being undertaken of ISO 9241-11, published in 1998 to provide guidance on usability. ISO-9241-11 defines usability in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a particular context of use. The intention was to emphasise that usability is an outcome of interaction rather than a property of a product. This is now widely accepted. However, the standard also places emphasis on usability measurement and it is now appreciated that there is more to usability evaluation than measurement. Other developments include an increasing awareness of the importance of the individual user's emotional experience as discretionary usage of complex consumer products and use of the World Wide Web have became more widespread. From an organisational perspective, it is now appreciated that usability plays an important role in managing the potentials risks that can arise from inappropriate outcomes of interaction. The revision of ISO 9241-11 takes account of these issues and other feedback.
Keywords: Standards; Usability; User experience
Incorporating Marketing Strategies to Improve Usability Assurance in User-Centered Design Processes BIBAKFull-Text 152-162
  Iunia C. Borza; José A. Macías
Nowadays, international companies have been using different strategies in order to obtain more attractive products and get a higher impact on the market. But when referring to software products, it is necessary to keep in mind that such strategies are affected by specific quality criteria as usability. Usability and marketing can be combined to offer more attractive products. In fact, specific instances of marketing technics have been gradually adopted by software engineers to improve usability. All in all, there is a lack of systematic approaches dealing with the integration of both marketing and usability through activities in a user-centered development process. To face such challenge, in this paper we have selected the most important marketing strategies to be integrated as activities in a user-centered process model. Activities were classified into Pre-Development, Development and Post-Development, and they have been sorted out depending on the marketing processes taking place before, during and after the development of a software product, respectively.
Keywords: Usability; User-centered process; ISO 9241-210; Marketing
Communication of Design Decisions and Usability Issues: A Protocol Based on Personas and Nielsen's Heuristics BIBAKFull-Text 163-174
  Joelma Choma; Luciana A. M. Zaina; Daniela Beraldo
Although both agile developers and UX designers have a common concern regarding to build software with quality, they usually have different viewpoint of the user experience and usability. We have proposed a protocol in which personas and Nielsen's heuristics were used as a common vocabulary between designers and developers (SCRUM team) for the communication of recommendations and/or design solutions. We have adopted action research to conduct our research, performing a workshop and interviews to study the feasibility of the proposal; and later two case studies to compare and evaluate the use and non-use the protocol. In the final, adding to the case study comparison, we interviewed the SCRUM team who revealed that the protocol improved the understanding of recommendations and the Nielsen's heuristics contributed to objectively communicate the main problems of interaction.
Keywords: Action research; User experience; Interaction design; SCRUM; ERP
Web-Systems Remote Usability Tests and Their Participant Recruitment BIBAKFull-Text 175-183
  Piotr Chynal; Janusz Sobecki
In this paper we present a description of a proposed hybrid, remote usability testing method and a comparison of different approaches to participant recruitment for the test conducted according to this usability evaluation method. Moreover this paper contains a description of the implemented hybrid method and its characteristic. One of the main features of this method is that it allows to perform remote online tests. These tests are an alternative to traditional laboratory tests. They don't require a special laboratory space, gathering participants in one place, a moderator or other equipment to perform the tests. However we have to face a challenge -- how to recruit participants for remote usability test, which is more complicated because we must motivate our users to participate in such test without having a direct contact with them.
   This paper presents a comparison of a few selected methods that we used to encourage users of website HotelGo24.com to take part in usability evaluation test of that site. We present how many users were ready to participate in our study depending on the applied method of encouragement and their reward for participating in the study.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Remote testing; Participant recruitment methods
User Experience Evaluation Towards Cooperative Brain-Robot Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 184-193
  Chris S. Crawford; Marvin Andujar; France Jackson; Sekou Remy; Juan E. Gilbert
Brain-Robot Interaction (BRI) research has mainly focused on analyzing system's performance through objective data. Recently research on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) has begun moving towards applications that go beyond the lab and medical settings. To create successful BRI applications in the future for healthy users User Experience (UX) should be evaluated throughout the development process. This paper discusses single and cooperative BRI systems and analyzes affective and objective task performance data collected while cognitively controlling a robot. Also this paper discusses how this approach can benefit future research on the usability of BRI applications.
Keywords: Cooperative brain-robot interaction; Brain-computer interface; User experience; Human-computer interaction
Analysis of Factors Influencing the Satisfaction of the Usability Evaluations in Smartphone Applications BIBAKFull-Text 194-201
  Ayako Hashizume; Shuwa Kido
It is often said that there is an age difference in the use of ICT devices such as cell phones and smartphones, but the empirical evidences are rare regarding the details of the literacy and the use of such devices. The usability and satisfaction of such devices and applications are important for users. In this paper, authors focus on the factors influencing satisfaction with smartphone application use.
Keywords: User experience; Usability; Smartphone; Elderly people; Satisfaction
The Definition and Use of Personas in the Design of Technologies for Informal Caregivers BIBAKFull-Text 202-213
  Susanne Hensely-Schinkinger; Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti de Carvalho; Michael Glanznig; Hilda Tellioglu
This paper refers to the significance of defining and using personas for the design and development of technological solutions for informal care. It not only argues for the importance of carefully defining personas, but also discusses the influence that personas exert in the design decisions made throughout the process. We illustrate these two aspects with empirical results gathered in the project TOPIC -- The Online Platform for Informal Caregivers -- in which a series of online technological solutions are being designed and developed to integrate a CarePortfolio to provide caregivers with emotional, informational and tangible support, as they go on to handle their care responsibilities.
Keywords: Personas; User-centered design; Informal care; Ethnographic study
An Interaction Design Method to Support the Expression of User Intentions in Collaborative Systems BIBAKFull-Text 214-226
  Cristiane Josely Jensen; Julio Cesar Dos Reis; Rodrigo Bonacin
The communication and interpretation of users' intentions play a key role in collaborative web discussions. However, existing mechanisms fail to support the users' expression of their intentions during collaborations. In this article, we propose an original interaction design method based on semiotics to guide the construction of interactive mechanisms, which allow users to explicitly express and share intentions. We apply the method in a case study in the context of collaborative forums for software developers. The obtained results reveal preliminary evidences regarding the effectiveness of the method for the definition of interface components, enabling more meaningful and successful communications.
Keywords: Collaborative web; Intentions; Pragmatics; Collaboration; Interaction design; Organizational semiotics
Usability, Quality in Use and the Model of Quality Characteristics BIBAKFull-Text 227-237
  Masaaki Kurosu
In this paper, a history of usability concept is reviewed including Shackel and Richardson, Nielsen, and ISO standards to show how the usability is located among relevant quality characteristics. Secondly, the importance of subjective quality is emphasized in relation to the usability. Thirdly, the concept of quality in use is considered in relation to the usability. Finally, a new scheme on quality characteristics is presented.
Keywords: Usability; Quality in use; Quality characteristics; ISO standards
Creating Personas to Reuse on Diversified Projects BIBAKFull-Text 238-247
  Andrey Araujo Masiero; Plinio Thomaz, Jr. Aquino
This paper presents an automatized creation process for Personas user modeling focus on minimize stereotyping and to increase Persona's reuse on many different projects. This creation process has focus on similarity and automation which, are some main issues of variation from project to project. We discuss this process applying it on two different projects. First is a medical web system (HCI-M) and the second one is a human-robot interaction project with Sony AIBO pet robot (HRI-P). Results show that the process makes possible to minimize the stereotyping and also we reuse Personas from project HCI-M to help us on planning phase of project HRI-P which, turns it practicable.
Keywords: QSIM; Clustering; User modeling; Personas
Using Diary Studies to Evaluate Railway Dispatching Software BIBAFull-Text 248-258
  Isabel Schütz; Anselmo Stelzer; Andreas Oetting
In this paper, we present the application of User Diaries in the context of connection dispatching. Connection dispatching is a field with quickly rising requirements which also affect the used dispatching support software. The usage of User Diaries will be motivated for this specific domain. The diary will briefly be presented as well as the results of the study. We will point out the advantages and disadvantages using User Diaries in the given context.
Heuristic Evaluation in Information Visualization Using Three Sets of Heuristics: An Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 259-270
  Beatriz Sousa Santos; Beatriz Quintino Ferreira; Paulo Dias
Evaluation in Information Visualization is inherently complex, and it is still a challenge. Whereas it is possible to adapt evaluation methods from other fields, as Human-Computer Interaction, this adaptation may not be straightforward since visualization applications are very specific interactive systems.
   This paper addresses issues in using heuristic evaluation to evaluate visualizations and visualization applications, and presents an exploratory study in two phases and involving 25 evaluators aimed at assessing the understandability and effectiveness of three sets of heuristics that have been used in Information Visualization.
Keywords: InfoVis evaluation; Usability, cognitive and visual heuristics; Heuristic evaluation
Extending MoLIC for Collaborative Systems Design BIBAKFull-Text 271-282
  Luiz Gustavo de Souza; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
Much interaction design research has been devoted to collaborative systems, resulting in diverse design methodologies. Despite these efforts, we still lack a widely adopted interaction model for collaborative systems design. In this paper, we present a study on model-based design approaches, focusing on their limitations with respect to the 3C Model of Collaboration. Based on the 3C Model, we propose an extension to MoLIC, an interaction design language grounded in semiotic engineering but with no support for collaboration. We then illustrate the expressiveness of the extended MoLIC in the interaction design representation of a collaborative document editor.
Keywords: Interaction design; Semiotic engineering; MoLIC
Using Readers' and Organizations' Goals to Guide Assessment of Success in Information Websites BIBAKFull-Text 283-294
  Robert B. Watson; Jan Spyridakis
Informational and reference websites benefit readers without providing their publishing organizations with any direct or immediate financial benefit; however, organizations do expect return on their investment. We propose two website stakeholder taxonomies: one about the goals of readers when they use informational websites and the other about the goals of organizations when they produce sites. These taxonomies should help organizations measure readers' success with their sites and understand how well their sites support the organizations' goals, and in turn help them author and design better web content to meet their readers' goals.
Keywords: Reader goals; Organization goals; User goals; Usability; Measurement; Metrics; Effectiveness; Efficiency; User satisfaction; User-Centered Design (UCD)

HCI Design and Evaluation Methods and Tools : Interaction Design

Designing Simulation-Based Training for Prehospital Emergency Care: Participation from a Participant Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 297-306
  Beatrice Alenljung; Hanna Maurin Söderholm
Simulation-based training for prehospital emergency care is characterized by high degrees of complexity. Thorough knowledge of both the work and the setting is crucial and it is therefore important to involve both end-users and other stakeholders during the whole design process. This paper investigates a design process by focusing on how project participants experience the work process and participation of a multi-disciplinary, research-practitioner design team. This case study focuses on the work within a development project of a new prehospital emergency training facility. Open-ended interviews were conducted with the project participants halfway through the project. Strikingly, the results show that while there are problems and tensions that potentially could overturn the project, all participants express strong satisfaction with their participation in the project. This implies that the accumulated positive experiences are so strong that they overshadow tensions and problems that under other circumstances could have caused a project breakdown.
Keywords: User participation; Participatory design; Simulation-based training; Prehospital emergency care

Interaction Design

What About Document Folding? User Impressions and a Design Approach BIBAKFull-Text 307-319
  Rodrigo Chamun; Angelina Ziesemer; Isabel H. Manssour; João B. S. de Oliveira; Milene S. Silveira
Designing documents with folds is a difficult task with current desktop publishing software, and this subject is also hardly explored in the academic literature. Because the flat nature of the screen, document design is limited to a two dimensional space, demanding extra effort from designers to place the art with respect to the folds, sometimes forcing them to resort to paper prototyping. Results from interviews performed with design experts, helped us to understand the challenges and needs faced by them during the document creations. This paper presents an interactive visualization approach to compose foldable documents and to interact with the results without resorting to external means. We consider that a foldable document such as brochure is composed by panels joined at the edges and the content of each panel is designed separately. We describe our interactive approach and the results generated by a prototype we developed to support the composition of foldable documents.
Keywords: Document folding; User interfaces; Document layout
Designing of a Natural Voice Assistants for Mobile Through User Centered Design Approach BIBAKFull-Text 320-331
  Sanjay Ghosh; Jatin Pherwani
With rapid advances in natural language generation (NLG), voice has now become an indispensable modality for interaction with smart phones. Most of the smart phone manufacturers have their Voice Assistant application designed with some form of personalization to enhance user experience. However, these designs are significantly different in terms of usage support, features, naturalness and personality of the voice assistant avatar or the character. Therefore the question remains that what is the kind of Voice Assistant that users would prefer. In this study we followed a User Centered Design approach for the design of a Voice Assistant from scratch. Our primary objective was to define the personality of a Voice Assistant Avatar and formulating a few design guidelines for natural dialogues and expressions for the same. The attempt was kept to design the voice assistant avatar with optimal natural or human like aspects and behavior. This paper provides a summary of our journey and details of the methodology used in realizing the design of a natural voice assistant. As research contribution, apart from the methodology we also share some of the guidelines and design decisions which may be very useful for related research.
Keywords: Voice assistant; Conversational agent; User centered design
Comparative Analysis of Regular Grid Based Algorithms in the Design of Graphical Control Panels BIBAKFull-Text 332-339
  Jerzy Grobelny; Rafal Michalski
The paper presents comparative investigation of the effectiveness of three algorithms used for optimizing control panel objects' arrangements. We examined two modified classical approaches involving changing of objects' pairs, that is CRAFT, and its simplified version as well as our implementation of the Simulated annealing concept. Their behavior was investigated in experimental simulation studies of two real-life problems: the truck control panel (small number of objects) and the control panel from a nuclear energy plant (big number of items). The statistical analysis of the obtained results showed the supremacy of the proposed version of the simulated annealing algorithm in both case studies.
Keywords: Display design; Control panels; Layout optimization; Ergonomics; CRAFT; Simulated annealing
Towards Paperless Mobility Information in Public Transport BIBAKFull-Text 340-349
  Stephan Hörold; Cindy Mayas; Heidi Krömker
Following the integration of mobile applications into the mobility information system of public transport, public transport companies seek new opportunities to reduce paper-based information. A common example for these new opportunities is the so called 'paperless stop point'. This paper describes different expansion stages of public displays for mobility information at stop points, based on empirical evaluations with users and experts. Four stages are discussed, which range from static information screens to individual interactive displays. In addition, the widespread expectations of users and transport companies are described, which provide the base for the stage development, are described. As a result, this paper provides insight into typical challenges towards paperless mobility information at stop points in public transport.
Keywords: Public displays; Mobility information; Usability; Public transport
Study of Uninterruptible Duration Prediction Based on PC Operation BIBAKFull-Text 350-359
  Hokuto Iga; Takahiro Tanaka; Kazuaki Aoki; Kinya Fujita
In order to manage interruptions adequately, the prediction of an office worker's uninterruptible duration is desired. We assumed three factors that may affect this uninterruptible duration: the type of work, the person's level of concentration, and the frequency with which the person is disturbed by others. For features related to the type of work, we adopted category of using application and determined the ratio of key-to-mouse usage. The rates of keystroke and mouse operation and the application-switching frequency were selected to reflect a person's concentration at work. A time of day was selected as an index which reflects the disturbance frequency. We then analyzed the relationship between these indices and the uninterruptible duration using 1200-h data. The results showed that, except for the time of day, a significant relationship exists between the uninterruptible duration and these indices. The combination of these indices appears promising for predicting the uninterruptible duration.
Keywords: Interruption; Prediction; Interruptibility; Uninterruptible duration; Work rhythm
Development of Tidy-up Promotion System by Anthropomorphication of Shared Space BIBAKFull-Text 360-369
  Takayoshi Kitamura; Tiange Jin; Motoki Urayama; Hirotake Ishii; Hiroshi Shimoda
Although it is important for our daily lives and works to keep things tidy and in order, it is difficult to always keep it especially in the shared space because it is unclear who has the responsibility. In this study, therefore, a method to persuade them to change their daily behaviors has been proposed from the concept of Ambient Intelligence. In order to realize the method, a system has been developed to encourage them to keep things tidy and in order by personifying the shared space. The personified system expresses its emotions in response to the degree of the disorder. The system consists of (1) a disorder estimation function from the captured image of the shared space by a camera, (2) an emotion creation function of the personified space by the transition of the disorder, and (3) an emotion expression function in appropriate timing. In addition, a case study had been conducted for 31 days to evaluate the system in a student room of a laboratory. As the result, the longer they stayed in the room, the more they watched the messages of the personified room, and improved their consciousness and habituation of keeping the room in order. However, the users who rarely stayed in the room did not improve the habituation.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Persuasion; Nurturance; Anthropomorphism
E-Mail Delivery Mediation System Based on User Interruptibility BIBAKFull-Text 370-380
  Yasumasa Kobayashi; Takahiro Tanaka; Kazuaki Aoki; Kinya Fujita
To eliminate the distraction caused by inappropriately timed e-mail delivery notification, we constructed a prototype e-mail delivery mediation system. The system was designed to mediate incoming e-mails based on user interruptibility, which is estimated from PC operational activities of the user. The system delivers e-mails at higher interruptibility times, especially at application switching moments, which are considered a substitute for task breakpoints in work which uses PC. A trial experiment with eight participants in an ordinary working environment was conducted. The experiment results suggested that e-mails were delivered at higher estimated interruptibility times and decreased feelings of hindrance regarding incoming e-mails. However, there were e-mail deliveries at low interruptibility moments even though participants were using the system. Therefore, further study must be conducted to improve the system and to conduct analysis on work efficiency.
Keywords: E-mail; Interruptibility; Interruption; Work efficiency
Workflow-Based Passenger Information for Public Transport BIBAKFull-Text 381-389
  Cindy Mayas; Stephan Hörold; Heidi Krömker
This paper presents a workflow-based concept of passenger information in public transport, in order to ensure a more intuitive and effective usage of mobile passenger information systems. The workflow-based navigation concept is derived from a pattern analysis and a field test of current mobile applications of passenger information, which mainly provide a function-based navigation. The results of a comparative usability test of workflow-based and function-based navigation concepts show, that workflow-based navigation can reduce the number of required tap actions in relation to function-based navigation concepts.
Keywords: Usability; Mobile applications; Workflow; Public transport
Concrete or Abstract User Interface? BIBAKFull-Text 390-395
  Abbas Moallem
This study investigates what kind of mental image a design triggers when a user views the user interface and whether that image would be matched with the image of the real object in the user's mind.
   In this study, a standard scenario to design a remote control for lighting and temperature controls was given to 200 students completing an HCI course at graduate and undergraduate levels. The given scenario asked each student to provide a low fidelity prototype of a suggested design within a timeframe of 10 min. These prototypes were then classified and grouped into either concrete or abstract designs.
   The results of these investigations show that a majority of participants perceive abstract representations for their design rather than concrete: a depiction of a real light switch to represent turning lights on and off.
Keywords: UI design; Paradigms; UI designer; Mental image
Airway Cursor: A Pointing Technique Based on Direction of Mouse Movement Towards a Targets BIBAFull-Text 396-404
  Tomohiro Nakatsuji; Keiko Yamamoto; Itaru Kuramoto; Yoshihiro Tsujino
In conventional pointing cursor environments, selecting a small object or an object that is at a distance from the cursor takes a considerable amount of time. To solve this problem, we propose a new pointing technique called "Airway Cursor." In the proposed technique, to select a target object, all users need to do is to specify the direction toward the target object. To specify the direction, the user simply moves the cursor a little toward the target object and then clicks. If there are multiple objects between the cursor and the target object, the user can select the target object by carrying out this operation on the intervening non-target objects until the target object is reached. This technique reduces the time to select an object by shortening the distance the mouse has to move.
Interactive Clinical Pedigree Visualization Using an Open Source Pedigree Drawing Engine BIBAKFull-Text 405-414
  João Miguel Santos; Beatriz Sousa Santos; Leonor Teixeira
Advances in Genetics have revealed that many diseases are related to genetic factors. In this context, family health histories play an increasingly important role in healthcare, aiding practitioners in the diagnosis, risk assessment and treatment of various conditions. The clinical pedigree, a graphic representation combining family structure and clinical information, is a well-accepted tool to represent family health histories. At present this tool remains underused, possibly due to the lack of pedigree management tools in health information systems. OntoFam addresses this problem by offering a clinical pedigree information system that can be integrated with current health information systems. This paper presents the method used to create OntoFam's interactive pedigree visualization by wrapping an existing open source pedigree drawing engine. The resulting environment allows practitioners to interactively view, create and manipulate pedigrees. This paper also describes the evaluation strategy that was developed to assess the system and includes its preliminary results.
Keywords: Family health history; Clinical family history; Pedigree; Health information system; Electronic health record; Ontofam; Hemophilia care
User Requirements for Intermodal Mobility Applications and Acceptance of Operating Concepts BIBAKFull-Text 415-425
  Ulrike Stopka; René Pessier; Katrin Fischer
The mobility behavior of the European population has undergone significant changes in recent years. New services like bike, car and ridesharing are arising. The integrated use of different transport modes can be supported effectively by the features and services of sophisticated smartphones. This paper describes the methodology and research results concerning users' behavior, needs, and requests with regard to intermodal mobility applications.
Keywords: Intermodal mobility; Public transport; Mobility services; Mobile applications; User requirements; Preferences; Habit; Focus group; Operating concept
Reduce Complexity by Increasing Abstraction in Interactive Visual Components BIBAKFull-Text 426-437
  Pedro M. Teixeira-Faria; Javier Rodeiro Iglesias
The objective of this study is to introduce a method to abstract complex components in order to create a complete and functional user interface, simplifying the complexity process of user interface design. An example of a simple user interface of a game for younger children is explained and its visual states and transitions represented through a state diagram. However, the level of detail provided by simple components, to represent the user interface is very extensive, making lengthy the interface designing process. Thus, it was decided to increase the abstraction level by introducing a new complex component structure which, due to its encapsulation feature, allows to group components into other more complex components, but with more functionality. An abstraction process through grouping components by levels is detailed, with the intention of proving the validity of the complex component concept to simplify the creation of complete, free and functional user interfaces.
Keywords: Abstract interaction objects; Complex components; Visual interface representation
Graphical User Interface for Search of Mathematical Expressions with Regular Expressions BIBAKFull-Text 438-447
  Takayuki Watabe; Yoshinori Miyazaki
This paper discusses a pattern-matching method with regular expressions for mathematical expressions on electronic documents. In ordinary regular expressions, a pattern is described as a string with meta-characters. However, strings are unsuitable for mathematical expressions because of their two-dimensional structure (e.g., fractions, superscripts, and subscripts). In addition, meta-characters for regular expressions are frequently used as normal characters, forcing users to type escape characters. Therefore, in this study, we propose a graphical user interface (GUI) to create patterns for mathematical expressions.
Keywords: Mathematical expressions; Pattern-matching; Regular expressions; GUI

Emotions in HCI

Understanding Visual Appeal and Quality Perceptions of Mobile Apps: An Emotional Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 451-459
  Upasna Bhandari; Tillman Neben; Klarissa Chang
In this study we look at user judgments like perceived quality and also visual appeal from an emotional perspective. This is important to examine since unlike existing studies that focus on the cognitive mechanism of first impression judgments, we use aesthetics framework forwarded by Lavie and Tractinsky, and Russells' circumplex model of emotions to examine the phenomenon. We also try to answer whether aesthetics lead to significant affective responses from users, which then trickle into quality perceptions and visual appeal, which are otherwise considered higher order judgments. Measurement of emotions has mostly been done through subjective evaluation e.g. self-report or survey. We use objective data (electro-dermal activity for arousal and facial electromyography for valence) in addition to subjective data to measure emotions. We design custom mobile app interfaces which users get exposed to achieve effective aesthetic manipulation.
Keywords: Mobile apps; Quality; Appeal; Emotions; Aesthetics; Neurosis
A Smartphone Application to Promote Affective Interaction and Mental Health BIBAKFull-Text 460-467
  Maurizio Caon; Leonardo Angelini; Stefano Carrino; Omar Abou Khaled; Elena Mugellini
In this paper, we describe a smartphone application that aims at motivating users to use facial expressions. This has a twofold goal: to reintroduce the use of facial expressions as nonverbal means in the computer-mediated communication of emotions and to provide the opportunity for self-reflection about the personal emotional states while fostering smiles in order to improve mental wellbeing. This paper provides a description of the developed prototype and reports the results of a first observation study conducted during an interactive event.
Keywords: Positive technology; Affective interaction; Computer mediated communication; Mental wellbeing; Facial expressions
A Study on the Relationships Between Drivers' Emotions and Brain Signals BIBAKFull-Text 468-476
  Songyi Chae
In this study, the correlation between six basic emotions (happy, sad, angry, disgusted, scared, and neutral) and brain signals evoked by head-up display (HUD) images were found. 20 participants were exposed to 18 different HUD images in the laboratory and driving simulator-based settings. 16-channel electroencephalography (EEG) signals were obtained during exposure to each HUD image and were later used to calculate three EEG indices (EEG activity, concentration level and relaxation level). The participants reported their emotions induced by the observation of each HUD image on semantic differential scales with two bipolar adjectives (range: 1-7). Results showed that color was a key factor for determining the type of emotion evoked, whereas the amount of information provided determined the levels of brain activity in the central lobe. Neural activities in the temporal lobe showed a strong association with the concentration level. These findings between emotions and EEG signals can be used for designing a new type of DVI (driver-vehicle interface).
Keywords: Driver's emotion; Brain signal; Electroencephalography (EEG); Driver-vehicle interface (DVI)
Interactions in Affective Computing: Sharing a Haptic Experience Increases Calmness and Closeness BIBAKFull-Text 477-488
  Norene Kelly
Our body representation and sense of self is constantly updated starting from the integration of different sensory inputs. Synchronous bodily stimulation has been used to manipulate sense of self, and can be applied to user experience design. This study manipulated multimodal stimulation to test factors potentially affecting mood and interpersonal closeness. The independent variables were: (1) the presence or absence of a haptic device (neck massager) on the participant; (2) the presentation of one of two videos, in which an actor expressed either energy or calmness while wearing the haptic device; and (3) the pre- and post-intervention time factor. The results showed a main effect for time for all dependent variables. A three-way interaction effect was evident for the measures of calmness and interpersonal closeness. The greatest reported increase in interpersonal closeness occurred in the haptic-energy video condition, an effect that was consistent with one of the study's hypotheses.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Haptics; Affective computing; Mood; Interpersonal closeness; Embodied cognition; Social cognition; User experience; Therapeutic HCI; Multisensory integration; Self boundary
The Effect of Gamification on Emotions -- The Potential of Facial Recognition in Work Environments BIBAKFull-Text 489-499
  Oliver Korn; Sandra Boffo; Albrecht Schmidt
Gamification means using video game elements to improve user experience and user engagement in non-game services and applications. This article describes the effects when gamification is used in work contexts. Here we focus on industrial production. We describe how facial recognition can be employed to measure and quantify the effect of gamification on the users' emotions.
   The quantitative results show that gamification significantly reduces both task completion time and error rate. However, the results concerning the effect on emotions are surprising. Without gamification there are not only more unhappy expressions (as to expect) but surprisingly also more happy expressions. Both findings are statistically highly significant.
   We think that in redundant production work there are generally more (negative) emotions involved. When there is no gamification happy and unhappy balance each other. In contrast gamification seems to shift the spectrum of moods towards "relaxed". Especially for work environments such a calm attitude is a desirable effect on the users. Thus our findings support the use of gamification.
Keywords: Gamification; Assistive technology; Facial recognition; Affective computing; Computer-assisted instruction; Augmented reality; Human machine interaction
Towards the Evaluation of Emotional Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 500-511
  Damien Lockner; Nathalie Bonnardel
The emotional design approach has become increasingly preponderant for the design teams. However, we observed that most of the efforts of the designers to elicit positive emotions are based on empirical and subjective approaches. This paper shares the state of our current research towards the proposal of heuristics for emotional and empathic interfaces. We focus on the actual design practices, and discuss methodologies to assess the emotions elicited by these design strategies.
Keywords: User experience design; Emotional design; Empathic design; Ergonomics
Analytical Steps for the Calibration of an Emotional Framework BIBAKFull-Text 512-519
  Nicholas H. Müller; Martina Truschzinski
The emotion model of the Smart Virtual Worker is the result of three years of interdisciplinary research. After successful implementation and pre-validation of the model and the surrounding simulation architecture, the model had to be calibrated by using real life working scenarios. The task of carrying differently weighed boxes over a 30 m distance was chosen as the foundation for the model. Subsequent fitting of the model led to a positive evaluation outcome which presented a mean 88% fitting of the model's simulated emotional valence in relation to the observed real world behavior.
Keywords: Emotion framework; Work simulation; Workflow simulator; Emotional valence; Emotional model; Evaluation
Automatic Interpretation of Negotiators' Affect and Involvement Based on Their Non-verbal Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 520-529
  Zhaleh Semnani-Azad; Elnaz Nouri
Valid interpretation of the nonverbal behavior of the people involved in negotiations is important. Computational agents that are designed for negotiation benefit from the ability to interpret human nonverbal behavior for communicating more effectively and achieving their goals. In this paper, we demonstrate how the mode of involvement and relational affect of the negotiators involved in the interaction can be determined by several nonverbal behaviors such as that of the mouth, head, hand movements, posture and the facial expressions of the negotiators. We use machine learning to study involvement and affect in negotiation. Our results show that the prediction models built based on non-verbal cues can help identify the negotiator's attitudes and motivation in the interaction.
Keywords: Relational affect recognition; Involvement recognition; Negotiation; Nonverbal behavior interpretation
HCI and Natural Progression of Context-Related Questions BIBAKFull-Text 530-541
  Aggeliki Vlachostergiou; George Caridakis; Amaryllis Raouzaiou; Stefanos Kollias
The ability of humans to effectively interact socially relies heavily on their awareness of the context the interaction takes place. In order for computer systems to accordingly possess the same ability, it is crucial they are also context-aware in terms of a formalization of context based on the W5+ framework aspects of Who, What, Why, Where, What and How. Research work presented in this paper contributes towards this goal by bridging the conceptual gap and exploiting semantics and cognitive and affective information of non verbal behavior and investigating whether and how this information could be incorporated in automatic analysis of affective behavior. A semantic concept extraction methodology is proposed and its application to indicative examples from the SEMAINE corpus is presented that validates the proposed approach.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Affective Computing; Context awareness; Interaction context semantics extraction; SEMAINE
Emotional Engagement for Human-Computer Interaction in Exhibition Design BIBAKFull-Text 542-549
  Mengting Zhang; Cees de Bont; Wenhua Li
Research of human-computer interaction in exhibition design previously focuses more on how technologies could be used to create splendid effect or impressive experience [1], rather than to interwoven technology with metaphoric, intuitive and narrative content. While in socio-cultural exhibition, the communication of meaning and knowledge itself is more emphasized. Besides, emotional engagement, which could evoke memory, feelings and cognition, could be an important method for HCI in exhibition design. However, less study has explored this area. In this article, the potentials of emotional engagement for HCI in exhibition design are outlined through a project in Shek Kip Mei district in Hong Kong. The project have three stages: documentation, abstraction and conceptualization. It represents one possible flow that could generate emotional engagement from the socio-cultural contents for visitors. The experience gained from this project could facilitate designers, planners, museum curators and academic researchers in creating emotional engaged exhibition.
Keywords: Emotion trigger; Interaction design in exhibition

HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 2

Gesture and Eye-Gaze Based Interaction

Using Gesture-Based Interfaces to Control Robots BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Gabriel M. Bandeira; Michaela Carmo; Bianca Ximenes; Judith Kelner
This paper analyzes human-robot interaction (HRI) to evaluate whether the use of a gesture-based interface is viable for robot control. An experiment was conducted with 19 volunteers. Using a body tracking device, they had to perform gestural commands to remotely control a mobile robot and complete a path marked on the floor. After the experiment, volunteers answered a questionnaire assessing aspects such as system's responsiveness, precision, and triggers to possible physical and psychological discomforts.
   The results achieved validated the research aim partially, as it was determined that this control method is viable but only for short-term operations, pointing a necessity to create a more suitable control, less prone to cause user fatigue during long-term use. The developed system was designed not only for the analysis of HRI factors, but also for applications in remote operation contexts, such as industrial maintenance and exploration of inhospitable environments.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; Human-computer interaction; Natural interfaces; Gestural interfaces; Remote operated robotics; Validation
Improvement of Accuracy in Remote Gaze Detection for User Wearing Eyeglasses Using Relative Position Between Centers of Pupil and Corneal Sphere BIBAKFull-Text 13-23
  Kiyotaka Fukumoto; Takumi Tsuzuki; Yoshinobu Ebisawa
One of the general problems of the pupil-corneal reflection-based gaze detection systems is that the frames and lens of eyeglasses produce reflection images of the light sources in the camera image when a user wears eyeglasses. The glass reflections tend to be misdetected as the pupil and corneal reflections. In the present paper, we propose a novel geometrical methodology based on the optical structure of the eyeball to detect a true pair of the pupil and corneal reflection. The experimental results show that the proposed method improved the precision of gaze detection when the subjects wore glasses or when disturbance light sources existed.
Keywords: Pupil; Corneal reflection; Corneal sphere center; Gaze detection
Designing Touchless Gestural Interactions for Public Displays In-the-Wild BIBAKFull-Text 24-34
  Vito Gentile; Alessio Malizia; Salvatore Sorce; Antonio Gentile
Public displays, typically equipped with touchscreens, are used for interactions in public spaces, such as streets or fairs. Currently low-cost visual sensing technologies, such as Kinect-like devices and high quality cameras, allow to easily implement touchless interfaces. Nevertheless, the arising interactions have not yet been fully investigated for public displays in-the-wild (i.e. in appropriate social contexts where public displays are typically deployed). Different audiences, cultures and social settings strongly affect users and their interactions. Besides gestures for public displays must be guessable to be easy to use for a wide audience. Issues like these could be solved with user-centered design: gestures must be chosen by users in different social settings, and then selected to be resilient to cultural bias and provide a good level of guessability. Therefore the main challenge is to define touchless gestures in-the-wild by using novel UCD methods applied out of controlled environments, and evaluating their effectiveness.
Keywords: Public display; User-centered design; In-the-wild experiment; Gestural interaction; Natural user interaction; Kinect-like devices; Ubiquitous computing
To Write not Select, a New Text Entry Method Using Joystick BIBAKFull-Text 35-43
  Zhenyu Gu; Xinya Xu; Chen Chu; Yuchen Zhang
Existing joystick text entry methods for game and TV boxes are cursor-based selections on virtual keyboards. In this paper we present a new text entry method using joysticks as tangible devices to capture users' freehand writing gestures. The method has considerable accuracy to accomplish English text entry. On the prediction model, we introduced HMM algorithm so users can enter text assisted with automatic correcting. We conducted a pairwise usability test on the keyboard selection method and writing-with-joystick method. The result shows that both of them are very easier to learn and writing-with-joystick is faster than the keyboard selection method both on the prediction model or none-prediction model. Subjects also report that using the keyboard selection method to enter text can be boring when using handwriting is somehow natural. This result indicates that writing with joystick may be another text entry option for game console or Smart TV users.
Keywords: Text entry; Joystick writing; Online recognition
AirFlip: A Double Crossing In-Air Gesture Using Boundary Surfaces of Hover Zone for Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 44-53
  Hiroyuki Hakoda; Takuro Kuribara; Keigo Shima; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
Hover sensing capability provides richer interactions on mobile devices. For one such exploration, we show a quick double crossing in-air gesture for mobile devices, called AirFlip. In this gesture, users move their thumb into the hover zone from the side, and then move it out of the hover zone. Since this gesture does not conflict with any touch gestures that can be performed on mobile devices, it will serve as another gesture on mobile devices with touchscreens where only a limited input vocabulary is available. We implemented two applications based on AirFlip. In this paper, we show the results of a comparative user study that we conducted to identify the performance of AirFlip. We also discuss the characteristics of AirFlip on the basis of the results.
Keywords: Hover gesture; Mobile; Input method; In-air gesture
Design and Evaluation of Freehand Gesture Interaction for Light Field Display BIBAKFull-Text 54-65
  Vamsi Kiran Adhikarla; Grega Jakus; Jaka Sodnik
The paper reports on a user study of freehand gesture interaction with a prototype of autostereoscopic 3D light field display. The interaction was based on a direct touch selection of simple objects rendered at different positions in space. The main goal of our experiment was to evaluate the overall user experience and perceived cognitive workload of such freehand interaction in 3D environment and compare it to the simplified touch-based interaction in 2D environment. The results of the experiment confirmed the hypothesis that significantly more time is required for the interaction in 3D than the interaction in 2D. Surprisingly, no significant difference was found in the results of the assessment of cognitive workload when comparing 3D and 2D. We believe the interaction scenario proposed and evaluated in this study could represent an efficient and intuitive future interaction technique for the selection and manipulation of content rendered on autostereoscopic 3D displays.
Keywords: 3D display; Light field display; Free-hand interaction; Direct touch; Leap Motion Controller; Human-machine interface (HMI); Human-computer interface (HCI)
Beyond Direct Gaze Typing: A Predictive Graphic User Interface for Writing and Communicating by Gaze BIBAKFull-Text 66-77
  Maria Laura Mele; Damon Millar; Christiaan Erik Rijnders
This paper introduces a new gaze-based Graphic User Interface (GUI) for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). In the state of the art, prediction methods to accelerate the production of textual, iconic and pictorial communication only by gaze control are still needed. The proposed GUI translates gaze inputs into words, phrases or symbols by the following methods and techniques: (i) a gaze-based information visualization technique, (ii) a prediction technique combining concurrent and retrospective methods, and (iii) an alternative prediction method based either on the recognition or morphing of spatial features. The system is designed for extending the communication function of individuals with severe motor disabilities, with the aim to allow end-users to independently hold a conversation without needing a human interpreter.
Keywords: Augmentative and alternative communication; Graphical user interfaces for disabled users; Gaze based interaction; Assistive technologies
Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis of Eye Movement Characteristics Using Attractor Plot and First Lyapunov Exponent BIBAKFull-Text 78-85
  Atsuo Murata; Tomoya Matsuura
The purpose of this study was to clarify eye movement characteristics during a visual search using nonlinear dynamics (chaos analysis). More concretely, the first Lyapunov exponent and the attractor plot were obtained for the time series data of x- and y-directional eye-gaze locations. An attempt was made to compare the first Lyapunov exponent and the attractor plot during a visual search task as a function of layout complexity of the display and to verify whether chaotic properties existed in the fluctuation of eye-gaze locations, and to examine how the scaling properties change as a function of the layout complexity. First Lyapunov exponent of the time series of eye-gaze locations took positive values, and tended to increase with the increase of search task difficulty (layout complexity). The attractor plot drew a trajectory like an ellipse, and the variation in attractor plots tended to be more complicated with the increase of task difficulty.
Keywords: Nonlinear dynamics; Eye movement; Attractor plot; First Lyapunov exponent; Layout complexity of display
Optimal Scroll Method for Eye-Gaze Input System BIBAKFull-Text 86-93
  Atsuo Murata; Makoto Moriwaka; Yusuke Takagishi
It is not clear which of the R-E and the S-R compatibility principles is proper for the eye-gaze input. This issue should be addressed for the development of more usable eye-gaze input system. The aim of this study was to explore which of the two compatibility principles was proper for the eye-gaze input system. For all scroll methods, the task completion time did not differ between R-E and S-R compatibility conditions (see Fig. 4). In other words, the speed of scroll did not differ between two compatibility conditions for all of three scroll methods. The number of errors per 90 trials significantly differed among scroll conditions and between R-E and S-R compatibility conditions. Judging from the accuracy of scroll, the error was less when the S-R compatibility like non-touch screen Microsoft Windows was applied than when the R-E compatibility like iPod or iPad was applied. In the range of this study, it seems that the S-R compatibility is dominant from the viewpoints of scroll accuracy for all of three scroll methods. The subjective rating on both usability and fatigue also supported the superiority of S-R compatibility over the R-E compatibility condition. In conclusion, the S-R compatibility was found to be superior for the eye-gaze input system.
Keywords: Eye-gaze input; Scroll; Auto scroll; Scroll icon; S-R compatibility; R-E compatibility
Effects of Target Shape and Display Location on Pointing Performance by Eye-Gaze Input System BIBAKFull-Text 94-106
  Atsuo Murata; Makoto Moriwaka; Daichi Fukunaga
This study aimed at investigating the effects of the target shape, the movement distance, the target size, and the direction of target presentation on the pointing performance using an eye-gaze input system. The target shape, the target size, the movement distance, and the direction of target presentation were within-subject experimental variables. The target shape included: diamond, circle, rectangle, and square. The direction of target presentation included eight directions: upper, lower, left, right, upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right. As a result, the pointing time of the rectangle tended to be longer. The upper directional movement also tended to prolong the pointing time. Such results would be effective for designing an eye-gaze-input HCI (Human-Computer Interaction). Moreover, as a result of modeling the pointing time by Fitts' modeling, it was suggested that the index of difficulty in Fitts' modeling for the rectangle should be defined separately from the circle, the diamond, and the square.
Keywords: Eye-gaze input; Target shape; Display location; HCI
Analysis of Eye Hand Interaction in Drawing Figure and Letter BIBAKFull-Text 107-117
  Yumiko Muto; Takeshi Muto
We investigated the eye hand interaction by focusing on the position of fixation, in order to clarify the role of eye in drawing. In the experiment, participants were asked to draw the simple circle and popular Chinese letters under the three different conditions; drawing by using the pen which is out of ink, tracing and drawing. The result showed that three modes of eye-hand behaviour were observed. We suggested that these three modes should be considered to develop the training device to realize more effective handwrite-training.
Keywords: Handwriting; Handwrite training; Eye-hand interaction; Motor control
Swift Gestures: Seamless Bend Gestures Using Graphics Framework Capabilities BIBAKFull-Text 118-129
  Samudrala Nagaraju
With the advent of bendable devices, Lahey et al. [1], explored bend gestures for mobile phone applications. Considering millions of applications present on app stores [2], it would be a challenge to modify source code to handle bend gestures. We propose a novel approach to assign bend gestures using graphics framework capabilities, which does not require application source code changes. Because of the ease in use of the proposed approach, bend gestures get acceptance from research community and industry.
Keywords: Bendable devices; Rendering engine; Graphics event processing; Bend gestures; Tangible interaction; Usability study; Rendering tree
Phases of Technical Gesture Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 130-139
  Tobias Nowack; Nuha Suzaly; Stefan Lutherdt; Kirsten Schürger; Stefan Jehring; Hartmut Witte; Peter Kurtz
To realize a hands-free controlled system by recognition of mid-air gestures still a bundle of serious problems exists. It is not really clarified how commands have to be interpreted by gestures because it is possible to understand the stroke phases as static as well as dynamic. But depending on which meaning will be used the gesture itself has to be executed in different manners. With video sequences of different interpretations and an online questionnaire this question was examined. The results and also pending problems led to a first solution of a mobile and hands-free controlled transportation system (for picking, lifting and transportation of small boxes) in logistic domains.
Keywords: Mid-air-gestures; Technical gesture recognition; Gesture phases; Hands-free control of robotic systems
Automatic Classification Between Involuntary and Two Types of Voluntary Blinks Based on an Image Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 140-149
  Hironobu Sato; Kiyohiko Abe; Shoichi Ohi; Minoru Ohyama
Several input systems using eye blinking for communication with the severely disabled have been proposed. Eye blinking is either voluntary or involuntary. Previously, we developed an image analysis method yielding an open-eye area as a measurement value. We can extract a blinking wave pattern using statistical parameters yielded from the measurement values. Based on this method, we also proposed an automatic classification method for both involuntary blinking and one type of voluntary blinking. In this paper, we aim to classify a new type of voluntary blinking in addition to the two previous known types. For classifying these three blinking types, a new feature parameter is proposed. In addition, we propose a new classification method based on the measurement results. Our experimental results indicate a successful classification rate of approximately 95% for a sample of seven subjects using our new classification method between involuntary blinking and two types of voluntary blinking.
Keywords: Eye blink detection; Input interface; Automatic classification; Voluntary eye blink; Involuntary eye blink

Touch-Based and Haptic Interaction

GUIs with Haptic Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 153-164
  M. Arda Aydin; Nergiz Ercil Cagiltay; Erol Ozcelik; Emre Tuner; Hilal Sahin; Gul Tokdemir
While there are many studies regarding utilization of haptic feedback to enhance desktop GUIs and utilizing haptic devices as additional interfaces to improve performance in current interaction techniques, there are not many studies that uses haptic device as a primary input device. In this study, we present an experimentation conducted with 30 students, comparing performance of a haptic device with mouse to use a GUI elements commonly used with mouse gestures. This study is inspired by a system that utilizes both mouse and a haptic device, thus also taking task switching into consideration. We conclude that it is possible to achieve an acceptable performance with a haptic device in a desktop-like GUI but further study and experimentation is necessary.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Haptic devices; GUI
Effect of Button Size and Location When Pointing with Index Finger on Smartwatch BIBAKFull-Text 165-174
  Kiyotaka Hara; Takeshi Umezawa; Noritaka Osawa
Users control smartwatches through touch screen interfaces such as smartphones. However, because smartwatches are very small and users' postures differ depending on the device, control using touch screens needs to be adapted for smartwatches. Users tap buttons on the touch screen to control the smartwatch, so speed and accuracy of button input are required. Users' button input speed and accuracy are affected by displayed button size and location. In this study, we investigated the effects of button size and location when pointing with the index finger on a smartwatch. The results suggest that the pointing error rate is significantly affected by button size and location. The error rates became lower as the buttons became larger and when the buttons were located near the center of the screen.
Keywords: Smartwatch; Touch input; Pointing performance
Preliminary Study to Determine a "User-Friendly" Bending Method: Comparison Between Bending and Touch Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 175-183
  BoKyung Huh; HaeYoun Joung; SeungHyeon Im; Hee Sun Kim; GyuHyun Kwon; JiHyung Park
We suggest "User-Friendly" bending methods applied in a suitable context to flexible displays by a comparative analysis of touch interaction (TI). To determine appropriate method, we selected video and eBook applications for our experiment tasks. In the experiment, participants executed application commands through touch or bending interaction (BI) to determine the appropriate interaction method between two comparative interactions: flexibility and touch-based interaction. From the experiment, we found that BI does not apply to all commands in a flexible display. In both applications, users preferred BI for infrequently or continuously used commands: bookmarking, fast-forwarding, and rewinding. When users executed these commands, they intuitively used an "analog metaphor" as the BI. However, in both applications, users did not prefer BI for commands that required detailed and quantitative control. Based on the results of this study, we expect to discover new interactions for flexible displays and to suggest utilization direction of bending interaction.
Keywords: Flexible display; Bending interaction; Touch interaction; Bendable display; Flexible paper-like display; Bend input
Musician Fantasies of Dialectical Interaction: Mixed-Initiative Interaction and the Open Work BIBAKFull-Text 184-195
  Leonardo Impett; Isak Herman; Patrick K. A. Wollner; Alan F. Blackwell
We compare some recent trends in mixed-initiative HCI and interactive electronic music, and consider what useful knowledge can be shared between them. We then present two novel principles for understanding the nature of this common trend: spaces of co-agency and dialectical interaction; and discuss some of the philosophical and technical challenges they present in relation to musical interaction. A technically advanced prototype, the Mephistophone, is discussed as a case-study for understanding these design principles, concluding with some more general points for creative mixed-initiative interaction.
Keywords: HCI; Interactive music; Haptic control; Mixed-initiative interaction; Augmented cognition
RICHIE: A Step-by-step Navigation Widget to Enhance Broad Hierarchy Exploration on Handheld Tactile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 196-207
  Alexandre Kabil; Sébastien Kubicki
Exploring large hierarchies is still a challenging task, especially for handheld tactile devices, due to the lack of visualization space and finger's occlusion. In this paper, we propose the RICHIE (Radial InCremental HIerarchy Exploration) tool, a new radial widget that allows step-by-step navigation through large hierarchies. We designed it to fit handheld tactile requirements such as target reaching and space optimization. Depth exploration is made by shifting two levels of hierarchy at the same time, for reducing the screen occupation. This widget was implemented in order to adapt a Command and Control (C2) system to mobile tactile devices, as these systems require the on-screen presence of an important unit's hierarchy (the ORder of BATtle). Nevertheless, we are convinced that RICHIE could be used on several systems that require hierarchical data exploration, such as phylogenetic trees or file browsing.
Keywords: Multi-touch; Information visualization; Hierarchy
Information Select and Transfer Between Touch Panel and Wearable Devices Using Human Body Communication BIBAFull-Text 208-216
  Yuto Kondo; Shin Takahashi; Jiro Tanaka
This paper proposes a technique to enable the simple transfer of information between a computer with a large touch-panel display, such as a tabletop PC, and another computer, typically one worn by the user. With our technique, the user touches an intended item displayed on the panel to select and transfer it to his or her device. We describe some illustrative usage scenarios and outline a prototype system that can communicate image data between a tabletop PC and a wearable device. We conducted preliminary experiments to evaluate this system's user interface and performed interviews with test subjects regarding the prototype.
Mouse Augmentation Using a Malleable Mouse Pad BIBAKFull-Text 217-226
  Takuro Kuribara; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
We present mouse augmentation that uses a malleable mouse pad, which is named "Sinkpad". Sinkpad augments mouse functionalities by allowing a user to sink the mouse into the pad and tilt the mouse on the pad. In addition, the user is provided with haptic feedback via the mouse on the pad. Sinkpad allows the user to perform: sink, tilt, and sink+move actions. This paper describes Sinkpad, its applications, and its evaluation.
Keywords: Input device; Hybrid interaction device; Interaction technique; Malleable surface; Haptic feedback; Window management; Overlapping windows
Spatial Arrangement of Data and Commands at Bezels of Mobile Touchscreen Devices BIBAKFull-Text 227-237
  Toshifumi Kurosawa; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
We show a data and commands arrangement design on mobile touchscreen devices. In this design, a user can arrange any data, such as text and Web pages, at the bezel of the touchscreen by using a simple crossing gesture across the bezel. Our design has three main merits: data can be arranged while the small display area on mobile environment is kept open; the user can continuously execute multiple commands with the user's minimal visual attention; and memorizing the locations of the data is made easier by utilizing the user's spatial memory.
Keywords: Data placing; Data management; Touch gestures; Bezel gestures; Shortcuts; Menu; Crossing; Spatial memory
Fitts' Throughput and the Remarkable Case of Touch-Based Target Selection BIBAKFull-Text 238-249
  I. Scott MacKenzie
The method of calculating Fitts' throughput is detailed, considering task characteristics, the speed-accuracy trade-off, data collection, and data aggregation. The goal is to bring consistency to the method of calculation and thereby strengthen between-study comparisons where throughput is used as a dependent measure. In addition, the distinction between indirect and direct pointing devices is elaborated using the examples of a mouse as an indirect pointing device and a finger as a direct pointing device. An experiment with 16 participants using a smart phone was conducted as an empirical test of direct touch-based target selection. Overall, the throughput was 6.95 bps. This is a remarkable figure -- about 50% higher than accepted values for a mouse. The experiment included task type (1D vs. 2D) and device position (supported vs. mobile) as independent variables. Throughput for the 1D task was 15% higher than for the 2D task. No difference in throughput was observed between the supported and mobile conditions.
Keywords: Fitts' law; Throughput; Touch input
Investigation of Transferring Touch Events for Controlling a Mobile Device with a Large Touchscreen BIBAKFull-Text 250-261
  Kazusa Onishi; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
When users hold large mobile devices equipped with a large touchscreen in one hand, the region distant from the thumb is too distant for users to control. This forces users to change their hand posture so that their thumb can reach to the top half. To address this problem, we explore a technique that transfers touch events on the bottom half of a touchscreen to its top half. This technique may allow users to control all regions of a large touchscreen by using only the bottom half. Thus, users can control a mobile device without changing hand posture. We conducted a user study to investigate the feasibility of our technique. From the results, our technique is marginally faster than direct touch and thus, might be feasible.
Keywords: Large mobile device; Touch gesture; Single-handed control
GyroTouch: Wrist Gyroscope with a Multi-Touch Display BIBAKFull-Text 262-270
  Francisco R. Ortega; Armando Barreto; Naphtali Rishe; Nonnarit O-larnnithipong; Malek Adjouadi; Fatemeh Abyarjoo
We present GyroTouch, a multi-modal approach to the use of a digital gyroscope in a watch form-factor and a multi-touch desktop display with the aim to find properties that can yield better navigation in 3D virtual environments. GyroTouch was created to augment multi-touch gestures with other devices. Our approach addressed 3D rotations and 3D Translation used in navigation of virtual environments. This work also includes an algorithm for estimating angular velocity for any given axis, using only one previous sample.
Keywords: Multi-touch; Gyroscope; Modern input devices; Multimodal; Multimodal input

Natural User Interfaces

Giving Voices to Multimodal Applications BIBAKFull-Text 273-283
  Nuno Almeida; António Teixeira; Ana Filipa Rosa; Daniela Braga; João Freitas; Miguel Sales Dias; Samuel Silva; Jairo Avelar; Cristiano Chesi; Nuno Saldanha
The use of speech interaction is important and useful in a wide range of applications. It is a natural way of interaction and it is easy to use by people in general. The development of speech enabled applications is a big challenge that increases if several languages are required, a common scenario, for example, in Europe. Tackling this challenge requires the proposal of methods and tools that foster easier deployment of speech features, harnessing developers with versatile means to include speech interaction in their applications. Besides, only a reduced variety of voices are available (sometimes only one per language) which raises problems regarding the fulfillment of user preferences and hinders a deeper exploration regarding voices' adequacy to specific applications and users.
   In this article, we present some of our contributions to these different issues: (a) our generic modality that encapsulates the technical details of using speech synthesis; (b) the process followed to create four new voices, including two young adult and two elderly voices; and (c) some initial results exploring user preferences regarding the created voices.
   The preliminary studies carried out targeted groups including both young and older-adults and addressed: (a) evaluation of the intrinsic properties of each voice; (b) observation of users while using speech enabled interfaces and elicitation of qualitative impressions regarding the chosen voice and the impact of speech interaction on user satisfaction; and (c) ranking of voices according to preference.
   The collected results, albeit preliminary, yield some evidence of the positive impact speech interaction has on users, at different levels. Additionally, results show interesting differences among the voice preferences expressed by both age groups and genders.
Keywords: Synthetic voices; Speech output; Multimodal interaction; Age effects
It's not What It Speaks, but It's How It Speaks: A Study into Smartphone Voice-User Interfaces (VUI) BIBAKFull-Text 284-291
  Jaeyeol Jeong; Dong-Hee Shin
Since voice-user interfaces (VUI) are becoming an attractive tool for more intuitive user interactions, this study proposes a between-subject experiment in which variations in voice characteristics (i.e., voice gender and manner) of VUI are examined as key determinants of user perceptions. This study predicts that the voice gender (male vs. female) and manner (calm vs. exuberant) are likely to have significant effects on psychological and behavior outcomes, including credibility and trustworthiness of information delivered via VUI.
Keywords: Voice user interface; Voice gender; Voice manner; Smart device; Credibility; Trust
StringWeaver: Research on a Framework with an Alterable Physical Interface for Generative Art BIBAKFull-Text 292-304
  Yunshui Jin; Zhejun Liu
In order to improve the input interface for generative art, the author was inspired by a traditional game called string figure to design a framework with an alterable physical input interface named StringWeaver. The input system of StringWeaver is consisted of strings (made of black conductive rubber tube) which can be customized physically by rearranging and blob tracking system that can track audience finger. The visual output is directly projected on the input interface with music and sound generated. StringWeaver was proved to be useful by three prototypes developed under the framework of it. Limitations and future work are introduced at the end of the paper.
Keywords: Physical interface; Traditional game; Generative art; Framework
Synchronization Between Utterance Rhythm and Body Movement in a Two-Person Greeting BIBAKFull-Text 305-316
  Kenta Kinemuchi; Hiroyuki Kobayashi; Tomohito Yamamoto
In this study, designed to clarify the relationship between utterance rhythm and body movement in a greeting, two experiments were conducted to examine the greeting between persons of equal social standing and that between persons of different social standings. In both experiments, high synchronization between speakers was observed. In the analysis of the relationship between durations in subjects, synchronization was found between utterance rhythm and body movement for the greetings between social equals. However, for the greetings between persons of different social standings, there was little synchronization between utterance rhythm and body movement in subjects. These results are used to discuss the mechanism of the greeting, the starting point for communication.
Keywords: Communication; Synchronization; Greeting; Utterance rhythm; Body movement
Heuristics for NUI Revisited and Put into Practice BIBAKFull-Text 317-328
  Vanessa Regina Margareth Lima Maike; Laurindo de Sousa Britto Neto; Siome Klein Goldenstein; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
Natural User Interfaces (NUIs) represent a strong tendency for interaction with new computational technologies. They also represent a big challenge for designers, since delivering the promised feelings of naturalness is not trivial. In this paper, we revisit a set of 23 heuristics for NUI applications within the context of three experiments to evaluate the design of two scenarios of using NUI as assistive technology systems. While using the initial set of heuristics, they also were evaluated. Results of the experiments led to a leaner set of 13 NUI heuristics, with a compliance scale ranging from -4 to 4. The heuristics in the revisited set were defined, described and illustrated in the context of the experiments, so that they can be useful for designers and evaluators.
Keywords: Natural user interfaces; Design; Usability; Accessibility
Using Neural Networks for Data-Driven Backchannel Prediction: A Survey on Input Features and Training Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 329-340
  Markus Mueller; David Leuschner; Lars Briem; Maria Schmidt; Kevin Kilgour; Sebastian Stueker; Alex Waibel
In order to make human computer interaction more social, the use of supporting backchannel cues can be beneficial. Such cues can be delivered in different channels like vision, speech or gestures. In this work, we focus on the prediction of acoustic backchannels in terms of speech. Previously, this prediction has been accomplished by using rule-based approaches. But like every rule-based implementation, it is dependent on a fixed set of handwritten rules which have to be changed every time the mechanism is adjusted or different data is used. In this paper we want to overcome these limitations by making use of recent advancements in the field of machine learning. We show that backchannel predictions can be generated by means of a neural network based approach. Such a method has the advantage of depending only on the training data, without the need of handwritten rules.
Keywords: Backchannel; Neural networks; Data-driven prediction
Towards Creation of Implicit HCI Model for Prediction and Prevention of Operators' Error BIBAKFull-Text 341-352
  Pavle Mijovic; Miloš Milovanovic; Miroslav Minovic; Ivan Macuzic; Vanja Kovic; Ivan Gligorijevic
This paper describes development of a new generation of the interactive industrial workplace, through introduction of a novel implicit Human Computer Interaction (HCI) model. Proposed framework aims at being a foundation of a computer-based system that enables an increase of workers safety and well-being in industrial environments. Further aim is to enable an increase in production levels, together with improvement of ergonomics of the workplace. Specifically targeted environments are industrial workplaces that include repetitive tasks, which are in most of the cases monotonic in nature. Implicit HCI model could enable development of a specific technical solution that is meant to be an integral and inseparable part of a future workplace and should serve to predict human errors and communicate a warning to a worker. As such, system is meant to increase situational awareness of the workers and prevent errors in operating that would otherwise lead to work-related injuries (including causalities).
Keywords: Implicit HCI; Multimodal HCI; Neuroergonomics; EEG; Kinect
Development of Chat System Added with Visualized Unconscious Non-verbal Information BIBAKFull-Text 353-362
  Masashi Okubo; Haruna Tsujii
Face-to-face communications are performed by sending and receiving verbal and non-verbal information. And non-verbal information are sent and received consciously and unconsciously. In the face-to-face communication, this non-verbal information plays the important roles for smooth communication. In the case of text chat, we can send the some kind of non-verbal information, for example, the face marks, smiley and stamps to let the partner know our emotion and the true meaning of verbal information. However, it is difficult to treat the unconscious non-verbal information in text chat. Because of this, sometime we have a misunderstanding of text information. Therefore, we propose the text chat system which visualizes the unconscious non-verbal information of user. In the proposed system, the change of heart's pulse wave of user is reflected in the background color of text chat. In this paper, the detail of proposed system and the result of system evaluation by sensory evaluation are described.
Keywords: Unconscious non-verbal information; Text communication; Heart's pulse wave; Emotion
Implications for Design of Personal Mobility Devices with Balance-Based Natural User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 363-375
  Aleksander Rem; Suhas Govind Joshi
In this paper, we present a set of guidelines for designing personal mobility devices (PMDs) with body balance exclusively as input modality. Using an online survey, focus group and design workshop, we designed several PMD prototypes that used a natural user interface (NUI) and balance as its only form of user input. Based on these designs we constructed a physical and functional PMD prototype, which was tested using a usability test to explore how the balance interface should be designed. In conclusion, we discuss whether the guidelines from the literature could apply when designing PMDs and present a set of implications for the design of PMDs with balance-based NUIs based on both the guidelines and our own findings.
Keywords: Personal mobility; Embodied interaction; Natural user interface
Stage of Subconscious Interaction for Forming Communication Relationship BIBAFull-Text 376-384
  Takafumi Sakamoto; Yugo Takeuchi
We assume that subconscious interaction is carried out to make possible the forming of a communication relationship with the object. To model this stage of interaction, two experiments were carried out. We created an experimental environment to observe the interaction between a human and a robot whose behavior was actually mapped by another human. In experiment 1, interaction with an unknown robot and a known robot were compared. As a result, the interaction property for each condition was confirmed. This result suggests that a stage of subconscious interaction does exist for recognition of artifacts as interaction partners. In experiment 2, we explore the relation between physical interaction and cognitive states by the think-aloud method. Behavioral data was analyzed by a Bayesian network (BN). As a result, it is obvious that BN structure relates to speaking data. This indicates that it is likely to model the process of subconscious interaction.
Interactive Sonification Markup Language (ISML) for Efficient Motion-Sound Mappings BIBAKFull-Text 385-394
  James Walker; Michael T. Smith; Myounghoon Jeon
Despite rapid growth of research on auditory display and sonification mapping per se, there has been little effort on efficiency or accessibility of the mapping process. In order to expedite variations on sonification research configurations, we have developed the Interactive Sonification Markup Language (ISML). ISML is designed within the context of the Immersive Interactive Sonification Platform (iISoP) at Michigan Technological University. We present an overview of the system, the motivation for developing ISML, and the time savings realized through its development. We then discuss the features of ISML and its accompanying graphical editor, and conclude by summarizing the system's feature development and future plans for its further enhancement. ISML is expected to decrease repetitive development tasks for multiple research studies and to increase accessibility to diverse sonification researchers who do not have programming experience.
Keywords: Design research; Interactive sonification; Sonification markup language

Adaptive and Personalized Interfaces

Defining and Optimizing User Interfaces Information Complexity for AI Methods Application in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 397-405
  Maxim Bakaev; Tatiana Avdeenko
The HCI has understandably become user-centric, but if we are to consider human operator and computer device as even components of a human-computer system and seek to maximize its overall efficacy with AI methods, we would need to optimize information flows between the two. In the paper, we would like to call to the discussion on defining and measuring the information complexity of modern two-dimensional graphic user interfaces. By analogy with Kolmogorov complexity (algorithmic entropy) for computability resources, the interface information complexity could allow estimating the amount of human processor resources required for dealing with interaction task. The analysis of the current results allows concluding that interface "processing" time by humans is indeed affected by the interface message "length" parameter, and, presumably, by vocabulary size. We hope the results could aid in laying ground for broader AI methods application for HCI in the coming era of ubiquitous Big Interaction.
Keywords: Model human processor; Interface design automation; Information complexity; Hick-Hyman's law
A Systematic Review of Dementia Focused Assistive Technology BIBAKFull-Text 406-417
  Joanna Evans; Michael Brown; Tim Coughlan; Glyn Lawson; Michael P. Craven
This paper presents a systematic review which explores the nature of assistive technologies currently being designed, developed and evaluated for dementia sufferers and their carers. A search through four large databases, followed by filtering by relevance, led to the identification and subsequent review of papers. Our review revealed that the majority of research in this area focuses on the support of day-to-day living activities, safety monitoring, memory aids and preventing social isolation. We conclude that the majority of AT currently available support day-to-day living activities, safety monitoring and assisting healthcare. However these devices merely address the 'ease of living' rather than focusing on 'quality of life'. Although there are some devices which address social symptoms of Dementia, few address behavioural issues such as aggression and virtually none are available to support recreational activities. After discussing the implications of these findings, we finally reflect on general design issues for assistive technologies in this domain that became apparent during the review.
Keywords: Design: human centered design and user centered design; Technology: adaptive and personalized interfaces; Technology: interaction design; Technology: new technology and its usefulness; Dementia; Alzheimer's; Assistive technology
Trust-Based Individualization for Persuasive Presentation Builder BIBAKFull-Text 418-428
  Amirsam Khataei; Ali Arya
For most people, decision-making involves collecting opinion and advice from others who can be trusted. Personalizing a presentation's content with trustworthy opinions can be very effective towards persuasiveness of the content. While the persuasiveness of presentation is an important factor in face-to-face scenarios, it becomes even more important in an online course or other educational material when the "presenter" cannot interact with audience and attract and influence them. As the final layer of our personalization model, the Pyramid of Individualization, in this paper we present a conceptual model for collecting opinionative information as trustworthy support for the presentation content. We explore selecting a credible publisher (expert) for the supporting opinion as well as the right opinion that is aligned with the intended personalized content.
Keywords: Presentation; Personalized; Trust; Opinion mining
Context Elicitation for User-Centered Context-Aware Systems in Public Transport BIBAKFull-Text 429-439
  Heidi Krömker; Tobias Wienken
In the area of public transport context-aware systems have great relevance regarding the barriers. The service of these systems can be adapted to the individual situation in order to support the user in carrying out his tasks during the journey. The adaption is based on the context of user which is mainly influenced by the user goals and the associated tasks. In the context-aware system development for public transport the early stages of requirements engineering require more detailed investigations. The research of this paper is focused on the initial context elicitation which is a precondition for the analysis and modelling of the context. The first part discusses the knowledge lack of the developer team about the context in the beginning of a development and presents a task-oriented context taxonomy of public transport to overcome this problem. Furthermore, the second part sets out to address the concerns of designing a concept of user data acquisition and provides a framework for the selection and combination of elicitation methods.
Keywords: Adaptive system; Context awareness; Requirements engineering; Context elicitation; Public transport
Personalization Through Personification BIBAKFull-Text 440-447
  Jung Min Lee; Da Young Ju
In the close future, flexible bending display will emerge, bringing greater degree of freedom for users to personalize their devices. According to theoretical researches, the newly introduced technologies will be personified since people tend to be attracted to things that are similar to them, and treat them as if they were real people. Thus, this paper investigates what variables influence upon the personification of the flexible devices. To find these variables, interview was conducted on 10 individuals, asking how they would personify the device based on Paul Ekman's six basic emotions, and what kinds of variable influence their emotional change on the devices. As a result, the degree of angle, the speed and continuity of the movement and positioning of the device are the major factors that influence personification of flexible handheld devices.
Keywords: Flexible display; Personification; Personalization; Interaction design; User experience; Handheld devices
Enterprise Systems for Florida Schools BIBAKFull-Text 448-458
  Mandy Lichtenstein; Kathleen Clark
The purpose of this paper is to show the impact of decision making about technology in school districts. During our research we found a lot of important information about decision making and forecasting. Furthermore, we also found information on EBusiness, along with Business Strategy, Structure, and Impact. All these important factors come together to help us understand where the Charlotte County's district went wrong in their decisions with their upgraded system. We explore our findings and present the results of how better planning can help other districts.
Keywords: Enterprise systems; Florida schools; FOCUS system; Hardware; IT department; Legacy system; Schools; Software system; System maintenance; System benefits; System implementation; System upgrades; Vendor
Toward Usable Intelligent User Interface BIBAKFull-Text 459-471
  Nesrine Mezhoudi; Iyad Khaddam; Jean Vanderdonckt
Context-awareness of interaction with intelligent user interface has been considered as a potentially important factor of their usability. A fair amount of research has been conducted to identify and help developing advanced adaptations in order to streamline interaction with systems. However, it has to be noted that adaptations could have an adverse impact when it does not meet users expectations. Thereby 'Context-awareness' as well as 'user-centeredness' become more crucial to improve the quality of interaction as well as UIs. Inter-twinned with intelligent techniques, HCI proved an ability to be more intuitive, nevertheless a significant lack of transparency and controllability and predictability were detected. This work is aimed to improve the quality of interaction to fit intelligent user interface performance. We focus on interaction as a key factor for improving the user satisfaction and the interface usability during use. This paper considers major issues and challenges of improving interaction with user interfaces during their use by considering the ISO2941. It presents a methodological proposal for guiding UI developers to designs predict and evaluates interaction quality with regards to well-defined dialog principles.
Keywords: Adaptation; Intelligent user interfaces; Controllability; Predictability; Transparency; ISO2941-110
Suturing Space: Tabletop Portals for Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 472-484
  Evan Montpellier; Garrett Laroy Johnson; Omar Al Faleh; Joshua Gigantino; Assegid Kidane; Nikolaos Chandolias; Connor Rawls; Todd Ingalls; Xin Wei Sha
Most video-conferencing technologies focus on 1-1, person-to-person links, typically showing the heads and shoulders of the conversants seated facing their cameras. This limits their movement and expects foveal attention. Adding people to the conversation multiplies the complexity and competes for visual real estate and video bandwidth. Most coronal meaning-making activity is excised by this frontal framing of the participants. This method does not scale well as the number of participants rises. This research presents a different approach to augmenting collaboration and learning. Instead of projecting people to remote spaces, furniture is digitally augmented to effectively exist in two (or more) locations at once. An autoethnographic analysis of social protocols of this technology is presented. We ask, how can such shared objects provide a common site for ad hoc activity in concurrent conversations among people who are not co-located but co-present via audio?
Keywords: Collaboration technology; Lifelong learning; Collaboration technology; Problem-based learning; Inquiry-based learning; Project-based learning; Blended learning; Collaborative knowledge construction; Interdisciplinary studies; Social media; Social networking; Social processes; Teams; Communities; Surface computing; Technology-enhanced learning; Technology-rich interactive learning environments; Suturing spaces; Tabletop displays; Augmented reality; Mixed reality; Collaborative work; Interior design; Furniture design; Responsive architecture; Interactive architecture; Smart architecture; Smart objects; Realtime media; Real-time interactive media; Responsive media; Live video; Live audio; Gestural interfaces; User interfaces; Computational matter
Violin Fingering Estimation According to the Performer's Skill Level Based on Conditional Random Field BIBAFull-Text 485-494
  Shinji Sako; Wakana Nagata; Tadashi Kitamura
In this paper, we propose a method that estimates appropriate violin fingering according to the performer's skill level based on a conditional random field (CRF). A violin is an instrument that can produce the same pitch for different fingering patterns, and these patterns depend on skill level. We previously proposed a statistical method for violin fingering estimation, but that method required a certain amount of training data in the form of fingering annotation corresponding to each note in the music score. This was a major issue of our previous method, because it takes time and effort to produce the annotations. To solve this problem, we proposed a method to automatically generate training data for a fingering model using existing violin textbooks. Our experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Interactive Motor Learning with the Autonomous Training Assistant: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 495-506
  Ramin Tadayon; Troy McDaniel; Morris Goldberg; Pamela M. Robles-Franco; Jonathan Zia; Miles Laff; Mengjiao Geng; Sethuraman Panchanathan
At-home exercise programs have met limited success in rehabilitation and training. A primary cause for this is the lack of a trainer's presence for feedback and guidance in the home. To create such an environment, we have developed a model for the representation of motor learning tasks and training protocols. We designed a toolkit based on this model, the Autonomous Training Assistant, which uses avatar interaction and real-time multi-modal feedback to guide at-home exercise. As an initial case study, we evaluate a component of our system on a child with Cerebral Palsy and his martial arts trainer through three simple motion activities, demonstrating the effectiveness of the model in representing the trainer's exercise program.
Keywords: Autonomous Training Assistant; Computer-based learning; Multimodal interface; User experience and usability; Human centered design and user centered design

Distributed, Migratory and Multi-screen User Interfaces

Living Among Screens in the City BIBAKFull-Text 509-518
  Bertrand David; René Chalon
Screens have become the apparatuses through which we encounter the world. However, this does not simply mean that our use of screens has increased, but rather that our relationship towards them has changed the way in which we see and live. Through screens we get knowledge and communicate with other people as well as with what is all around us, particularly the urban environment. Individuals and screens have become the inseparable elements of a single communicational and social system raising the fundamental questions of its comprehension and governance. The proliferation of screens and new information and communication technologies (ICT) is accomplishing a perceptive revolution. Our goal is to study the use of screens in the city and propose a new ecosystem contributing to their better use and mastery.
Keywords: Screens; Large screen; Public screen; Private screen; In mobility interaction; Informational ecosystem
Delegation Theory in the Design of Cross-Platform User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 519-530
  Dagmawi L. Gobena; Gonçalo N. P. Amador; Abel J. P. Gomes; Dejene Ejigu
The amalgamation of various technologies to support the needs of new computing models has become prevalent in computing environments like ubiquitous computing. Amalgamation means here heterogeneity caused by not only the coexistence of various devices in the same computing environment, but also the diversity between software, users as well as interaction modalities. The platform heterogeneity together with additional needs of interaction modalities and the proliferation of new technologies pose unique challenges for user interface (UI) designers and developers. We consider the problem of heterogeneity as a demand of collaboration between platforms (device and system) that are owned or controlled by a human user. Hence, we drive the concept of delegation to be implemented in a peer-to-peer model, where one peer (known as delegator) delegates another peer (known as delegatee) to run a UI (or a single interaction-modality) on its behalf. Thus, the delegatee uses its own capabilities to present the required UI or interaction-modality.
Keywords: Cross-platform UI; UI migration; Distributed UI
Current Challenges in Compositing Heterogeneous User Interfaces for Automotive Purposes BIBAKFull-Text 531-542
  Tobias Holstein; Markus Wallmyr; Joachim Wietzke; Rikard Land
Composition (i.e. merging distinct parts to form a new whole) of user interfaces from different providers or devices is popular in many areas. Current trends in the automotive area show, that there is a high interest in compositing interfaces from mobile devices into automotive user interfaces. "Apple CarPlay" and "Android Auto" are concrete examples of such compositions. However composition is addressed with challenges, especially if the parts are originally designed for different purposes.
   This paper presents the problem statement of compositing heterogeneous devices. Furthermore, it presents a layer model showing architectural levels, where compositions can take place and for each of these layers challenges have been identified.
Keywords: Design; Human factors; Ubiquitous interoperability; Heterogeneous; Platforms; User interface; Composition; Hypervisor; Virtualization
A Framework for Distributing and Migrating the User Interface in Web Apps BIBAFull-Text 543-553
  Antonio Peñalver; David Nieves; Federico Botella
Nowadays, the advent of mobile technologies with increasing functionality and computing power is changing the way people interact with their applications in more and more different contexts of use. This way, many traditional user interfaces are evolving towards "distributed" user ones, allowing that interaction elements can now be distributed among heterogeneous devices from different platforms. In this paper we present an HTTP-Based framework for generating and distributing UIs (User Interfaces) of custom applications, allowing device change with state preservation. We use a schema-based definition of DUIs (Distributed User Interfaces), allowing the specification of the elements to be distributed. The framework is based on open standards and supports any markup-based web language. We provide a graphic case of use implemented in HTML5.
UniWatch -- Some Approaches Derived from UniGlyph to Allow Text Input on Tiny Devices Such as Connected Watches BIBAKFull-Text 554-562
  Franck Poirier; Mohammed Belatar
Smartwatches are a fast-expanding type of interactive device that allow users to directly access to many applications on smartphone. At the moment, smartwatches lack a usable means of text entry. In this paper, we propose a new approach of text entry on smartwatches called UniWatch. At first, we give a state of the art concerning text entry on small devices. Then, we recall our past approaches of text entry and more particularly Uniglyph, a text input method for handheld devices that used a 4-button keyboard. Secondly, we describe and compare the different adaptations of Uniglyph for tiny connected devices such as smartwatches. All the proposed adaptations require only three buttons or three simple finger strokes on the screen. Thirdly, we examine the role of word completion and word prediction for such devices.
Keywords: Text input; Virtual keyboard; Word prediction; Connected watch; Smartwatch; Internet of things
A Model-Based Framework for Multi-Adaptive Migratory User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 563-572
  Enes Yigitbas; Stefan Sauer; Gregor Engels
Nowadays users are surrounded by a broad range of networked interaction devices for carrying out their everyday activities. Flexible and natural interaction with such devices in a seamless manner remains a challenging problem, as many different contexts of use (platform, user, and environment) have to be supported. In this regard, enabling task continuity by preserving the user interface's state and adapting it to the changing context of use can help to improve user experience despite possible device changes. The development of such multi-adaptive migratory user interfaces (MAMUIs) involves several challenges for developers that are partially addressed by frameworks like CAMELEON-RT. However, supporting the development of user interfaces with adaptation and migration capabilities is still a challenging task. In this paper, we present an integrated model-based framework for supporting the development of MAMUIs.
Keywords: Model-Based user interface development; Adaptive user interface; User interface migration

Games and Gamification

A Dome-Shaped Interface Embedded with Low-Cost Infrared Sensors for Car-Game Control by Gesture Recognition BIBAFull-Text 575-583
  Jasmine Bhanushali; Sai Parthasarathy Miduthuri; Kavita Vemuri
This paper proposes a steering wheel like interface using infrared sensors suitable for in-car control, car-game control or any interface with spin or turn hand gesture. Most of the interfaces introduced to-date use touch, position/depth sensing using cameras or proximity sensors positioned in a 2-D configuration. The electronic screen used for touch interface requires the user to maintain contact with specific positions on the screen. In contactless interfaces the sensors or camera are placed in a planar configuration, and complex gestures like turns or twist is intensive signal analysis. In the proposed preliminary model we introduce a contactless gesture recognition design shaped as a dome to allow natural hand movement for turns and tested to control a virtual object mimicking the movement of a car-wheel. The system recognizes hand movements like forward (translated as acceleration), backward (deceleration/slow), steady-hold (cruise), lateral for braking, turns-clockwise (right turn of the wheel) and anti-clockwise (left-turn of the wheel) -- using 9 low-cost IR sensors embedded in a dome-shaped structure. The convex shape reduces interferences from adjacent sensors to a significant extent and allows for capturing distinct gestures. The inclusion of the acceleration and braking action to be controlled by the hand movement is to test and reduce leg and hand reflexes difference in the human visuo-motor feedback response system. The Hidden Markov Model was used for 5 basic gestures deduced from the IR signal analysis. The first version of the system was tested on a 3D virtual wheel-like object simulating a car tire. Real-time user gesture data tested against this model gave an overall average accuracy of 88.01% for the five gestures The user gestures were timed and were in the range of 140-300 ms depending on the gesture sequence. Some of the limitations of the first version of the design being addressed are noisy signals to reduce errors in gesture recognition. Secondly we need to test this on a comprehensive driving simulation to collect empirical data on the adaptation of the hand movement to control braking and acceleration.
Evaluating a Public Display Installation with Game and Video to Raise Awareness of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder BIBAKFull-Text 584-595
  Michael P. Craven; Lucy Simons; Alinda Gillott; Steve North; Holger Schnädelbach; Zoe Young
Networked Urban Screens offer new possibilities for public health education and awareness. An information video about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was combined with a custom browser-based video game and successfully deployed on an existing research platform, Screens in the Wild (SitW). The SitW platform consists of 46-in. touchscreen or interactive displays, a camera, a microphone and a speaker, deployed at four urban locations in England. Details of the platform and software implementation of the multimedia content are presented. The game was based on a psychometric continuous performance test. In the gamified version of the test, players receive a score for correctly selected target stimuli, points being awarded in proportion to reaction time and penalties for missed or incorrect selections. High scores are shared between locations. Questions were embedded to probe self-awareness about 'attention span' in relation to playing the game, awareness of ADHD and Adult ADHD and increase in knowledge from the video. Results are presented on the level of public engagement with the game and video, deduced from play statistics, answers to the questions and scores obtained across the screen locations. Awareness of Adult ADHD specifically was similar to ADHD in general and knowledge increased overall for 93% of video viewers. Furthermore, ratings of knowledge of Adult ADHD correlated positively with ADHD in general and positively with knowledge gain. Average scores varied amongst the sites but there was no significant correlation of question ratings with score. The challenge of interpreting user results from unsupervised platforms is discussed.
Keywords: Cultural interface; Game design; Gamification; Gamification interface; Architectures for interaction; Interaction design; Multimedia design; Real life environments; Display networks; Healthcare technology; Public health; Mental health; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Adult ADHD; ADD
An Investigation of Reward Systems in Human Computation Games BIBAKFull-Text 596-607
  Dion Hoe-Lian Goh; Ei Pa Pa Pe-Than; Chei Sian Lee
Human Computation Games (HCGs) harness human intelligence to tackle computational problems. As in any game, a fundamental mechanism in a HCG is its reward system. In this paper, we investigate how virtual reward systems evoke perceptions of enjoyment in HCGs. Three mobile applications for location-based content sharing (named Track, Badge and Share) were developed for an experimental study. The Track version offered a points-based reward system for actions such as contribution of content. The Badge version offered different badges for collection while the Share version served as a control which did not have any virtual reward system. The experiment had a counterbalanced, within-subjects design. For each application, participants performed a series of tasks after which a questionnaire survey was administered. Results showed the Track and Badge applications were perceived to have more accurate and complete content than the control (Share) application. Further, participants reported being more engaged when using the former two applications.
Keywords: Human computation games; Reward systems; Points; Badges; Experiments; Output quality; Enjoyment
Is Gamification Effective in Motivating Exercise? BIBAKFull-Text 608-617
  Dion Hoe-Lian Goh; Khasfariyati Razikin
Despite the benefits of exercise, many individuals lack the motivation to integrate it into their daily lives. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of game principles in non-game contexts to make an activity that is perceived to be challenging, tedious or boring more enjoyable. With increased enjoyment through the infusion of game elements, it is expected that individuals will be more motivated to partake in the activity. Given this backdrop, the present study seeks to ascertain the utility of gamification for promoting exercise among individuals. We used Fitocracy as the gamification platform. Our results suggest that gamification improves not only attitudes towards and enjoyment of exercise but also shapes behavior in terms of increase in exercise activity. These findings augur well for gamification platforms and their usefulness in motivating exercise among individuals. Finally, our work suggests design implications for applications that aim to gamify exercise.
Keywords: Gamification; Enjoyment; Social support; Exercise
'Blind Faith'. An Experiment with Narrative Agency in Game Design BIBAKFull-Text 618-627
  Deb Polson; Vidhi Shah
This paper reports on the current field of narrative-based game design through case study analysis with a particular focus on balancing high narrative agency with low production resources.
Keywords: Game design; Narrative agency; Design-based research; Case study analysis; Context review; Aesthetics; Mechanics; Dynamics
Play to Remember: The Rhetoric of Time in Memorial Video Games BIBAKFull-Text 628-639
  Riazvan Rughinis; Stefania Matei
This paper examines video games that commemorate historical events, identifying 'family resemblance' features and specific rhetorical resources. We argue that the commemorative character of a game derives, typically, from four interrelated qualities: invoking a specific historical event, claiming a truthful representation, inviting empathic understanding, and offering players opportunities for reflection. Starting from the observation that time has an important role in achieving commemorative gameplay, we discuss several games in terms of narrative and procedural rhetoric, with focus on time-related mechanics. We propose a repertoire of design resources to assist the creation of meaningful games for remembrance.
Keywords: Serious games; Art games; Memorial game; Procedural rhetoric; Rhetoric of time
'Sketchy Wives' and 'Funny Heroines' BIBAKFull-Text 640-648
  Cosima Rughinis; Elisabeta Toma
Gender analysis of video games has increased its public visibility through the Gamergate controversy. We examine several casual art games in order to explore the diversity of both conventional and counter-stereotypical gender representations. We find significant reliance on stereotypical presentations, especially in 'sketchy wife' characters. Such tropes may offer rhetorical resources to communicate, in brief lapses of gameplay, messages about life, death and the human condition. We also find creative ways of tackling gender displays through character description and game mechanics. Art games may thus serve as a laboratory for experimenting with doing and possibly un-doing gender.
Keywords: Serious games; Art games; Procedural rhetoric; Gender
Gamification Effect of Collection System for Digital Photographs with Geographic Information which Utilizes Land Acquisition Game BIBAKFull-Text 649-659
  Rie Yamamoto; Takashi Yoshino; Noboru Sonehara
As digital photos with geographic information are helpful as a new tourism resource, in this study we developed the "Photopolie" digital photo collecting system that includes geographic information. Through GWAP, which utilizes a land acquisition game, Photopolie defines photography targets that are useful as tourism resources, and promotes digital photo submission with accurate position information. Evaluation experiment results showed the following three points: (1) Through clarifying photography targets that are useful as tourism resources, and considering compatible gamification elements, there is the possibility of being able to collect more data. (2) User interaction has the possibility of motivating work. (3) It may be possible to maintain motivation for data submission for dynamic users who enjoy land acquisition games.
Keywords: Digital archive; Digital photograph; Location information; Motivation; GWAP (Games With A Purpose)
A Conceptual Model of Online Game Continuance Playing BIBAKFull-Text 660-669
  Fan Zhao; Qingju Huang
Today's online gaming customers are very demanding, hence there is a need for the game vendors and developers to understand and keep pace with customers' demands. The purpose of this paper is to survey the current literatures and summarize the reasons why users tend to play a certain online games longer. In this paper, we propose a research model to predict online games continuance play. We believe this framework will help both researchers and practitioners in game research, design and development.
Keywords: Online games; IS continuance; Intention
A Lexical Analysis of Nouns and Adjectives from Online Game Reviews BIBAKFull-Text 670-680
  Miaoqi Zhu; Xiaowen Fang
The objective of this study is to develop playability heuristics by a lexical analysis of nouns and adjectives used in online game reviews. A revised lexical approach is adopted to analyze nouns and adjectives from 821,122 online reviews. Ninety seven (97) factors are extracted from the analysis. Based on the nouns and adjectives highly loaded on these factors, a new heuristic development process is introduced and 116 playability heuristics are developed. This study significantly expands the pool of playability heuristics that can be used by game developers for computer game design. The lexical method in this study demonstrates its effectiveness in developing interface design guidelines when a large number of online reviews are available on a system or product. It can be extended to other fields as well.
Keywords: Computer game; Lexical analysis; Online reviews; Factor analysis; Playability; Heuristics

HCI in Smart and Intelligent Environments

A Mashup-Based Application for the Smart City Problematic BIBAKFull-Text 683-694
  Abdelghani Atrouche; Djilali Idoughi; Bertrand David
A mashup is an application that combines data and functionalities from more than one source. It groups disparate data in ways that enable users to do new things or accomplish common tasks with newfound efficiency. The introduction of mashup applications and their increasing use by users in the field of e-Learning and e-commerce highlights new issues in a context called the "smart city". Indeed, transportation based on private cars, public transportation services and shared bicycles need appropriate user interfaces, which can be "mashuped" to allow an integrated approach to transportation related to weather conditions, real-time traffic situations and personal preferences. These new needs for composition and combination (orchestration) of existing web services and their underlying user interfaces are good examples of mashuping. First, we provide in this paper some valuable explanations on two kinds of orchestration: service orchestration and HCI (Human Computer Interface) orchestration. Secondly, we apply this global approach to the context of "smart cities".
Keywords: HCI; Mashup; Smart city; Orchestration; Service orchestration; User interface orchestration
Design of a Bullying Detection/Alert System for School-Wide Intervention BIBAKFull-Text 695-705
  Sheryl Brahnam; Jenifer J. Roberts; Loris Nanni; Cathy L. Starr; Sandra L. Bailey
In this paper we propose a bullying detection/alert system for school-wide intervention that combines wearables with heart rate (HR) monitors, surveillance cameras, multimodal machine learning, cloud computing, and mobile devices. The system alerts school personnel when potential bullying is detected and identifies potential bullying in three ways: (i) by tracking and assessing the proximity of known bullies to known students at risk for bullying; (ii) by monitoring stress levels of students via HR analysis; and (iii) by recognizing actions, emotions, and crowd formations associated with bullying. We describe each of these components and their integration, noting that it is possible for the system to use only a network of surveillance cameras. Alerts produced by the system can be logged. Reviews of these logs and tagged videos of detected bullying would allow school personnel to review incidents and their methods for handling bullying by providing more information about the locations, causes, and actors involved in bullying as well as teacher/staff response rates. In addition, false positives could be marked and fed back to the system for relearning and continuous improvement of the system.
Keywords: School bullying; Machine learning; Heart-rate monitoring; Face tracking; Emotion classification; Action classification; Computer technology
Improving User Performance in a Smart Surveillance Scenario through Different Levels of Automation BIBAKFull-Text 706-716
  Massimiliano Dibitonto; Carlo Maria Medaglia
Artificial intelligence could be used to help users to better accomplish certain tasks, especially when critical or subjected to human errors. However, automating tasks could lead to other problems that could affect the final performance of the user. In this paper we investigate -- from a Human Factors point of view -- how different levels of automation (LOAs) may result in a change of user's behaviour and performances in smart surveillance systems. The objective is to find a correct balance between automating tasks and asking the user to intervene in the process. We performed tests (using qualitative-quantitative measures) to observe changes in performances, Situation Awareness and workload in relation to different LOAs.
Keywords: Levels of automation; Smart surveillance; Situation awareness; Usability; Mental workload; HCI
Controlling the Home BIBAKFull-Text 717-728
  Martin Eskerud; Anders Skaalsveen; Caroline Sofie Olsen; Harald Holone
This paper presents our experience with a Participatory Design approach designing an interface for controlling a home automation system. In a Future Workshop, users imagined that a home could be visualized as a graph, with nodes representing the devices in a household, and edges representing the interconnectivity between the devices. Participants later gave feedback on a refined mock-up of the interface, confirming that the idea of using a graph would be suitable for presenting the devices in a household. In the third iteration, users assessed a high-fidelity prototype. This evaluation focused on the graph interface's ability to control a home automation system, and its ability to create an overview of the devices. Based on the feedback from the participants, we concluded that the prototype was able to convey an overview of the devices, and that a graph based interface would be suitable for controlling a home automation system.
Keywords: Home automation; Participatory design; Future workshop; Graph based interface; Smart home
Enhancing Human Robot Interaction Through Social Network Interfaces: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 729-740
  Laura Fiorini; Raffaele Limosani; Raffaele Esposito; Alessandro Manzi; Alessandra Moschetti; Manuele Bonaccorsi; Filippo Cavallo; Paolo Dario
Recently we have assisted to the rise of different Social Networks, and to the growth of robots for home applications, which represent the second big market opportunity. The use and the integration of robotics services in our daily life is strictly correlated with their usability and their acceptability. Particularly, their ease of use, among other issues, is linked to the simplicity of the interface the user has to interact with. In this sense social networks could enrich and simplify the communication between the user and technology avoiding the multiplication of custom interfaces. In this work the authors propose a system to enHancE human RobOt Interaction through common Social networks (HeROIS). HeROIS system combines the use of cloud resources, service robot and smart environments proposing three different services to help citizens in daily life. In order to assess the acceptability and the usability levels, HeROIS system and services have been tested with 13 real users (24-37 years old) in the DomoCasa Lab (Italy). As regards the usability, the results show that the proposed system is usable for 4 participants (30.77% M = 79.69 SD = 3.13) and excellent for 9 participants (69.23% M = 90.05 SD = 3.72). Concerning the acceptability level, the results show that the proposed system is acceptable for 8 volunteers (61.54% M = 77.02 SD = 4.23) and excellent for 5 participants (38.46% M = 89.71 SD = 6.06).
Keywords: Service robots; Social network; Cloud robotics; Acceptability
aHead: Considering the Head Position in a Multi-sensory Setup of Wearables to Recognize Everyday Activities with Intelligent Sensor Fusions BIBAKFull-Text 741-752
  Marian Haescher; John Trimpop; Denys J. C. Matthies; Gerald Bieber; Bodo Urban; Thomas Kirste
In this paper we examine the feasibility of Human Activity Recognition (HAR) based on head mounted sensors, both as stand-alone sensors and as part of a wearable multi-sensory network. To prove the feasibility of such setting, an interactive online HAR-system has been implemented to enable for multi-sensory activity recognition while making use of a hierarchical sensor fusion. Our system incorporates 3 sensor positions distributed over the body, which are head (smart glasses), wrist (smartwatch), and hip (smartphone). We are able to reliably distinguish 7 daily activities, which are: resting, being active, walking, running, jumping, cycling and office work. The results of our field study with 14 participants clearly indicate that the head position is applicable for HAR. Moreover, we demonstrate an intelligent multi-sensory fusion concept that increases the recognition performance up to 86.13% (recall). Furthermore, we found the head to possess very distinctive movement patterns regarding activities of daily living.
Keywords: Human activity recognition; HAR; Human computer interaction; Pattern recognition; Multi-Sensory; Wearable computing; Mobile assistance
Synchronization of Peripheral Vision and Wearable Sensors for Animal-to-Animal Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 753-764
  Ko Makiyama; Keijiro Nakagawa; Maki Katayama; Miho Nagasawa; Kaoru Sezaki; Hiroki Kobayashi
It is considered that it can be one of the methods to use the animal-to-animal communication for getting over the difficulties of field survey. Carrier Pigeon-like Sensing System (CPSS) is one of the systems to realize effective inter-animal communication using wearable devices, but still the data-sharing section of this system is not evaluated comprehensively.
   On this study, we evaluated data-sharing system by synchronizing the devices and peripheral vision using video data, and gave the guidance how should improve that.
Keywords: Human computer biosphere interaction; Wearable devices; Sustainable HCI; Field survey; Delay-tolerant network; Environmental monitoring
On the Usability of Smartphone Apps in Emergencies BIBAKFull-Text 765-774
  Parvaneh Sarshar; Vimala Nunavath; Jaziar Radianti
It is very critical that the disaster management smartphone app users be able to interact efficiently and effectively with the app during an emergency. An overview of the challenges face for designing mobile HCI in emergency management tools is presented in this paper. Then, two recently developed emergency management tools, titled GDACSmobile and SmartRescue, are studied from usability and HCI challenges point of view. These two tools use mobile app and smartphone sensors as the main functionality respectively. Both have a smartphone app and a web-based app with different UIs for their different user groups. Furthermore, the functionality of these apps in the format of a designed scenario, fire onboard a passenger ship, will be discussed.
Keywords: Emergency management tools; Smartphone apps; Mobile HCI; Fire emergency; Mobile usability
An Exploration of Shape in Crowd Computer Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 775-786
  Anthony Scavarelli; Ali Arya
In this paper we explore crowd-computer interactions using a crowd shape generated from participating crowd members, both simulated and non-simulated, in three main shape forms (blobby, precise, and a combination of the two) to explore whether such an interactive form, and which of the three forms, can be both a viable and interesting method of having many people collaboratively interacting with large public displays in public spaces.
Keywords: Crowd-computer interaction; Natural user interface; Crowd shape; Human computer interaction
COLUMN: Discovering the User Invented Behaviors Through the Interpersonal Coordination BIBAKFull-Text 787-796
  Yasutaka Takeda; Shotaro Baba; P. Ravindra S. De Silva; Michio Okada
We developed soccer ball-shaped interactive artifacts (COLUMN) consisting of eight modules that are connected to twelve servomotors. Our motivation is to explore a variety of a robot's body configuration for rolling behaviors which are invented by three user's coordination. In the interaction, COLUMN becomes a social mediator to prompt the connectivity of the users. We explore how and what are the effects when a robot become a social mediator and investigate the conflict rates and interpersonal coordination of the users. Finally, we discover different body configuration patterns (sequences) from the user's connectivity in each group. Each sequence of body configurations are directed to extract essential parameters to the rolling behaviors.
Keywords: Social mediator; Interpersonal coordination; Visually-mediated connectedness; COLUMN
Multimodal Interaction Flow Representation for Ubiquitous Environments -- MIF: A Case Study in Surgical Navigation Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 797-805
  Gul Tokdemir; Gamze Altun; Nergiz E. Cagiltay; H. Hakan Maras; Alp Ozgun Borcek
With the advent of technology, new interaction modalities became available which augmented the system interaction. Even though there are vast amount of applications for the ubiquitous devices like mobile agents, smart glasses and wearable technologies, many of them are hardly preferred by users. The success of those systems is highly dependent on the quality of the interaction design. Moreover, domain specific applications developed for these ubiquitous devices involve detailed domain knowledge which normally IT professionals do not have, which may involve a substantial lack of quality in the services provided. Hence, effective and high quality domain specific applications developed for these ubiquitous devices require significant collaboration of domain experts and IT professionals during the development process. Accordingly, tools to provide common communication medium between domain experts and IT professionals would provide necessary medium for communication. In this study, a new modelling tool for interaction design of ubiquitous devices like mobile agents, wearable devices is proposed which includes different interaction modalities. In order to better understand the effectiveness of this newly proposed design tool, an experimental study is conducted with 11 undergraduate students (novices) and 15 graduate students (experienced) of Computer Engineering Department for evaluating defect detection performance for the defects seeded into the interface design of a neuronavigation device. Results show that the defects were realized as more difficult for the novices and their performance was lower compared to experienced ones. Considering the defect types, wrong information and wrong button type of defects were recognized as more difficult. The results of this study aimed to provide insights for the system designers to better represent the interaction design details and to improve the communication level of IT professionals and the domain experts.
Keywords: Interaction design; Ubiquitous interfaces; Diagrammatic reasoning; Defect detection

HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 3

Interaction and Quality for the Web and Social Media

Heuristic to Support the Sociability Evaluation in Virtual Communities of Practices BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Larissa Albano Lopes; Daniela Freitas Guilhermino; Thiago Adriano Coleti; Ederson Marcos Sgarbi; Thiago Fernandes de Oliveira
The Virtual Community of Practices (VCoPs) create collaborative spaces that promote cooperation and the construction of knowledge, because provide communication and interaction between individuals so that knowledge and experience are utilized in a coordinated manner. A significant aspect of VCoPs is sociability, because it is related to the manner that people interact in the environment. Therefore, the objective of this work is assist expert professionals in the planning and creation of VCoPs interfaces, from proposition of a heuristic evaluation of interfaces these communities in order to minimize the difficulties of users concerning the sociability. The proposed heuristic was applied in the evaluation some VCoPs aiming the construction of virtual communities that allow a higher quality interaction for participants, respecting the guidelines for good sociability.
Keywords: Heuristic; Virtual community of practices; Interface evaluation; Human-Computer interaction; Sociability
Using a Lexical Approach to Investigate User Experience of Social Media Applications BIBAKFull-Text 15-24
  Abdullah Azhari; Xiaowen Fang
The objective of this research is to examine the most important issues in user experience about social media applications (SMAs) by using a lexical approach. After reviewing prior studies about user interactions with SMA, a process based on the revised lexical approach [52] is adopted to explore patterns among the adjectives in online reviews of SMAs. This process includes four stages: Stage 1: Collecting online reviews, Stage 2: Building a dictionary of SMA descriptive adjectives, Stage 3: Extracting user ratings of adjectives, and Stage 4: Factor analyses. The detailed development process is discussed.
Keywords: Social media applications; Lexical approach; Usability; User experience
BETTER-Project: Web Accessibility for Persons with Mental Disorders BIBAKFull-Text 25-34
  Renaldo Bernard; Carla Sabariego; David Baldwin; Shadi Abou-Zahra; Alarcos Cieza
The paper outlines a methodology proposed to give impetus to a collaborative effort involving integral stakeholders to determine whether Web accessibility facilitation measures must be adapted for people with depression and anxiety, and if so, in what way(s). The methodology has three-phases: (1) identification of Web accessibility barriers using two data sources: a systematic review of pertinent literature and focus group interviews with people with depression and anxiety; (2) validation of current Web accessibility facilitation measures for this population using experimental user-testing; (3) provision of expertise-based recommendations for the improvement of Web accessibility facilitation measures using a delphi method. If adopted, the study's findings are expected to herald improvements in the Web browsing experiences of people with depression and anxiety, and also everyone else who use the Web.
Keywords: Protocol; Web accessibility; Depression; Anxiety; Mental disorders
Short Scales of Satisfaction Assessment: A Proxy to Involve Disabled Users in the Usability Testing of Websites BIBAKFull-Text 35-42
  Simone Borsci; Stefano Federici; Maria Laura Mele; Matilde Conti
Short scales of user satisfaction analysis are largely applied in usability studies as part of the measures to assess the interaction experience of users. Among the traditional tools, System Usability Scale (SUS), composed of 10 items, is the most applied quick evaluation scale. Recently, researchers have proposed two new and shorter scales: the Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX), composed of four items, and the UMUX-LITE, which consists of only the two positive items of UMUX. Despite their recent creation, researchers in human-computer interaction (HCI) have already showed that these two tools are reliable and strongly correlated to each other [1-3]. Nevertheless, there are still no studies about the use of these questionnaires with disabled users. As HCI experts claim [4-7], when disabled and elderly users are included in the assessment cohorts, they add to the overall analysis alternative and extended perspectives about the usability of a system. This is particularly relevant to those interfaces that are designed to serve a large population of end-users, such as websites of public administration or public services. Hence, for a practitioner adding to the evaluation cohorts a group of disabled people may sensibly extend number and types of errors identified during the assessment. One of the major obstacles in creating mixed cohorts is due to the increase in time and costs of the evaluation. Often, the budget does not support the inclusion of disabled users in the test. In order to overcome these hindrances, the administering to disabled users of a short questionnaire -- after a period of use (expert disabled costumers) or after an interaction test performed through a set of scenario-driven tasks (novice disabled users) -- permits to achieve a good trade-off between a limited effort in terms of time and costs and the advantage of evaluating the user satisfaction of disabled people in the use of websites. To date, researchers have neither analyzed the use of SUS, UMUX, and UMUX-LITE by disabled users, nor the reliability of these tools, or the relationship among those scales when administrated to disabled people.
   In this paper, we performed a usability test with 10 blind and 10 sighted users on the Italian website of public train transportation to observe the differences between the two evaluation cohorts in terms of: (i) number of identified errors, (ii) average score of the three questionnaires, and (iii) reliability and correlation of the three scales.
   The outcomes confirmed that the three scales, when administered to blind or sighted users, are reliable (Cronbach's α > 0.8), though UMUX reliability with disabled users is lower than expected (Cronbach's α < 0.5). Moreover, all the scales are strongly correlated (p < .001) in line with previous studies. Nevertheless, significant differences were identified between sighed and blind participants in terms of (i) number of errors experienced during the interaction and (ii) average satisfaction rated through the three questionnaires. Our data show, in agreement with previous studies, that disabled users have divergent perspectives on satisfaction in the use of a website. The insight of disabled users could be a key factor to improve the usability of those interfaces which aim to serve a large population, such as websites of public administration and services. In sum, we argue that to preserve the budget and even incorporate disabled users' perspectives in the evaluation reports with minimal costs, practitioners may reliably test the satisfaction by administrating SUS and UMUX or UMUX-LITE to a mixed sample of users with and without disability.
Keywords: Disabled user interaction; Usability evaluation; Usability Metric for User Experience; System Usability Scale
Automatic Deformations Detection in Internet Interfaces: ADDII BIBAKFull-Text 43-53
  Leandro Sanchez; Plinio Thomaz, Jr. Aquino
Developers have been trying to create uniform and consistent webpages in the different browsers available in the market. Known as Crossbrowser issue, it affects pages in different ways, on its functionalities and visually aspects and sometimes not related to the source code. Using screenshot and image comparison algorithms, this paper presents a technique for automated detection of visual deformations in web pages using a tool developed during the research called Automatic Deformations Detection in Internet Interfaces (ADDII).
Keywords: Business: interfaces in automated manufacturing; Business: visual analytics and business intelligence; Technology: intelligent and agent systems
Usability and Aesthetics: The Case of Architectural Websites BIBAKFull-Text 54-64
  Evanthia Faliagka; Eleni Lalou; Maria Rigou; Spiros Sirmakessis
Modern people create, communicate and share knowledge and information through the web, but the need for usable website design is taken for granted. The ever increasing user familiarity with the web has drastically reduced user tolerance to website functionality problems. On the other hand, a requirement steadily observed by usability specialists refers to an increasing preference for the aesthetically pleasing and not the merely functional. This study aims to investigate the relation between website usability and aesthetics using the case of architectural websites and their typical users who are design experts with demanding aesthetic requirements. The study confirms that there is a close connection between aesthetics and perceived usability both when these two requirements are satisfied and when they are not.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Aesthetics; Heuristics; Architectural websites; Questionnaires; SUS; AttrakDiff
The Effect of Banner Location on Banner Recognition in a Turkish Government Website: An Eye Tracking Study BIBAKFull-Text 65-72
  Hacer Güner; Yavuz Inal
This study aims to examine users' eye movement patterns and their attention to the banner of a Turkish government website. The website was redesigned as two versions in a way that the banner was located on the left (the original site) in one version and on the right in the other version. 14 university students with 9 male and 5 female participated to the study. The heat maps were examined as well as eye movement patterns while performing the given tasks. Results of the study revealed that the banner (including a picture of the head of a public institution) was not directly focused in both groups during the task completion process. Although nearly half of the participants recalled the place of the banner correctly, none of the participants remembered any information about the institution head such as name, picture or social media information.
Keywords: Banner blindness; Eye-Tracking; E-Government; Government website; Usability
Compatibility of Information and Interface of Universities' Multilingual Websites BIBAKFull-Text 73-81
  Krzysztof Hankiewicz
The article presents results of research regarding the use of Polish university websites to handle the affairs of foreign students. The study included 57 faculties in 8 universities of different size and type.
   The aim of the study is to examine the way selected universities use the abilities of websites to serve foreign students. The article presents results of inspection of faculty websites of all public universities in Poznan. The results indicate that universities use the potential of websites to a limited extent. Part of the websites checked lacked even an English version, and only a few make necessary information for students in the English language sufficiently available.
Keywords: User interface; Websites; Usability; Design for diversity
GT Journey: The Importance of Accessible Rich Data Sources to Enable Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 82-91
  Matt Sanders; Russ Clark; Brian Davidson; Siva Jayaraman
GT Journey (gtjourney.gatech.edu) is an initiative, which empowers members of the Georgia Tech community to develop and deploy applications and services through access to resources (tools, data, services, space) and mentors with technical and domain expertise. The genesis for this initiative comes from a long history of facilitating application and service development for students by students in classroom and entrepreneurial settings. This paper reveals many of the lessons learned from this participatory design, build, and deploy initiative, which may be applicable to a variety of activities in educational, civic, and industry innovation settings.
Keywords: Civic computing; Participatory design; Open data; Development communities; Mobile computing; Hackathons; Innovation ecosystems; Devops
The Role of Quality in Websites: A Discussion Focusing on Public Versus Private Sector Organizations BIBAKFull-Text 92-101
  Hanne Sørum
After 15 years of online experience among most organizations, we witness that increasingly more information and services are provided on the Web. Additionally, website users today are more demanding and knowledgeable compared to some years ago. High expectations and frequent use of online channels in dialogue and interaction place considerable pressure on most organizations. This paper discusses the importance of high quality websites and debates whether quality in public websites is more important compared to the private sector. The concluding remarks speculate on whether the subject of quality is more important within public sector websites, because they are serving all the citizens in provision of public information and services. Conversely, however, the quality of the website within the private sector is probably more important for creating business benefits and marketing exposure. This paper ends by providing suggestions for future research streams linked to the outcome of the present study.
Keywords: Human-Computer interaction; Website quality; eGovernment; Public sector websites; Private sector websites; User satisfaction
How to Evaluate Investments in Website Quality Within eGovernment? Exploring the Webmaster's Perception of Benefits BIBAKFull-Text 102-111
  Hanne Sørum; Asle Fagerstrøm
For most organizations today, the website is an important channel for interacting with users. Within an eGovernment context, we find a large and inhomogeneous group of users and the quality in websites is, therefore, of particular importance. Facing this fact, many organizations spend lot of resources on development and quality improvements. In order to investigate perceptions of benefits-driven public sector websites, the present paper draws on both qualitative and quantitative data, represented by interviews and an online survey conducted among webmasters and business managers. The aim of combing qualitative and quantitative data is to provide complementary analysis. The findings show that user satisfaction is found to be the most important, followed by efficiency, effectiveness and the branding effect. The paper concludes that the website increase efficiency and effectiveness within an organization and is a great opportunity for marketing purposes, such as stimulating the branding effect. Recommendations for future research contributions are provided.
Keywords: eGovernment; Human-computer interaction; Website quality; Benefits; Public sector websites
The Evolution of the Argon Web Framework Through Its Use Creating Cultural Heritage and CommunityBased Augmented Reality Applications BIBAKFull-Text 112-124
  Gheric Speiginer; Blair MacIntyre; Jay Bolter; Hafez Rouzati; Amy Lambeth; Laura Levy; Laurie Baird; Maribeth Gandy; Matt Sanders; Brian Davidson; Maria Engberg; Russ Clark; Elizabeth Mynatt
The Argon project was started to explore the creation of Augmented Reality applications with web technology. We have found this approach to be particularly useful for community-based applications. The Argon web browser has gone through two versions, informed by the work of our students and collaborators on these kinds of applications. In this paper, we highlight a number of the applications we and others have created, what we learned from them, and how our experiences creating these applications informed the design of Argon2 and the requirements for the next version, Argon3.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Web-based technology; Community computing
Historical Registry of Our Families Through Textiles BIBAKFull-Text 125-132
  Cathy L. Starr; Sandra L. Bailey; Sheryl Brahnam; Jenifer J. Roberts
Dress provides an insight into a person's value system, as well into the state of the socioeconomic environment of the time. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a mobile application and website where users of all walks-of-life can document their heritage by capturing photographs of family members' clothing throughout their lifetimes. Dress evokes memories, feelings of nostalgia, and speaks volumes about a person's personal history and heritage. This application will allow each and every person who logs on and participates to document their lives and the important role dress plays in their lives, whether they are rich and famous or not. This will enable the creation of a large archive of information representing all of the populace, not just the rich and famous, for future research based on the subjects' own words and visuals.
Keywords: Historical costume; Social media applications; Meanings of dress; Textile; Sociocultural environment

HCI in Business, Industry and Innovation

Early Prototype Assessment of a New Virtual System for Training Procedural Skills of Automotive Service Operators: LARTE Tool BIBAKFull-Text 135-143
  Simone Borsci; Glyn Lawson; Mark Burgess; Bhavna Jha
The consortium of the Innovate UK funded Live Augmented Reality Training Environments (LARTE) project, composed of Jaguar Land Rover (JLR), Holovis International Ltd and The University of Nottingham, developed a new concept of a 3D multiplatform training system to train the procedural skills of service maintenance operators. The LARTE tool was designed on the basis of JLR needs and desiderata. This paper presents the functionalities of the initial prototype of LARTE training system, and outcomes of an evaluation study of the usability of the product.
Keywords: Automotive; Training; Trust; Usability; Virtual reality
The Convergence Innovation Competition: Helping Students Create Innovative Products and Experiences via Technical and Business Mentorship BIBAKFull-Text 144-153
  Russ Clark; Matt Sanders; Brian Davidson; Siva Jayaraman; Carl DiSalvo
The Convergence Innovation Competition is an annual event designed to encourage innovation and entrepreneurship among students from multiple disciplines and experience levels. The competition provides a unique model for engaging industrial partners to work with students through category definition, mentoring and judging. In this paper we describe the evolution of the program over the last eight years, lessons learned and new opportunities for engaging students in a meaningful learning experience.
Keywords: Mobile computing; Student engagement; Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Hackathons; Competitions; Experiential learning
Graphic Visualization of Probabilistic Traffic/Trajectory Predictions in Mobile Applications. A First Prototype and Evaluations for General Aviation Purposes BIBAKFull-Text 154-164
  Giuseppe Frau; Francesca De Crescenzio; Damiano Taurino
The present work describes the interactive prototype and the preliminary evaluation results of a tool dedicated to the light General Aviation pilot's community. The tool's interface has been developed through an Android tablet application and aims at supporting the pilots in the task of staying "well-clear" from the surrounding traffic by presenting them the long-term prediction of the flights. The initial results and the approach of a heuristic evaluation conducted with five experts coming from the fields of user-experience, aviation and automotive are discussed along with the improvements in the design of the user-interface focusing on the trajectory depictions.
Keywords: User-interface design; Heuristic evaluation; Light general aviation; Trajectory prediction visualization
Building Mobile Software Ecosystems -- A Practical Approach BIBAKFull-Text 165-177
  Steffen Hess; Susanne Braun; Johannes Feldhaus; Marco Hack; Felix Kiefer; Dominik Magin; Matthias Naab; Dominik Richter; Torsten Lenhart; Marcus Trapp
Mobile apps are gaining great importance in the world of business software. Developers' intentions are to build apps that support a specific piece of functionality with great user experience, business often needs to cover a large spectrum of functionality. The results are Mobile software ecosystems (MSE), which usually consist of a large number of apps supporting a certain type of business and combine the strengths of multiple service providers. At a first glance, developing mobile software might look simple. Doing it for business and at an ecosystem scale makes it extremely challenging in practice. Initiating an MSE means to come up with an attractive set of apps that provide adequate openness so that other companies can contribute to them and increase the value of the ecosystem for customers. This paper describes an approach to build MSEs in their initial version. This approach is based on software engineering state-of-the-art practices from requirements engineering, user experience (UX) engineering, and software architecture. The paper elaborates the specifics of MSEs and describes how they can be addressed in the approach. The approach has been applied in a large-scale industrial case study in the agricultural domain in a joint project of John Deere and Fraunhofer IESE. Within that case study, lessons learned with regard to user experience and software architecture are derived and described in detail. Practitioners setting up an MSE can avoid these pitfalls by taking our lessons learned into account.
Keywords: Mobile; App ecosystem; Practical experiences; Human-computer-interaction; Software architecture; User experience
Cloud Computing: A Multi-tenant Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 178-189
  Anindya Hossain; Farid Shirazi
Cloud computing has enabled businesses to infinitely scale services based on demand while reducing the total cost of ownership. Software as a service (SaaS) vendors capitalized on the scalable nature of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deploy applications without having the need for heavy upfront capital investment. This study uses a real case study from a Canadian SaaS vendor migrating from a single-tenant applications system to a single-tenant applications (MTA) system. The results of this empirical study show a decrease of a factor of 3 in setup times and a reduction in number of bugs reported and the amount of time required to fix these bugs. Despite the fact that migration from a single-tenant applications system to a multi-tenant system requires some re-engineering efforts, but the benefits of MTA far outweigh these re-engineering costs. Furthermore, migrating to MTA enables firms to focus on their core competences. The empirical results of this study show that in the long run, MTA can enable SaaS vendors to increase the quality of service, performance, service level agreement adherence, re-focus on creating innovative products, lower operational costs and earn higher profits.
Keywords: Cloud computing; Multi-tenant application; SaaS; IaaS; PaaS; ANOVA
On Time: Efficient and Personalized Hospital Service BIBAKFull-Text 190-197
  So Yon Jeong; Da Young Ju
For every kind of service, reduction of waiting time appears to be critical. Particularly, the occurrence of waiting time in a clinical environment gives patients negative impression of the clinic (or hospital). By observing the present state of hospital waiting time we suggest 'On Time', a mobile application design for when waiting time occurs. 'On Time' mobile application is efficient, personalized and patient centered hospital service that satisfies the patients by both using existing monitor service and big data.
Keywords: IT; Hospital service; Big data; Mobile application
NAMIDA: Multiparty Conversation Based Driving Agents in Futuristic Vehicle BIBAKFull-Text 198-207
  Nihan Karatas; Soshi Yoshikawa; P. Ravindra S. De Silva; Michio Okada
We propose socially interactive NAMIDA (Navigational Multiparty based Intelligent Driving Agents) as three friendly interfaces those sit on the dashboard inside a car. NAMIDA interfaces conduct multiparty conversation within each other to provide outside information for driver by utilising the context aware interaction. In this research, we introduce the conceptual design of NAMIDA and discuss about the superiorities of multiparty communication in the aspects of decreasing cognitive workload and increasing sociability plus enjoyable driving experience through an experiment which includes mock driving tasks by getting support from 1-NAMIDA (single) and 3-NAMIDAs (multiple) consecutively. Finally we mention about the results of the experiment which depicts that using multiparty based communication (3-NAMIDAs) could reduce the workload of driver and induced more enjoyable driving experience by increasing interaction and social bonding inside the car.
Keywords: Multiparty conversation; Context aware interaction; Conversational workload; NAMIDA
VR Processes in the Automotive Industry BIBAFull-Text 208-217
  Glyn Lawson; Davide Salanitri; Brian Waterfield
Virtual Reality (VR) has seen rapid developments in the past decades. Among the domains where VR has been applied, automotive has been a pioneer due to the possibility of cost and time reductions derived from the implementation of this technology. Examples of VR automotive applications include: (i) manufacturing workstation optimization; (ii) vehicle design; and (iii) assembly training. A review was conducted in order to understand opportunities and challenges in the application of VR in the automotive industry. This paper presents the review process, which encompasses interviews with stakeholders from an automotive manufacturer to understand their current processes and ambitions for VR use and a literature search of advancements in VR and empirical studies. A total of 11 stakeholders were interviewed. Recommendations are made to address the issues they reported, including: improve depth perception in VR technologies; use haptic feedback to improve manufacturing investigations; and provide virtual contexts for evaluations.
Entrepreneurial IS Development: Why Techniques Matter and Methods Don't BIBAKFull-Text 218-225
  Nikolaus Obwegeser
In this article we look at the current situation of information systems development in research and mirror our findings with insights from practice. Many firms and decision makers underestimate the influence that IS development projects have on their success and competitiveness. In addition, the process of efficient development of high quality and value-creating software remains a major challenge for many organizations. After a review of general IS development approaches we draw on an analysis of the literature on method tailoring and contingency approaches in IS development in combination with qualitative empirical insights from two software development companies to posit that past research has largely focused on creating bloated, inflexible methods rather than flexible toolsets. Based on the analysis of our findings we propose an open, framework-based IS development approach that allows for the flexibility required in practice but still ensures learning processes, knowledge retention and transfer.
Keywords: IS development; Agile; Methodology; Software engineering
Simulation of an Affordance-Based Human-Machine Cooperative Control Model Using an Agent-Based Simulation Approach BIBAKFull-Text 226-237
  YeongGwang Oh; IkChan Ju; Namhun Kim
An automated system relies mostly on a robot, rather than a human operator. In the automated system considered in this paper, a human operator mainly verifies the product quality, where the performance of the human is affected by his or her characteristics. To present this kind of system, an ABM is better than DES to simulate the role of the human operator. This is because the human characteristics are dynamic and are affected significantly by time and environment. This paper presents a DES-ABM model which simulates the performance of a human operator in a human-machine cooperative environment. It may enable this model to be utilized for further development in controller toward the supervisory control.
Keywords: Human and robot collaboration; Affordance theory; Agent-based simulation
Cause the Trend Industry 4.0 in the Automated Industry to New Requirements on User Interfaces? BIBAKFull-Text 238-245
  Carsten Wittenberg
Industrial automated production is a conservative domain. New information technologies find the way into this domain slowly or not at all. But in 2013 the fourth industrial revolution was announced: The so-called Industry 4.0 implicates techniques like cloud-computing and self-organizing machines. The degree of technological complexity increases. Beside the technological innovation the use context and the tasks for the users will also be changed. In the design phase the engineers have to handle the increased complexity. In the operating phase the operators and also the service and maintenance technicians have to keep the production systems running. This paper discusses the results of the research about the effects of Industry 4.0 on the different user groups and highlight selected user requirements.
Keywords: HCI in automation; Industry 4.0; CPS; Mobile HCI; Augmented reality
Post-Implementation ERP Success Assessment: A Conceptual Model BIBAKFull-Text 246-255
  Fan Zhao; Eugene Hoyt
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) success research has been widely studied. Models to test the success of an ERP implementation have been developed, but most models do not adequately test all implementations success after implementation. This literature review study introduces a new model for testing any ERP post-implementation to determine if it was successful or not rather than relying on other models that determine it to be a failure if it did not fit within the model constraints.
Keywords: IS; ERP; Success; Post-implementation

Societal and Cultural Impact of Technology

Interactive Evaluation of Pragmatic Features in Spoken Journalistic Texts BIBAKFull-Text 259-268
  Christina Alexandris; Mario Nottas; George Cambourakis
The designed annotation tool intends to facilitate the evaluation of pragmatic features in spoken political and journalistic texts, in particular, interviews, live conversations in the Media and discussions in Parliament. The evaluation of pragmatic features focuses in the discourse component of spoken political and journalistic texts, in addition to implied information and connotative features. The present tool may be used by professional journalists and for training purposes, for journalists and other professionals.
Keywords: Interactive topic-tracking; Semantic relations; Discourse structure; Graphic representation; Connotative features
Socio-Cultural Aspects in the Design of Multilingual Banking Interfaces in the Arab Region BIBAKFull-Text 269-280
  Sarah Alhumoud; Lamia Alabdulkarim; Nouf Almobarak; Areej Al-Wabil
This paper reports on insights gained from investigating multilingual user interfaces designed for banking systems in the Arab Region. In this region, Arabic is the native language; however a plethora of expatriates reside in the region who speak different languages. Three modes of banking interactions are examined in the local context; internet banking, automatic teller machines (ATMs), and mobile banking (MB). Reflections on interaction design for the three modes of banking illuminates the culture-orientated design considerations for banking interactions and demonstrates how users, in this case bank customers, shape technological changes and influence interface design. The contribution of this research is threefold. Firstly, gain an insight into socio-cultural design requirements for banking interfaces; secondly, an exploratory survey of interface design considerations in the three modes of banking with a focus on multilingual aspects of the design; and finally, distil the findings into design recommendations for socio-cultural aspects that are relevant to the context of banking interactions in the Arab Region.
Keywords: ATM; Mobile banking; Online banking; Heuristics; Usability
Prospecting HCI Challenges for Extreme Poverty Communities: Redefining and Optimizing User Experiences with Technology BIBAKFull-Text 281-290
  Daniel Almeida Chagas; Camila Loiola Brito Maia; Elizabeth Furtado; Carlos R. Maia de Carvalho
According to the United Nations (UN), 1.4 billion people live in extreme poverty conditions, about 1/5th of the planet population. Beyond the financial condition, extreme poverty is defined by the lack of access to information. This paper proposes to investigate the HCI challenges related to giving access to information for those communities, especially related to illiteracy, functional illiteracy and empowering them of technologies. Those challenges include not only the access to information, but questions about reaching the community, adapting information technology tools to their real needs, and empowering them to be not just consumers of information and systems, but also creators of new knowledge.
Keywords: Extreme poverty; Illiteracy; Oral communities; Interdisciplinary empowering
Moral Biases and Decision: Impact of Information System on Moral Biases BIBAKFull-Text 291-302
  Karim Elia Fraoua
The aim of this work, is to find a better way to understand an information system that take into consideration agent's through moral system, words, image, appeal to culture or religion, in order to correct to some biases observed in polling in France during the same-sex marriage debate. This approach will thus, in diverse and multicultural societies, provide to managers or politicians with a better definition of problems, to better predict the behavior of individuals when the efficiency of the decision taken and the possible opposition it can generate. In this way, they can build an information system capable of correcting the deviation from the expectations of agents. We could consider that this component would be the main one in decision-making during the passage of the law. We can then assess the value of this component in the calculation of expected utility as developed by Harsanyi. We can easily show that when the information system is corrected, the actors can then adhere to processes that would be in opposition to their moral principle or religious values due to the fact that in reality the lack of information has caused the appearance of this moral utility in decision-making based in principle on a single dominant component.
Keywords: Information; Harsanyi; Social representation; Central personage; Neuroscience
Midtown Buzz: Bridging the Gap Between Concepts and Impact in a Civic Computing Initiative BIBAKFull-Text 303-313
  Maribeth Gandy; Laurie Dean Baird; Laura M. Levy; Amy J. Lambeth; Elizabeth Mynatt; Russ Clark; Matt Sanders
Midtown Buzz is a partnership between Georgia Tech and Midtown Alliance (MA), focusing on engaging urban communities through mobile innovation. Since 2013, we have been collaborating with the Midtown Atlanta community with the goal of transforming the area into an innovation district. This approach provided us with an opportunity to utilize Midtown as a living laboratory for civic computing research. During the two years of this project we have engaged in a participatory design process with diverse stakeholders to explore the needs of people in the Midtown area, and develop new technologies and approaches to address the identified needs. In this paper we discuss the lessons learned regarding the challenges of bridging the gap between concepts and deployable systems that can create positive transformation in a community.
Keywords: Civic computing; Participatory design; Mixed reality; Mobile computing; Hackathons
Some Investigations of Fukushima Dai-ichi Accidents from the Viewpoints of Human Factors BIBAFull-Text 314-326
  Akio Gofuku; Hiroshi Furukawa; Hiroshi Ujita
Many problems were posed in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS accident, including recognizing the situation in the plant, information sharing in/out of the power station, decision making, emergency response, education and training on daily basis, instrumentation/control facilities and work environment of the plant, etc. A voluntary group in the division of Human-Machine System of Atomic Society of Japan reviewed the problems suggested in various reports from the viewpoint of human factors. This paper reports the outline of some results of the review based upon some accident reports published after the accident and the information published by the defunct Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. The severe situations due to the loss of all power resulted in unsuccessful operation. However, the staffs on the site seem to have taken flexible approaches based on their knowledge and experience. As for the fields of communication and information sharing, there found some problems among two groups, operation groups, or order-givers and takers. On the other hand, in the analysis of emergency response capability to the accident by several techniques, many good cases were found in individual and organizational levels, but there were bad crisis responses found in managerial or national levels.
Cycle Atlanta and OneBusAway: Driving Innovation Through the Data Ecosystems of Civic Computing BIBAKFull-Text 327-338
  Christopher A. Le Dantec; Kari E. Watkins; Russ Clark; Elizabeth Mynatt
Smart cities and digital democracy have begun to converge around mobile computing, enabling, web services, and different operational and shared databases to create new opportunities for civic engagement for concerned citizens as well as new efficiencies for public services provided by local government. While many of these projects remain siloed to specific departments of local government, when viewed in aggregate, they begin to fill in a more complex picture of how piecemeal projects are changing the relationship between local government and the public. As an example of this change, we describe our partnership with multiple city and regional agencies in Atlanta. We discuss a pair of projects that together, aim to transform Atlanta's transportation system by more effectively connecting the public to transportation services and to the processes of infrastructure planning. The projects we present here -- Cycle Atlanta and OneBusAway -- are part of a larger civic computing agenda where models of digital democracy and smart cities combine to create a data ecosystem where citizens produce and consume different forms of data to enable better infrastructure planning and to enhance alternative modes of transportation.
Keywords: Digital democracy; Smart cities; Civic computing; Urban informatics
Post-mortem Digital Legacy: Possibilities in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 339-349
  Cristiano Maciel; Vinicius Carvalho Pereira
As designers and stakeholders attentive to HCI issues, it is paramount to understand questions such as death and post-mortem digital legacy and how they affect systems development. This paper presents current discussions about that topic, by presenting a brief overview of what has been produced by the HCI community on death and digital legacy and some of the solutions created to address those phenomena. Such solutions include adaptations to already-existing tools, such as Facebook and its memorial profiles, as well as the creation of new tools for the domain of death, such as social networks for dead people's profiles. However, the implementation of those technologies demand further studies on the differences between law systems and belief systems regarding death and what can be considered either universal or particular in the understanding of death. Therefore, there is an urge for more interdisciplinary studies on this topic, so as to bring to HCI discussions different perspectives, theories and methods that can be used in the study of death.
Keywords: Post-mortem digital legacy; Posthumous interaction; Death
Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant: The Moment of "Safety Myth" Collapses BIBAFull-Text 350-357
  Aki Nakanishi; Toshio Takagi; Hajime Ushimaru; Masato Yotsumoto; Daisuke Sugihara
This study examines the conversations and actions of the operators and managers of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) on March 11, 2011, when Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant (1F) suffered a "severe accident" due to the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. Using the archives from TEPCO's videoconference system, we conducted a network and content analysis of discussions and steps that were taken on the cutting edge of organizational crises. Staff members at the various sites (1F operators and managers, as well as employees at Headquarters and the Offsite Center) used different vocabulary, which meant they could not build a shared organizational reality of the ongoing crisis.
Accident Analysis by Using Methodology of Resilience Engineering, High Reliability Organization, and Risk Literacy BIBAKFull-Text 358-369
  Hiroshi Ujita
The good cases of resilience response are observed in individual base and organizational base as below: The effectiveness of insight on accident cases (inundation in Madras, 9.11 terrorism-B.5.b. order) and of the risk evaluation, Decision of continuation of sea water infusion (individual base), Reflection of the experience on Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake, Improvement of seismic building which is equipped emergency power source system and air conditioning system (organizational base), Deployment of fire engines (organizational base), The effectiveness of command system in ordinal time (on-site of organizational base), and Support by cooperation companies and manufacturers (designers and site workers of organizational base). It is important to 'establish the feedback system on organization learning in ordinal time' and it means that it is important to establish the system admitting violation of order. The decision at on-site are given priority than other ones. The representative example is the decision of sea water infusion continuation which was given priority at on-site, even though the official residence and the main office of Tokyo Electric Power Company had ordered to stop the infusion.
Keywords: Resilience engineering; High reliability organization; Risk literacy; Fukushima accident; Bounded rationality; Information limitation; Context

User Studies

What Learnability Issues Do Primary Care Physicians Experience When Using CPOE? BIBAKFull-Text 373-383
  Martina A. Clarke; Jeffery L. Belden; Min S. Kim
Objective: To determine learnability gaps between expert and novice primary care physicians when using a computerized physician order entry (CPOE). Method: Two rounds of lab-based usability tests using video analyses with triangular method approach were conducted to analyze learnability gaps between ten novice and six expert physicians. Results: There was a 14 percent point increase in novice physicians' task success rate (p = 0.29) and an 11 percent point increase in expert physicians' task success rate between round one and round two (p = 0.64). There was an 8% decrease in novice physicians' time on task between round one and round two (p = 0.83) and a 12% decrease in expert physicians' time on task between round one and round two (p = 0.47). There was a 17% decrease in novice physicians' mouse clicks between round one and round two (p = 0.97) and a 20% decrease in expert physicians' mouse clicks between round one and round two (p = 0.80). There was a 5% increase in novice physicians' mouse movements between round one and round two (p = 0.67) and an 8% decrease in expert physicians' mouse movements between round one and round two (p = 0.99). Conclusion: Future directions include identifying usability issues faced by physicians when using the EHR through subtask analysis.
Keywords: Usability; Primary care; Computerized provider order entry
Designed to Thrill: Exploring the Effects of Multimodal Feedback on Virtual World Immersion BIBAKFull-Text 384-395
  Dimitrios Darzentas; Michael Brown; Noirin Curran
The following paper presents research into the effects of multi- and uni-modal output on virtual immersion. It describes the implementation of a balanced experimental study designed to measure participant immersion in a variety of conditions and presents the resulting findings. These demonstrate the potential of primary and secondary modalities on the perception of the participants. The findings of the study can form part of the basis for a set of HCI guidelines for the creation of highly immersive digital experiences.
Keywords: Virtual worlds; Games; Immersion; Interaction; Modalities
Survey on Risk Management Based on Information Security Psychology BIBAKFull-Text 396-408
  Yasuko Fukuzawa; Masaki Samejima; Hiroshi Ujita
In developing Cyber Physical Systems, such as smart grid and smart cities, risk management technologies play an important role to provide safe and secure services. In this paper, focusing on changes of recent threats represented by Social engineering, a survey shows that the information security psychology is valuable for the risk management of the Cyber Physical Systems. Through surveying, we outline the risk management framework for Cyber Physical Systems.
Keywords: Security; Cyber physical systems; Risk management; Information security psychology
Digital Wellbeing Assessments for People Affected by Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 409-418
  Kyle Harrington; Paul Fulton; Michael Brown; James Pinchin; Sarah Sharples
Currently there is a lack of digital tools for assessing the Wellbeing of those affected by dementia in a home environment. This paper presents an alternative to existing assessment modalities in order to facilitate large scale collection and analysis of data. This development will allow those affected to be assessed from the comfort of their own home, potentially reducing time costs and personal discomfort associated with assessment. Existing Wellbeing measures were evaluated against inclusion criteria and four tools were considered appropriate to develop into a digital application. An additional tool was also developed for quick assessment. Issues surrounding the use of technological devices for those affected by dementia are also considered. In light of these considerations an Android application was developed for Wellbeing self-assessment. Finally, the methods and approaches for user-evaluations of such technologies are explored.
Keywords: Human-centered Design; User-centered Design; Service design; Telehealth; Dementia care; Assessment; Wellbeing
Factors Influencing Online Shop Layout Preferences BIBAKFull-Text 419-429
  Katarzyna Jach; Marcin Kulinski
The usability research on web pages layout preferences of online shops consumers has been continued since 2008 on a sample of over 1,000 Polish students. This gives a possibility to observe changes in preferences, both over time as well as across the respondents' buying experience. Preferred locations of selected interface objects specific for an online shop, like a shopping cart, product image and search button were analyzed. The research showed that the main differentiating factor of preferences is the users' experience. Concurrently, the layout patterns preferred by more experienced participants were consistent with standards defined as the most frequently used placement of the objects on existing online shop web pages.
Keywords: Web usability; GUI; E-commerce; Users' preferences
Playing Dice with a Digital Library: Analysis of an Artist Using a New Information Resource for Her Art Production BIBAKFull-Text 430-440
  Heli Kautonen
Artists are a lesser-known group of information resource users. Previous research on their information behavior and needs are few, and there is not enough evidence of artists' experiences of information systems in a natural context of use. This paper presents a reflective study of an artist using a new online information resource during seven intensive days for her artistic production. The resource is a digital library, which combines materials from a wide range of archives, libraries, and museums in one nation. The analysis was based on data collected during two interviews with the artist, as well as artifacts she produced during the production. The key findings were validated with a survey among a community of artists. The results indicate an impulsive and strongly associative, yet extremely goal-oriented, information usage pattern that challenges developers of the digital library service. Similar usage behavior and needs may be common among other user groups.
Keywords: Artists; User experience; Information search and retrieval; Digital library; Contextual design; Cultural-Historical Activity Theory
The Effects of the Anthropological Race, Gender and Location of Verbal-Pictorial Stimuli on the Usability of Visual Information Conveyance BIBAKFull-Text 441-451
  Joanna Koszela-Kulinska; Rafal Michalski
The usability of information conveyance is influenced by various factors. It has already been confirmed that verbal stimuli to be more effective should be presented on the right-hand side while non-verbal stimuli on the left-hand side. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of three factors: the race, gender and location of the human model picture in relation to a text on people's perception of visual information promoting social campaign for tolerance. A total of 31 students from the Wroclaw Academy of Art and Design took part in this study. Participants were shown a series of visual banners containing a picture of a human along with the campaign slogan. The subjective evaluation of experimental conditions was conducted by the AHP method involving pairwise comparisons. The obtained results revealed significant effects of the race, gender and the interaction between them.
Keywords: Display design; Brain lateralization; Digital signage; Ergonomics; Subjective preferences; AHP
Do We Differ in Our Dispositional Tendency to Perceive Virtual Agents as Animate Beings? BIBAKFull-Text 452-462
  Benny Liebold; Daniel Pietschmann; Peter Ohler
With few exceptions, the role of user factors in the evaluation of virtual agents has largely been neglected. By taking them into account properly, researchers and virtual agent developers might be able to better understand interindividual differences in virtual agent evaluations. We propose the animacy attribution tendency as a novel user factor that assesses a users individual threshold to accept virtual entities as living and animate beings. Users scoring higher in animacy attribution tendency should accept anomalies in virtual agent behavior more easily and thus provide favorable evaluations. To investigate the impact of this novel concept along with other user factors, we first developed a test to assess interindividual differences of animacy attribution and subsequently carried out an online-study, during which participants had to evaluate video recordings of different virtual agents.
Keywords: Virtual agent; Agent evaluation; Animacy; User factors
Psychological Impact of Direct Communication and Indirect Communication Through a Robot BIBAFull-Text 463-470
  Mitsuharu Matsumoto; Hiroyuki Yasuda
When we communicate with someone, we tend to send not only our intention but also our emotion. Emotion includes not only positive one but also negative one. Such negative emotion makes our communication worse in contradiction to our intention. To avoid such negative communications, we focus on indirect communication through a robot. In indirect communication through a robot, a user requests desired tasks to another user not by themselves but through a robot. If the robot is carefully designed, it is expected that users regard the robot as a client, and their emotions are directed not to the real client but to the robot. We developed a simple trash box robot and investigated psychological difference between direct communication and indirect communication through the robot. Throughout the experiments, negative emotion from the recipient was directed not to the human but to the robot via indirect communication.
Subjective Perception of the Background Color and Layout in the Design of Typical Graphical Control Panels BIBAKFull-Text 471-479
  Rafal Michalski; Jerzy Grobelny
The main goal of this research is to examine the influence of various control panel background colors and geometrical layouts on users' subjective perceptions. We investigated five different colors including red, green, blue, white and grey as well as two different arrangements of the panel's informative and controlling items. In the latter case, more vertical and more horizontal layouts were investigated. Panels included typical elements and colors were selected in such a way that their perceptual differences in the CIE Lab color space are similar. A method involving pairwise comparisons was applied to compute relative preferences towards examined conditions. The outcomes generally showed significant influence of the studied effects on the subjects' subjective assessments.
Keywords: Display design; Colors; Control panels; Layout; Ergonomics; Subjective preferences; AHP
A User Interface Usability Evaluation of the Electronic Ballot Box Used in the 2014 Brazilian Election BIBAKFull-Text 480-491
  Mauro C. Pichiliani; Talita C. P. Britto
Electronic ballot boxes are becoming one of the main instruments used to represent and reinforce democracy in modern world electoral processes. Most recent research focuses on security, confidentiality and trust requirements. Few of those works target ergonomics, usability, and accessibility of the user interface (UI) and interaction elements issues. We present an empirical evaluation based on usability heuristics and accessibility guidelines assessed from the UI elements presented to voters during their interaction with the electronic ballot box used in the 2014 national Brazilian election. We show that there are many recommendations and design suggestions that can reduce voter's confusion, decrease the number of typing errors, and increase the accessibility for voters with special needs.
Keywords: Brazilian election; Electronic ballot box; User interface; Usability; Interaction; Accessibility; Evaluation; Redesign
Instantaneous Human-Computer Interactions: Button Causes and Screen Effects BIBAFull-Text 492-502
  Kjetil Raaen; Ragnhild Eg
Many human-computer interactions are highly time-dependent, which means that an effect should follow a cause without delay. In this work, we explore how much time can pass between a cause and its effect without jeopardising the subjective perception of instantaneity. We ran two experiments that involve the same simple interaction: A click of a button causes a spinning disc to change its direction of rotation, following a variable delay. In our adjustment experiment, we asked participants to adjust the delay directly, but without numerical references, using repeated attempts to achieve a value as close to zero as possible. In the discrimination task, participants made judgements on whether the single rotation change happened immediately following the button-click, or after a delay. The derived thresholds revealed a marked difference between the two experimental approaches, participants could adjust delays down to a median of 40 ms, whereas the discrimination mid-point corresponded to 148 ms. This difference could possibly be an artefact of separate strategies adapted by participants for the two tasks. Alternatively, repeated presentations may make people more sensitive to delays, or provide them with additional information to base their judgements on. In either case, we have found that humans are capable of perceiving very short temporal delays, and these empirical results provide useful guidelines for future designs of time-critical interactions.
How Do Japanese People Return a Greeting with a Bow? BIBAKFull-Text 503-513
  Mamiko Sakata; Noriko Suzuki; Kana Shirai; Haruka Shoda; Michiya Yamamoto; Takeshi Sugio
The greeting is one of the most familiar communicative behaviors in everyday life. In this study, we clarified the features of spontaneous greeting interactions by focusing on the timing of bows and utterances. In particular, we focused on how the response changes with the timing of the greeting. In the experiment, we performed simulated interviews and analyzed spontaneous greetings before and after the interview. Our experiment showed that the responses did not change with the interviewer's bows and utterances. It also revealed that there was a routine response pattern, appropriate for the people (i.e., greeters) involved.
Keywords: Greeting behavior; Spontaneous bowing; Timing structure
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Repeated Exposure of Facial Caricature on Memory Representation of a Model's Face BIBAKFull-Text 514-524
  Yoshimasa Tawatsuji; Yuki Iizuka; Tatsunori Matsui
Why does human can identify a facial caricature with its model's face? We hypothesize that a facial caricature has an effect on a person's memory representation of the model's face to get closer into the facial caricature itself, which causes a person to evoke the feeling of similarity between the model's face and its facial caricature. In this point, we conducted the experiment to verify whether the continuous exposure of a facial caricature changes participants' memory representation and whether the exposure also evokes participants' feeling of similarity between them.
Keywords: Face recognition; Facial caricature; Facial similarity
An Experimental Study on Visual Search Factors of Information Features in a Task Monitoring Interface BIBAKFull-Text 525-536
  Xiaoli Wu; Chengqi Xue; Feng Zhou
This paper carries out an experimental study on eye movement tracking when performing different visual searching tasks on a task monitoring interface, from the perspective of psychometrics. Behavior and physiological reaction data have been obtained through experiments -- firstly in a scenario where no visual searching task is requested, and secondly within three separate tasks where the subjects are asked to search for enemy information, threat information and data information, respectively. Eye movement data indexes in nine areas of the task monitoring interface have been analyzed for each task based on a division of the different task monitoring areas. The experiments demonstrate that the search path followed by subjects on the task monitoring interface show significantly different subject reaction times and eye movements when undergoing each different task, as the search path is influenced by task-driven cognitive information processing and information search time. Fixation duration, duration count and visit count also show significant differences in each different monitor area; there-fore information features distributed in the radar sub-interface can be easily captured, which have been proven to be related to task-driven automatic capture. In-formation position and features such as colors, shapes and sizes have a significant impact on visual searches as they can easily cause problems with information omission, misreading and misjudgment, missing/ignoring data etc. when under-going each different task. The paper concludes that monitoring tasks and the individual information features within in an interface have a great influence on the visual search, which will guide further research on design of information features in task monitoring interfaces.
Keywords: Task monitoring; Visual search; Information features; Factors; Information interface
Health Information Tailoring and Data Privacy in a Smart Watch as a Preventive Health Tool BIBAKFull-Text 537-548
  HongSuk Yoon; Dong-Hee Shin; Hyup Kim
Wearable technologies, especially smart watches are recently becoming popular and their health-related functions are well recognized. They can be effective to deliver health information to users, because they are able to track their activities. Whereas there is a privacy concern that users' personal health data could be misused according to be monitored their physical conditions via the smart watch. In this light of importance, this qualitative study explores the perceptions of smart watches as preventive health tools with 2 subjects: information tailoring and data privacy. This study used multiple methods: online survey, focus group interview and in-depth interview. A total of 12 users including power users and non-power users from Korea participated in a survey, 3 focus group sessions and post interviews. Three main themes emerged: (1) useful high-tech toy, (2) needs of hybrid tailoring service and (3) unnecessary anxiety vs. vague fear. Finally implications and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Customization; Data privacy; Health informatics; Information tailoring; Personalization; Power user; Smart watch; Wearable device
A Study of the Interactive Application in Aquarium Exhibit BIBAKFull-Text 549-559
  Linye Zhang; Young Mi Choi
Mobile technology is becoming increasingly widespread in museums, and many institutions have already developed applications that can be downloaded on mobile phones. The use of mobile technology is a new communication between museum and visitors yet there are few mobile apps for Aquariums even though there is an enormous amount of information available to visitors. Mobile apps are a powerful educational environment for inspiring and supporting children and adults interested in nature. They potentially may be used commonly due to increasing use of wireless networks for dissemination of media. The aim of this study is help visitors get information and interact with marine animals in the aquarium via a mobile app. Data collected from observations, surveys and tests with 259 visitors to exhibits in the Georgia are discussed in this study. The results will provide insights and guidelines for using mobile technology to interact in other museums.
Keywords: Aquarium; Interaction; Usability; Mobile app

HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 4

Design and Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Tools

Coding Schemes for Observational Studies of Usability in Collaborative Tangible User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 3-6
  Tarfah Alrashed; Almaha Almalki; Salma Aldawood; Anas Alfaris; Areej Al-Wabil
With the growing complexity in Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) and their integration in the decision-making process, user acceptance of these TUI systems continues to be an important issue. Drawing upon recent findings in computer-mediated communication, human computer interaction, computer-supported-cooperative work, and social psychology, the present research extends the coding schemes for observational video analysis by incorporating the variables of communication and collaboration in the context of systems designed for urban planning and modeling.
Keywords: Coding scheme; TUI; HCI; User experience; Complex systems; Urban planning
Design of Web-Based Tools to Study Blind People's Touch-Based Interaction with Smartphones BIBAFull-Text 7-12
  Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Barbara Leporini; Amaury Trujillo
Nowadays touchscreen smartphones are the most common kind of mobile devices. However, gesture-based interaction is a difficult task for most visually impaired people, and even more so for blind people. This difficulty is compounded by the lack of standard gestures and the differences between the main screen reader platforms available on the market. Therefore, our goal is to investigate the differences and preferences in touch gesture performance on smartphones among visually impaired people. During our study, we implemented a web-based wireless system to facilitate the capture of participants' gestures. In this paper we present an overview of both the study and the system used.
Toward a New Design Philosophy: Politics and the Aesthetic of "We" Human-and-Technology in Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 13-18
  Hyunkyoung Cho
This paper suggests that the relation of politics and the aesthetic in interaction design depends on a situated knowledge of how to interact with each other. Its aim is to open a new way to approach interaction design philosophy in the perspective of "We" human-and-technology. As a case, interaction design with BCI stimulates a network of conceptual relations rather than merely perceptions of the visible aspects of singles works. The investigation of relations between politics and the aesthetic in interaction design reveals that the instrumental understanding of technology is the colonization by tolerance-tactic.
Keywords: "We" human-and-technology; Collaborative action; Interaction design with BCI; Politics and the aesthetic; Tolerance-tactic; Colonization
Method to Design Adaptable and Adaptive User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 19-24
  Francesca Gullá; Lorenzo Cavalieri; Silvia Ceccacci; Michele Germani; Roberta Bevilacqua
In order to study and develop adaptive user interfaces with the purpose to guarantee socialization, safety and environmental sustainability in a domestic day-by-day living space, a new method of holistic and adaptive user interface is proposed to support the modelling of information related to the user and the context of the interaction to generate the user profiles, subjects older than 40 years with different levels of technology affinity have been considered. The new adaptive user interfaces prototypes will be tested through different use cases in the context of smart home environments.
Keywords: User interfaces; Adaptive interfaces; User-centered design; Design for AAL
Designing for Affectibility: Principles and Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 25-31
  Elaine C. S. Hayashi; M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
In analogy to the concept of usability, learnability and playability, the concept of Affectibility was conceived to inform the design process -- in this case with affective aspects of interaction. In this paper we present a revised set of the Principles for the Design for Affectibility, together with practical examples of use and application. The objective is to support designers in the process of creating educational systems for children, considering aspects of affect.
Keywords: Affectibility; Affect; Emotions; Design; Children interaction; Education
A Comparative Analysis of Usability Evaluation Methods on Their Versatility in the Face of Diversified User Input Methods BIBAKFull-Text 32-37
  Daiju Ishikawa; Takashi Kato; Chigusa Kita
Every command consists of an action and an object, suggesting that a usability problem can occur whenever the user is unable to identify an appropriate action and/or the object associated with his/her current goal. The recent shift from mouse-based to touch-based interaction demands that any usability evaluation method be sensitive to not only object-related but also action-related usability problems. This study involved a total of 32 participants, four kinds of tasks differing in the difficulty of identifying objects and executing actions, and four qualitative methods of usability evaluation. Analyses of sets of observation data with concurrent and retrospective protocol by the same participant and interpretive protocol by a new participant indicate that while the oral instruction method seems least appropriate, the newly-devised narration method seems to have better prospects than the observation and the think aloud method for the usability evaluation of touch-based interaction.
Keywords: Usability evaluation method; Qualitative method; Touch-based interaction; Mouse-based interaction
Understanding IoT Through the Human Activity: Analogical Interpretation of IoT by Activity Theory BIBAKFull-Text 38-42
  Narae Kim; Sangwon Lee; Taehyun Ha
Currently Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the major issues in academia and industry. However, studies so far have tended to focus on technical aspects. The future technologies need to be developed in user perspectives because users center in connected situations based on IoT. As a part of addressing this issue, the present study proposes a conceptual model for the IoT process, which can be likened to a human activity process based on 'Activity Theory (AT)'. Focusing on how people actually work in IoT situations, we attempt to draw an analogy between IoT and AT in terms of three interaction types among input device, sensor/network, task of IoT device, standard/protocol, and output device. The proposed model provides new viewpoint and direction for future research in IoT domains.
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Activity theory (AT); User-centric; Analogy analysis
A Pedagogical Approach to Usability in Serious Games BIBAKFull-Text 43-48
  Christine Kreutzer; Madeline Marks; Clint Bowers
Why do people learn after playing a serious game versus a game for entertainment? Serious games impart knowledge because there is a pedagogy driving the learning process. Serious games must successfully employ pedagogical methods and theories to increase the likelihood that knowledge is. The process of learning is hindered when an unusable interface demands cognitive resources that should be allocated to learning. Despite the creation of a usable system, if the player's interaction with the model is hindered, can real transfer of knowledge occur? Within the context of serious games that make use of model-based training, we suggest that a measure of pedagogical usability is warranted. The authors provide a conceptual basis for measuring pedagogical usability, specifically targeting serious games that employ modeling as the mechanism of action.
Keywords: Usability; Serious games; Pedagogy
Design Support Tool Using Pen Device for Simplification of Animation Design BIBAKFull-Text 49-54
  Taiki Maruya; Shun'ichi Tano; Tomonori Hashiyama; Mitsuru Iwata; Junko Ichino; Yoichi Hyono
Content using animation is widely available, and animation is often used in educational content to promote the understanding of mechanical structures and concepts. However, animations are currently created with software that requires complicated operations and programming. Such software inhibits intuitive and creative animation design. In this study, we analyze animations and determine the factors that inhibit intuitive and creative animation design. Moreover, we have developed a design support tool to make designing animations easier.
Keywords: Animation design; Pen device
User Experience and Other People: On User Experience Evaluation Framework for Human-Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 55-59
  Hiroyuki Miki
Recently, the word "User Experience (UX)" has been often used in usability-related areas such as web design and system design. Although it was defined in ISO 9241-210 and its importance has been growing, details of the notion and results of introduction of it have not been well clarified yet. In the previous paper, a new integrated evaluation framework of usability and UX, based on ISO 9241-11 and ACSI (American Customer Satisfaction Index) was proposed. Since the proposed framework does not consider influences to other people by the utilization but considers only interactions of a user with a product or service, it may be narrow-minded in a social age. Thus, this paper slightly extends the framework to consider influences to other people by the utilization in the related context of use.
Keywords: User experience; Usability; ISO 9241; ISO 13407; ISO/IEC 25010; Evaluation framework; American customer satisfaction index
Universal Usability in Mass Media via Discourse Analysis: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 60-63
  Stefanie Niklander; Ricardo Soto; Broderick Crawford
The Mass Media involve mechanisms that are intended to reach a wide audience by means of radio, television, newspapers, and Internet, among others. The Mass Media are also responsible for providing the suitable perception of news from different areas such as for instance politics, business, crime, or technology. However, this perception is often manipulated in order to accommodate the information according to a given criteria. This manipulation of the information is suddenly not captured by everyone causing a distortion of the real scenario. In this paper, we illustrate how the use of discourse analysis can improve understanding of such hidden information. We present a case study where this methodology is effectively used to analyze the information provided by news about a social phenomena related to the dehumanization of the female gender. Interesting results are discussed about how this useful methodology could be used to detect communication products that are not usable nor understandable for a wide audience.
Keywords: Discourse analysis; Universal usability; Mass Media
International and Regional Standards for Usability and User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 64-68
  Linghua Ran; Yanfang Liu; Wen Li; Xin Zhang
This article makes an investigation on international and regional standards highly related to the usability and user experience through looking up relevant committees and sub-committees and by key words and standard-tracing on the websites of the main organizations for standardization, including ISO, ISO/IEC, IEC, ETSI, ITU, etc., and briefly introduces and analyzes the history, status and trend of development for the usability and user experience standardization.
Keywords: Standards; Standardization; Usability; User experience
A Framework Proposal of UX Evaluation of the Contents Consistency on Multi Screens BIBAKFull-Text 69-73
  Wangmi Seok
In the study, we attempts to define coherent experience as those where user experience is maintained in a harmonious and coherent manner in a multi-screen environment, and identify the items that offer such experience. If user experiences are provided naturally and consistently without any sense of difference, irrespective of the change of devices when user utilize the contents, loyalty to the contents will be increased automatically. In this study, specific guidelines of each screen are produced, which should be observed to provide consistent user experiences.
Keywords: Multi screen; Consistency; UX evaluation
Assessing Usability of a Post-Mission Reporting Technology BIBAKFull-Text 74-78
  Mitchell J. Tindall; Beth F. Wheeler Atkinson
Usability evaluation has received extensive attention in both academic and applied arenas. Despite this, there have been few formal attempts to integrate past research and best practices in an effort to develop a newly updated and adaptable approach. This poster provides an overview of the types of results yielded by a novel usability assessment approach (i.e., Experienced-based Questionnaire for Usability Assessments Targeting Elaborations [EQUATE]) when applied to a post mission reporting tool. The goal of this study was to develop software to automate performance tracking for anti-submarine aircraft, digitize performance and training information, and automate the display of post mission summaries. Although some of these technologies exist, the prototype tested during this research was the first, of which the authors are aware, to provide a single point of access for data entry, analysis and reporting. Due to the potential benefits across a variety of naval aviation platforms, the program's usability goals focused on identifying means to optimize the tool by gathering novice user feedback. Traditional methods for end-user feedback have tended to focus on user performance and satisfaction, rather than providing prescriptive inputs to identifying and rectifying issues. The results of this study provided usability input for post mission reporting, as well as identified and narrowed the heuristic dimensions used for final validation.
Keywords: Usability; Heuristic evaluation; GUIs
Validated Usability Heuristics: Defining Categories and Design Guidance BIBAKFull-Text 79-84
  Beth F. Wheeler Atkinson; Mitchell J. Tindall; Gregory S. Igel
Heuristic-based usability assessment is a popular approach to assessing system usability in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) [1]. Despite the benefits of the approach (e.g., flexibility across time and platform, efficiency, utility of feedback) [1], it is also associated with sub-par reliability, validity, and comprehensiveness and requires a Human Factors (HF) expert for the analysis and interpretation of subjective feedback. While this approach has a place in the usability lifecycle of a project, tight budgets and schedule constraints can limit the variety of usability approaches that teams can implement. The purpose of the current effort is to develop a validated heuristic approach based on a review of past literature and practice and integrate this information to inform an improved system. Leveraging previous efforts as a baseline (i.e., [2]), this approach extends previous work by improving the comprehensiveness of the system by broadening the scope of past usability research and providing end-users with specific practical examples of do's and don'ts to better define broad heuristic-based categories for non-expert end-users. The logic is that broad heuristic categories have little practical meaning to end-users not familiar or educated in HF/HCI. The provision of practical examples should improve their ability to identify important usability issues while helping them communicate this information in language that is understandable to system designers. The result of this research is presented in this poster, and provides a method for the assessment of system usability that is more flexible, efficient, comprehensive and useful than past approaches.
Keywords: Usability assessment; Heuristic-based assessment; Usability heuristics; Validated approach

Cognitive and Psychological Issues in HCI

Eye Tracking Analysis of Readers' Psychological Interaction with Marketing Copy Referencing Life Values BIBAKFull-Text 87-92
  Miao-Hsien Chuang; Chin-Lung Chen; Jui-Ping Ma
Rather than simply reporting product information, many advertisements nowadays employ images that convey a certain life values. How do consumers respond to advertisements of this type? This study analyzed consumer responses to the advertising card of C'N'C Costume National using eye-tracking technology and a questionnaire survey. Research findings were as follows: (1) It was found that participants scanning figure and text repeatedly on the copy referencing life values more than on the copy referencing product information. This was confirmed by chi-squared testing. (2) Factor analysis identified three significant factors, namely, psychological interaction, a sense of specialness, and anticipation. (3) We discovered that females with a background in design tended to spend more time watching a male model than men of all backgrounds did. This study contributes to marketing research, demonstrating the effectiveness of conveying messages about life values to achieve more desirable advertising effects while also conveying social concern.
Keywords: Eye tracking; Advertising copy; Life values; Readers' psychological interaction
Questionnaire Survey on Attention of Young Adults BIBAKFull-Text 93-97
  Junmin Du; Weiyu Sun; Xiaofan Wang
Attention plays an important role in guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of task operation. People may get distracted by various internal and external causes. There are differences between individuals in their reaction to the distractions. Understanding the characteristics of attention is the basis for human-machine interface design. In this study, a questionnaire was designed, which concerned personality, environment, task, biological clock, self awareness and self control etc. 138 questionnaires were collected from young adults. Based on the questionnaires, the features of young adults' attention were described. The study results are helpful for the designer to know young people better in the attention characteristics, so as to get benefits for man-machine interface and task design.
Keywords: Attention; Distraction; Questionnaire survey; Young adults
Spatial Effect of Target Display on Visual Search BIBAKFull-Text 98-103
  Xiaoli Fan; Zhongqi Liu; Qianxiang Zhou; Fang Xie
The effect of spatial layout on visual performance and eye-movements characteristics was analyzed and the results would provide theoretical guidance for the ergonomics design of man-computer interface. A division method was proposed to divide the optimum visual field into nine regions based on the anatomical characteristics of human retinal and the horizon characteristics of quadrants, and corresponding software with the target displaying in different regions dynamically was completed for the experiment. Twelve subjects participated in the experiment and their reaction time and eye movement data were recorded. The significant differences and the prioritizations of different visual regions were analyzed. The results indicated that, there was significant time difference among the regions with different eccentricity, and the visual performance decreased along with the increase of eccentric distance; for the same eccentric distance, the visual performance of lower visual field was superior to the upper visual field, while the left visual field was superior to the right visual field, and the former difference was more apparent compared with the latter one. In the ergonomic study of display interface of man-computer, spatial effect of target display should be considered.
Keywords: Eye movement; Spatial effect; Visual search; Workload; Man-computer interface
Influence of Color Combination Pattern Considered Usability to Mental Workload BIBAKFull-Text 104-109
  Shin'ichi Fukuzumi; Keiko Kasamatsu; Yusuke Ohta; Hideo Jingu; Nobuyuki Watanabe; Yukiko Tanikawa
About color combination using general VDT works, to clarify that feature color combination patterns considered usability are favorable color combination for human from the view point of fatigue, physiological data change during 30 min VDT works with low cognitive load were measured and subjective evaluation was carried out. In this experiment, as feature color combination patterns located on each quadrant in color combination image scale, black, blue, green and pink are used, and as fatigable color, cyan is used. As physiological data, ECG, pupil meter and GSR is measured. From the results of experiment, feature color combination patterns considered usability got higher evaluation from the view point of physiological data and subjective evaluation than a fatigable color combination. Therefore, we concluded that feature color combination patterns considered usability are no significant difference about fatigue and human can use these colors without fatigue.
Keywords: Color combination pattern; Mental workload; Usability
Emotion Elicitation Using Film Clips: Effect of Age Groups on Movie Choice and Emotion Rating BIBAKFull-Text 110-116
  Dilana Hazer; Xueyao Ma; Stefanie Rukavina; Sascha Gruss; Steffen Walter; Harald C. Traue
In affective computing an accurate emotion recognition process requires a reliable emotion elicitation method. One of the arising questions while inducing emotions for computer-based emotional applications is age group differences. In the present study, we investigate the effect of emotion elicitation on various age groups. Emotion elicitation was conducted using standardized movie clips representing five basic emotions: amusement, sadness, anger, disgust and fear. Each emotion was elicited by three different clips. The different clips are individually rated and the subjective choice of the most relevant clip is analyzed. The results show the influence of age on film-clip choice, the correlation between age and valence/arousal rating for the chosen clips and the differences in valence and arousal ratings in the different age groups.
Keywords: Emotion elicitation; Affective computing; Emotion recognition; Human-computer interaction; Film clips; Age difference
Examining the Gender Gap in Information Assurance: A Study of Psychological Factors BIBAKFull-Text 117-122
  Hsiao-Ying Huang; Masooda Bashir
The increasing cyber attacks result in an emergent need for Information Assurance professionals in the government and private sector. Young adults' psychological factors related to the career field of Information Assurance (IA) remain largely understudied despite Information Assurance Workforce (IAW) becoming a crucial issue. Gender disparity, in particular, is a concern for Information Assurance. The first of its kind, this study investigates the gender gap in the field of IA by examining psychological factors affecting young adults, including attitudes, interests, self-efficacy, and goals. Our findings on gender difference in IA from psychological perspectives provide insight for understanding gender disparity in the IA field and initiate studies to explore this issue further. The practical purpose of this study is to contribute information related to gender differences, understood with regard to psychological aspects, for IA recruitment strategies to inspire young adults, especially the underrepresented population of women, to join the IAW.
Keywords: Information assurance workforce; Gender disparity; Career choice; Vocational psychology; Cyber security education
Development of a Research Framework to Elicit the Optimal Level of Users' Functional Intervention BIBAKFull-Text 123-127
  Song Jung; Sangwon Lee
Nowadays people live in the deluge of information. Although dissemination of information, people wander in excessive alternatives while they make decisions. This study deals with degree how well users can access and control the products or services, namely levels of users' functional intervention. To demonstrate correlation between situational confusion and levels of users' functional intervention, we examine related work such as multiple tasks, automation and cognitive load. We consider levels of users' functional intervention as a criterion to find an effective way to reduce mistakes from cognitive load. The conceptual model between levels of users' functional intervention and cognitive load is established, and then we propose an experimental design and present a method to elicit the optimal level of functional intervention that generates minimum cognitive load.
Keywords: Context complexity; Control authority; Difficulty; Cognitive load
The Effects of Life-Likeness on Persuasion and Attention-Drawing in a Mobile Digital Signage BIBAKFull-Text 128-132
  Yu Kobayashi; Mao Shinoda; Dai Hasegawa; Hiroshi Sakuta
In this paper, we examined the effects of life-like movements on persuasion and attention-drawing in a Mobile Digital Signage (MDS). The study employed a one-factor three-level between-participants design where we manipulated the life-likeness of movement of the MDS (life-like movement vs. simple movement vs. no-movement). We set up the three versions of the MDS at our department building for eight days in rotation, and collected the data of the number of users and the percentage of the users who answered YES at the end of the interactions. As the results of our analysis on the data of the number of users, we found that there was a main effect in the movements of MDS and the MDS with life-like movement had higher than the MDS with no movement. In addition, the analysis on the percentage of the users who answered Yes showed that there were statistically significant differences between the MDS with life-like movements and the MDS with simple movement, and the MDS with life-like movement and the MDS with no movement. The results indicated that the power of persuasion and attention drawing increased when the MDS performed life-like movement.
Keywords: Digital signage; Persuasive technology; Attention-drawing; Life-likeness
The Influence of Different Lighting Source Positions on the Visual Comfort of Refrigerator Illumination BIBAKFull-Text 133-137
  Linghua Ran; Xin Zhang; Hua Qin; Huimin Hu; Taijie Liu; Chaoyi Zhao
By adopting the method of user experience, this research studies the influence of the layout of the lighting source for the visual comfort of refrigerator inner illumination. There are three kinds of layout, including the lighting source on the top, at the side wall and at the back of the refrigerator, which are conducted experiments under the environment of nighttime, kitchen, living room, common market and high-end store. The result shows that with the vacancy of the refrigerator, there is few influence of the different layout of light source on the visual comfort under the same environment of external illumination. There is a significant difference on the comfort illumination level on the top light and back light under the nighttime environment. But under other outer illumination environments, there is no significant difference among these three lighting source layout.
Keywords: Lighting source positions; Refrigerator illumination; Visual comfort; User experience
The Effect of a High-Resolution 4K Tablet on Physiological and Psychological State While Viewing Various Types of Content BIBAKFull-Text 138-143
  Kiyomi Sakamoto; Seiji Sakashita; Kuniko Yamashita; Akira Okada
We experimentally investigated the effects of using a high-resolution 4K tablet on physiological and psychological states while viewing various types of content. The results showed the scores for "precise-coarse," "feeling of invigoration -- no feeling of invigoration" and "enjoyable-boring" when viewing 4K scenic content to be significantly higher than those for 2K scenic content. Moreover, NIRS values, an index of nervous system activity, during viewing tests of 4K scenic content, were significantly higher for 4K content than for 2K content.
Keywords: Physiological and psychological measurements; High-resolution 4K tablet; NIRS
Brain Mechanism Research on Visual Information Cognition of Digital Human Computer Interface BIBAKFull-Text 144-149
  Chengqi Xue; Xiaoli Wu; Yafeng Niu; Lei Zhou; Jiang Shao; Zhangfan Shen
With the improvement of the degree of informatization, digital human-computer interface (hereinafter referred to as DHCI) has been gradually replacing the traditional display and control interface, which plays an essential role in the efficient and precise operation of complex informative system. In recent years, unreasonable visual information design of DHCI has been proved to be one of the main reasons that cause a lot of serious accidents, which leads to users' mistakes in cognitive understanding and decision-making periods. Complex system has a great amount of information and a complicated information structure, which is easy to result in the imbalance between visual information design and cognitive mechanism. This poster is planning to start from the brain mechanism research of visual information cognition, and carrying out visual information design research through a perspective that close to the origin attribute of human cognition, making the research on visual information analysis of the information structure and encoding method in DHCI.
Keywords: Digital human-computer interface; Cognitive brain mechanisms; Design; Visual information cognition
Is Dynamic Visual Search Performance Sensitivity to the Visual Fatigue and Comfort of LED TV? A Comparative Experiment of Eight LED TVs BIBAKFull-Text 150-155
  Yunhong Zhang; Na liu; Xin Wu; Jing Chang; Ruifeng Yu
A comparative experiment was conducted to make clear whether dynamic visual search performance is sensitivity to the visual comfort of LED TVs by testing dynamic visual search performance and visual fatigue of eight LED TVs. 16 ordinary man from 18 to 45 years old were paid to participate in the experiment. And all subjects were arranged to doing the dynamic visual search task when velocity was 5°/s. Each participant took the same dynamic visual search tasks on the eight LED TVs in the experiment. The search time and accuracy of each participant were recorded. The results shows that there is significant difference about the accuracy and dynamic visual search time in the course of 5°/s movement velocity between different LED TVs. And there is corresponding mode of comfort, satisfaction, the subjective fatigue feeling between different LED TVs. Those results revealed that dynamic visual search performance was sensitive to visual fatigue and comfort under the situation of 5°/s movement velocity. The obtained results could be a reference for evaluating the quality of LED TVs for a specific visual search task.
Keywords: Dynamic visual search task; Visual fatigue; Comfort; LED television

Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality

AR and Maintenance -- Visualization of Process Data and Engineering Information BIBAKFull-Text 159-162
  Sven Buyer; Carsten Wittenberg
Nowadays the trend in the industry is to centralize production systems. For example almost autonomous power plants will be spread over the regions. In case of malfunctions the maintenance staff has to react very fast to reduce downtimes and costs. Based on a user analysis, different requirements such as fast information gathering and straightforward handling have been determined. Required documents are often spread across the company. This leads to time-intensive searching and obtaining. Modern technologies like Augmented Reality (AR) can support the staff. AR-applications have great potential for practical use, however, essential parts of today's popular desktop-based interaction concepts have to be redesigned. Computer games provide solutions for presenting complex information in a way that is easy to understand. Anforderungen an AR-Anwendungen in der Instandhaltung.
Keywords: Augmented reality; User interface; Maintenance; Mobile devices
Building Virtual Roads from Computer Made Projects BIBAKFull-Text 163-169
  Carlos Campos; João Miguel Leitão; António Fernando Coelho
Driving simulators require extensive road environments, with roads correctly modeled and similar to those found in real world. The modeling of extensive road environments, with the specific characteristics required by driving simulators, may result in a long time consuming process. This paper presents a procedural method to the modeling of large road environments. The proposed method can produce a road network design to populate an empty terrain and produce all the related road environment models. The terrain model can also be edited to produce well-constructed road environments. The road and terrain models are optimized to interactive visualization in real time, applying all the stet-of-art techniques like the level of detail selection. The proposed method allows modeling large road environments, with the realism and quality required to the realization of experimental work in driving simulators.
Keywords: Driving simulation; Immersive environments; Procedural modeling; Road environments
Camouflage Assessment of Color Pattern Strategies in Different Environmental Contexts BIBAKFull-Text 170-173
  Woon Jung Cho; Minsun Kim; Eunji Lee; Suyoung Kim; Junghwan Han; Kwang-Hee Han
This study examined the effectiveness of adaptive camouflage patterns according to environmental contexts. We performed visual search tasks using photo simulation to evaluate the effectiveness of camouflage strategies. Pattern combination strategies from a previous study were used. Each one of the 4 strategies (Average [A], AverageRandom [AR], Main [M], and MainRandom [MR]) were presented in 3 environmental contexts (Woodland, Rural, and Urban), and performance (Error Rate) was measured. An analysis of performance revealed the main effect of strategy and a significant interaction between strategy and the context. Strategy A appeared to be more effective than the others. The A and AR strategies were better in the Woodland context, and strategies A and M appeared to be superior to the others in the Urban and Rural contexts. This study can be the foundation for determining optimal adaptive camouflage patterns in different environmental contexts and provide a theoretical basis for future military uniforms.
Keywords: Active camouflage; Camouflage assessment; Dynamic environmental contexts; Adaptive pattern strategy
Augmented Reality Central Venous Access Training Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 174-179
  Erika Gutierrez-Puerto; Lizeth Vega-Medina; Gerardo Tibamoso; Alvaro Uribe-Quevedo; Byron Perez-Gutierrez
The central venous access procedure is used for placing a catheter for venous interventions, defibrillator devices or even filters when required. The access depends on patient-related factors that may increase the procedure's difficulty. However, when performing the procedure on newborns, the level of difficulty rises considerably and any mistake may cause damages on tissues, lungs or the accessed vein, those can affect the medical condition of the patient. This work focus on the development of an augmented reality application for training pediatricians in the central venous access in newborns while allowing handling surgical tools. The system has a 3D marker tracking, that enables the user interact with models of surgical tools such as syringe, blunt guidewire, dilating device and catheter, each one of them shows up over the marker. The prototype is programmed in Unity3D with the use of AR Vuforia library and an Oculus VR with an attached webcam. The system makes a suitable tracking of the surgical instruments within a controlled lighting. To conclude, finished and suitable prototype will be tested with the help of medical students to validate their impact as simulator training in this technique.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Central venous access; Medical training simulator
Use of Immersive Virtual Environments to Understand Human-Building Interactions and Improve Building Design BIBAKFull-Text 180-184
  Arsalan Heydarian; Evangelos Pantazis; David Gerber; Burcin Becerik-Gerber
Previous research has shown occupants' behavior and interactions with building systems and components have a significant impact on the total energy consumption of buildings. Incorporating occupant requirements to the design process could result in better operations, and therefore, improve the total energy consumption of buildings. Currently, buildings are primarily designed based on several common assumptions about occupant requirements, which in many cases are incorrect and result in inefficiencies during the buildings' operation phase. With the recent improvements in the fields of virtual and augmented reality, designers now have the opportunity to accurately collect and analyze occupants' behavioral information. In this research, through the use of immersive virtual environments, the influence of different design features on end-user behavior (preferences and patterns) and performances are examined. A case study is presented, in which the authors measure the end-users' lighting preferences to better understand the impact of preferences on end-users' performances and lighting-related energy consumption.
Keywords: Immersive virtual environments; Human building interaction; Design features; Design process
A Virtual Cloth Manipulation System for Clothing Design BIBAKFull-Text 185-189
  Shgeru Inui; Yuko Mesuda; Yosuke Horiba
We have been studied virtualization of draping which is one of a design method for clothing. It is desirable to adopt a man-machine interface in the same way as the real world for virtual draping. For this purpose, motion of hand is detected by Leap Motion as a sensor. This sensor can detect not only the motion of hand but the motion of fingers. According to the motion of hand or fingers in the real world, hand model in the virtual world is moved. Cloth is modeled with simple particles and springs, and dynamical change of cloth model form is obtained by numerical integration of motion equation. The interaction between the hand model and the cloth model is enabled, and then it is possible to grab the cloth model by the hand model in the virtual world.
Keywords: Draping; Leap motion; Cloth model; Hand model; Simulation
Haptic Device Using a Soldering Test System BIBAKFull-Text 190-195
  Manabu Ishihara
We learned that the present challenges are the stabilization of the wrists, representation of gravity, and the sensation of diminishing solder. The issue of wrist stabilization is difficult to improve because, with control from the haptic device, there exists an area for which stabilization is not possible. On the other hand, for the representation of gravity and sensation of diminishing solder, the representation can be changed in the software program and further experimental investigation is needed in the future.
Keywords: Virtual reality (VR); Soldering training system; Haptic device
Learning to Juggle in an Interactive Virtual Reality Environment BIBAFull-Text 196-201
  Tobias Kahlert; Florian van de Camp; Rainer Stiefelhagen
Virtual reality environments are great tools for training as they are very cheap compared to on-site training for many tasks. While the focus has mostly been on the visual experience, we present a system that combines real world interactions with the virtual visual world to train motor skills that are applicable to the real world. Body pose tracking is combined with an Oculus Rift to create such an interactive virtual environment. As an example application, we taught users to juggle using a virtual training course. A third of the users were able to immediately transfer the newly acquired skills and juggle with real balls.
Integration of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in a Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 202-207
  Sandra Mateus; John Branch
In this article, two artificial intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms were incorporated into a 3D working environment and turned into a game engine, which simulates a working environment in order to obtain possible warning signs to different hazards. These techniques were incorporated in the perception and reasoning of a character in the virtual environment, in order to react intelligently to given warning signs.
Keywords: Intelligent virtual environment; Artificial neural network; Genetic algorithm
Properties of a Peripheral Head-Mounted Display (PHMD) BIBAKFull-Text 208-213
  Denys J. C. Matthies; Marian Haescher; Rebekka Alm; Bodo Urban
In this paper we propose a definition for Peripheral Head-Mounted Display (PHMD) for Near Field Displays. This paper introduces a taxonomy for head-mounted displays that is based on the property of its functionality and the ability of our human eye to perceive peripheral information, instead of being technology-dependent. The aim of this paper is to help designers to understand the perception of the human eye, as well as to discuss the factors one needs to take into consideration when designing visual interfaces for PHMDs. We envision this term to help classifying devices such as Google Glass, which are often misclassified as a Head-Up Display (HUD) following NASA's definition.
Keywords: Peripheral Head-Mounted display; PHMD; Optical HMD; Display position; Peripheral perception; Google glass
Design and Implementation of High-Resolution Sea-Lane Image Texture for Marine Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 214-219
  Hiroyo Ohishi; Tetsuya Haneta; Tadasuke Furuya; Takahiro Takemoto
In this paper, we propose the efficient approach for constructing virtual reality simulation of ship navigation that supports navigator. Therefore, we propose that simple constructing environments surrounding ships. Structures along the yard can easily displayed with one texture mapping on one NURBS (Non Uniform Rational B-spline) surface. Using this method, we take only 15 s to make one structure including cutting textures.
Keywords: NURBS surface; Virtual reality; Texture mapping; Image based rendering
Interactive Virtual Planning Tools for Sustainable Forest Production in Mountain Areas BIBAKFull-Text 220-225
  Giulio Panizzoni; Daniele Magliocchetti; Federico Prandi; Raffaele De Amicis
Forest wood harvesting in mountain areas needs a deep and accurate planning to avoid possible failures and criticalities due to the complex morphology of the terrain. Steepness, difficult accessibility and on the field manual work are cost effective factors to reckon, but not always taken into account on all phases, due to the heterogeneity of competences and instruments adopted by the involved actors. Geographical information systems planning tools, demonstrated their usefulness to analyze spatial data in such conditions, but their specificity makes their adoption difficult among operators especially in a conservative industry like forestry. This document introduces an interactive web 3D planning tool based on an accurate virtual forest environment reconstruction, to support the entire wood processing chain in mountain areas, from tree marking to timber production within sawmills, accommodating the needs of all the involved actors bringing novel simulation, planning and monitoring tools at their disposal.
Keywords: Forest planning; Forest monitoring; GIS; 3D virtual globe; WebGL
Initial Evaluation of a Modern Augmented Reality Display for Deployable Embedded Training System BIBAFull-Text 226-231
  Lee Sciarini; Jason Elfe; Tim Shilling; Eric Martin
When flight time is not available, flight simulators are an effective task rehearsal tool used by the military to train and maintaining aviator proficiency. Unfortunately, the physical characteristics of traditional simulator architectures prevent their use in most operational environments. Previous research has demonstrated that the embedded training (ET) simulator concept is viable but also has limitations in the display of immersive visuals (Lennerton, 2004). Recent advancements in virtual display devices and aircraft design can overcome challenges of the past and should rapidly advance the realization of ET simulators. However, the ability of technology to provide an ET solution must be supported by user acceptance and confidence that effective training transfer will occur with such a system. This effort explored the feasibility of using a modern, user worn, 3D, projection based Augmented Reality (AR) system as the visual interface for a hypothetical ET system with two fixed wing and one rotary wing aircraft. Eight Naval Aviation Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) were given a preflight questionnaire, participated in a simulated flight using the AR display, and completed a post-flight questionnaire. Results indicated that both the ET concept and the prototype AR system were highly regarded.
A Virtual Reality Keyboard with Realistic Key Click Haptic Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 232-237
  Chien-Min Wu; Chih-Wen Hsu; Shana Smith
Virtual Reality (VR) technologies are increasingly used in many engineering and entertainment applications. In order to make users feel more immersed in the VR environments, many studies have focused on enhancing the sensory feedback for the users. Other than visual feedback, haptic feedback has drawn a lot of attention for increasing the realism of the VR environments. This study creates a realistic key click haptic feedback system in a 3D VR environment. The system can be used to create complex vibrations that match measured vibrations from a real keyboard. The system uses immersive 3D stereo displays to render a virtual environment and a virtual keyboard, a finger-wised data glove to track finger motions, and micro-speakers to create low-frequency 50 Hz vibrations for realistic tactile haptic feedback for each finger. When the users press a virtual key, realistic tactile feedback can be provided to the users. Since the virtual keyboard is not anchored on any physical surfaces or objects in the real world, it does not limit the VR workspace. As a result, the haptic VR keyboard can enhance human-computer interactions in an immersive VR environment.
Keywords: Virtual keyboard; Realistic tactile haptic feedback; Micro-speakers; Virtual reality; 3D
Control Yourself: A Mixed-Reality Natural User Interface BIBAKFull-Text 238-242
  Elena Zhizhimontova; John Magee
Control Yourself is a natural user interaction system with a camera and depth sensor, a processor and a display. The user's image is separated from the background of a camera's output and rendered in the program in real-time. The result is that a display shows a video of a person inside the application. The software also recognizes various types of movement such as gestures, changing positions, moving in frame and multiplayer interaction. The technology utilizes the obtained gestures and movements for GUI transformations and creation and for positioning the image or mesh of a user with the background removed. Users of the system can manipulate virtual objects and various features of the program by using gestures and movements while seeing themselves as if they were viewing a mirror with an augmented reality around them. This approach allows users to interact with software by natural movements via intuitive gestures.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Mixed reality; Control yourself; Kinect; Depth camera; Computer vision; Interactive games; Interactive games; Project-based learning

Cross-Cultural Design

Methodology for the Development of Interface Design Guidelines Based on Local Cultural Dimensions BIBAKFull-Text 245-248
  Zurida Ishak; Azizah Jaafar; Norshita Mat Nayan
This paper will discuss the methodology for the development of interface design according to cultural dimensions of Malaysian culture. This paper will discuss previous works of cultural interface design development and the application of Malaysian cultural dimensions in interface design.
Keywords: Culture Dimensions; Interface Design; Interface Components
"Re:Radio", The Place Oriented Internet Radio to Enhance the Cross-Cultural Understanding in Japan BIBAKFull-Text 249-255
  Ayaka Ito; Katsuhiko Ogawa
The number of foreigners who visit Japan is increasing lately, however most of the services or products for foreigners are designed based on their superficial understanding and do not meet their true needs. This research's goal is to propose place oriented Internet radio called "Re:Radio", as a new media to help foreigners understand Japan at a deeper level, by providing individually customised contents. Specifically, the dialogue between a guest and personality is used as main contents. Listening to the contents at the place induces listener's self-reflection, which helps further understanding of the place. This paper introduces the concept and implementation, and the experimental results conducted in Tokyo.
Keywords: Internet radio; Personality; Dialogue; Cross-cultural understanding
Poke, Swipe, and Pinch: Reinventing Adaptability Across Cultures Using Mixed Technology BIBAKFull-Text 256-261
  Linda Lim
This short paper covers the advent of Project Cul. The researcher examined the feasibility of support for the combined usage of mobile operating systems (including Omni-Touch device), markerless augmented reality, global systems for mobile communications (hybrid positioning systems), and cloud computing (public and community cloud). Since Project Cul is in its initial phase, the existing version aims to reinvent adaptability across cultures using mixed technology and anticipates creating a game-based learning simulator to ease the adjustment period of an individual upon relocating to his or her destination country, using an interaction method coined by the researcher as "poke, swipe, and pinch". Using this interaction method, users can experience Omni-Touch functionality by practicing accurate control of the hand on any surface or even in mid-air. A discussion of protocols to achieve the project aim, most similar work, how Project Cul is original, development methodology, and evaluation method are conducted.
Keywords: Omni-Touch device; Markerless augmented reality; Hybrid positioning systems; Public cloud; Community cloud
The Research of Chinese Pilots Operating Safety BIBAKFull-Text 262-269
  Mei Rong; Min Luo; Yanqiu Chen; Changhua Sun
In order to understand the factors that affect the operating safety of Chinese pilots more deeply, we designed the "Chinese pilots' operating safety questionnaire". In this study, a total of 2130 questionnaires were received, of which 2094 copies are valid. We conducted a statistical analysis of the closed questions, collected the various open answers, and compared the different insights of the pilots in the same question. Finally, we summarized the discoveries and potential problems in operation risk, fatigue risk, safety awareness, the pilot's health care and the application of new technology. Through this survey and research, we are more systematic and comprehensive understanding of the major factors affecting the pilots' operations safety, and get some management problems existing in civil aviation and airlines of China, such as the flight time limit prescribed to be fine enough, non-precision approach of training is not enough. The conclusion of the investigation is very important for improving the safety management of airlines and revising China civil aviation related safety policies and regulations.
Keywords: Pilots' operating safety; Non-precision approach; Fatigue risk; Safety awareness
The Effects of Regional Culture on User Interface Experience: A Case Study of Xin'an Hangu Guan in China BIBAKFull-Text 270-275
  Le Xi; Jianxin Cheng; Junnan Ye; Wangqun Xiao
With the wide spread of mobile media around the world, the cross-cultural users could get the tourism destinations' information instant and convenient by mobile phones and other mobile terminals. However, the differences on region, culture, cognition, behavior, concepts etc. make cross-cultural users having distinctive experience of products. The effects of regional culture on user experience become more significant in tourism App's user interface (UI) design. It is a research focus at present that to solve the communication issues between the cross-cultural users and product's regional culture experience in theory and practice. In this paper, by taking the tourism App's UI design of Xin' an Hangu Guan (Chinese famous historical site of the Silk Road, world cultural heritage 2014) as an example, the methods on exploring and using regional culture when facing the experience design for cross-cultural users was discussed. At last, a method to ascend influence of regional culture by product's experience value was proposed, and expected to provide a theoretical reference for improving development of regional culture.
Keywords: Regional culture; Product experience; User interface; Product design; Cross-cultural
The Study of the Cultural Values of Lighting Products Based on Intention Recognition and 3D Printing Technology BIBAKFull-Text 276-283
  Chaoxiang Yang; Zhang Zhang; Xu Yang; Xiaohan Le
The interaction between culture and business, culture and economy, is increasingly close under the background of the integration of the knowledge economy and the world economy. Material comforts are no longer able to meet the demand of modern products. The pursuit of products receives more attention in personal emotion, psychology and other aspects. This requires the product design should meet the cultural values of the times, and correctly interpret the values. Therefore, this paper takes lighting products as an example, firstly makes the reverse model for the product, then improves the design on the basis of three-dimensional digital model, and finally produces samples with the application of rapid prototyping 3D printing technology. Moreover, this paper uses the Kansei Engineering Theory to collect users' emotional data on product awareness and experience by questionnaires. It uses Factor analysis method and considers of product design principles, constructs cultural values and the objectives and the values for lighting design elements. The paper determines the criteria associated with perceptual weighting coefficients on the basis of users' data, and accurately designs the lighting products based on the cultural values, then forms the method of product design that upgrades the cultural values.
Keywords: Cultural values; Intention recognition; 3D printing; Lighting design

Design for Aging

Strengthening Connections: Intuitive Interfaces for Life Story Work in Elder Care BIBAKFull-Text 287-292
  Mahdi Chaker; Michael Cimerola; Marietta Scanlon
This paper presents Renewed Voice, a software application designed to replace the collection methodology of using paper survey forms to conduct Life Story Work (LSW) in a resident care community. Renewed Voice integrates multiple design elements customized for older adults including an intuitive user interface, larger fonts and navigational buttons, specific color and contrast schemes, standardized page layouts, a dynamic progression and completion rate, and touch screen capability. A trial version is currently being tested at a local personal care home and memory care community.
Keywords: Software; Life story work; Survey; Resident care; Person-centered; Quality of life; Caregiver; Older adults; Intuitive; User interface; Touch screen; Personal care home; Memory care
The Effect of Age on Perception and Preference of App Icon Styles BIBAKFull-Text 293-298
  Chiwu Huang; Po-Ti Chen
Hand-held computer devices, such as smartphone, tablet etc., are popularly used at present. The icon styles for the apps in those devices can be generally classified into two types, namely, Aqua and Metro. How they can be perceived and preferred by people in different ages? What are the design features of these styles? This study aims to explore the relationship between icons' style and perception on different ages.
   10 Aqua and 10 Metro icons with same meanings were sampled. 300 respondents, evenly distributed in genders, aged 16-65 years old, stratified in ten age groups were recruited to do the test. A 5-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the perception of icons. The study examined the perception and preference of different age groups in using app icons of Metro and Aqua style. Four distinct design features, i.e. concrete, abstract, flatness and stereoscopic were also examined. In particular, it investigated whether an icon image that is concrete and solid at the same time can be more legible and preferable by the respondent. It also analyzed whether male and female exhibit different degree of perception and preference over different styles.
   It was found that the perception on Aqua icons was not significantly different among 10 age groups. In contrast, the perception of Metro icons was significantly different between two age groups: 16-30 and 31-65. All age groups prefer Aqua to Metro, especially on older groups aged beyond 31. Younger groups tend to be more comfortable with Metro than the older groups did. The study also found that perception was strongly influenced by concrete and abstract features.
Keywords: Perception; Preference; Age; Icon; App; Metro; Aqua
An iPad Application Prototype to Enhance Memory of Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 299-304
  Wonsil Jang
The objective of this project is to propose a prototype of an iPad application that will satisfy the demand of old adults, whose interest is a long lasting healthy brain. Developing an application for old adults is reasonable because of rapid increase of their population. This paper focuses on a development of an iPad application within mobile UD (Universal Design) principles for older adults that will lead to further research on user testing.
Keywords: Older adults; Mobile application; iPad application; Application design; Universal design; User centered design
Applying Usability Test to Find the Interface Design Principle of HRV Device for Senior Users BIBAKFull-Text 305-310
  Hsin-Chang Lo; I-Jen Sung; Yu-Ting Lin
Home use medical device industry prospers due to the ageing society. In both physiological and psychological domain, home use medical devices have received much attention in recent years. Seniors usually feel depressed or anxious because of losing health and living abilities. They can use the heart rate variability (HRV) device in analyzing their emotional response, however the interface of commercial HRV devices are not easy for them to operate. Therefore, the usability test of these devices was introduced for the senior users. Five senior user were recruited to conduct usability test of the two commercial HRV devices: ANSWatch (Taiwan Scientific Corp.) and CheckMyHeart Handheld HRV (DailyCare BioMedical Inc.) follow the typical operation task. Then the in-depth interview were conducted to find operational failure factors. All of senior users indicated that the serious failure factors are: "unable to understand English instructions" and "unable to determine the meaning of illustration". Four of them indicated that the minor ones are: "no appropriate guide"; "text is too small"; and "layout is not appropriate". Three of them indicated that "illustration surface reflection" is another problem. Therefore, we suggests that the home use HRV device interface design should consider principles such as (1) the language and icon properties, (2) step guides and text properties, (3) consistency of interface configuration, (4) color scheme to improve the operational satisfaction for the senior users.
Keywords: Usability test; Home use medical device; Heart rate variability
Experiences of Older Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions in the Intensive Ambulatory Care Home Telehealth Program BIBAKFull-Text 311-316
  Rony Oosterom-Calo; Kyle Vice; Michael Breslow
Aim: A study was conducted to explore the experiences of older patients with chronic conditions in a home telehealth program, Philips' Intensive Ambulatory Care (IAC) at Banner Health in Phoenix AZ, which targets complex chronic patients. Methods: A purposive sampling approach was followed. The number of participants in the sample depended on data saturation. Interviews were conducted at participants' homes and audio recorded. Interviews were transcribed and the text was analyzed. An inductive approach to the analysis was adopted, whereby explanations and patterns were sought with a bottom-up approach. Specifically, first, codes were identified and created. Then, data (text) was assigned to codes. The emerging themes were captured. Results: Patients (N=16) named benefits to being in the IAC program, including staying out of the hospital, feeling safe and having an increased peace of mind, practical and emotional support, and usefulness of the services provided within the program (e.g. pharmacological services, social work). Participants described many benefits of the program in comparison to their previous care, including reduced time to get an answer to a medical issue, increased access to doctors, better communication with medical staff, less travel time to receive care and more personal attention. Patients indicated that their experiences in the program change over time. Starting out, they experience confusion relating to new services, technologies and care professionals, which subsides over time. Many participants appreciated the support provided by professionals within the program. Most participants also accepted the technology and could easily use it, although for a minority of participants technology use and attitudes towards technology remain a challenge to adequate program engagement. Conclusion: Patients perceive many benefits to being in an intensive ambulatory home telehealth program and have in general positive experiences with it. Challenges include acclimating to telehealth and, for some patients, technology adoption and use.
Keywords: Telehealth; Experiences; Acceptance; Chronic disease management
The Speech Recognition Ability for Different Age Groups on the Chinese Language System BIBAFull-Text 317-320
  Linghua Ran; Ling Luo; Xin Zhang; Taijie Liu; Chaoyi Zhao
Public address system can provide useful information for the audience, which are especially important at the railway station or the subway station. Effective public address can offer help to evacuate people at these places.
Family Channel: Accessible Social Media for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 321-326
  Christopher Romanyk; Pejman Salehi; Joseph Sant; Lia Tsotsos; Ricardo Chavez
Isolation is a well-known problem amongst the elderly. This isolation might be ameliorated by engaging the elderly in social media. Unfortunately, the devices most commonly used to access social media (PCs, tablets, and phones) might not be the most appropriate for this demographic. A more appropriate device might be television. Using modern technology, it is possible to aggregate specially tagged social media posts from friends and family and narrow-cast it to other family members. Our research involves creating a television-based social media channel that is appropriate for the elderly. We present our initial work which involves developing a proof-of-concept for the Family Channel and identifying user profiles for the 65+ demographic with respect to technology use.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Aging; Social media
Social Engagement in Elderly Care Homes: Towards Designing an Application to Reduce Social Loneliness BIBAKFull-Text 327-333
  Jip ter Voort; Joey Radstaat; Marisse Douma; Laura Clarijs; Roxanne Arnts; Suleman Shahid
This paper presents an application that is designed to reduce the loneliness of elderly and to support them in elderly care homes. The social application 'APPointment' allows users to plan social activities to undertake with fellows living within a closed community. The app was designed after conducting extensive user research and evaluation sessions with elderly. The results indicate that the target user group found the new app accessible, easy to use and most importantly quite effective in improving their social lives at the elderly care home.
Keywords: Elderly; Social loneliness; Social isolation; Application; Social engagement; Healthcare
The Gods Play Dice Together: The Influence of Social Elements of Gamification on Seniors' User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 334-339
  Ingmar Wagner; Michael Minge
Due to increasing technologization and demographic changes, more and more elderly people are facing the challenge to use internet-based services for information and communication (ICT). In order to reduce frustrating experiences with ICT, such as feelings of helplessness and fear as well as motivational barriers, gamification and serious games are a promising approach. However, we assume that, when designing gamified applications for senior citizens, social aspects play an important role. Our research question aimed at comparing subjective enjoyment and motivational effects by providing different sociable gameplay conditions.
   In a laboratory experiment 18 pairs of seniors from 58-85 years of age played an online version of the dice game "Yahtzee". Each participant worked in a separate room. The pairs were assigned to one of the following social modalities: (1) isolated condition with no interaction at all, (2) shared screen-condition and playing the game against each other knowingly, or (3) shared screen-condition plus video and audio feedback between both participants. By using a set of questionnaires we measured perceived attractiveness, emotional enjoyment, and motivation during the game as well as after the experiment.
   Repeated measures during the experiment show that social aspects significantly enhance positive feelings and the willingness to maintain the gaming task.
Keywords: Gamification; Serious games; Elderly people; Social interaction; Motivation; Emotion
Designing a Map-Based Application and a Conversational Agent for Addressing Memory Problems BIBAFull-Text 340-345
  Akihito Yoshii; Helena Malmivirta; Mika Luimula; Paula Pitkäkangas; Tatsuo Nakajima
Computer based recreational activities can be solution for aging. We are addressing memory related problems using a computer. We propose "Old Photos on Map" application (Vanhat Kuvat). The aim of Vanhat Kuvat is to activate one's memory by using old photos and an assistant agent to wake up the past memories and experiences of childhood surroundings and architecture as well as personal hidden stories. We describe design issues related to user interfaces and interactions.

Children in HCI

Examining the User Experience (UX) of Children's Interaction with Arabic Interfaces in Educational Learning Contexts BIBAKFull-Text 349-354
  Wea'am A. Alrashed; Asma A. Alhussayen
A plethora of research studies have recently examined different approaches for designing playful learning interactive systems. The design challenges of offering fun, engaging and creative learning experiences for children are often coupled with complexities in objectively measuring the impact of different designs with younger populations. Consequently, the evaluation of children's experience with playful learning websites is essential for designing and improving these interactive systems to comply with the child's cognitive, physical, and perceptual abilities. This paper reports the results of an experimental study conducted on a sample of 64 children in an elementary school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Its aim was to explore and analyze the user experience (UX) on Arabic educational and entertainment website de-signed for children ranging in age from 7 to 12 years. To help understand the children better and gather impression data about how they use these types of websites, observation and heuristic evaluations have been used. Observational analysis included metrics for measuring UX and usability during interaction with the web pages to understand the efficacy of these evaluation approaches in uncovering general usability issues and opportunities for design improvements. The study took place in the school's computer lab where each child interacted with the website separately from her mates. Questionnaires were designed specifically to assess the momentum emotion of the user while interacting with different sections of the website. Also, children were provided with sticky notes to freely describe their experience, perceptions, and opinions about the website. The results of our study showed that the age of the child interacting with the website has a significant impact on how she experienced the different sections in each web page. Methodological design implications for conducting UX and usability evaluations for children are discussed.
Keywords: User experience; Usability; Playful learning website; Child-computer interaction; HCI; Interaction design for children
A Study of User Behavior in the Parent-Child Reading Area: A Case Study in Taipei Public Library BIBAKFull-Text 355-360
  Jo-Han Chang; Pao-Ching Tsai
A library is a crucial place for children to learn. However, different environmental designs have differing effects on users. We used the Taipei Public Library (Main Library) as case to explore the environments of different reading areas and parent-child user behavior. Field survey and focus group methods were used to observe and analyze factors influencing parent-child interaction. The research results indicated that the table shape affected parent-child interaction. For example, a table in a shape of flower enabled the parent and child to work individually, whereas a round table improved parent-child interaction. Children tended to sit or stand by the bookshelf for reading. Comfortable and undisturbed reading space is the primary factor in seat selection by the users. Secondary factors included the dimensions of the table and chair set, style of the table and chairs, and illumination.
Keywords: Library; Reading environment; Focus group method
The Influence of Parenting Time on Children's Growth and Development BIBAKFull-Text 361-365
  Jo-Han Chang; Tien-Ling Yeh
Double-salary families are very common nowadays in the modern society. Parents may neglect to be there with their children as their children grow up. In 2014, the Child Welfare League Foundation conducted a survey and found that almost 64% of parents believing the biggest problem was "no time after getting off work". To avoid the lack of interaction and care in the long run, this study aimed to explore the influence of parenting time on children's growth performances. There were two parts of this study: (1) literature review. This part discussed the lifestyles of families with children based on a survey regarding time use and the important features of accompanying activities for growth performances of children aged 0-12; and (2) questionnaire analyses, exploring the influence of time parents spent with their children aged 0-12 on these children's performances. The questionnaires were issued in Oct, 2014. A total of 30 questionnaires were retrieved. The results are summarized below (ordered by after-work time):
  • 1. Spending time with children after getting off work, during 17:30-18:30 could
        lead to children positive and cheerful emotions as well as good
        performances in auditory comprehension.
  • 2. Spending time with children when they were reading during 20:0-21:30 helped
        them to pay attention to meaningful messages and information regarding the
        leading role of the story they were reading as well as improving their
        performances in language capability.
  • 3. Spending time with children during 22:30-24:00 helped to improve their
        social capability and performances in peer relations.
    Keywords: Companionship; Children development; Parent-child interaction
  • A Novel 3D Wheelchair Simulation System for Training Young Children with Severe Motor Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 366-371
      Jicheng Fu; Cole Garien; Sean Smith; Wenxi Zeng; Maria Jones
    Young children with severe motor impairments face a higher risk of secondary impairments in the development of social, cognitive, and motor skills, owing to the lack of independent mobility. Although power wheelchairs are typical tools for providing independent mobility, the steep learning curve, safety concerns, and high cost may prevent children aged 2-5 years from using them. We have developed a 3D wheelchair simulation system using gaming technologies for these young children to learn fundamental wheelchair driving skills in a safe, affordable, and entertaining environment. Depending on the skill level, the simulation system offers different options ranging from automatic control (i.e., the artificial intelligent (AI) module fully controls the wheelchair) to manual control (i.e., human users are fully responsible for controlling the wheelchair). Optimized AI algorithms were developed to make the simulation system easy and efficient to use. We have conducted experiments to evaluate the simulation system. The results demonstrate that the simulation system is promising to overcome the limitations associated with real wheelchairs meanwhile providing a safe, affordable, and exciting environment to train young children.
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence; A*; Gaming technology; Power wheelchair; Secondary impairment; Severe motor impairment; Simulation
    Development and Evaluation of Emotional Robots for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders BIBAKFull-Text 372-376
      Myounghoon Jeon; Ruimin Zhang; William Lehman; Seyedeh Fakhrhosseini; Jaclyn Barnes; Chung Hyuk Park
    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often have difficulty recognizing emotional cues in ordinary interaction. To address this, we are developing a social robot that teaches children with ASD to recognize emotion in the simpler and more controlled context of interaction with a robot. An emotion recognition program using the Viola-Jones algorithm for facial detection is in development. To better understand emotion expression by social robots, a study was conducted with 11 college students matching animated facial expressions and emotionally neutral sentences spoken in affective voices to various emotions. Overall, facial expressions had greater recognition accuracy and higher perceived intensity than voices. Future work will test the recognition of combined face and voices.
    Keywords: Social robotics; Emotion; Autism spectrum disorders
    Serious Game for the Evaluation of Cognitive Function of Kids BIBAKFull-Text 377-382
      Donghan Kim; C. J. Lim
    This paper describes the serious game contents for the evaluation of cognitive function for kids. The game contents were designed for measuring and enhancing the cognitive function of the kids (ages 5-7). We clustered the measurable cognitive functions as auditory attention, visual attention, attention shift, and impulse control. This study is based on the advisory of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine. In impulse control task, we applied the vision based head tracking technology. This study is meaningful on the point view that we can evaluate and enhance the cognitive function of kids who are familiar with the computer environments.
    Keywords: Cognitive function; Serious game; Impulse control; Visual attention; Attention shift; Auditory attention
    Smart Playground: A Tangible Interactive Platform with Regular Toys for Young Kids BIBAKFull-Text 383-388
      Duc-Minh Pham; Thinh Nguyen-Vo; Minh-Triet Tran
    In modern world, children need to get familiar with interactive toys to quickly improve their learning and imagination. Our approach is to add augmented information and interaction to common toys on the surface containing them, which is called Smart Playground. Popular methods use three color channels and local features to recognize objects. However, toys of children usually have various pictures with different colors drawn on many small components. Therefore depth data is useful in this case. Each toy usually have unique shape that is distinguishable from others. In this paper, we use an RGB-D sensor to collect information about both color and shape of objects. To learn the training set of toys, an approach of convolutional neural network is used to represent data (both color and depth) by high-level feature vectors. Using the combined results, the accuracy of 3D recognition is more than 90%.
    Keywords: RGB-D; 3d recognition; Deep learning; Convolutional neural network
    Designing Interactive Soft Toys for Children with Autism to Improve Communications Through Sensory Relaxation BIBAKFull-Text 389-393
      Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo; Pavithra Aravindan
    Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by limited social skills. This paper explores a design process of interactive soft toys for children with autism that might enhance various ways of their communication. For local autism awareness events, two soft design prototypes were developed utilizing different sensory modalities (light, sound, and vibration). The researchers include the result of preliminary observation in the paper. The preliminary analysis suggests that interactive soft toys have potentials to engage children with autism through different features of the toys and evoke sensory relaxations and encourage them to talk about their experience.
    Keywords: Interaction design; Soft toy; Children with autism; Touch; Sensory relaxation
    iCare: An Interface Design Model for Remote Communicating and Monitoring of Children Care BIBAKFull-Text 394-399
      Tao Xu; Yun Zhou
    School children from 6 to 12 years have characteristics of trying new things, lack of complete reasoning ability and staying in a group. It is easier for them to be in dangerous situations during this stage, which concerns parents. However, parents do not have enough time to accompany and monitor children the whole day. In this paper, we propose an interface design model for remote communicating and monitoring of children care to meet parents' requirements. After describing this model, we discuss the situation awareness and group proximity inference as implicit input in details, which is a crucial part of iCare model. Finally, we prospect prototyping and evaluation based on this model.
    Keywords: Interface model; Children care; Situation awareness; Group proximity inference; Mobile computing

    Product Design

    Adaptive Depth Cue Adjustments of Interactive and Stereoscopic 3D Product Models for Design Education BIBAKFull-Text 403-408
      Li-Chieh Chen; Po-Ying Chu; Yun-Maw Cheng
    Recently, presenting Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) images for product design education has become an option. However, visual discomfort caused by interacting with S3D contents should be minimized. In this research, representative S3D virtual models of automobiles were constructed for experiments. These models were displayed on a 50-inch S3D TV and viewed through polarized glasses. The task was to control the rotation of an automobile and identify the design problems. Thirty students, majored in Industrial Design, were invited to participate in these experiments. The result showed that although S3D images had advantages in the task of dimension and distance estimations, the degree of visual discomfort increased significantly while the participants were interacting with the virtual product model intensively. Furthermore, adaptive adjustments of binocular depth cues, such as disparity, could reduce visual discomfort and accommodate individual differences.
    Keywords: Product design education; Stereoscopic 3D virtual model; Visual depth cues
    Human-Centered Product Owner: How Human-Centered Design Can Sharpen Scrum Methodology BIBAKFull-Text 409-413
      Camila Kamarad Zocal Garcia
    This paper will demonstrate what the main benefits of applying Human Centered Design Techniques in a Scrum Project are, especially when they are used by the Product Owner. These techniques, like user observation, prototyping, user evaluation tests can be used in order to connect people to build the best solution and, when they are applied throughout the project sprints they can became a powerful tool to guarantees product success and outstanding results.
    Keywords: Human-Centered design; Scrum; Product owner
    Intuitive Placement of Objects in Web-Based CAD Environments BIBAFull-Text 414-420
      Andres Felipe Kordek; Arjan Kuijper
    We develop a Computer Aided Design (CAD) editor using an open source library, with the aim to minimize the cost in the future, as compared to the development of conventional editors, and to accelerate the expansion by means of standardized languages making the development easier. We focus on snapping, a very important area in computer graphics and without a CAD application inconceivable. CAD applications offer the possibility of snappings to allow the developers an intuitive interaction with the objects in 2D or 3D space. Snapping allows by using constraints the merging of multiple objects into a new object. Two possible approaches for implementing snappings are addressed and presented. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed via a user study.
    Fashion Projection Mapping Using Basic Modeling Form BIBAKFull-Text 421-426
      EunJu Lee; Yang Kyu Lim; Hyun Chun Jung; Jin Wan Park
    This study produced motion graphics as an application of basic modeling form design in fashion design and creates a media art work via projection mapping of the motion graphics to a torso thereby aiming at learning a sense of basic modeling form and producing a media art in fusion of fashion and media. Kandinsky (1979), in his book 'Point and Line to Plane', suggested that a variety of changes in the most basic formation of modeling can be made by changes in formation, changes in orientation and direction, structural finesse, utilization of space, inter-connected relationships in processing of corner vertices, changes and colors due to repetition, and basic modeling form theory through contrast sense of materials. This basic modeling form theory is studied to develop comprehensive thinking skills into fashion design sense by learning overall unity and harmony and the principle of Gestalt (closure, proximity, similarity) as students perform tasks that present various modeling form conditions step by step using abstract points and lines in fashion design in a process of concept, development, and fashion design application. In this study, motion graphics images are created using plane designs in basic modeling form thereby adding interactive elements to basic modeling form so that two-dimensional (2D) images are re-structured into three-dimensional (3D) works by utilizing projection mapping. A torso, which is a human model used in clothing and textiles, is set as a target of projection mapping to experience processes of conception, development, and application in basic fashion design. This study is a step prior to application of interaction technology, and software called Adobe After Effects was used to display images in the torso. This study is focused on understanding on basic modeling form, development of design sense, and stereoscopic design rather than skills required for works. Through interaction functions via upgrades, this study will be utilized in media work, show-windows in dress shops or fashion shows in future.
    Keywords: Kandinsky; Digital fashion; Projection mapping; Basic design
    Creating Consistency Between Products Using Research-Driven UI Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 427-432
      Muzayun Mukhtar; Radhika Wakankar; Christopher Bertrand
    User Interface (UI) guidelines, used across various enterprise products or applications of a company bring consistency and cohesiveness between them. This paper discusses the user research studies carried out to arrive at a minimum threshold of visual components required to help multiple products retain the perception of consistency between interfaces. These studies help identify which elements and which combinations of these elements can help build associations. Our results showed that among various UI components, background color, header-footer and button color were the most influential, in that order. We also studied how various combinations in the background color of the content area plus header-footer would lead to increase or decrease in association.
    Keywords: User interface guidelines; Consistency; Visual elements; Association to company; User insights; Qualitative research; Quantitative research; Brand identity; Human computer interaction; UI development
    The Teaching Method of Graphic Design in Brazil, Methodology of Brand Development and Their Market Outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 433-438
      João Carlos Riccó Plácido da Silva; Luis Carlos Paschoarelli; José Carlos Plácido da Silva
    The growth of the number of graphic designs to meet the needs of the market has reduced the development process of the same, making them incomprehensible. The use of a suitable method enables new professionals to develop more functional designs. This study lists the problems encountered on the market, using interviews in empreses, and directing the teaching of projetual method in Brazilian schools, focusing on graphic design brands. With that can identify possible improvements in this field.
    Keywords: Education; Graphic marks; Projective methods
    Analysis on Universality Evaluation Standard System of Product Design on Basis of Kansei Engineering and Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 439-443
      Wangqun Xiao; Jianxin Cheng; Xuejie Wang; Junnan Ye; Le Xi
    The universality evaluation standard system of product design on basis of Kansei Engineering and virtual reality constructed in this paper will effectively solve the current practical problems of product design evaluation to the greatest degree. The reasons why people are usually at a loss when conducting product design evaluation are that, on the one hand they do not know what kind of method or means is able to achieve the goal of scientific evaluation, and on the other hand whether there is or what kind of method and model among hundreds of product design evaluation methods and models can deal with the design evaluation problem of this product. This paper aims to carry out in-depth research from the following four aspects. (1) Systemically combing the product design evaluation research results which include Kansei engineering, virtual reality, and cross-over research results of product design evaluation. (2) Scientifically summarizing the construction elements of product design universality evaluation standard system. (3) Scientifically refining construction factor and correlation factor, and extracting universality standard construction factor through researches on comparison of construction factor and correlation factor. (4) Setting priority standard through researches on the reasonable and matched priority relation of various standard construction factors, and finally constructing a product design universality evaluation standard system on basis of Kansei Engineering and virtual reality.
    Keywords: Kansei engineering; Virtual reality; Product design; Evaluation standard system
    The New Product Development Research of Chinese Ming and Qing Dynasty's Furniture Based on 3-D Printing BIBAKFull-Text 444-449
      Xuejie Wang; Wangqun Xiao; Yimin Song
    In the protection and inheritance of the traditional cultural heritage, the use of 3-D printing technology has become a trend of globalization. As an important part of Chinese tangible culture heritage, Chinese Ming and Qing Dynasty's furniture really a rarity in the world classic furniture system. It has scientific structure, fastidious materials, elaborate fabrication, concise modelling, exquisite pattern, appropriate decoration and bears many aspects information of ancient Chinese people life style, aesthetic consciousness and value orientation. This article is starts from the typical artistic features of Chinese Ming and Qing Dynasty's furniture and using 3-D scanning technology for data acquisition to build an integrated information platform which contains pattern, texture, color, structure, modelling and so on 3-D date. Combines with design, marketing, sociology and so on to innovate and develop, finally assist new product development by using 3-D printing technology to the three dimensional real object way to show. Introduce 3-D printing technology into Chinese Ming and Qing dynasty's furniture research, ultimately reaches into the neoclassical furniture design point of view that to guide practice of neoclassical furniture research and development. This article strives to explore a new path to inherit, applied and promote Chinese traditional furniture and provide useful reference for the neoclassical furniture's new product research and development.
    Keywords: 3-D printing; Product development; Chinese Ming and Qing dynasty's furniture
    Using Eye Tracking Technology to Evaluate New Chinese Furniture Material Design BIBAKFull-Text 450-455
      Junnan Ye; Jianxin Cheng; Le Xi; Wangqun Xiao
    With the rapid economic growth in China, Chinese style furniture has revived quietly and "new Chinese furniture" that accords with the demand of the time has also been generated. Not only it is an inheritance of Chinese long-standing history and culture, but also it complies with the international trend. Material is an important design element in new Chinese furniture. With our scientific and technological progress, the methods and means of design have been continuously improving and updating, and the modes of design appraisal have been emerging endlessly. However, few research is on the design appraisal of materials used in new Chinese furniture. Eye-tracking technology takes users' eye movement as the basis of measurement and appraisal, which is relatively more suitable for the inspection of the visibility, characteristic meaning and interface layout of exterior elements. Thus, it can provide product development with objective, comparable and quantitative standards of measurement.
       In this research, eye-tracking technology and the method of subjective assessment are combined and desktops in new Chinese furniture are taken as an example. The eye movement features and subjective assessment results in undergraduate respondents' preference assessment of four commonly used materials for desktops (bamboo, wood, glass and metal) are recorded. It is found out through analysis and comparison that there are significance differences between professional and non-professional respondents' assessment of the materials. In the assessment of materials, as the level of subjective assessment rises, the respondents clap their eyes on the materials at a longer time more frequently, and their pupil diameter becomes larger. However, it has nothing to do with the duration of continued watching. Therefore, the time and duration of watching, and pupil diameter can be taken as effective indexes in eye movement assessment of materials of new Chinese furniture.
    Keywords: Eye tracking; New Chinese Furniture; Material design; Design appraisal
    Research on Influence Factors of Design Education Orientation-Taking Italian Design Education as an Example BIBAKFull-Text 456-459
      Zhang Zhang; Jianxin Cheng; Chaoxiang Yang
    Top 10 Italy design institutes proposed by "Domus" white paper were taken as original research data to study the influence of different factors on design education orientation in this work. SPSS statistic tool was employed to analyze the internal dependencies between different factors based on the factor analysis method. The results suggest that three potential common factors including the potential market scientific research factor, existing market scientific research factor and market development space of the major factor can be regarded as the main factors affecting design education orientation.
    Keywords: Design education orientation; Domus; SPSS; Influence factors

    Gesture, Gaze and Motion Detection, Modelling and Recognition

    Input Interface Using Eye-Gaze and Blink Information BIBAKFull-Text 463-467
      Kiyohiko Abe; Hironobu Sato; Shogo Matsuno; Shoichi Ohi; Minoru Ohyama
    We have developed an eye-gaze input system for people with severe physical disabilities. The system utilizes a personal computer and a home video camera to detect eye-gaze under natural light, and users can easily move the mouse cursor to any point on the screen to which they direct their gaze. We constructed this system by first confirming a large difference in the duration of voluntary (conscious) and involuntary (unconscious) blinks through a precursor experiment. Consequently, on the basis of the results obtained, we developed our eye-gaze input interface, which uses the information received from voluntary blinks. More specifically, users can decide on their input by performing voluntary blinks as substitutes for mouse clicks. In this paper, we discuss the eye-gaze and blink information input interface developed and the results of evaluations conducted.
    Keywords: Eye-gaze; Eye blink; Voluntary blink; Natural light; Input interface
    Improvement of Robustness of Nostrils Detection by Specifying the Existable 3D Domain of Nostrils Based on Stereo Measurements of Nostrils and Pupils BIBAKFull-Text 468-474
      Yoshinobu Ebisawa; Kiyotaka Fukumoto; Hiroaki Tanaka
    In the head pose detection system based on 3D positions of the pupils and nostrils which are detected using two stereo-calibrated video cameras and near-infrared light sources, the nostril detection supports the pupil detection as well as the head pose detection. However, the shadows of the nose due to the illumination of the light sources tend to cause the false detection of the nostrils. In order to improve the nostril detection, the present paper proposes a geometrical method using the 3D domain determined as the nostril existable range relative to two pupils considering the horizontal and vertical eyeball rotation. The experimental results show the improvement of the nostril detection.
    Keywords: Nostril detection; Head pose detection; Pupil detection
    Detection of Pupil and Corneal Reflection Using High-speed Camera for Gaze Detection Under Face Intense Illumination and a Solution of Glass Reflection Problem by Improving Light Source BIBAKFull-Text 475-480
      Kiyotaka Fukumoto; Yoshinobu Ebisawa; Kohei Mochizuki
    In our pupil-corneal reflection-based gaze detection system, when users move the head quickly, the image difference method for detecting the pupils does not tend to function accurately. In addition, it becomes more difficult to detect the corneal reflection of the near-infrared light source as well as the pupil under face intense illumination condition because the pupils constrict and the disturbance light source, e.g. the sun, is misdetected as the corneal reflection. Moreover, when the users wear glasses, the reflections of glasses tend to be misdetected as the pupil and corneal reflection (feature points). In the present paper, we introduce a high-speed camera (2,000 fps) and propose a new detection method additionally acquiring a non-lighting image and then differentiating the image from the bright and dark images to detect the feature points even under the face intense illumination condition. In addition, a new light source for removing the glass reflections and enhancing the brightness difference between the bright and dark pupils is developed. The experimental results show that the robustness for the detection of the feature points is improved both under the face intense illumination condition and under the glasses-wearing condition.
    Keywords: High-speed camera; Pupil; Corneal reflection; Intense illumination
    Study of Tile Menu Selection Technique Using the Relative Position of Joints for Gesture Operation BIBAKFull-Text 481-484
      Yamato Gomi; Katsuhiko Onishi
    In this paper, we describe about our selected method by using the 3D tile menu by hand gesture motion. In the discussion of our approach, it is a mainly subject to realize the efficient selection gesture by user's arm for any position on the screen. Therefore, we designed the selection method by using relative position of the user's arm joints. The method uses user's hands, elbows and shoulder position at each arm. It recognized user's selected points by the relative position of these joints. We make the prototype system which has been implemented our method. And we examined the basic evaluation of our selection method by comparing with the conventional method. As a result of this evaluation, it is confirmed that our method allows users to perform smooth selecting operation regardless of the position.
    Keywords: 3D pointing; Selection method; Gesture; Two-hand manipulation
    A Real-Time Sensing of Gait and Viewing Direction for Human Interaction in Virtual Training Applications BIBAKFull-Text 485-490
      Gyutae Ha; Sangho Lee; Jaekwang Cha; Hojun Lee; Taewoo Kim; Shiho Kim
    This paper presents an integrated framework for real-time sensing and synchronization of both user's moving speed with direction and viewing direction in walking-in-place experience for virtual training applications. The framework consists of two inertial measurement units (IMU) attached to each shank and a HMD made up of Android mobile device with 3-axis orientation sensor. Although there are several prior works to enable unconstrained omnidirectional walking through virtual environments, an implementation of the low cost interface solution using wearable devices is an important issue for virtual training systems. We provide a simplified technique for implementing 'Walking in Virtual Reality' without omnidirectional treadmill. In addition, this research aims to lightweight (in point of software) and portable (in point of hardware) solution to implement the Virtual Reality Walk-In-Place (VR WIP) interface for training applications.
    Keywords: Virtual reality; Virtual training; Walking-in-place; Walking recognition; Wearable sensor; IMU
    Developing STEAM Using KINECT: A Case Study on Motion-Capture Functions BIBAKFull-Text 491-495
      Hyung-Sook Kim; Seong-Hee Chung
    The purpose of this study is to develop a science & art convergence STEAM program that can be experienced through the KINECT interactive activities integration of art based on knowledge of science & technology. The program is structured based on the educational content and textbooks from the current curricula for elementary, middle-, and high-school students. Based on this, we developed the four KINECT program using the motion capture function. By using STEAM with KINECT to promote interest in science, and by providing an entertaining way to learn about science, it is possible for students to be more creative and well-rounded. It is also expected that, because the program combines art with science in a novel way, it has the potential to be widely distributed in the 2016 semester.
    Keywords: STEAM; KINECT; Interactive arts; Science; Arts fusion program
    Depth Camera Calibration and Knife Tip Position Estimation for Liver Surgery Support System BIBAFull-Text 496-502
      Masanao Koeda; Akio Tsukushi; Hiroshi Noborio; Katsuhiko Onishi; Kiminori Mizushino; Takahiro Kunii; Kaoru Watanabe; Masaki Kaibori; Kosuke Matsui; Masanori Kwon
    We have developed a liver surgery support system that uses two depth cameras and measures positional relationships between a surgical knife and a liver in real time. In this report, the overview of our system, the method for depth camera calibration, the estimation for knife tip positioning, and some experimental results are described.
    CyberTouch -- Touch and Cursor Interface for VR HMD BIBAFull-Text 503-507
      Sangho Lee; Gyutae Ha; Jaekwang Cha; Jinhyeok Kim; Hojun Lee; Shiho Kim
    This paper presents a platform, named Cybertouch, for 3D Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Display (VR HMD) providing both touch and cursor interface using wearable IMU devices to enable real-time selection of operational commands together with recognition of user motions and gestures. One of the constraints of the conventional 3D HMD widely used in VR games or training systems is blocking of user's visual perception while wearing an HMD. Because the environment and input devices are invisible during the operation, there may be a limitation in an application caused by restriction of user input commands. Proposed Cybertouch provides a User Interface which is a kind of combined functions of traditional mice and touch panel devices, specialized in games or immersive virtual training applications using 3D HMD.
    Human Avatar Robotic Puppeteering (HARP) BIBAKFull-Text 508-512
      Christopher Martinez; Cameron MacDonald
    The Human Avatar Robotic Puppeteering (HARP) project is focused on studying whether homologous puppeteering (controlling via mimicry) is an effective control principle for robots, given minimal user training. This project aims to develop a practical implementation at low-cost. The HARP project is a three-joint robotic crane that is capable of grasping objects. In order to control via puppeteering, the system tracks the user's hand moving in free space in real time as an avatar. This implementation relies on a Microsoft Kinect ($150) and a Leap Motion sensor ($100). This low-cost prototype is a proof-of-concept for a natural interface between user and robot, allowing gestures to be the method of communication rather than the traditional button-and-switch method. The system uses the Xbox Kinect to track the hand in reference to a known point on a table. This position is mapped using the imaging camera sensor in the Kinect, and an inverse kinematic algorithm is used to translate that position to the joint-angles for the crane. The grasping of the user's hand is sensed with the Leap Motion sensor. A key contribution to the research field is the blending of two different gesture based sensor systems to form a robust control interface.
    Keywords: Robotic control; Avatar control; User interface
    An "Origami" Support System by Using Finger Gesture Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 513-518
      Koji Nishio; Kazuto Yamamoto; Ken-ichi Kobori
    We propose "Origami" simulation system using finger gesture recognition. "Origami" is a traditional and popular game using a square sheet of paper in Japan. It is built up only by folding called "Ori" operation. Thus the rule of "Origami" is very simple. However, it is difficult for children to use complicated "Ori" and it is necessary to retry "Ori" operation again and again. On the other hand, the durability of paper is limited. Therefore by using virtual paper and finger gesture recognition, there is no limitation of durability and people who play "Origami" can retry "Ori" operation until they are satisfied. Our system projects "Origami" image on the grass table and tracks fingers by using LEAP motion that is one of depth sensors. In addition, our system recognizes "Ori" gestures with finger motions and folds "Origami". Using our system, people can plays "Origami" with a feeling of folding a real paper.
    Keywords: Finger-motion; Hand-gesture; Image-recognition; Paper-craft
    A New Approach of Automatic Detection and Analysis of Body Language BIBAKFull-Text 519-522
      Inass Salloum; Youssef Bou Issa; Taline Boyajian
    In this paper we present our study concerning a new approach of automatic detection and analysis of body language in which we propose a method for extracting information related to nonverbal communication between persons. Our approach is based on the kinect sensor that processes the image and provides us many image features that we study. The final goal is to provide blind users access to information that is completely hidden.
    Keywords: Body language detection; Psychological analysis; Gestures; Movements postures; Accessibility for blind users; Kinect
    Using Eye Tracking as Human Computer Interaction Interface BIBAKFull-Text 523-527
      Holger Schmidt; Gottfried Zimmermann
    In the project AAMS, we have developed the e-learning platform ALM for Ilias as a technical basis for research in education. ALM uses eye tracking data to analyze a learner's gaze movement at runtime in order to adapt the learning content. As an extension to the actual capabilities of the platform, we plan to implement and evaluate a framework for advanced eye tracking analysis techniques. This framework will focus on two main concepts. The first concept allows for real-time analysis of a user's text reading status by artificial intelligence techniques, at any point in the learning process. This extends and enriches the adaptive behavior of our platform. The second concept is an interface framework for multimedia applications to connect to any eye tracking hardware that is available at runtime to be used as a user interaction input device. Since accuracy can be an issue for low-cost eye trackers, we use an object-specific relevance factor for the detection of selectable or related content.
    Keywords: Eye tracking; e-learning platform; Adaptivity; Artificial intelligence; High-level gaze events; Real-time analysis; Human computer interaction interface; Relevance factor
    A Shoe Mounted System for Parkinsonian Gait Detection and Real-Time Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 528-533
      Arash Tadayon; Jonathan Zia; Lekha Anantuni; Troy McDaniel; Narayanan Krishnamurthi; Sethuraman Panchanathan
    Conditions like Parkinson's disease (PD) remain largely a mystery in the way that they affect individuals even under today's modern medical practices. One of the main secondary effects associated with PD can be seen in issues with the individual's gait and is referred to as Freezing of Gait (FoG). The symptom often responds poorly and sometimes paradoxically to treatment with dopaminergic medication that is traditionally used to treat the other symptoms of PD. However, a linkage found that FoG, during walking, results when the sequence effect is superimposed on a reduced step length. Prior research has focused on the development of technologies that use audio or visual feedback to help the individual adjust their gait. These systems may not be deployable in real-world environments since people rely on sight and sound for navigation. This research proposes the development of a system to measure step length in real-time and to provide haptic feedback to offset the progression of FoG episodes.
    Keywords: Adaptive interfaces; Anticipatory interfaces; Mobile HCI; Context-dependent system
    Handwritten Character Recognition in the Air by Using Leap Motion Controller BIBAKFull-Text 534-538
      Kazuki Tsuchida; Hidetoshi Miyao; Minoru Maruyama
    In order to develop a system which can precisely and quickly recognize handwritten characters in the air by using a Leap Motion Controller, we propose the following method: (1) A user has to register handwritten characters as template patterns before use. Each pattern is represented by a sequence of motion vectors calculated by using adjacent sampling data. (2) In the recognition phase, an input pattern is represented in the same method as above. The input pattern is compared with each of the registered template patterns by using DP matching and we can obtain a distance (degree of similarity) between them. Our system outputs the character class corresponding to the pattern with a minimum distance as a recognition result. In our experiments for recognition of 46 Japanese hiragana characters and 26 alphabets, a high average recognition rate of 86.7% and a short average processing time of 196 ms were obtained.
    Keywords: Character recognition; Leap motion; DP matching
    Comfort Analysis in EVA Reachable Envelope Based on Human-Spacesuit Integrated Biomechanical Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 539-545
      Xiaodong Wang; Chunhui Wang; Zheng Wang; Hao Li
    We proposed a biomechanical framework for modeling human-spacesuit arm interaction while carrying out EVAs. In the model, there is detailed definition of spacesuit joint rotations, included spacesuit joint stiffness model and a delicate human arm musculoskeletal model in the Anybody Modeling System. The framework is able to predict human joint torque, muscle forces and joint reactions in various positions and postures while wearing spacesuit. Based on the predicted maximum muscle force, we made an evaluation of the comfort scale in various positions in the reach envelope. The predicted most comfortable area was compared to measured most comfortable area for model prediction validation.
    Keywords: EVA, spacesuit; Reach envelope; Comfort; Biomechanical modeling
    Interaction Design for Navigating Virtual SpacesAn Example by Using Kinect BIBAKFull-Text 546-551
      Yen-Liang Wu
    In the physical space, we use our feet to navigate different views of space and turn our head to look up and down to observe the ground and ceiling. Therefore, the objective of the study is to establish a 3D motion sensing spatial navigation system and investigate 3D interaction designs for navigating virtual spaces. The interaction design for the navigation system were divided three parts: (a.) walking by foot to move forward, (b.) turning the shoulder to rotate direction, (c.) tilting head up and down to look up and down. In the usability test, all the subjects can utilize the interactions to navigate the virtual space. A set of preliminary motion sensing design principles for 3D navigation have also been identified in the study.
    Keywords: 3D navigation; Kinect; Virtual space; Motion-sensing design
    Natural User Interface for Board Games Using Lenticular Display and Leap Motion BIBAKFull-Text 552-557
      Kazuhisa Yanaka; Daichi Ishiguro
    Various board games, including chess, are now played on PCs, but they differ from actual board games because a mouse is typically used to move the pieces. Moving a piece by pinching it with one's fingers, as in actual board games, is desirable to increase a player's sense of reality. That the pieces look as if they were floating in the air is desirable so that the players can pinch them easily. Thus, we used an autostereoscopic display in which a lenticular lens is used to cover the liquid crystal display of a PC. As a result, each piece of the board game looks as if it were popping out of the 3D display screen, without the need for the player to wear special glasses. In addition, we use a Leap Motion Controller, a motion-capture device that is particularly suitable for capturing the position and movement of fingers so that a computer can recognize where in the 3D space the fingers are and whether the fingers are pinching a piece or not. Therefore, the user can operate the piece easily and intuitively.
    Keywords: Natural user interface; Board game; Lenticular display; Leap motion controller
    A Mouse-Like Hands-Free Gesture Technique for Two-Dimensional Pointing BIBAFull-Text 558-563
      Yusaku Yokouchi; Hiroshi Hosobe
    The use of motion sensing for input devices is becoming increasingly popular. In particular, hands-free gesture input is promising for such devices. We propose a mouse-like hands-free gesture technique for two-dimensional pointing. It is characterized as follows: (1) a user horizontally moves his/her hand to position a cursor shown on a vertical screen; (2) the user activates cursor movement by opening his/her hand, and deactivates it by clenching; (3) the user performs target selection by "clicking" in the air with his/her index finger; (4) the user is assisted in quick but precise cursor movement by automatic acceleration. We present results of a user study that experimentally compared the mouse-like technique with a tablet-like one.

    Reasoning, Optimisation and Machine Learning for HCI

    Recent Harmony Search Algorithms for 01 Optimization Problems BIBAKFull-Text 567-572
      Broderick Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Néstor Guzmán; Franklin Johnson; Fernando Paredes
    The Set Covering Problem (SCP) has long been concentrating the interest of many researchers in the field of Combinatorial Optimization. SCP is a 0-1 integer programming problem that consists in finding a set of solutions which allow to cover a set of needs at the lowest cost possible. There are many applications of these kind of problems, the main ones are: location of services, files selection in a data bank, simplification of Boolean expressions, balancing production lines, among others. Different metaheuristics have been proposed to solve it. Here, we present the possibilities to solve Set Covering Problems with Harmony Search.
    Keywords: Set covering problem; Metaheuristics; Harmony search algorithm
    Experiential Solving: Towards a Unified Autonomous Search Constraint Solving Approach BIBAKFull-Text 573-577
      Broderick Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Kathleen Crawford; Franklin Johnson; Claudio León de la Barra; Sergio Galdames
    To solve many problems modeled as Constraint Satisfaction Problems there are no known efficient algorithms. The specialized literature offers a variety of solvers, which have shown good performance. Nevertheless, despite the efforts of the scientific community in developing new strategies, there is no algorithm that is the best for all possible situations. This paper analyses recent developments of Autonomous Search Constraint Solving Systems. Showing that the design of the most efficient and recent solvers is very close to the Experiential Learning Cycle from organizational psychology.
    Keywords: Experiential learning; Problem solving; Metaheuristics; Autonomous search
    Towards a Framework for Adaptive Constraint Propagation BIBAKFull-Text 578-581
      Broderick Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Franklin Johnson; Eric Monfroy; Enrique Norero; Eduardo Olguín
    In this paper we address a recent situation created by the explosive growth of web systems. For these reason we propose a framework to support adaptive elements in Web pages. Web pages can be accessed by different platforms with different browsers and through different devices such as laptops, tablets or cellphones. In particular we focus on adaptive menus for this different kind of devices or browsers to optimize the selection patterns and their implementations. We propose a framework using an Adaptive Constraint Programming technique to optimize the decision of developers. Constraint Programming is a programming paradigm able to find efficient resolution in optimization problems. In Constraint Programming a problem is defined in term of variables and constraints. The variables hold a domain and represent the unknowns of the problem, while the relations among them are modeled as constraints.
    Keywords: Autonomous search; Constraint programming; Web system
    An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem BIBAKFull-Text 582-586
      Broderick Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Franklin Johnson; Enrique Norero; Eduardo Olguín
    We present an approach to solve the Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem. This problem consists on executing a group of activities limited by constraints. Precedence relationships force to some activities to begin after the finalization of others. In addition, processing every activity requires a predefined amount of limited resources. The target of this problem is to minimize the duration of whole project. In this paper, an approach based on Artificial Bee Colony algorithm for the Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem is presented. That algorithm is one of the most recent algorithms in the domain of the collective intelligence who was motivated by the intelligent behavior observed in the domestic bees to take the process of forage. Thus, ABC combines methods of local search and global search, trying to balance the process of the exploration and exploitation of the space of search.
    Keywords: Artificial bee colony; Metaheuristic; Project scheduling
    A Semi-Automatic Word-Level Annotation and Transcription Tool for Spelling Error Categories BIBAKFull-Text 587-592
      L. Linhuber; S. Stüker; R. Lavalley; K. Berkling
    In order to train and evaluate tools for the automatic transcription of misspelled texts and automatic annotation of over 20 spelling error categories, it is important to create training data. A very large database of children's freely written text was collected in the past and in this paper we describe the tool that we have developed in order to manually transcribe and annotate the data. The manual transcription comprises the reconstruction of the orthographically correct word sequence. Annotation is performed on a per-word basis with respect to committed (child spelling) and potential (correct word) spelling error categories. The tool supports human transcribers by suggesting automatically generated annotations. Consistent annotations are propagated and data is presented to the user in a sorted manner to minimize human effort. The tool has been implemented as a web application that makes use of PHP on the server side and a lightweight Java GUI on the client side. The annotated data is stored in a custom made XML schema.
    Keywords: Annotation; Transcription; Applications for education; Language resources; Orthography
    The Complexity of Designing and Implementing Metaheuristics BIBAKFull-Text 593-597
      Ricardo Soto; Broderick Crawford; Rodrigo Olivares; Cristian Galleguillos; Kathleen Crawford; Franklin Johnson; Fernando Paredes
    Optimization problems can be found in several real application domains such as engineering, medicine, mathematics, mechanics, physics, mining, games, design, and biology, among others. There exist several techniques to the efficient solving of these problems, which can be organized in two groups: exact and approximate methods. Metaheuristics are one of the most famous and widely used approximate methods for solving optimization problems. Most of them are known for being inspired on interesting behaviors that can be found on the nature, such as the way in which ants, bees and fishes found food, or the way in which fireflies and bats move on the environment. However, solving optimization problems via metaheuristics is not always a simple trip. In this paper, we analyze and discuss from an usability standpoint how the effort needed to design and implement efficient and robust metaheuristics can be conveniently managed and reduced.
    Keywords: Optimization problems; Metaheuristics; Local solution; Optimal solution
    A Filtering Technique for Helping to Solve Sudoku Problems BIBAKFull-Text 598-603
      Ricardo Soto; Broderick Crawford; Cristian Galleguillos; Kathleen Crawford; Fernando Paredes
    This paper highlights the current usability issues when solving Sudoku problems. This problem is a well-known puzzle game which consists in assigning numbers in a game board, commonly of 9 × 9 size. The board of the game is composed of 9 columns, 9 rows and 9 3 × 3 sub-grids; each one containing 9 cells with distinct integers from 1 to 9. A game is completed when all cells have a value assigned, and the previous constraints are satisfied. Some instances are very difficult to solve, to tackle this issue, we have used a filtering technique named Arc Consistency 3 (AC3) from the Constraint Programming domain. This algorithm has revealed which is much related to the strategies employed by users in order to solve the Sudoku instances, but in contrast, this technique is executed in a short time, offering a good resolution guide to the users. In general, filtering techniques make easier solving Sudoku puzzles, providing good information to users for this.
    Keywords: Sudoku; Constraint programming; Arc consistency
    Local Learning Multiple Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 604-610
      Yi Yang; Jiasong Sun
    Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis (PLDA) has delivered impressive results in some challenging tasks, e.g. face recognition and speaker recognition. Similar with the most state-of-the-art machine learning techniques, PLDA tries to globally learn the model parameters over the whole training set. However, those globally-learnt PLDA parameters can hardly characterize all relevant information, especially for those data sets whose underlying feature-spaces are heterogeneous and abound in complex manifolds. PLDA has the data homogeneous assumption which could be interpreted by involved parameters estimated through the entire training dataset. Such a global learning idea has been proven ineffective in the case of the heterogeneous data. In this paper, we alleviate this assumption by separating the feature space and locally learning multiple PLDA models of each space. Various standard datasets are performed and the superiority of the proposed method over the original PLDA could be found. We complete this work by assigning a probability to measure which models the test individual data match. This probabilistic scoring approach could further integrate different recognition technologies including other kinds of biological characteristics recognition. We propose the novel log likelihood score in recognition part includes three steps to complete.
    Keywords: Local learning; Probabilistic linear discriminant analysis; Clustering; Bayesian method; Fusion

    Information Processing and Extraction for HCI

    Predicting and Visualizing Wine Characteristics Through Analysis of Tasting Notes from Viewpoints BIBAFull-Text 613-619
      Brendan Flanagan; Nao Wariishi; Takahiko Suzuki; Sachio Hirokawa
    When describing complex characteristics of a specific genre, specialist expressions are often used. This can become quite a problematic situation for an inexperienced person, as expressions not used in everyday language are difficult to understand. This is particularly apparent when trying to describe wines, known as winespeak, as a range of specialist expressions are used in a subjective manner. In this paper, we propose that the descriptions of wines can be analyzed from various points of view to automatically predict and visualize the sensory sentiment characteristics described within the expressions as a radar chart. This would enable those not knowledgeable in winespeak to visualize and compare the complex descriptions often found in expert tasting notes.
    Extraction of Key Segments from Day-Long Sound Data BIBAKFull-Text 620-626
      Akinori Kasai; Sunao Hara; Masanobu Abe
    We propose a method to extract particular sound segments from the sound recorded during the course of a day in order to provide sound segments that can be used to facilitate memory. To extract important parts of the sound data, the proposed method utilizes human behavior based on a multisensing approach. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we conducted experiments using sound, acceleration, and global positioning system data collected by five participants for approximately two weeks. The experimental results are summarized as follows: (1) various sounds can be extracted by dividing a day into scenes using the acceleration data; (2) sound recorded in unusual places is preferable to sound recorded in usual places; and (3) speech is preferable to nonspeech sound.
    Keywords: Life-log; Multisensing; Sound; Acceleration; GPS; Syllable count
    A Model of Decision Support Based on Estimation of Group Status by Using Conversation Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 627-632
      Susumu Kono; Kenro Aihara
    We propose a model for a decision support of a group based on estimations of group status through utterance analysis. Based on methods used in prior studies of group dynamics and utterance analysis, we measured the utterance characteristics of group members to estimate group status; moreover, we aim to enhance the overall condition of the group by providing appropriate reference information in a timely manner through a conversational agent system.
       The goal of this model is a more satisfying decision-making process. Future work will focus on manufacturing a prototype system to verify both the operations involved in the test case and the ability to estimate group classification and status according to group dynamics.
    Keywords: Conversation estimation; Group status estimation; Utterance feature; Conversational agent; Intention extraction
    Computer System for Musicians and Composers to Analyze Music Composition Process BIBAKFull-Text 633-638
      Tetsuya Maeshiro; Midori Maeshiro
    This paper presents a computer system and its interface for musicians and composers to analyze musical pieces described as a sequence of decision making process during the composition of musical pieces. Representation of musical pieces from the viewpoint of creation process is valuable for both composers and musicians. For composers, it is valuable to verify her own composition techniques and creative process. And for musicians, it offers different viewpoints to understand the musical piece that results in better execution of the musical piece.
    Keywords: Music composition; Decision making
    Using Structural Topic Modeling to Detect Events and Cluster Twitter Users in the Ukrainian Crisis BIBAKFull-Text 639-644
      Alan Mishler; Erin Smith Crabb; Susannah Paletz; Brook Hefright; Ewa Golonka
    Structural topic modeling (STM) is a recently introduced technique to model how the content of a collection of documents changes as a function of variables such as author identity or time of writing. We present two proof-of-concept applications of STM using Russian social media data. In our first study, we model how topics change over time, showing that STM can be used to detect significant events such as the downing of Malaysia Air Flight 17. In our second study, we model how topical content varies across a set of authors, showing that STM can be used to cluster Twitter users who are sympathetic to Ukraine versus Russia as well as to cluster accounts that are suspected to belong to the same individual (so-called "sockpuppets"). Structural topic modeling shows promise as a tool for analyzing social media data, a domain that has been largely ignored in the topic modeling literature.
    Keywords: Structural topic modeling; Event detection; Authorship attribution; Public opinion measurement; Social media
    Improvement of Chance Index in Consideration of Cluster Information BIBAKFull-Text 645-649
      Ryosuke Saga; Yukihiro Takayama
    This paper describes an improved chance index for chance discovery. A chance is an important event or circumstance that can be used by analysts to make decisions. Discovery chance, i.e., chance discovery, is important for knowledge to be used effectively in understanding the background and causes hidden in a dataset. However, chance discovery depends on analyst's inference. Therefore, we propose a chance index that quantitatively evaluates chance. The method is based on betweenness centrality and the strength of co-occurrence. This study improves the accuracy of chance index by considering cluster information.
    Keywords: Knowledge extraction; Co-occurrence network; Chance index; Chance discovery
    Knowledge Extraction from Web Reviews Using Feature Selection Based on Onomatopoeia BIBAKFull-Text 650-655
      Fumiaki Saitoh; Hikaru Aoki; Shohei Ishizu
    In the field of Buzz marketing, it is important to extract knowledge to improve products and services from the voice of the customer represented by customer reviews. In Japanese web review sentences, words that co-occur with onomatopoeia it has been confirmed that easy to combine with use sense of product. For sensory evaluation using a products can be easily associated with the satisfaction is obvious, onomatopoeia can be expected to contribute in knowledge extraction on customer satisfaction. A knowledge model for customer satisfaction is constructed by a regression tree that co-occurrence words with onomatopoeias are used as explanatory variables. Effectiveness of the proposed method I was confirmed through the analysis for the customer review data of ramen shop in Tokyo. The knowledge model acquired by our approach contained many words associated with noodles and food, on the other hand the normal regression tree model was included many meaningless words and unrelated words.
    Keywords: Text mining; Online reviews; Voices of the customer (VOC); Onomatopoeia; Regression tree
    Reading Between the Lines: A Prototype Model for Detecting Twitter Sockpuppet Accounts Using Language-Agnostic Processes BIBAKFull-Text 656-661
      Erin Smith Crabb; Alan Mishler; Susannah Paletz; Brook Hefright; Ewa Golonka
    Sockpuppets are online identities controlled by a user or group of users to manipulate the dissemination of information in digital environments. This manipulation can distort computational assessments of public opinion in social media. Using Russian-language Twitter data from the Ukrainian crisis in 2014, we present a proof-of-concept model employing character n-gram methods to detect sockpuppets. Previous research has demonstrated that n-gram authorship attribution methods can capture lexical preferences, including grammatical and orthographic preferences, while also being less computationally intensive than grammatical or compression language models. Additionally, they can be applied to any language data irrespective of orthography. In this study, a Naïve Bayes classifier was constructed using normalized frequencies of parsed character bigrams to contrast author bigram use. The created model illustrated that suspected sockpuppet accounts were less likely to be correctly classified, showing lower precision, recall, and f-measure rates than other accounts, as predicted.
    Keywords: Sockpuppetry; Authorship attribution; Character n-grams; Public opinion measurement; Social media
    Processing Specialized Terminology in Multilingual Applications: An Interactive Approach BIBAKFull-Text 662-668
      Christina Valavani; Christina Alexandris; Stefanos Tassis; Antonios Iliakis
    A Controlled-Language like approach with the integration of expert knowledge is applied to the pre-editing or post-editing of specialized terminology from international texts processed by the UNL System developed by Institute of Advanced Studies of United Nations University (UNU) in Tokyo, Japan. We provide an all-purpose interactive framework focusing on the automatic analysis, ambiguity resolution and editing of German financial terms and English military terms in respect to the Greek language.
    Keywords: Sublanguages; Multiword terms; Universal Words; "Safety Mode" Interactive Analysis

    Image and Video Processing for HCI

    Texture Image Segmentation Using Spectral Clustering BIBAKFull-Text 671-676
      Hui Du; Yuping Wang; Xiaopan Dong; Yiu-ming Cheung
    Clustering is a popular and effective method for texture image segmentation. However, most cluster methods often suffer the following problems: need a huge space and a lot of computation when the input data is large. To save the space and computation, we construct a novel algorithm for image segmentation. It consists of two phases: Sampling and clustering. First, we put some detectors into the data space uniformly using orthogonal design method. These detectors can move and merge according to the law of universal gravitation. When the detectors are in a stable status (i.e., do not move), these detectors are used as the representative samples to the next step. Second, to further improve the efficiency and avoid dependence on parameters, the Self-tuning Spectral Clustering (SSC) is used to the representative samples to do the clustering. As a result, the proposed algorithm can quickly and precisely realize the clustering for texture image segmentation.
    Keywords: Texture image segmentation; Feature extraction; Gray level histogram; Sampling; Spectral clustering
    An Adaptive Particle Filtering for Solving Occlusion Problems of Video Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 677-682
      Lan-Rong Dung; Yu-Chi Huang; Ren-Yu Huang; Yin-Yi Wu
    In recent years, the visual object tracking has drawn increasing interests. There are many applications, e.g., video surveillance in airports, schools, hospitals and traffic. The object surveillance may provide crucial information about the behavior, interaction, and relationship between objects of interest. This paper addresses issues in object tracking where videos contain complex scenarios. We propose an adaptive particle filters tracking scheme with exquisite resampling (AERPF), which improves prediction, importance sampling and resampling. In prediction step, an adaptive strategy for search region and particle number is addressed for object disappearing or obstacle disturbance, which can obtain results more effectively. In addition, in importance sampling, we use optical flow to refine the particle weights using the dynamical object motion information, which results the better accuracy of object location updating. Moreover, exquisite resampling (ER) algorithm can be applied for reflecting more the posterior probability density function of true state. The proposed method can be applied for object tracking both on fixed and active camera, handling partial occlusion and full occlusion problem properly. As a result, it outperforms other existing methods.
    Keywords: Object tracking; Particle filter; Occlusion problem
    Construction of 3-Dimensional Virtual Environment Based on Photographed Image (the Acquisition and Processing of the Photographed Image) BIBAKFull-Text 683-689
      Tetsuya Haneta; Hiroyo Ohishi; Tadasuke Furuya; Takahiro Takemoto
    In this study, we propose to construction of 3-dimensional virtual environment in the bay. To support construction of structure on the route of ship and a large ship's position for arrival at the pier, it is suitable for utilizing real images. When we construct places to put ships, for example container yards, we need to think an influence toward a route of ships and surrounding environments. There are many things we cannot understand only by design drawings. Therefore, we need to watch real environments to understand the present situation more clearly. A captain probably hopes to simulate on basis of real images before arriving in a port. Then, we consider a method of virtual environmental construction.
    Keywords: Virtual environment; Image-Based rendering; Tour into the picture; Panoramic image
    A Method of Automatic Cage Generation for Shape Deformation by Using Elastic Models BIBAKFull-Text 690-695
      Takayuki Kanaya; Yuta Muraki; Koji Nishio; Kenichi Kobori
    Laplacian-based mesh processing technique is a kind of shape deformation in Computer Graphics modeling. It is hard to deform shapes which constructed by a lot of vertices in real time, because computational cost is high. A cages-based mesh deformation method is used in order to control the computational cost. A cage is a polyhedron which envelops an original dense model and is constructed by few meshes. The main advantages of using cages in shape deformations are controlling high speed computation. Currently, the coarse cage is constructed mainly by hand, and the construction usually takes several hours, even longer. Furthermore, when the shape of the model to be deformed is complex, it is very hard to construct its coarse cage by hand. Therefore it is important to develop a convenient method to generate the coarse cage enveloping a model. In this paper, we propose a method of automatic cage generation.
    Keywords: Cage generation; Shape deformation; Computer graphics
    Employing Mobile Applications in Human-Machine Interaction in Visual Pattern Recognition Research BIBAKFull-Text 696-699
      Amir Schur; Charles C. Tappert
    This study is part of the first author's continued dissertation research in human-machine interaction in visual pattern recognition. Previous research focused on evaluating human-machine interaction using a flower recognition tool. Initial research showed that human interaction in color recognition improved accuracy significantly. We then looked more deeply into various automated color recognition algorithms and ways of combining them with human feedback. Described here is the process of upgrading the initial system into a new mobile application using Appinventor. After data collection, models were built for various color spaces. Sharing this experience may help other researchers incorporating a human-computer interaction component into their work.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Visual object recognition; Pattern classification; Feature extraction; Appinventor; Color space
    How to Tune a Random Forest for Real-time Segmentation in Safe Human-Robot Collaboration? BIBAKFull-Text 700-704
      Vivek Sharma; Frank Dittrich; Sule Yildirim-Yayilgan; Ali Shariq Imran; Heinz Wörn
    This paper is an extension of our work related to a generic classification approach for low-level human body-parts segmentation in RGB-D data. In this paper, we discuss the impact of decision tree parameters, number of training frames and pixel count per object-class during a random forests classifier training. From the evaluation, we observed that a varied non-redundant training samples makes the decision tree learn the most. Pixel count per object-class should be just adequate otherwise it may lead to under/over-fitting problem. We found a highly optimized and a most optimal parameter setup for a random forests classifier training. Our new dataset of RGB-D data of human body-parts and industrial-grade components is publicly available for lease for academic and research purposes.
    Keywords: Safe human-robot interaction; Random decision forest; Parameter optimization; Image processing; Object segmentation

    Brain and Physiological Parameters Monitoring

    The Estimation of Taste Preference Based on Prefrontal Cortex Activity BIBAKFull-Text 707-711
      Hirotoshi Asano
    The purpose of this study is to develop a method for objective evaluation about preference of taste based on brain activities. To achieve this goal, we propose a system estimated the preference from subject's brain activities by using sensitivity matrix. The system is able to estimate subject's preference by taking advantage of change of cerebral blood flow based on brain activities in the frontal lobe. The effectiveness of the system was tested through experiment. We measured the subject's brain activities during drinking a beverage by using near-infrared spectroscopy and verified the effectiveness of the system from the data. From the results, an interesting data on relationship the psychological preference and brain activities in the frontal lobe was obtained. The estimated values corresponded to subject's psychological values. The obtained data suggest that the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The finding results are a step toward identifying psychological preference of taste.
    Keywords: Prefrontal cortex activity; Near-Infrared spectroscopy; Taste sensitivity matrix; Physiological and psychological measurement
    Is the Mood Really in the Eye of the Beholder? BIBAKFull-Text 712-717
      Mojgan Hashemian; Hadi Moradi; Maryam S. Mirian; Mehdi Tehrani-Doost; Rabab K. Ward
    A great deal of scientific evidence suggests that there is a close relationship between mood and cognitive processes of human in everyday tasks. In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of determining mood from gaze, which is one of the human cognitive processes that can be recorded during interaction with computers. To do so, we have designed a feature vector composed of typical gaze patterns, and piloted the approach on the dataset which we gathered. It consists of 145 samples of 30 people. A supervised machine learning technique was employed for classification and recognition of mood. The results of this pilot test suggests that even during these initial steps, the approach is quite promising and opens other research paths for improvement through multi-modal recognition and information fusion. Multi-modal approach would employ the added information provided by our previously developed mood extraction approach using camera and/or the information gained by the use of EEG signals. Further analysis will be performed in feature extraction process to enhance the model accuracy by enriching the feature-set of each modality.
    Keywords: Mood; Gaze; Cognition; Affective computing; Human computer interaction
    Towards EMG Based Gesture Recognition for Indian Sign Language Interpretation Using Artificial Neural Networks BIBAKFull-Text 718-723
      Abhiroop Kaginalkar; Anita Agrawal
    There are several techniques of data measurement for gesture recognition, with applications ranging from prosthetic or autonomous control to human-computer interfacing. Most of the typical techniques depend on image processing, and might face portability hurdles. This paper discusses a method to classify gestures based on the surface EMG (sEMG) readings, thereby allowing user portability. These sEMG readings acquired from the upper forearm provide a direction towards gesture recognition for Indian Sign Language (ISL) interpretation. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on the Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) assisted learning is used to process the data and classify gestures with an accuracy of 97.5%. The training involved 120 samples corresponding to four distinct wrist gestures. Additionally, the foundations for user-independent adaptability have been laid in this paper.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Biomedical electronics; Artificial neural networks; Sign language interpretation; EMG
    A Crystal Ball for Meditators? BIBAKFull-Text 724-726
      Andrew Levine
    A popular brand of consumer EEG headbands claims to be able to detect meditation from the user's brainwave pattern, and send a signal to your cell phone with the score from 1-100. The invention described in this paper links together the headband with a wireless light bulb. The invention should show a meaningful pattern of flashes of light. Instead only random noise is detected. The author explores possible reasons why.
    Keywords: EEG (electroencephalography); Biofeedback; Meditation
    Development of a Glasses-Like Wearable Device to Measure Nasal Skin Temperature BIBAKFull-Text 727-732
      Tota Mizuno; Yuichiro Kume
    Since nasal skin temperature is said to provide a good reflection of autonomic nerve activity, nasal skin temperature measurements have been used to assess various human physiological and psychological states, such as pleasant and unpleasant emotions, alertness levels, and mental work load (MWL). In addition, nasal skin temperature has the advantage of enabling non-contact measurement, using such as thermography and radiation thermometers. However, a problem exists with approaches using these device because it is difficult to make accurate assessments if the test subject moves during measurement.
       This study aims at resolving this problem via the development of a wearable device that measures nasal skin temperature with small thermopile sensors attached to spectacle frames, thus enabling temperature measurements even when the wearer moves.
    Keywords: Nasal skin temperature; Autonomic nerve activity; Wearable device
    Decoding of Upper Limb Movement Using EEG and Sparse Coding BIBAKFull-Text 733-738
      Masashi Yamashita
    In this paper, a system is proposed for decoding upper limb movement from EEG. The signal processing procedure consists of a learning phase and test phase. In the learning phase, a Kinect sensor is utilized to measure the true values for a hand's movement. Sparse coding is applied to calculate the weight of a linear decoding model. Because sparse coding can be used to derive the sparse weight, most of the elements are zero, with the remaining elements being non-zero. Thus, it is an effective method for reducing the calculation costs. Sparse coding was combined with noise reduction of the EEG signals to achieve good estimation for upper limb movements in the experimental results.
    Keywords: Electroencephalogram; Sparse coding; Decoding; Rehabilitation

    Dialogue Systems

    Towards Classification of Engagement in Human Interaction with Talking Robots BIBAKFull-Text 741-746
      Yuyun Huang; Christy Elias; João P. Cabral; Atul Nautiyal; Christian Saam; Nick Campbell
    In this paper we describe ongoing work to develop an engagement classifier for human-computer interaction systems. We have successfully classified group and individual engagement in a corpus of a conversation among four people called TableTalk, by using a classifier trained with the Support Vector Machine method and audio-visual features. The goal in this paper is to extend that work for the classification of engagement in videos of interaction between an human and a talking robot. For that purpose we are using a corpus of dialogues between participants and a Lego robot named Herme, which was collected during an exhibition. We describe the techniques to improve the engagement detection by taking into account the differences between the characteristics of the videos between the two datasets. Currently we are also conducting an experiment to manually annotate the Herme videos with engagement labels. These annotations will be used for evaluation and further improvements to engagement detection.
    Keywords: Robot interaction; Engagement detection; Voice quality; Visual analysis
    On Appropriateness and Estimation of the Emotion of Synthesized Response Speech in a Spoken Dialogue System BIBAKFull-Text 747-752
      Taketo Kase; Takashi Nose; Akinori Ito
    Paralinguistic features such as emotion of an utterance is as important as its linguistic content for generating better response utterances in spoken dialog systems. In this research, we carried out an experiment to reveal the effect of emotional speech synthesis in a dialogue system, and investigated what method was effective for giving emotion to the synthetic speech. Firstly, we carried out an experiment where an agent with various emotional speech talked to the user, and the appropriateness of the emotion was evaluated. As expected, users had better impression on the agent when we added emotion appropriately. Next, we examined methods of automatic estimation of emotion for the system's response, and we found that the best method was to give the same emotion as the user's previous utterance regardless of the content of the system's utterance.
    Keywords: Spoken dialog system; Emotional speech synthesis; Response generation
    Dialogue Efficiency Evaluation of Turn-Taking Phenomena in a Multi-layer Incremental Simulated Environment BIBAKFull-Text 753-758
      Hatim Khouzaimi; Romain Laroche; Fabrice Lefèvre
    We use a simulated environment for incremental dialogue to show that incremental processing offers new possibilities to make dialogue systems more robust to noise. Traditional dialogue systems wait until the end of the user's utterance before processing it and they cannot be interrupted when taking the floor. On the contrary, incremental dialogue systems process the user's speech signal on the flow, therefore, they are able to react quickly if an error is detected. First we show that mixed initiative strategies have the advantages of both system initiative and user initiative strategies and then we show that there is still room for improvement thanks to incremental processing.
    Keywords: Incremental spoken dialogue systems; User simulator
    Comparing the Trade-off of Believability and Performance of Abstract Intelligent Agents and Humans Playing Super Mario Bros BIBAKFull-Text 759-763
      Edward Morgan; Konstantinos Papangelis
    In this paper, we will examine how the performance and player believability aspects of abstract intelligent agents within video games interact and affect one another. We will present the study used to assess whether performance and believability do have an effect on one another and how much of an effect. Followed by the results to the study and a discussion on potential design approaches to produce more believable agents that still provide the level of effectiveness expected of them.
    Keywords: Believability; Intelligent agents; Video games
    Neut: "Hey, Let Her Speak" BIBAKFull-Text 764-769
      Naoki Ohshima; Tatsuya Watanabe; Natsuki Saito; Riyo Fujimori; Hiroko Tokunaga; Naoki Mukawa
    In this research, we developed a speech eliciting robot (Neut) that ensures a cooperative brainstorming environment. Neut creates an atmosphere that makes it easier for participants who are often overlooked to express their ideas, by promoting cooperation from the other participants. Neut moves freely on a table and approaches one or the other participant who has not yet had his/her speaking turn. After stopping in front of such a participant, it brings out a microphone and prompts the participant to speak, while looking around restlessly to suggest to others that they give the participant a chance to speak. In this paper, we will discuss the design of Neut in encouraging participants to speak out, while maintaining neutrality by not itself speaking as a participant.
    Keywords: Persuasive robot; Social etiquette; Conversation analysis

    HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 5

    Mobile Interaction and Smart Devices

    Is Touch-Based Text Input Practical for a Smartwatch? BIBAKFull-Text 3-8
      Barbara S. Chaparro; Jibo He; Colton Turner; Kirsten Turner
    The use of smartwatches is increasing exponentially as is consumer interest. Currently, smartwatches offer the ability to read text messages, notifications, and email once they are synchronized with a smartphone. Text input, however, is limited to voice or predefined response phrases and no input keyboard is typically provided. A general consensus is that the interface of a smartwatch may be too small to implement a QWERTY keyboard. This study examined user performance and acceptance with two commercially available QWERTY keyboards, Swype and Fleksy, on a smartwatch. Contrary to the suspicion about the small screen of a smartwatch for text input, results indicate users can type accurately at speeds averaging 20-30 words per minute after brief practice, which is comparable to the typing speed of novice smartphone users.
    Keywords: Smartwatch; Text input; Fleksy; Swype; Touch; Wearable
    User Recognition and Preference of App Icon Stylization Design on the Smartphone BIBAKFull-Text 9-15
      Chun-Ching Chen
    At limited area of smartphone display, it is critical that app icon should provide good recognition and user preference. Based on the key components of an icon, this study investigated app icon design across different mobile operating systems (Apple iOS, Google Android and Windows Phone 8, with different icon design principles respectively) to understand recognition performance and user preference of different icon types. In this study, current mobile apps icons collected from app stores were characterized and examined based on different composition of "stylization" (three categories: pictorial illustration, graphic rendering and graphic symbology) and "border shape" (two categories: open and close border). The six different compositions of icons were then implemented functionally on a smartphone to test recognition time, accuracy and subjective opinion. Results show that participants prefer pictorial illustration icons, but have no significant preference on border shape. For the recognition, users perform better time on simplified stylization, but make more errors relatively. Results indicate that open border shape icon is beneficial for recognition. In conclusion, icons designed with open border shape and graphic rendering is better for users' recognition and preference on the smartphone.
    Keywords: Stylization; App icon; Graphical user interface
    Towards Personalized Interfaces for Mobile Applications Using a Natural Text-Based Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 16-21
      Yi Ji; Chek Tien Tan; Ernest Edmonds
    In this paper a minimal interface for mobile application is provided that is built upon a domain specific interaction language. The domain specific interaction language provides textual interaction customization language which supports its users input any word or sentence related to the interaction that the users want to make. The textual interaction customization language supports the mobile devices users to construct a semantic and minimal interface.
    Keywords: Personalized interface; Natural language; Text-based interaction; Creativity; User interface design
    Can Color Tell? Smartphone LED Notification Color and Users' Perception of the Situation BIBAKFull-Text 22-26
      Minsun Kim; Yongjae Kim; Jaeyoung Ji; Jiyoung Hong; Jinhae Coi; Kwang-Hee Han
    In this study, we investigated whether the use of LED colors that are cognitively congruent with the notification situations can help smartphone users to intuitively understand the situation. We examined whether cognitive loads placed on smartphone users differ between when single color is used and when RGB colors are jointly used to better match the situations. We predicted that participants will more quickly and correctly understand the situations when RGB colors are used than when single color is used because the use of RGB colors will improve their memory (i.e., the process of encoding and retrieval) due to the high cognitive congruency between LED colors and situations. In an experiment, we randomly assigned participants to single-color LED notification groups (i.e., red color group and white color group) and RGB color notification group and measured their cognitive loads by assessing their task performance (e.g., response time and error rate) and subjective ratings. We found no overall difference in participants' cognitive loads between groups. However, in an additional analysis, we found a significant difference exists in early rounds of experiment although the difference disappeared as participants accumulate more rounds of experiences. Our results suggest that the use of proper LED colors can help smartphone users to more effectively and efficiently understand the situations; however, the positive effect will be low for those who have more experiences of LED notification lights. We believe our study provides important implications to the study on the design of LED notification lights.
    Keywords: LED notification lights; Notification situation; Cognitive load; Cognitive congruency; LED color
    A Suggestion for a Smartphone Video Player Interface BIBAKFull-Text 27-31
      Gyu Hong Kyung
    This paper proposes a new video player controlling application with an easy and user-friendly interface. Two existing video players, highly rated in Google Play, are analyzed. Based on the analysis, a prototype video player with an interactive interface was provided. This newly created video player that places importance on the control's button size, placement and spacing between the keys, implements control buttons that appear where the user's finger touches the display screen. To understand the usability of current video players and determine whether the new design has an impact, a survey of 51 people was conducted. The outcome revealed that the suggested video player provided the best usability for the video control. The result of this paper suggests that the proposed video player could be used as a framework for designing a user interface to enhance the usability of video players.
    Keywords: Video player; Interface; Control
    Implications of HCI in Energy Consumption Between Native and Rich-Client Applications for Navigations Widgets in Tablets BIBAFull-Text 32-38
      Ana Belem Márquez Quintos; Amilcar Meneses Viveros; Erika Hernández Rubio
    The mobile platforms could be classified among those using virtual machine and that not use to run native apps. A native app is developed in a specific way for an specific mobile platform. The Rich-Client Applications are structured multilayer form. Developers and users have the problem of working with the constraints of mobile devices such as the energy consumption. The developers have tried to do user-centered designs. Analyzes have been conducted to justify the feasibility of developing mobile device applications natively or rich-client. This paper presents a comparative study of navigation widget in rich-client applications against native iOS and Android applications is presented. The results presented do not make a quantitative comparison between native iOS and Android applications.
    Adaptive UI from Human Behavior Pattern on Small Screen Interface: Focused on Double-Swipe Interface BIBAKFull-Text 39-44
      Hee-Seung Moon; Da Young Ju
    Recently, various smart devices are released and user's task environment is changing from desktop-sized interface to mobile device. This research proves possibility of AUI optimized for touch screen device. This paper is aimed to lead enhanced AUI with improved performance and gesture error ratio. We made experiments about users' intuitive behavior pattern on restricted interface, especially focused on double-swipe. Main contribution of this research is approach to AUI by focusing on input method from small mobile device kinds of smart watch.
    Keywords: Adaptive UI; Personalization; Gesture behavior pattern; Small screen interface; Double-Swipe interface
    Hyper Panel System: Display System for Poster Layouts with Detailed Contents BIBAKFull-Text 45-50
      Hiroshi Suzuki; Akira Hattori; Hisashi Sato; Haruo Hayami
    In this paper, we propose a hyper-panel system that can display a poster layout with detailed contents. This system combines the features of a tablet terminal, a paper-based poster, and I/O devices. We developed a peculiar device that we named the viewpoint tags. It can get axis of the devices on a paper poster by using super sonic sensor. We explain the concept of the proposed system and verify the effectiveness of this system, which was confirmed by using a prototype.
    Keywords: Poster; Digital signage; Tablet PCs; Interaction; HTML5
    Operation Sound Influence on Tablet Device Character Input Operation BIBAKFull-Text 51-56
      Won-Seok Yang; Haruumi Kondo; Wang-Mi Seok
    On the other hand, because tactile feedback from the touch interface is poor, there is a lack operation it is difficult comfort see if it is running correctly problems. To solve this problem, research to improve the operability of the touch interface through auditory feedback has been conducted. On the other hand, it is clear that auditory feedback from touch interface operation in order to accelerate work is at the center of physical factors; however, not much progress in being made for research on emotions and the psychological effects of the user. In this study, we clarify the operation sound effect on the character input operation of tablet devices. From the results, we produce a tool that can examine the impact on character input operation through various operation sounds.
    Keywords: Touch device; Operation sound; Feedback; POMS

    Social Media

    Virtually Augmented Social Skills Training BIBAKFull-Text 59-64
      Kevin Ambrose
    This poster will detail a pilot study conducted at the City University of New York assessing the usability of a virtual environment for teenagers. In this study, the PI sought to test the viability of social skills measures for this population, find glitches in the code of tasks built into the virtual environment, and seek feedback from participants on improvements to be made to the intervention. The results of this study will aid in the creation of a social skills intervention designed for individuals with autism spectrum disorders.
    Keywords: Second life; Virtual environments; Autism; Social skills
    Acceptance and Quality Perception of Social Network Standard and Non-standard Services in Different Cultures BIBAKFull-Text 65-70
      Katsiaryna S. Baran; Wolfgang G. Stock
    Language and culture play important roles in social computing and social media research. Due to network effects, on national or regional social network service (SNS) markets there is only one "standard," which is broadly accepted by the users. Sometimes users additionally check out another SNS (a "non-standard") but do not or only rarely use it after adoption. For typical evaluation dimensions of perceived quality (ease of use, usefulness, trust, fun) and dimensions of acceptance (adoption, use, impact, diffusion) we analyze the importance of the evaluation dimensions and the correlations between all dimension for both, the standard and a non-standard SNS as well as for two cultures, namely Russia and Germany. In our study, the SNS standards are Facebook in Germany and Vkontakte in Russia, the non-standards are Vkontakte in Germany and Facebook in Russia.
    Keywords: Social network services; TAM; UTAUT; ISE; Perceived quality; Acceptance; Facebook; Vkontakte; Standard; Culture
    Between the Profiles: Another such Bias. Technology Acceptance Studies on Social Network Services BIBAKFull-Text 71-77
      Katsiaryna S. Baran; Wolfgang G. Stock
    Unfortunately, social science surveys are often confronted with biases. Due to network effects, on network markets, e.g. on markets of Social Network Services (as Facebook), only one company, the "standard," dominates a local (or even the global) market. Common models of evaluation and acceptance of information systems (as variants of the Technology Acceptance Model, TAM) capture systems' quality on dimensions of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust, and fun. In an empirical investigation on different user groups, we found that the users were not able to present unbiased quality estimations of "their" standard system and other, non-standard systems. They were captured in their standard, leading to the conception of the "standard-dependent user blindness" (SDUB). So users' quality statements on information systems on network markets are a highly vulnerable area of surveys.
    Keywords: Technology acceptance model (TAM); Social network service (SNS); Survey; Bias; Standard-dependent user blindness (SDUB); Facebook; Vkontakte
    The Proteus Effect: Influence of Avatar Appearance on Social Interaction in Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 78-83
      Yulong Bian; Chao Zhou; Yu Tian; Peng Wang; Fengqiang Gao
    In virtual interactions, avatars can affect people's perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors consciously or unconsciously, which is known as the Proteus effect. The study created a new paradigm of "virtual scenario simulation" to investigate the impact of avatars on social behavior in different social interaction contexts. Experiment 1 investigated the impact of avatars on social participation level in participating-social-interaction contexts. Experiment 2 extended the work to maintaining-interaction context. Results showed that: (1) both situational factor (social interaction contexts) and individual factor (shyness level) could affect the occurrence of the Proteus effect. (2) The Proteus effects were moderated by the social interaction contexts. (3) In the maintaining- interaction context, the Proteus effects were moderated by the level of shyness.
    Keywords: Proteus effect; Virtual environment; Avatar; Shyness; Social interaction
    Mettle: Reframing Messaging as a Felt Anticipation BIBAKFull-Text 84-90
      Amy Yo Sue Chen; Rung-Huei Liang
    For the past few years, instant messaging (IM) has become the mainstream of social media due to its convenience and efficiency. People, however, tend to exchange message rapidly without further thinking and caring about others or environments. Hence, we develop a non-instant messaging (non-IM) model where anticipation is naturally born. To find design opportunities, we put design probing into practice and found out an emotional expression problem, and that there were still other meaningful perceptions. As a result, we made a prototype of our preliminary concepts aiming to articulate anticipation and sense of place. After the interview with users, we made an adjustment in proposed design to meet users' needs. The whole working process was done with Research through Design (RtD) method. Our work targets at optimizing this dialogical research so that everyone can create and share their personal felt experiences easier via Mettle.
    Keywords: Experience design; Anticipation; Non-instant messaging; Sense of place; Emotional communication
    Social Media Use and Impact on Interpersonal Communication BIBAKFull-Text 91-96
      Yerika Jimenez; Patricia Morreale
    This research paper presents the findings of a research project that investigated how young adult interpersonal communications have changed since using social media. Specifically, the research focused on determining if using social media had a beneficial or an adverse effect on the development of interaction and communication skills of young adults. Results from interviews reveal a negative impact in young adult communications and social skills. In this paper young adult preferences in social media are also explored, to answer the question: Does social media usage affect the development of interaction and communication skills for young adults and set a basis for future adult communication behaviors?
    Keywords: Social media; Social interaction; Interpersonal communications; Young adults
    Emotional Selling on Social Media: The 'Punctum' of Personality and Photographs BIBAFull-Text 97-102
      S. M. S. Mustafah; H. Khalid; A. S. Ismail
    Instagram marks a shift in operation from a collection of in situ photography towards a mode of engagement for small home-based businesses to promote their products. We unfold two significant aspects that influence customer engagement on Instagram: photographs and personality. Photographs with 'punctum' often capture users' attention and engage them. Findings from this study also suggest that negative emotions influence user engagement through provocation, sarcasm, and frustration, but do not necessarily promote buying behavior.
    Towards the Easy Analysis of Mass Media Audience Reaction on Social Networks via Discursive Category Tools BIBAKFull-Text 103-106
      Stefanie Niklander; Ricardo Soto; Broderick Crawford
    The Mass Media involves information and communication products targeted to a wide audience. Today such communications products are also available on Internet where people can react to a given information by posting critics, congratulations, opinions or whatever they want via social networks. Such reactions are considered valuable information for instance to government and companies. However, this information is hard to automatically process as people commonly use ironies, stereotypes, metaphors expressed in informal writing plenty of chat abbreviations, emoticons, and slang words. In this paper, we illustrate how tools based on discursive categories can be used to analyze such reactions and thus to process and understand the information behind them.
    Keywords: Social networks; Discourse category tools; Mass media
    A Proposal of an SNS to Support Individual Practices in a Voluntary Community BIBAKFull-Text 107-112
      Kohei Otake; Masashi Komuro; Yoshihisa Shinozawa; Tomofumi Uetake; Akito Sakurai
    Widespread popularization of social networking services (SNSs) prompted, for example, a voluntary community such as an orchestra club of a university to use an SNS to support their activities. However, it is not all-purpose and lacks functions to improve members' individual skills. Appropriate practice is a great help but we hardly find functions to motivate practices by, for instance, mutual evaluation, members' advice, and creating competing environment. In this paper, we focus on members' individual practices in an orchestra club and propose a SNS to foster and maintain their motivations to practice based on the analysis result of current conditions. As the first step of the system development, this paper introduces design of a prototype system and the results of a preliminary evaluation.
    Keywords: Social networking service; Gamification; Voluntary community
    Providing Tools to Enable Information Audit in Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 113-117
      Alexandre Pinheiro; Claudia Cappelli; Cristiano Maciel
    In the moment that social networks arise as a new source of information, we also started to concern about the information shared in this environment. It is difficult to users of social networks to distinguish the accuracy of the information spreaded. The combination of auditability features and research directions in human-computer interaction area will guide the development of tools for evaluating information. We present prototypes of tools that once available, will allow users to decide about the credibility of information that they access and share.
    Keywords: Auditability; Social networks; User tools
    A Longitudinal Field Study on Kiss Mediation Interface for Long Distance Relationships BIBAKFull-Text 118-122
      Elham Saadatian; Hooman Samani; Ryohei Nakatsu
    In this paper we present a longitudinal field study of "kiss messaging interface" designed and developed for people in long distance relationships (LDRs). Mediators of intimacy are a novel class of telecommunication systems that enable people in LDR to express affection and intimacy despite being non co-located. To better understand how people experience these interfaces in the realistic and outside the lab environment, and how they blend in the users context, longitudinal field studies are required. To address the need of studying the mediators of intimacy in their natural usage context, a longitudinal field study is performed and design insights are explored under actual daily contexts over a three-weeks period. Also the study on the mediator of kiss technological probe, provided us with the user expectations from the mediators of the kiss which could also contribute towards the design of other similar technologies.
    Keywords: User experience; Telepresence; Affective computing
    Trust Towards Social Media in Emergencies: A Perspective of Professional Emergency Personnel in Europe BIBAKFull-Text 123-128
      Hermann Szymczak; Pinar Kuecuekbalaban; Daniela Knuth; Silke Schmidt
    Research shows that people increasingly rely on social media in emergencies and disaster situations. This is not surprising, considering how social media and mobile social computing have become an integral part of daily life for many people. As a consequence, authorities responding to emergencies are often expected to make use of social media as well, e.g. to monitor information related to specific incidents on social networks such as Twitter, or respond to requests made on such platforms. To gain a better understanding of this subject, we investigated the perspective of professional emergency personnel. Specifically, we asked members of various PSOs (Public Safety Organizations) from eight different countries in Europe (n=1.223) about their view on using social media in the context of emergencies. The present study was conducted as part of the SOTERIA project (Online and Mobile Communications for Emergencies), a multinational project funded by the European Commission. Our data shows that members of PSOs themselves would trust information provided on social media significantly less than they expect the public to trust information on social media during emergencies. With the exception of Poland, this difference occurred across countries and might indicate an inclination of PSOs to consider social media as a tool to broadcast information rather than to collect information. As a practical consequence, a possible bidirectional exchange of information between the public and PSOs might be hampered by this attitude and valuable information not taken into consideration.
    Keywords: Crisis communication; Europe; Disaster; Emergency; Social media; Trust

    HCI in Business and Innovation

    Creativity in Agile Software Development Methods BIBAKFull-Text 131-135
      Broderick Crawford; Kathleen Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Claudio León de la Barra
    Creativity is an inherent aspect to the development of new products, therefore a critical capacity for software development. Indicators to measure creativity are grouped into two main areas: (1) those related to the creative result itself and its quality (including novelty and usefulness) and (2) those related to the creative team itself (considering indicators such as individual and group satisfaction, development of cognitive skills, group interaction, ...). From this perspective, the aim of this work is to introduce some ideas for assessing the creativity of software products.
    Keywords: Creativity; Software engineering; Measures of creativity
    Use of Quality Management Principles in the Shaping of Work Environment BIBAKFull-Text 136-142
      Adam Górny
    Adherence to the systemic approach to improving working conditions is increasingly becoming a central prerequisite for the successful operation of business organizations. By adopting systemic principles to improve the quality of working conditions, organizations gain access to effective tools for eliminating hazards and strenuousness and consequently acquire the ability to grow and improve themselves [8]. Any measures adopted within that framework are undertaken in recognition of the roles and tasks of employees seen as the internal clients of specific processes. In this paper showed important conditions, ensured effectiveness of work conditions improve by the systemic approach. In particular, reference was made to capabilities, which impacted on improving conditions of work. This activities was related to the principles of quality management system.
    Keywords: Quality management; Work environment; Management principles
    NEC's Approach to Social Value Design BIBAFull-Text 143-148
      Izumi Kohno; Masahiro Nishikawa; Takaya Fukumoto; Takashi Matsuda
    NEC's Social Value design (SVD) depicts an abundant future for people and society through the provision of solutions that use advanced technology. SVD is studied from the two perspectives of the "User Experience" and the "Social Experience," and provides society and our business customers with "Innovation". We use human-centered design and design thinking to enforce SVD. We introduce our solutions and systems as achieved results of SVD approach.
    Assessment of Business Analytics Trust Through Examination of Personal IT Use BIBAKFull-Text 149-153
      Benjamin Larson; Casey Cegielski
    IT consumerization has brought social media (SM) and personal mobile devices into many workplaces. This has prompted researchers to examine the benefits and risks of this trend. However, little research has examined how personal experiences with technology such as social media may affect decision making on the job. This study examines the potential impact of individuals' trusting beliefs (competence, benevolence, and integrity) regarding algorithms and social media communities (SMC) on initial trust in SM-based business analytics (BA), as well as on relative advantage over non-SM based BA. Study results suggested that the initial trust was influenced by the belief in the competency of personal algorithms as well as trust in SMC. It also indicates that increased trust in SMC influences relative advantage. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.
    Keywords: Trust; Business analytics; Big data; Consumerization; Social media
    Leadership in Agile Software Development Methods BIBAKFull-Text 154-158
      Claudio León de la Barra; Sergio Galdames; Broderick Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Kathleen Crawford
    There is a common agreement that Leadership is represented by two main ideas: direction and influence. The first related to the knowledge of where the organization should be oriented and the second with the capacity to mobilize others towards that direction. Recent research has rejected these assumptions, stating emphatically that the power of organizations and teams are not in these mythical figures (as the super leader), but in the knowledge shared by all its members. Thus, finding the right direction and success on the path undertaken shall not rest in the hands of one person, but in the capabilities of the entire group.
       This paper analyses how this approach to leadership can be observed in software development teams, specifically through agilists methods (Extreme Programming).
    Keywords: Software development; Extreme programming; Leadership; Distributed leadership
    Interactive Tool to Find Focal Spots in Human Computer Interfaces in eCommerce BIBAFull-Text 159-163
      VenkataSwamy Martha; Zhenrui Wang; Angela Jiang; Sam Varghese
    eCommerce is one of the popular electronic services available in the vast Internet world. eCommerce endpoints, also called eCommerce websites, in general, are a composition of several web pages. Within eCommerce endpoints, there exist specific web page types that are abnormal in their consumption of information and user behavior called focal spots. Finding a focal spot is key for understanding and improving the human interaction interface on eCommerce endpoints. In order to make business decisions concerning these focal spots, decision analytics teams are employed to identify focal spots with abnormal consumer perception and to address areas in which to expand business. We propose a methodology for transforming user activity data into useful business analytics to find focal spots if any. In this work, we developed a prototype of a one-stop solution for non-technical users to understand customer response analysis on a given eCommerce endpoint. The proposed system, 'eCommerce Consumer Analytics Tool (eCCAT)', consists of a data extraction and automated analysis component and a visualization component. The interactive tool further provides a way to find a page in the eCommerce endpoint with an extreme key performance indicator.
    Usability Evaluation of an M-Commerce System Using Proxy Users BIBAKFull-Text 164-169
      Gabriela Novak; Lars Lundberg
    We have done a usability evaluation of a mobile commerce system developed by Ericsson in Sweden. The main market for the system is in developing countries in Africa. Consequently, there is a geographical distance between the developers and the users, and it is difficult to involve actual users in usability tests. Because of this, a team of solution architects that work with the product was used as proxies for the actual users in the usability test. When the test was completed, a group of actual users came to Sweden to attend a course. In order to get additional input to the usability evaluation, the usability test was repeated with the actual users. The results from the two groups were very similar, and our conclusion is that the proxy user group was a good alternative to actual users.
    Keywords: Proxy users; Surrogate users; Usability testing; Mobile commerce
    Current State of HCI Practice in the Estonian Software Development Industry BIBAKFull-Text 170-175
      Abiodun Ogunyemi; David Lamas; Hegle Sarapuu; Isaias Barreto da Rosa
    The information society is expected to use information technologies extensively. This expectation often results to pressure on the software industry to develop rapidly, software systems to provide e-services to the society. Unfortunately, many unusable systems are developed and deployed to the society in the process. In Estonia, more than 90% of the inhabitants use IT for various activities, and most government and business services are delivered through the Internet. Further, the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) is still very young, and Tallinn University, remains the only institution in the Baltic zone, running a programme (masters) in HCI. This study presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey on the extent of uptake of HCI practices. The outcomes of the study show that awareness and knowledge of HCI are still very low in the Estonian software industry.
    Keywords: HCI; Human-centred design; User experience; Human-centred software engineering
    How Non-technological Innovation Reinforces the Effect of Technological Innovation on Firm Performance?: An Empirical Study of Korean Manufacturing Industry BIBAKFull-Text 176-182
      Hyun-Sun Ryu; Jung Lee
    By using empirical data collected from 870 manufacturing firms in Korea, the present study investigates the relationships between technological innovation (i.e., product and process innovations) and non-technological innovations (i.e., organizational and marketing innovations) and its overall innovation success with innovation initiatives. We highlight the business value of non-technological innovations by proposing its moderating effect on innovation success. We then argue that technological innovation exhibits a strong impact on innovation success only when non-technological innovations adequately strain the relationship between them. This study enhances the understanding of innovation in organizations by showing that the effective interaction between technological and non-technological innovations helps firms succeed in innovations and enhance firm performance.
    Keywords: Innovation; Technological innovation; Non-technological innovation; Innovation success; Firm performance
    Innovation Lessons: Implications of Nikola Tesla's Life for Today's Engineers, Scientists, and Technology Designers BIBAKFull-Text 183-186
      Maximus Schmorrow; Dylan Schmorrow
    Nikola Tesla was one of the greatest inventors of all time. His life was full of interesting twists and turns. He is most famous for inventing the Alternating Current motor, Tesla Coil, and the Bladeless Turbine, to name a few. Other inventors inspired him, such as, Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse. His trust in the people that inspired him eventually impacted him negatively. Nikola Tesla made mind-blowing discoveries and inventions that are still used today. His first break-through was creating a rotating magnetic field to make an Alternating Current without having to use a commutator. He also invented the Tesla Coil, which was able to produce a high voltage of electricity for transporting the electricity farther distances. These coils can be seen at the tops of electrical poles that hold electrical wires and cables sometimes for miles. Tesla's final invention was the bladeless turbine, able to produce energy using fluids, gases and centripetal force. His most popular invention was the Alternating Current motor, which did not use a dynamo or a commutator, but the rotating magnetic field. This would prove to be one of Tesla's greatest contributions. This paper examines the life of Nikola Tesla and document the ups and downs he faced while becoming one of the greatest inventors of all times. Although there have been many attempts to extract ubiquitous lessons learned from his life, this paper is unique in it's international focus (i.e., impact on North American innovation from European thought leadership) and serves as a mechanism for discussing the implications for HCI (i.e., process, design and social interactions). It also provides specific innovation lessons from his life and provides a summary of the implications of these lessons for 21st century engineers, scientists and technology designers.
    Keywords: Innovation; Engineers; Scientists; Tesla; Invention; Discovery; Inventors; Lessons learned; HCI; Systems design; Technology; Designers; Implications
    The Importance of Using Gestalt and Grid in Building Brands BIBAKFull-Text 187-191
      João Carlos Riccó Plácido da Silva; Luis Carlos Paschoarelli; José Carlos Plácido da Silva
    The lack of a targeted projetual method has hindered the new professionals in developing new brands. The use of specific techniques of graphical validating enables the reduction of concordance errors in a graphic mark. This study demonstrates the importance of two techniques of visual theory that assist the development of projects in this area. Being evaluated in already existing brands on the market, which proves the most important items in this graphic development process, demonstrating because they are effective.
    Keywords: Brands; Gestalt; Grid; Projetual method
    Change of Government R&D in HCI Categories in Korea BIBAKFull-Text 192-197
      Seung-Kyu Yi
    As the convergence between machine/electronics and humanities/biology is increasing, HCI is expected to become a significant trend in terms of both technology and socio-economy in the future. The aim of this paper is to briefly illustrate the growing importance of government R&D in Korea as a high R&D intensity country. The R&D spending scale of HCI was examined from 2009 until 2013. In addition, changes of the research characteristics were analyzed in terms of different indices, such as research and experimental development stages, the type of research-conducting agent, a classification in terms of 6 kinds of technologies (6T), and socio-economic objectives of research. In this study, HCI related categories were carefully selected using the Korean national classification system of science and technology. Through empirical evidence, this study will provide practical implications for future HCI technologies in terms of government R&D strategy.
    Keywords: Korea; Government R&D; S&T classification system; R&D spending on HCI

    Learning Technologies

    Usability of Mobile Applications in Saudi Higher Education: An Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 201-205
      Nada Al-Wabil
    This paper reports on a comprehensive survey of mobile applications offered by higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we examine the accessibility, User Experience (UX) design, and usability of services offered by these applications. In recent years, research has shown growing trends in mobile application adoption and usage in the context of higher education in Saudi Arabia. Evidence from the local context suggests that mobile applications have potential to increase retention of students, enhance teaching and learning, and facilitate the provision of services. Our understanding of mobile application services offered by public and private higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia is inadequate. Therefore, we present a synthesis of mobile applications and a categorization of types, platforms, target users, and examine their usability. The study included mobile applications and services offered by twenty six public universities and nine private universities. Design implications of our usability review for these mobile applications that are offered by higher education institutes for students, faculty and administration are discussed.
    Keywords: E-learning; Mobile applications; Arabic interface; Saudi Arabia
    On-the-fly Notes: Instructor to Student Transfer of In-Class Produced Notes BIBAKFull-Text 206-211
      Nancy Alajarmeh
    This paper introduces a system that utilizes the capabilities of smart devices to create and transfer in-class made notes to the cloud in a real time manner. This system comes as an extension to the services made by traditional Learning Management Systems (LMS). The described system, used alone or joined with any LMS, facilitates immediate sharing and access to the notes produced in-class and it allows students to view these notes later at their convenience.
    Keywords: E-learning; Education; Instruction; Class notes; Smart devices; Learning management systems; Blended instruction
    Facebook as a Learning Tool in Formal Learning Process BIBAKFull-Text 212-217
      Alaeddin M. H. Alawawdeh; Stewart James Kowalski
    Social networks and the huge number of users in worldwide offer great social and business potential. In this research, we aim to find the required features in social networks (Facebook) to enhance it as learning tool. Firstly, we observed the exist Facebook features that can be used in the learning process in comparison with the LMS (Fronter). Afterwards, we propose some required feature in Facebook based on the experiment that we ran on students. Those students had been studying Introduction to Information Security course in the second year of bachelor degree in our university.
    Keywords: Facebook; eLearning; Learning tools; Formal learning process
    The Use of Facebook as an Assisting Tool in Teaching Computer Science Courses BIBAKFull-Text 218-223
      Anwar Alhenshiri; Hoda Badesh
    This paper describes the results of a study in which two Facebook pages were investigated as assisting tools in teaching two computer science courses. The intention was to measure the importance of utilizing a social networks widely used by students for improving the engagement factor of students with the course content. The results of the study showed that students although use Facebook for social purposes such as exchanging messages, their use of the course pages was of less significance. Students, although followed the pages as expected, their engagement was only for the purpose of seeking announcements or questions listed by the instructor, i.e. they used the page as a bulletin board.
    Keywords: Social network; Facebook; Students; Learning; Education; Engagement; Human factors
    The Current Use of Cell Phone in Education BIBAKFull-Text 224-229
      Elham Alsadoon; Hamadah Alsadoon
    This study aimed to explore the current use of cell phones in education among Saudi students in Saudi universities and how students perceive such use. Data was collected from 237 students at King Saud University. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data. A T-test for independent groups was used to examine whether there was a significant difference between males and females in their perception of using cell phones in education. Findings suggested that students have a positive attitude toward the use of cell phones in education. The most accepted use was for sending notification to students through a system provided by King Saud University. This electronic system allows instructors to easily send any SMS or email to their students. The use of cell phone applications came in the second rank of using cell phones in education. Students have already experienced the benefits of having these applications handy wherever they go.
    Keywords: Cell phone; Mobile learning; E-learning; Higher education
    The Instructional Model Framework of Undergraduate Industrial Design Core Course BIBAKFull-Text 230-234
      Wenzhi Chen
    Design is a powerful weapon for companies, and it is important to educate excellent designers for industry. The purpose of this study was to explore instructional design and to develop an instructional model for undergraduate industrial design core (studio) courses. The study was divided into two phases. First, 18 instructors were interviewed to collect qualitative data to formulate a framework of the instructional model. Then, a survey was conducted with a questionnaire designed according the framework and references to collect quantitative data to verify the model. The questionnaire was sent to 245 industrial design instructors, and 105 were returned. Finally, an instruction model for industrial design core course was formulated. The information provided in this study can deepen the understanding of instructional planning and provide a reference for teaching in design education.
    Keywords: Industrial design; Design education; Instruction model; Teaching problems
    Developing Simple Tools for Measuring and Evaluating Students' Works with a Smartphone BIBAKFull-Text 235-240
      Ryota Fukutani; Akinobu Ando; Shota Itagaki; Hiraku Abiko
    In this study, we developed a simple set of tools for a teacher to efficiently and easily evaluate and measure the accuracy of the result of students' craft works. This tool is developed for running on a smartphone, and has three functions; 1. Measuring the flatness of surfaces, 2. Measuring the accuracy of connected parts, and 3. Taking photos of the working process and final result. The result of the evaluation is sent to LMS (Learning Management System) and stored. It works as a part of an integrated management system. Despite only having three functions, this tool can solve chronic problems and drastically reduce the workload for general Japanese teachers. Without this tool, one teacher is solely accountable for checking and evaluating a vast number of students' works in a very short period of time.
    Keywords: Smartphone; Technology education; LMS (Learning Management System); Evaluation of flatness of material surface; Evaluation of joint angle
    A Content-Based Approach for Supporting Teachers in Discovering Dependency Relationships Between Instructional Units in Distance Learning Environments BIBAKFull-Text 241-246
      Fabio Gasparetti; Carla Limongelli; Filippo Sciarrone
    eLearning courses are usually built in such a way that training resources are organized for making the learning process effective. In most cases, the top-level learning objective will have prerequisites which must be satisfied. Those prerequisites should be formally identified by a hierarchy of dependencies built accordingly. We evaluate a series of hypotheses for understanding the feasibility of automating this task by means of a general-purpose content-based approach that exploits semantic analysis techniques.
    Keywords: Sequencing; Distance learning; Semantic analysis
    Understanding of the Students' Behavioral Intention to Use Online Discussion Site (ODS) Using Rasch Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 247-252
      Azizah Jaafar; Prasanna Ramakrisnan
    In this paper, we analyzed students' behavioral intention to use online discussion site (ODS) using existing measurement. As this online discussion site is widely used in education for student-student and student-lecturer interaction, we need to understand how this site is accepted by the students. This study proposes a statistical method for understanding student responses toward intention to use ODS. We analyze the intention to use ODS by using existing seven indicators: online course design, user interface design, previous learning experience, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use perceived interaction and intention to use. All the 23 validated items from the seven indicators were combined into a single construct to measure intention to use by using Rasch analysis. The student's intention to use online discussion available in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) e-learning portal was investigated. The responses received was investigated using Rasch analysis. The analysis displayed visually all the 23 item through person-item distribution map (PIDM) with WINSTEP 3.68.2 software. This reveals the likelihood of student intention to use ODS. Using the PIDM we can easily identify most and least agreed items in a measurement model. Thus this analysis can be applied in any study to identify the items that need further improvement based on user's actual responses.
    Keywords: Intention to use; Online discussion site (ODS); Rasch analysis
    Pump It up! -- Conception of a Serious Game Applying in Computer Science BIBAKFull-Text 253-258
      Daniela Janßen; Christian Tummel; Anja Richert; Daniel Schilberg; Sabina Jeschke
    Student attrition in mechanical engineering at German universities currently lies at about 40%. A lacking sense of practical relevance for a future career are often named as reasons to quit studies. Over the past decade online games have become very popular for educational purposes. The approach of game-based learning, however, has proven to be suitable to motivate students. At RWTH Aachen University engineering students are imparted the relevance of computer science for their field through an e-learning environment including the online game Pump it up! The paper describes the conception and game design of the game including didactical and technical requirements related to it.
    Keywords: Serious games; Game-based learning; Virtual worlds; Higher education; Computer sciences
    Badminton's Multimedia Courseware of Interactive Design Based on the MOOCs Mode BIBAFull-Text 259-264
      Mao Jie
    Interactive play an important role in the design of multimedia courseware. The multimedia courseware in this paper is based on the platform with PowerPoint 2010. It completed and implemented by PowerPoint. It is the most common software to make courseware; its interactive interface is friendly; it has simple operation. I use VBA technology to design the aspects of interactive and achieve the design about human-computer interaction of sports multimedia courseware and make a combination with computer multimedia technology and physical education teaching. What's more, it provided the means of applied computer technology for Physical Education. It has the promotion of high value and widely used.
    Development of STEAM Educational Games Focused on Aesthetic and Bodily Expression in K-12 Science Class BIBAKFull-Text 265-270
      Hyung Sook Kim; Hale Kim; Yong Hyun Park
    The purpose of this study is to introduce gesture recognition-based STEAM educational games using Kinect. The game is instructional media for evoking a student's interest and helping students understand in a STEAM education class. We suggested a STEAM education program that consisted of visualization of the science knowledge through aesthetic and bodily expression for middle school science class. In the development process of this STEAM program, the main challenge was an instruction method of scientific knowledge of human body anatomy and physiology. Gesture recognition-based game including science learning material should be an excellent educational tool to make student comprehend and understand complex science knowledge. In addition, the game is an excellent tool to visualize the contents. The gesture recognition-based educational game and the STEAM program were offered to model demonstration middle schools, entitled as 'STEAM leaders' schools' in South Korea. The result of the trial lesson is this game motivated and increased students' activities and learning. 55.8% of the students responded that this program was satisfied and gesture-recognition based game were interesting. We believe that this educational game is suitable for STEAM education in science, dance and physical education class. Gesture recognition-based game by Kinect would be an excellent answer for the next generation's instructional media.
    Keywords: Gesture recognition-based game; NUI; Bodily expression; STEAM education; Science; Dance; Kinect
    Out-of-Class Online Language Learning Partnership Between Russian and American Students: Analysis of Tandem Project Results BIBAKFull-Text 271-276
      Marina Kogan; Nina Popova; Konstantin Shestakov; Lonny Harrison
    A telecollaborative project between Russian and American students is analyzed in terms of its organization, technology, and linguistic and intercultural aspects involved. Conditions for creating a collaborative environment are described, with the conversational topics, intended outcomes, and some pitfalls of the project being accentuated. The main conclusion of the project is the necessity of introducing intercultural aspects well in advance in order to teach students to distinguish the cultural dimension of their communication in the tandem sessions of the project.
    Keywords: Communicative skills; Native speaker; Non-native speaker; Instructor; Telecollaborative project; Student groups; Language level; Videoconference; Drawbacks of the project; Mistake correction
    Non-calibrated Peer Assessment: An Effective Assessment Method for Student Creative Works BIBAKFull-Text 277-282
      Jinshuang Li; Yu Zhang; Kening Gao
    In online education, peer and self assessment has got a lot of attention because it serves as a useful tool for scaling the grading of open-ended works. But peer and self assessment does not always produce accurate results because of some reasons. Firstly, experts and students may grade at different scale; Secondly, students are inclined to rate themselves higher than to rate others; Thirdly, some students may not take the assessment seriously; Fourthly, correcting for grader biases also need complex computation. In this paper, we present a non-calibrated peer grading method to solve the problems mentioned above. We make 4 experiments with 5-category rating scale showing that our method can get good performance, which convinces that it can be an effective assessment method for student creative works.
    Keywords: Non-calibrated peer assessment; Wisdom of crowds; Online education; Peer assessment; Self assessment
    Cooperative Writing Peer Feedback in Online Moodle System BIBAKFull-Text 283-289
      Hsin-Yi Lien
    This study investigated the effects of three cooperative peer feedback environments on the English writing performance of tertiary level nonnative English speakers and their perceptions of web-based cooperative writing. Using a counter-balance design, thirty tertiary level students were randomly assigned to use three different online writing tools: a wiki, a forum and a workshop using the Moodle system. All participants completed three cooperative writing tasks and two individual writing tasks as pre and posttests. The results revealed that participants provided different types of feedback, eliciting actual revision from their peers, which contributed to better cooperative writing. Peer feedback benefited overall writing performance as well as idea generation, organization, writing conventions, sentence fluency, word choice and voice. An analysis of questionnaires indicated that students harbor positive attitudes toward the three online cooperative writing tools.
    Keywords: Cooperative writing; Peer feedback; Online moodle system
    Using Digital Document Network System for Group Learning Activities BIBAKFull-Text 290-294
      Kenji Matsunaga; Kyoko Yoshida
    With the increasing volume of privately-owned digital documents it is becoming more important to manage the documents for effective use. For document management, we propose a digital document network system. The system has been improved for use as a group-learning assistance system. In this paper the functions added to the system are explained. The validity of the system was evaluated by observing the behaviors of the students who used the learning assistance system for their learning and by interviewing them.
    Keywords: Digital document; Group learning
    See the Flex: Investigating Various Display Settings for Different Study Conditions BIBAKFull-Text 295-300
      Michael Saenz; Joshua Strunk; Kelly Maset; Erica Malone; Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo
    We present FlexAR, a kinetic tangible augmented reality (TAR) [5] application for anatomy education in varied learning situations. Learning anatomy is fundamental to every health profession as well as related domains such as performance, physical therapy, art, and animation. For example, dancers need to learn anatomy to care for their bodies and learn to move efficiently. Anatomy has traditionally been taught in two dimensions, particularly for those in non-medical fields such as artists and physical education practitioners. Medical students often gain hands-on experience through cadaver dissections [8]. However, with dissection becoming less practical, researchers have begun evaluating techniques for teaching anatomy through technology. Our goal is to develop TAR interfaces to enhance the effectiveness of learning gross anatomy in group and individual study settings. We believe that once expanded FlexAR could be effective as a standalone or supplementary tool for both group and individual learning.
    Keywords: Augmented reality; Tangible user interface; Education; Human anatomy
    Development of Intuitive Force Presentation Method Using Stopper Mechanism for Skill Training BIBAKFull-Text 301-306
      Masamichi Sakaguchi; Mingoo Lee
    In skill training, there are many information and most of skill training depends on watching the skill. However the novice can not acquire the force information by watching the skill. So the trial and error process is required for the skill training. We describes some methods guiding the exerting force of novice to exert the target force at target position. The methods present spring from the target position for the novice exerting target force. Because watching the skill is also important in skill training, the presenting methods intend for presenting the force information without the visual information. The spring element makes the novice actively exerting force. And the stopper and latch element display how much pushing down the spring. The force guiding method use mechanical elements controlled by the brake linear actuator like the spring, stopper and latch. In this paper, the concept and purpose of the method and the validity of the method are described.
    Keywords: Skill training; Skill transfer; Force guiding; Force presentation; Robot-mediated training
    Towards a Visual and Tangible Learning of Calculus BIBAKFull-Text 307-312
      Patricia Salinas; Eliud Quintero; Xavier Sánchez; Eduardo González Mendívil
    The Augmented Reality Application we present here is an educational resource meant to help transform the teaching of Mathematics. It takes advantage of the didactic potential of this emergent technology in order to create graphical representations for mathematical reasoning. We identified the spatial visualization skill as a cross-curriculum content that has been taken for granted, and we took on the task of designing an educational resource to improve the development of this skill. The application involves some topics that belong to conventional courses of Calculus I, II and III at College.
    Keywords: Augmented reality; Calculus; Technology; Visualization
    Effect of Interactive E-Learning on Pupils' Learning Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics BIBAKFull-Text 313-317
      Yuan-Zheng Wang; Chii-Zen Yu
    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of interactive e-learning on pupils' learning motivation and achievement in mathematics. To compare the effect of e-learning and traditional instruction on children's learning motivation and achievement in mathematics, a quasi-experimental design was adopted in this study, with pretests and posttests being administered to different groups of students. Third grade students in a class at an elementary school in Chiayi County were selected as the study subjects. They were assigned to the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group received a assistant instruction which with the e-learning platform. The control group received a traditional assistant instruction. The conclusions of this study are listed below: First, the comparison of e-learning and traditional instruction on the learning effects has statistically difference and promote significantly. Second, the students' learning motivation has been significantly increased with using the e-learning for assistant teaching.
    Keywords: E-learning; Mathematics instruction; Learning motivation; Learning achievement

    HCI in Health

    Learning-Training System for Medical Equipment Operation BIBAKFull-Text 321-327
      Ren Kanehira; Kazinori Kawaguchi; Hideo Fujimoto
    A clinical engineer has to do a lot of work including the management, the operation, and the maintenance of various medical equipments, requiring highly specialized techniques and up-to-date knowledge. However, it is very difficult for him to master such an enormous amount of knowledge within the limited time as university student, particularly the ability for trouble shooting to ensure safety. In order to solve these problems, this study presents an education system for clinical engineers with a representative education and training case for the operation of heart-lung machines. Although two contents, i.e., the basic operation and trouble shooting, respectively, should be included in such a training system, we pay more attention to the basic operation in this paper.
    Keywords: Computer training system; E-learning system; Skill science; Medical equipment; Clinic engineer
    A New Assessment Model of Mental Health BIBAKFull-Text 328-333
      Jingqiang Li; Ning Zhao; Bingxia Hao
    Traditionally, mental health has been considered as a mental state with absence of mental illness symptoms. According to the Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health, mental health is a complete state, which includes the presence of a positive state of human capacities and functions as well as the absence of disease or infirmity. However, these models haven't investigated the mechanism of action of the regulatory or intermediary factors behind individual's current state of mental health. From this point, this article constructs a new assessment model of mental health: Neuro-Trait-State-Balance model (NTSB). The NTSB model considers three aspects as follows: (1) assessing the dominant performance (adaptive state) and implicit mechanism (adaptive trait) to clarify the present situation of mental health; (2) assessing the neural mechanism of the adaptive trait and analyzing the relationship between the characteristics of higher nervous activities and mental health to clarify the implicit mechanism; (3) assessing the degree of needs balance to know the variation trend of mental health state. In addition, it can indirectly improve the intervention strategies of mental health.
    Keywords: Mental health; Assessment; Adaptive trait; Adaptive state
    "Fit" Determining Nurses' Satisfaction of Nursing Information System Usage BIBAKFull-Text 334-339
      Hsien-Cheng Lin; Chen-Chia Chen
    In the digital age, nursing units must more than ever be able to utilize nursing information system (NIS) to enhance efficiencies, effectiveness, and decision-support, and get timely answers to questions, when they arise in daily clinical and administrative practice. Previous researchers have suggested that satisfaction status is established on the degree of fit, when achieve a good fit between the users' requirements and technological capabilities to attain optimal use satisfaction. Thus, this study attempts to understand how impact of fit of individual requirement-technological capability on user satisfaction through the holistic perspective of fit within the nursing context. The results indicate that the fit of users' perceptions-technological capabilities interaction is a more important factor than individuals' factor of users' perceptions or technological capabilities in users' satisfaction of information system usage.
    Keywords: Fit; Satisfaction; Nursing information system
    Research on Health Management System Based on Clouding Computing BIBAFull-Text 340-344
      Qi Luo; Tianbiao Zhang
    Cloud computing involves deploying groups of remote servers and software networks that allow centralized data storage and online access to computer services or resources. The health management system based on clouding computing was proposed in the paper. The system is composed of the following modules such as client module, expert module, healthy management organizations module, accumulated points and rank management module, task listing and evaluation module, cloud server network platform module. Though application in the system, the individual user data has no longer stored in the medical institution, but the individual user data has stored in the cloud server, which can be accessed anytime and anywhere. A large number of servers are composed of statistical and learning distributed platform. Behavior information and physical data can be extracted from the mass data automatically, which can be output factors and standardization of physical data. The same type of samples is extracted, which can achieve a group of experts and users by many-to-many model. Health standards databases are constructed though bidirectional user and expert evaluation. The system is an open and interactive system among user, health management organization and expert.
    Designing A Mobile Application for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Usability Approach BIBAKFull-Text 345-349
      Miloslava Plachkinova; Guillaume Faddoul; Samir Chatterjee
    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing rapidly, and this trend has a significant impact on conventional healthcare. The lack of CAM disclosure between patients and physicians presents a serious challenge for successful treatment. The current study addresses this problem by proposing a CAM mobile application designed with a focus on usability. The goal of the study is to provide a platform where patients, physicians, and CAM practitioners can communicate, exchange ideas, and share their experiences. The mobile application is centered on the needs of the different user groups, and it provides an easy to navigate interface with responsive design, which is based on best practices in human-computer interaction. The study extends current knowledge by incorporating design science principles in the application development process and focuses on the usability of the proposed artifact to ensure successful communication on CAM between patients, physicians, and CAM practitioners.
    Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine; Mobile healthcare; Mhealth; Usability; Human computer interaction; HCI; Design science
    Innovations in OSH Trainings -- Social Skills of Safety Instructor Versus On-line Training BIBAKFull-Text 350-355
      Joanna Sadlowska-Wrzesinska; Izabela Gabryelewicz
    A systemic approach to the issue of safety which participation of both workers and managerial staff is a part of is a trusted way of creating safety culture. The implementation of safe work in everyday practice is not easy, but possible. The OSH specialist plays a key role here, as changing workers' attitudes and values is an effective way to improve safety at the workplace. The OSH specialist must have high professional qualifications, including social competence. He most often acts as a safety educator or safety instructor. The article presents results of the research conducted on a group of 215 workers. The workers underwent the obligatory OSH training, after which the increase of their knowledge was analysed. What is more, their subjective preferences as to the form of OSH training were later determined.
    Keywords: OSH training; OSH instructor; E-learning
    On the Sharing of Nursing Care Information with Employees in Japanese Companies BIBAKFull-Text 356-360
      Yumiko Taguchi; Yoko Ogushi
    In this study we consider ways of sharing nursing information that enable companies to understand the nursing care burdens of their employees. To explore our topic we review the measures companies take for their caretaking employees, the employees' roles as caretakers, the views of employees who have experienced nursing care, and various case studies.
    Keywords: Caretaker with fulltime employment; Sharing of nursing care information with employees
    Preliminary Guidelines to Build a Wearable Health Monitoring System for Patients: Focusing on a Wearable Device with a Wig BIBAKFull-Text 361-365
      Junwoo Yoo; Nockhwan Kim; Jeongho Keum; Ji Hwan Ryu; Minjae Park; Jihoon Lee; Byung-Chull Bae; Jundong Cho
    We have previously developed a wearable health monitoring system embedded in a wig. In this paper we introduce our system and derive preliminary guidelines to build such wearable devices for healthcare purposes. The major goal of the system is to monitor and detect falling in addition to measuring heart rate, body temperature, and current location of a patient who is wearing the device, and send text messages to pre-configured recipients in emergency. Preliminary guidelines were developed using a focused group interview with healthcare experts, which include form factor, wearing area, motivation, target, and additional functions. We are currently in the process of developing an improved device based on the derived insights.
    Keywords: Wearable systems; Connected healthcare; Fall detection

    Assistive Technologies and Environments

    An Evaluation of AccessBraille: A Tablet-Based Braille Keyboard for Individuals with Visual Impairments BIBAFull-Text 369-374
      Hanan Alhussaini; Stephanie Ludi; Jim Leone
    Braille is a different symbolic alphabet that is used by people with visual impairments to communicate. Since the use of smartphones has become an essential part of peoples' lives, we should benefit from this connection and use smartphones as a training tool. AccessBraille is an iPad application that helps users practice Braille in different interactive ways. The goal of AccessBraille is to provide training for novice Braille individuals who want to practice Braille. A usability test was conducted to evaluate the usability of the app, validate the app's capability of facilitating the practicing of Braille characters and discover ways to enhance the app design and use. Data was collected and later analyzed to assess the difficulty involved with task completion.
    An Assisted Living Home for Alzheimer's Patient in Saudi Arabia, A Prototype BIBAKFull-Text 375-380
      Sulaf Almagooshi; Mona Hakami; Maha Alsayyari; Wafa Alrajhi; Sarah Alkoblan
    Number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing every day. As it target and destroy brain cells. And in order to avoid the high cost of care institutions of Alzheimer's patients, we should provide a safe environment for them. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies can provide such environments. AAL is used to supervise and assist people with disabilities who cannot rely on themselves as patients of Alzheimer's. In this paper we present a prototype of a house that has been equipped with Arduino micro-controller to suit the Alzheimer's patients. By monitoring the behaviour of the patients, the system will interact by sending a message for the caregiver if a risk action was detected. The evaluation of the early prototype system involved evaluating the monitoring system as well as the devices.
    Keywords: AAL; Alzheimer; Arduino; Physical computing
    Requirements Engineering of Ambient Assisted Living Technologies for People with Alzheimer's BIBAKFull-Text 381-387
      Afnan AlRomi; Ghadah AlOfisan; Norah AlRomi; Sulaf AlMagooshi; Areej Al-wabil
    A rapid growth in the ambient assisted living technologies (AALTs) is being witnessed due to the aging society. Evidence suggests that AALTs empower the elderly's involvement with their surroundings, and hence; improves the quality of their living. Therefore, public service organizations (e.g. The Saudi Alzheimer's Disease Association (ALZ)) have been established with the aim to raise awareness about AD, in order to reach a comfortable lifestyle for all elders with AD. Moreover, this fact is the motivation behind addressing our problem in the paper. Each AALT has its own special requirements in usage, care, extensibility, reusability, scalability and adaptability. More importantly, there are many other factors that have great influence on those requirements. In this paper we will investigate some of these factors, such as: the environment, the caregiver's experience, and the elder's age, culture, and social structure. Furthermore, adaptability and cultural factors are the pivots of our study, to show their influence on designing AALT and specifying their requirements.
    Keywords: AAL; Alzheimer; Requirement engineering; Design consideration
    "See Medication": An Arabic Assistive Mobile Application for Asthmatic Visually Impaired Patients BIBAKFull-Text 388-391
      Afnan F. Alsadhan; Sarah M. Bin Mahfodh; Nada M. Alsuhebany; Hind A. Bin Ajlan; Hana A. Al-Alashaykh; Asma A. Alzahrani; Rafeef M. Aqel
    This paper introduces the development of See Medication system that helps visually impaired patients or low-vision patients who are suffering from asthma to know about their medications by VoiceOver. "See Medication" is an interactive healthcare system that works as a channel between mainly asthmatic visually impaired patients and pharmacists. This system consists of two components: mobile application and website. It is available in two languages: Arabic and English, in order to serve a broader population. The aim of the application is to improve the quality of utilizing asthma medications and raising the independence of visually impaired patients.
    Keywords: Asthma; Visually impaired; iOS app; Pharmacy
    Development of Serious Game for the Upper Arms Rehabilitation: "Balance Ball Rhythm Game" Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 392-398
      Sung-Taek Chung; Sung-Wook Shin; C. J. Lim
    Accuracy, repeatability and activity are very critical factors for rehabilitation of hemiplegic patients. Rehabilitation exercise should be done regardless of space, time and cost. Recently, interesting functional games, which induce active participation, have gained increasing attention. In the current study, a balance ball has been developed that can contract the user muscle and help in natural joint rotation by stimulating the upper arm muscle of hemiplegic patients. Additionally, a functional game was also developed that can engage the patients with rhythm game and training contents. The balance ball can detect the upper arm motion by an acceleration sensor and offered sense of reality and immersion with buttons and haptic sensors. The game applied Fitts' law to test accurate motion and two tutorial contents that induced their motion based on MFT. The level of difficulty can also be chosen to help intensive training for the motion with low scores from the tutorials and the patients can even do the upper arm rehabilitation exercise while listening to music.
    Keywords: Motion detect; Accelerometer; MFT (Manual function Test); Serious game; User interface
    Towards a Google Glass Based Head Control Communication System for People with Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 399-404
      James Gips; Muhan Zhang; Deirdre Anderson
    We have developed Noggin and Glass Gab, two Google Glass based systems to allow people with disabilities to choose Yes or No and spell out messages just by moving their head. Our goal is to allow people who cannot speak and do not have reliable control of their hands to communicate just with head movements. The advantage of using Google Glass is that the user, perhaps in a wheelchair, does not need a notebook computer or tablet computer. The system displays a pointer on the Google Glass screen and Yes and No buttons (Noggin) or an onscreen keyboard (Glass Gab). The user moves the pointer by head movement. Selection is made using dwell time, by having the pointer dwell over the buttons or letters for a second. The user can have Google Glass speak the message. Head motion is detected using the three axis gyroscope built into Glass.
    Keywords: Assistive technology; Access to mobile interaction; Adaptive and augmented interaction; Alternative I/O techniques; Architectures and tools for universal access; Interaction techniques; Wearable technology
    A Comparative Study: Use of a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Device by People with Cerebral Palsy in Interaction with Computers BIBAKFull-Text 405-410
      Regina Heidrich; Francisco Rebelo; Marsal Branco; João Batista Mossmann; Anderson Schuh; Emely Jensen; Tiago Oliveira
    This article presents a comparative study among people with cerebral palsy and healthy controls, of various ages, using a brain-computer interface (BCI) device. The research is qualitative in its approach. Researchers worked with observational case studies. People with cerebral palsy and healthy controls were evaluated in Portugal and in Brazil. The study aimed to develop a study for product evaluation in order to perceive whether people with cerebral palsy can interact with the computer and to gauge whether their performance is similar to that of healthy controls when using the brain-computer interface. Ultimately, it was found that there are no significant differences between people with cerebral palsy in the two countries, as well as between populations without cerebral palsy (healthy controls).
    Keywords: Brain computer interface; Interaction; Cerebral palsy
    Indoor Wheelchair Navigation for the Visually Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 411-417
      Manar Hosny; Rawan Alsarrani; Abir Najjar
    Visually impaired (VI) people face many daily life challenges. It is often difficult for them to recognize where they are, and they may feel disoriented or completely isolated. Moreover, people who have other motor disabilities besides visual impairment face even more difficulty. For example, when using a wheelchair, they usually need a personal assistance to help them navigate to their destination, since they cannot use a cane or other manual assistive devices. To help these people, we aim to develop an indoor wheelchair navigation system. The system is divided into three components: a positioning system, a navigation system and a VI system interface. In the current research, we focus on the design of the navigation system, which will build the optimal path for a VI user on an electric wheelchair. To navigate, the user chooses a destination and their route preferences. A specially designed algorithm will construct an optimized path to the destination, by processing a map of the environment and the route preferences. The algorithm will take into account particular route features customized to the needs of the VI, such as: being free of obstacles, having few turns, being close to walls, and accommodating clues and landmarks. Our navigation system uses the A* shortest path algorithm for path construction, after adapting the objective function to take into account multiple criteria that fit the requirements of a visually impaired. The output of the algorithm is the moving directions, which will be fed back to the wheelchair as commands to direct its movement to the desired destination.
    Keywords: Indoor navigation; Visual impairment; Path planning; Human computer interaction; Wheelchair navigation; Optimization; User centered design
    Assessment of Electronic Write-in Voting Interfaces for Persons with Visual Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 418-423
      Ashley Ongsarte; Youxuan Jiang; Kyla McMullen
    In 2002, the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) mandated that all Americans should have an equal opportunity to vote with privacy and security. However, current electric voting technologies have unsuccessfully provided barrier-free access for people with visual impairments to write in a desired candidate's name without assistance. The present work describes a new e-voting technology where voters independently use a mouse to interact with a virtual audio keyboard that provides the ability to type, check, and modify a write-in candidate choice. The goal of this work is to create an accessible, accurate, and independent keyboard based interaction mechanism for visually impaired voters. The interface was assessed using 16 participants. Performance was measured in terms of voting speed, accuracy, and preference. The system was compared to a voting technology that uses a linear method to select letters. Results indicated that performance using the linear write-in interface was significantly better than the virtual keyboard. The results also revealed an interesting distinction between human muscle memory and spatial memory.
    Keywords: Visual impairments; Write-in voting; Accessibility; Spatial memory
    Tool for Alternative and Augmented Communication: A Study Implemented in Hospitals Environment to Support Pedagogical Therapies BIBAKFull-Text 424-429
      Ednilson G. Rossi; Janaina C. Abib; Luciana A. Rodrigues
    Communication is a basic need of human beings. It is required in professional, social and personal relationships, establishing a fundamental aspect for survival. Communication can be considered a set of signs that refers to behaviors that occur among two or more persons and which provide a way to create meanings between them. When individuals have no forms of communication or have some form of communication, but this is not enough to maintain communication links, establishing social relationships, it is necessary to use some resources to promote communication, integrating this individual in social life. Adapt and create alternative ways of communication is essential for people with disabilities or lack of oral communication to interact with their peers into the work, social and personal environments. For these adaptations it is common to use alternative and augmented communication tools (AACT), for example, uses of alternative communication boards and applications to support the communication process, using images, videos and technological resources to support the communication. The objective of this research is propose the development of prototypes with medium fidelity to facilitate patients with disabilities to learn and communicate, and understanding their distinctions in learning and interacting during communication process.
    Keywords: Communication process; Alternative and augmented communication; Communications technologies
    Access All Areas: Designing a Hands-on Robotics Course for Visually Impaired High School Students BIBAKFull-Text 430-435
      Valerie Stehling; Katharina Schuster; Anja Richert; Sabina Jeschke
    In recent years, student laboratories have been established as effective extracurricular learning areas for the promotion of educational processes in STEM fields. They provide various stimuli and potentials for enhancements and supplements in secondary school education [8]. Most courses, however, do not offer full accessibility to all students. Those who e.g. suffer from visual impairment or even sightlessness find themselves not being able to participate in all tasks of the courses. On this account, the Center for Learning and Knowledge Management and Institute of Information Management in Mechanical Engineering at RWTH Aachen University have redesigned one of their robotics laboratory courses as a first step towards accessibility. This paper presents the work in progress of developing a barrier-free course design for visually impaired students. First feedback discussions with the training staff shows that even little changes can sometimes have a huge impact.
    Keywords: School laboratories; Barrier free; LEGO mindstorms; Visual impairment; Highschool students
    Visual Approach of a Mobile Application for Autistic Children: Little Routine BIBAKFull-Text 436-442
      Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad; Iman Nur Nabila Azahari
    With the rise of mobile technology, visual approach can be implemented in mobile applications in order to help Autistic children. Nonetheless, those mobile applications that does not entirely uses actual pictures in their visual approach method that helps these children with their core drawback, which is the lack of independence. Therefore, this paper aims to present a visual approach of a mobile application, Little Routine, to assist autistic children. Requirement gathering is conducted through literature review of research papers, interviews and observations. At the same time, the methodology is based on rapid application development (RAD). Little Routine has been developed based on the requirements from the experts and literature. The tool used to develop the prototype is App Inventor and Android Software Development Kit. Later, usability test was conducted with a specialist, teachers and children to examine the effectiveness of the mobile application. The results showed that the respondents were satisfied with the mobile application. It is hoped that the application will assist autistic children in their daily routine.
    Keywords: Mobile application; Autistic; User testing; Visual approach
    Development of a Game that Visually-Impaired People Can Actively Enjoy BIBAKFull-Text 443-447
      Sadahide Yoshida; Kyoko Yoshida
    Recreational activities have an effect of improving the quality of life, but the recreational activities that visually-impaired people can enjoy are quite limited. "Passive" recreational activities that one can enjoy by reading, watching, or hearing (in particular those that visually-impaired people can enjoy) have increased through the development of synthesized voices. However, there are still only a few recreational activities such as sports and games that they can proactively participate in and enjoy. Videogames are one of such "active" recreational activities popular among visually-impaired people, however, interviews revealed that it requires a huge amount of effort for them to enjoy videogames. In the present study we developed a game that visually-impaired people could also actively enjoy.
    Keywords: Dance game; Visually-impaired people; Kinect

    Fitness and Well-Being Applications

    Investigating the Role of Haptic Stimulation in Mobile Meditation Tools BIBAKFull-Text 451-456
      Antoinette Leanna Bumatay; Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo
    Previous studies have shown that mindfulness meditation and paced breathing are effective tools for stress management. There are a number of mobile applications currently available that are designed to guide the breath to support mindfulness meditation and paced breathing practices. However, these focus mainly on audio/visual cues and are mostly non-interactive. Our goal is to develop a mobile meditation tool focusing on haptic cues. To investigate the effectiveness of the system, we conducted user studies. This study explores the following questions: How effective is haptic guidance on its own? And how may the addition of haptic feedback enhance audio based guidance? Preliminary analysis support the value of haptic guidance in mobile meditation tools.
    Keywords: Meditation; Technology; Haptic device
    A Usability Evaluation of Fitness-Tracking Apps for Initial Users BIBAKFull-Text 457-462
      Ana Carolina Tomé Klock; Isabela Gasparini
    Nowadays, there are many different mobile apps designed to help people start and continue practicing physical activities. This paper aims to analyze the usability of the most used apps for walk through inspection methods, focusing especially on the core tasks available. This paper presents the problems found and the comparison between the five analyzed apps. Through the results, the goal of this study is identifying the usability problems to help improving user interaction with physical activity monitoring apps.
    Keywords: Usability evaluation; Inspection method; Heuristic evaluation; Ergonomic criteria; Fitness-tracking apps
    Research on Intelligent Exercise Prescription System for Civil Servant BIBAFull-Text 463-466
      Qi Luo; Wei Deng
    Public servant refers to the people who work in the government institutions of various levels and execute the mission of state administrative functions and powers. Civil servant is in sub-health status and is high dangerous group of some chronics. Civil servant has a highly recognition about the value of sport for health and has desire to participate in it. But because some objective and subjective reasons, Civil servant cannot participate in exercise and is lack of targeted and scientific. The intelligent exercise prescription system for civil servant has been proposed by the following method such as literature, expert interviews, experimental test, software engineering method, data mining, system dynamics modeling. The intelligent exercise prescription system based theory on artificial intelligence and assessment of fitness-health include these achievements. The intelligent exercise prescription system is the life-style and rest/work system and chronics of civil servant taken into account deeply so as to ensure the feasibility and targeted and scientific of exercise prescription.
    Prototype of a Shoulder and Elbow Occupational Health Care Exergame BIBAKFull-Text 467-472
      Wilson Nava; Cesar Andres Ramos Mejia; Alvaro Uribe-Quevedo
    The use of gaming in non-entertainment scenarios have impacted learning, therapy, exercising and training scenarios, among many others. In terms of occupational health care, it can provide motivation and monitoring, while complementing surveys and medical examinations. The success of the exercise depends on several factors, from understanding the guides, the demonstrations and its causes and consequences. Related works in this area have approached this problem with different type of games and motion tracking to boost engagement and the acquisition of data. This work presents the development of a shoulder and elbow exergame using motion capture as a complimentary tool to traditional means of occupational health care exercising. The presented solution in this project tracks the user upper limb to provide feedback that may help improve the exercising experience through charts that can be sent to a health care specialist.
    Keywords: Data; Game; Tracking
    An Investigation of the Usability and Desirability of Health and Fitness-Tracking Devices BIBAKFull-Text 473-477
      Ashton Pfannenstiel; Barbara S. Chaparro
    This study investigated the usability and functionality of 6 different fitness tracking wristbands that have been suggested to improve and encourage healthy behaviors. While many previous studies assess the accuracy and behavioral effects of fitness tracking devices, limited research has been done to analyze the usability and desirability of these products. Participants were asked to rate their impressions of six fitness tracking devices -- the Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone Up24, Fitbit One, Basis B1 Band, Misfit Shine, and the Tom Tom Multisport -- before and after usage. Participants were also asked to describe the main factors contributing to their overall preference and likelihood to purchase and/or use each device. Results indicate that participants are initially more likely to favor, small, lightweight devices that have a display. After wearing the devices, the most valued features were attractiveness, long battery life, waterproof, and a heart rate monitor. The study suggest that a "one size fits all approach" to the design of fitness tracking devices may not be the most effective method to promote the actual use of the technology.
    Keywords: Wearables; Beauty technology; Usability methods and tools; Mobile products; ISO; Usability
    Development of an Open Electronics User Interface for Lower Member Occupational Health Care Exergaming BIBAKFull-Text 478-483
      Estefania Ramos-Montilla; Alvaro Uribe-Quevedo
    According to the World Health Organization 15% of the global population suffers some form of musculoskeletal disorder. To prevent such affection, workers are encouraged to engage into active pauses during work hours to lower the risk of suffering any type of disorder. Although aware of the consequences, workers tend to avoid active pauses due to lack of time or motivation, unclear guides or ignorance regarding the effects of bad occupational health habits. An approach to overcome such challenges can be found in exergames, as they provide means to increase user motivation and clear instructions by taking advantage of motion tracking to better execute the active pauses. Wearable sensor are currently providing affordable solutions that track data more accurately in contrast to gaming devices, in this work, an open electronics interface is implemented within an exergame to motitave the execution of lower member active pauses within an office environment.
    Keywords: Health; Sensor; Tracking
    Impact of Intermittent Stretching Exercise Animation on Prolonged-Sitting Computer Users' Attention and Work Performance BIBAKFull-Text 484-488
      Sy-Chyi Wang; Jin-Yuan Chern
    The prevailing use of computers and the Internet has contributed to popular symptoms of visual impairment, musculoskeletal injuries, and even emotional disorders nowadays. While certain ergonomics software packages have thus been designed to avoid or relieve the symptoms, some studies raised concern about possible decline in attention and work performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of the computer stretch/massage software on extended computer users' attention and work performance. The Neuroscience brainwave monitor was used to evaluate the participants' attention. Thirty college students who work more than 4 h a day in front of computer were recruited and evenly distributed to two groups. The participants in the experimental group were asked to perform the task on computer for 30 min with a stretch program on, which was set to pop-up every 10 min for about 30 s each. The control group took no breaks or interventions. The results show that the computer break software did not decrease the participants' attention scores. Meanwhile the experimental group demonstrated higher work performance scores. It is suggested that during prolonged sitting computer work, breaks and body movements are necessary for better attention and work performance.
    Keywords: Stretching exercise animation; Brainwave; Attention score; Work performance

    Location and Context Awareness

    Dynamic Adaptation of Personalised Recommendations Based on Tourists' Affective State BIBAKFull-Text 491-496
      Petr Aksenov; Andres Navarro; David Oyarzun; Theo Arentze; Astrid Kemperman
    The presented work in progress is on the inclusion of information about tourists' emotions in personalising their cultural program recommendations. Emotions are estimated unobtrusively and in real time from facial expressions during tourists' interaction with a dedicated 3D- and AR-based application for cultural tourism. The affective data so collected is used for creating an affective map of an area, where each attraction (point of interest) is assigned an affective score in accordance with the involved affective model. The main goal of our work is to use these affective scores in determining and recommending attractions and activities which suit, among other criteria, the tourist's current or desired affective state.
    Keywords: Affective computing; Emotions; Recommendation; Tourism; Utility
    Dynamic Operations Wayfinding System (DOWS) for Nuclear Power Plants BIBAKFull-Text 497-502
      Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger T. Lew
    A novel software tool is proposed to aid reactor operators in responding to upset plant conditions. The purpose of the Dynamic Operations Wayfinding System (DOWS) is to diagnose faults, prioritize those faults, identify paths to resolve those faults, and deconflict the optimal path for the operator to follow. The objective of DOWS is to take the guesswork out of the best way to combine procedures to resolve compound faults, mitigate low threshold events, or respond to severe accidents. DOWS represents a uniquely flexible and dynamic computer-based procedure system for operators.
    Keywords: Nuclear power plant; Computer-based procedures; Wayfinding; Severe accident
    Context-Aware Systems for Complex Data Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 503-507
      Adam Fouse; Stacy Pfautz; Gabriel Ganberg
    Increasingly there is a need to analyze a large quantity of diverse, multidimensional data in a timely, efficient manner. A computational awareness of context can improve the speed and accuracy of complex data analysis, and promote more effective human-machine collaboration. We describe ongoing work to develop a framework that monitors human-machine interactions, analyzes context, and augments the system (such as prioritizing information, providing recommendations, adapting an interface, adjusting the level of automation, proactively fetching data, managing notifications, sharing context with others, personalizing the system, etc.). We believe that we can facilitate complex data analysis by adapting systems to meet analysts needs based upon the varying demands of the tasks, priorities, resources, time, user state, and environment.
    Keywords: Context-aware systems; Recommender systems; Complex data analysis; Interactive visualization
    User Situation-Aware Mobile Communication Method BIBAKFull-Text 508-513
      Jungkih Hong; Scott Song; Dongseok Kim; Minseok Kim
    Communicating information through electrical mobile devices solely relies on static functions provided by the mobile devices. For example, when a caller uses the call function on a mobile device, the other caller at the receiving side has only two static functions to execute namely reject or answer. Under most of communication environment, the caller does not recognize the receiver's current context. In this paper, we propose SCS (Situation-aware based on Communication Service) platform to provide an appropriate method to express useful information based on user context like speak-able, read-able, gesture-able situations through mobile devices. In addition, the proposed method enables automatic configuration of personal preference and device attributes and living environment conditions reflecting current situation awareness [1].
    Keywords: Situation-aware; Communication service; Mobile device; User context
    Design Guideline on Location Based User Emotion Sharing Map Service BIBAKFull-Text 514-518
      GeeYoung Noh; DongNyeok Jeong; Sangsun Park; Jundong Cho
    In this paper, we present our preliminary initial investigation about a Heart-map system that detect user's emotion and visualize to cartography map on mobile service. For this project, we developed a wearable prototype to recognize emotions. Based on the prototype, we propose mobile application guideline for this concept functions. Then, We present the results of a in-depth interviews, scenario story board study with ten local people that we conducted with local people, and indicate guidelines for the Function of a Emotion-map systems. Through this project, individuals' emotion and evaluation could look at possibility that social network service (SNS) based on user's specific location. Furthermore, this research can suggest that effective emotion SNS based on system design guideline.
    Keywords: Emotion map; Location sharing; Socialization; Mobile application
    AR-Technology-Based Locationing System for Interactive Content BIBAFull-Text 519-524
      Satoshi Saga; Ryota Oki; Shusuke Kawagoe; Wanjia Zheng; Jiacheng Sun
    In this research, we propose an interactive display system that has a simple implementation. The system is composed of a smartphone, PC, display, and cloud service; it realizes a CAVE-like immersive system by employing simple devices. Relative location information is acquired by the user's smartphone and a marker (or markers). Based on this information, the system renders the appropriate image in real time. In this paper, we describe the implementation and operation of the proposed system.
    A Computational Location Model Based on Relative Information BIBAFull-Text 525-530
      Ruowei Xiao; Kazunori Sugiura; Zhanwei Wu
    In this paper, we proposed the concept "relative location" as a complementary presentation to the traditional "absolute location", which were considered the traditional expression of locations and have pervaded the current locations based services (LBS). Two methods were introduced to make relative location computable and more useful. Prototypes with Data visualization interface were designed and evaluated to test usability of the proposed methods. User experiments shown that integrating relative location information into computing system may help to improve usability of location based applications.

    Urban Interaction

    Acceptance of Integrated Active Safety Systems in China BIBAKFull-Text 533-538
      Junliang Chen; Zhengjie Liu; Paul A. Mendoza; Fang Chen
    Yearly almost 60,000 people are killed in traffic accidents in China due to the rapid growth of the number of vehicles and bad driving habits. There is a need to increase safety and cars are being equipped with new active safety technology known as Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS), which can help driver by warning before accidents occur. A simulator study with 16 participants was carried out at a driving simulator, which equipped with an integrated visual interface prototype developed by Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The interface presents information visually to the driver before any critical situation with help from three Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, Forward Collision Warning (FCW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Lane Departure Warning (LDW). Questionnaires and open-ended interviews were held to subjectively measure the participants' attitude toward the sound warnings and visual interface. Questionnaire results showed that most participants thought the sound warning could facilitate their driving while most users' attitude towards the visual display warning were comparatively neutral. In order to better understand how ADAS technology can be designed to suite Chinese drivers, their behaviors and preferences. There is more work need to do.
    Keywords: Advanced driver assistant system; Infotainment equipment; Active safety system; User acceptance
    Interactive Navigation System for the Visually Impaired with Auditory and Haptic Cues in Crosswalks, Indoors and Urban Areas BIBAKFull-Text 539-545
      Tianqi "Tenchi" Gao Smith; Christopher Rose; Jeffrey "Wayne" Nolen; Daniel Pierce; Alexander Sherman
    This Federal Highway sponsored study is aimed at creating an integrated human-computer system that the visually impaired could use to navigate through chaotic urban areas, indoors environment, as well as complex crosswalks. The system incorporates several redundant positioning systems in order to provide a robust solution to way finding. The main system components include global positioning system (GPS), visual odometry, pedometry, iPhone, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) radios, and tactile belt. The user will wear a laptop that contains a data processing program that collects data real-time from the devices and provides navigational feedback to the user's iPhone app and tactile belt.
    Keywords: Visually impaired; Navigation; Global positioning system (GPS); Visual odometry; Pedometry; iPhone application; Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) radio; Tactile belt; Inertial Motion Unit (IMU)
    Domestic Electricity Consumption Visualized as Flowing Tap Water to Raise the Feeling of Waste BIBAKFull-Text 546-550
      Yukio Ishihara; Makio Ishihara; Fumi Hirayama; Keiji Yasukawa
    In this study we visualize electricity consumption as flowing tap water in order to encourage people to save electricity by raising the feeling of waste. To save electricity, the mainstream is to present its consumption and quick feedback. Additionally we try to evoke the feeling of waste using flowing tap water. We build a prototype system to convert the amount of electricity being consumed into that of flowing tap water. Finally it is shown that the flow rate of tap water changes according to the amount of electricity consumption.
    Keywords: Flowing tap water; Electricity consumption; Peripheral information; Ambient display
    Novel Route Depiction Method Based on Light Information for Map Applications BIBAKFull-Text 551-557
      Namgyu Kang; Kana Takahashi
    In recent times, the number of users who use map apps on their smartphones has rapidly increased. When a pedestrian travels to a destination, he/she uses a nearby landmark for finding the route. However, in almost all map apps, routes are depicted considering daytime conditions. This implies that when a pedestrian uses such map apps at nighttime, he/she would need more information to determine whether a route is safe, such as the route's luminance level. Therefore, to address this need, we propose a new route depiction method based on light information. Furthermore, we verify the effectiveness of the proposed method through evaluation experiments involving 25 women participants. Experimental results show that the proposed method affects a user's choice of route; moreover, the proposed method is not only easy to understand and use but is also highly rated in Kansei aspects such as fun, interesting, and safety assistance.
    Keywords: Map application; Light information; Depiction; Kansei value
    Exploration of Building-Occupant Communication Methods for Reducing Energy Consumption in Buildings BIBAKFull-Text 558-563
      Saba Khashe; Arsalan Heydarian; Joao Carneiro; Burcin Becerik-Gerber
    Buildings consume enormous amounts of our nation's total energy use (38%). Previous work showed that occupant actions and behaviors have significant impacts (more than 40%) on building energy demand. Our main goal is to transform buildings into interactive living spaces that communicate with their occupants via agents and influence the way the occupants interact with their building to enable energy efficiency. As a first step towards this goal, we investigated effective communication methods aimed at influencing building occupants' energy-related behaviors. We hypothesized that human-building communication would be more persuasive if the interaction is seen as more social. To investigate the influence of social influence methods (e.g., foot in the door, rule of reciprocity, and direct request) on occupants' energy consumption behavior, experiments were conducted in which immersive virtual environments (IVEs) were used to model real-life office settings.
    Keywords: Social influence methods; Immersive virtual environment; Compliance; Social features
    Survey Report of Wayfinding Experience Within Cities in China BIBAKFull-Text 564-569
      Fung Ha Sandy Lai
    Wayfinding is a kind of systematic communication system which h