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GROUP Tables of Contents: 97990103050709101214

GROUP'09: International Conference on Supporting Group Work

Fullname:Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work
Editors:Stephanie Teasley; Erling Havn
Location:Sanibel Island, Florida, USA
Dates:2009-May-10 to 2009-May-13
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-60558-500-9, 978-1-60558-500-0; ACM Order Number: 612091; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: GROUP09
Papers:54
Pages:400
Links:Conference Home Page (defunct)
  1. Tagging
  2. Community
  3. Social software I
  4. Social software II
  5. Group collaboration and interaction
  6. Collaborative tools and technologies I
  7. Collaborative tools and technologies II
  8. Cooperative knowledge management
  9. Computer-mediated communication I
  10. Computer-mediated communication II
  11. Collaborative management
  12. Health
  13. Empirical-qualitative experience
  14. Doctoral consortium abstracts

Tagging

Enhancing information scent: identifying and recommending quality tags BIBAKFull-Text 1-10
  Shaoke Zhang; Umer Farooq; John M. Carroll
We describe a scenario of tag use and an empirical study of tags as socio-cognitive artifacts providing information scent. We articulated a three-step use scenario of tags, and used it to conceptualize tag "quality" as determined by use. We designed and conducted a user study to explore what attributes of tags and taggers predict the user-rated "quality" of tags. We found that frequency best predicted tag quality, while information entropy provided further refinement. We found that people rated our identified quality tags as higher in quality than general tags. But these identified quality tags were not perceived as better than self-generated tags. We derived a regression model for tag quality and discussed implications for social computing.
Keywords: quality tags, sense-making, social bookmarking
Improving personal privacy in social systems with people-tagging BIBAKFull-Text 11-20
  Maryam Najafian Razavi; Lee Iverson
The recent emergence of social systems has transformed the Web from an information pool to a platform for communication and social interaction. As such, the issue of managing privacy of various types of user-created content in these open environments has become more of a concern. Existing social systems often define privacy either as a private/public dichotomy or in terms of a "network of friends relationship, in which all friends" are created equal and all relationships are reciprocal. We explore instead the idea of tagging people to create ego-centric groups of dynamic, non-reciprocal relationships to improve privacy management in this domain. In this paper, we introduce the principles and motivations behind people-tagging, discuss constraints that make people-tagging safe, trustable, and spam-free, describe a research implementation we have created to experiment with the concept, and provide the results of a preliminary empirical evaluation which shows the strength of the idea and indicates areas for future enhancements.
Keywords: information sharing, people-tagging, privacy, social systems
Analysis of tag within online social networks BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Chao Wu; Bo Zhou
In recent years, tagging systems have been paid increasing attentions from both research communities and system designers. Most popular online social networking sites harness tag for managing and locating contents, for organizing and connecting users, and for recommending and sharing resources. We believe that tag acts like bridge between people and resources. Research on tag and tagging behavior will provide us insight about resource space and user activities on the Internet. In this paper, we present a two-level analysis of the tagging system of Del.icio.us. The results from both two levels confirm each other. In network level, we connect tags by users collaborative tagging to form a social network of tags. By investigating its network feature, we find phenomena of small world and scale-free network. We also discover that the links within this network have relatively strong semantic relatedness. In individual level, users' tagging behaviors and patterns are observed by visualizing their bookmarking history on Del.icio.us. Besides, we study the linked users by their tags and find that users within a subscription network share more common interests than random pairs of users. During the analysis, we also discuss the implications of the findings for the design of tag-based system.
Keywords: del.icio.us, scale-free, semantic relatedness, small world, social annotation, tag, visualization

Community

Spreading the honey: a system for maintaining an online community BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Rosta Farzan; Joan M. DiMicco; Beth Brownholtz
As online communities, such as social network sites, mature, they face challenges in sustaining user engagement. To address this, we designed and deployed a rating system to encourage a broad set of users to promote a diverse set of content on a social network site. By evaluating the impact of the promotions on the site's content and users over time, we found that the system successfully promotes more diverse content and encourages new social interactions between users.
Keywords: online community, ratings, rewards, social networking
Contribution, commercialization & audience: understanding participation in an online creative community BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  Eric Cook; Stephanie D. Teasley; Mark S. Ackerman
This paper presents a qualitative study of attitudes towards participation and contribution in an online creative community. The setting of the work is an online community of practice focused on the use and development of a user-customizable music software package called Reaktor. Findings from the study highlight four emergent topics in the discourse related to user contributions to the community: contribution assessment, support for learning, perceptions of audience and tensions about commercialization. Our analysis of these topics frames discussion about the value and challenges of attending to amateur and professional users in online creative communities.
Keywords: amateurs, audiences, commercialization, community of practice, creativity, learning, online community, professionals, user-generated content
Wikipedians are born, not made: a study of power editors on Wikipedia BIBAKFull-Text 51-60
  Katherine Panciera; Aaron Halfaker; Loren Terveen
Open content web sites depend on users to produce information of value. Wikipedia is the largest and most well-known such site. Previous work has shown that a small fraction of editors -- Wikipedians -- do most of the work and produce most of the value. Other work has offered conjectures about how Wikipedians differ from other editors and how Wikipedians change over time. We quantify and test these conjectures. Our key findings include: Wikipedians' edits last longer; Wikipedians invoke community norms more often to justify their edits; on many dimensions of activity, Wikipedians start intensely, tail off a little, then maintain a relatively high level of activity over the course of their career. Finally, we show that the amount of work done by Wikipedians and non-Wikipedians differs significantly from their very first day. Our results suggest a design opportunity: customizing the initial user experience to improve retention and channel new users' intense energy.
Keywords: Wikipedia, collaboration, contribution, power editors, wiki

Social software I

Effects of feedback and peer pressure on contributions to enterprise social media BIBAKFull-Text 61-70
  Michael J. Brzozowski; Thomas Sandholm; Tad Hogg
Increasingly, large organizations are experimenting with internal social media (e.g., blogs, forums) as a platform for widespread distributed collaboration. Contributions to their counterparts outside the organization's firewall are driven by attention from strangers, in addition to sharing among friends. However, employees in a workplace under time pressures may be reluctant to participate and the audience for their contributions is comparatively smaller. Participation rates also vary widely from group to group. So what influences people to contribute in this environment?
   In this paper, we present the results of a year-long empirical study of internal social media participation at a large technology company, and analyze the impact attention, feedback, and managers' and coworkers' participation have on employees' behavior. We find feedback in the form of posted comments is highly correlated with a user's subsequent participation. Recent manager and coworker activity relate to users initiating or resuming participation in social media. These findings extend, to an aggregate level, the results from prior interviews about blogging at the company and offer design and policy implications for organizations seeking to encourage social media adoption.
Keywords: attention, blogs, contributions, feedback, social media
Translating social support practices into online services for family caregivers BIBAKFull-Text 71-80
  Matthieu Tixier; Gérald Gaglio; Myriam Lewkowicz
The aim of our ongoing research project is to design a platform for family caregivers to help them cope with the burden of daily caregiving. With a view to designing relevant information and communication services, we analyzed the social support practices observed among the members of a group of caregivers, whose spouses were suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Based on interviews and a field survey, we characterized this collective and identified the caregivers' latent and expressed needs. Our approach consists in linking these needs to naturally occurring situations in order to translate them into meaningful functionalities.
Keywords: caregivers' community, design, healthcare network, semi-directive interviews, social support, support group
Cluestr: mobile social networking for enhanced group communication BIBAKFull-Text 81-90
  Reto Grob; Michael Kuhn; Roger Wattenhofer; Martin Wirz
Recent technological advances foster the spreading of social software in the mobile domain. Hence, future usage patterns of mobile devices will involve more group interaction. While collaboration using mobile devices is an active area of research, only limited attention has been paid to the efficient initiation of group communication from mobile terminals. In this paper we present a community-aware mechanism that allows to efficiently select contacts in order to address them as a group. We have integrated the proposed method into a proof-of-concept application, and present preliminary experiments that demonstrate the accuracy of the approach and show significant time savings in the group initialization process.
Keywords: HCI, clustering, group initialization, mobile device, social network

Social software II

Personalized retrieval in social bookmarking BIBAKFull-Text 91-94
  Scott Bateman; Michael J. Muller; Jill Freyne
Users of social bookmarking systems take advantage of pivot browsing, an interaction technique allowing them to easily refine lists of bookmarks through the selection of filter terms. However, social bookmarking systems use one-size-fits-all ranking metrics to order refined lists. These generic rankings ignore past user interactions that may be useful in determining the relevance of bookmarks. In this work we describe a personalized ordering algorithm that leverages the fact that refinding, rather than discovery (finding a bookmark for the first time), makes up the majority of bookmark accesses. The algorithm examines user-access histories and promotes bookmarks that a user has previously visited. We investigate the potential of our algorithm using interaction logs from an enterprise social bookmarking system, the results show that our personalized algorithm would lead to improved bookmark rankings.
Keywords: information retrieval, personalization, social bookmarking
When social networks cross boundaries: a case study of workplace use of facebook and linkedin BIBAKFull-Text 95-104
  Meredith M. Skeels; Jonathan Grudin
The use of social networking software by professionals is increasing dramatically. How it is used, whether it enhances or reduces productivity, and how enterprise-friendly design and use might evolve are open questions. We examine attitudes and behaviors in a large, technologically-savvy organization through a broad survey and thirty focused interviews. We find extensive social and work uses, with complex patterns that differ with software system and networker age. Tensions arise when use spans social groups and the organization's firewall. Although use is predominantly to support weak ties whose contribution to productivity can be difficult to prove, we anticipate rapid uptake of social networking technology by organizations.
Keywords: enterprise, facebook, linkedin, social networking
Is Wikipedia growing a longer tail? BIBAKFull-Text 105-114
  Shyong (Tony) K. Lam; John Riedl
Wikipedia has millions of articles, many of which receive little attention. One group of Wikipedians believes these obscure entries should be removed because they are uninteresting and neglected; these are the deletionists. Other Wikipedians disagree, arguing that this long tail of articles is precisely Wikipedia's advantage over other encyclopedias; these are the inclusionists. This paper looks at two overarching questions on the debate between deletionists and inclusionists: (1) What are the implications to the long tail of the evolving standards for article birth and death? (2) How is viewership affected by the decreasing notability of articles in the long tail? The answers to five detailed research questions that are inspired by these overarching questions should help better frame this debate and provide insight into how Wikipedia is evolving.
Keywords: Wikipedia, collaboration, evolution, long tail

Group collaboration and interaction

Two peers are better than one: aggregating peer reviews for computing assignments is surprisingly accurate BIBAKFull-Text 115-124
  Ken Reily; Pam Ludford Finnerty; Loren Terveen
Scientific peer review, open source software development, wikis, and other domains use distributed review to improve quality of created content by providing feedback to the work's creator. Distributed review is used to assess or improve the quality of a work (e.g., an article). However, it can also provide learning benefits to the participants in the review process. We developed an online review system for beginning computer programming students; it gathers multiple anonymous peer reviews to give students feedback on their programming work. We deployed the system in an introductory programming class and evaluated it in a controlled study. We find that: peer reviews are accurate compared to an accepted evaluation standard, that students prefer reviews from other students with less experience than themselves, and that participating in a peer review process results in better learning outcomes.
Keywords: collaboration, education, peer review
The influence of boundary objects on group collaboration in construction project teams BIBAKFull-Text 125-128
  Andreas F. Phelps; Madhu Reddy
This note outlines the critical role that boundary objects play in construction project teams. In this domain, boundary objects extend beyond their traditional role as information artifacts used to communicate between teams to serve a more influential role as guides for team collaboration.
Keywords: boundary objects, collaboration, construction teams
For a science of group interaction BIBAKFull-Text 129-138
  Gerry Stahl
As a foundation for the design of groupware, we need a new science of group interaction, a systematic description of the processes at the group level of description that may contribute to problem solving, knowledge building and other cognitive tasks undertaken by small groups collaborating synchronously over networked computers. A scientific investigation of the knowledge-building interactions of online teams involves explorations along multiple dimensions: (a) designing a testbed to support interaction within teams, (b) analyzing how interaction takes place within this setting and (c) describing how the teams achieve their tasks. This paper discusses how a current CSCL project designed a groupware environment in which this could take place and be studied; it reviews how the project approached the rigorous study of what took place there; and it reflects on the nature of group interaction as an object for a new science.
Keywords: CSCL, CSCW, group cognition, group interaction

Collaborative tools and technologies I

GroupMind: supporting idea generation through a collaborative mind-mapping tool BIBAKFull-Text 139-148
  Patrick C. Shih; David H. Nguyen; Sen H. Hirano; David F. Redmiles; Gillian R. Hayes
Collaborative brainstorming can be a challenging but important part of creative group problem solving. Mind-mapping has the potential to enhance the brainstorming process but has its own challenges when used in a group. We introduce GroupMind, a collaborative mind-mapping tool that addresses these challenges and opens new opportunities for creative teamwork, including brainstorming. We present a semi-controlled evaluation of GroupMind and its impact on teamwork, problem solving and collaboration for brainstorming activities. GroupMind performs better than using a traditional whiteboard in both interaction group and nominal group settings for the task involving memory recall. The hierarchical mind-map structure also imposes important framing effects on group dynamics and idea organization during the brainstorming process. We also present design ideas to assist in the development of future tools to support creative problem solving in groups.
Keywords: brainstorming, collocation, formal and informal structures, group dynamics, large display, mind-mapping
Supporting transitions in work: informing large display application design by understanding whiteboard use BIBAKFull-Text 149-158
  Anthony Tang; Joel Lanir; Saul Greenberg; Sidney Fels
In this paper, we explore the practice of using a whiteboard for multiple tasks, and specifically how users employ whiteboards to smoothly transition between related sets of tasks. Our study underscores several basic, but important affordances of whiteboards that support this practice, including visual persistence, flexibility of interaction primitives, and their situated physicality. We discuss the implications of these findings for the design of large display applications.
Keywords: large display groupware, reflexive cscw, whiteboard
Lazy scheduling of processing and transmission tasks in collaborative systems BIBAKFull-Text 159-168
  Sasa Junuzovic; Prasun Dewan
A collaborative system must perform both processing and transmission tasks. We present a policy for scheduling these tasks on a single core that is inspired by studies of human perception and the real-time systems field. It lazily delays the execution of the processing task if the delay cannot be noticed by humans. We use simulations and formal analysis to compare this policy with previous scheduling policies. We show that the policy trades-off an unnoticeable degradation in performance of some users for a much larger noticeable improvement in performance of others.
Keywords: analytical model, collaboration architecture, local and remote response times, scheduling policy, simulations

Collaborative tools and technologies II

Usability heuristics for networked multiplayer games BIBAKFull-Text 169-178
  David Pinelle; Nelson Wong; Tadeusz Stach; Carl Gutwin
Networked multiplayer games must support a much wider variety of interactions than single-player games because networked games involve communication and coordination between players. This means that designers must consider additional usability issues that relate to group play -- but there are currently no usability engineering methods that are specifically oriented towards the needs of multiplayer games. To address this problem, we developed a new set of usability heuristics, called Networked Game Heuristics (NGH), which can be used in the design and evaluation of networked multiplayer games. The new heuristics were identified by analyzing problem reports from 382 reviews of networked PC games, covering six main genres. We aggregated problem reports into ten problem categories (covering issues from session management to cheating to training for novice players) and developed heuristics that describe how these usability problems can be avoided. We tested the new heuristics by having evaluators use them and an existing set to assess the usability of two networked games. Evaluators found more usability problems with NGH, and stated that the new heuristics were better for evaluating multiplayer game usability. Our research is the first to present networked game heuristics that are derived from real problem reports, and the first to evaluate the heuristics' effectiveness in a realistic usability test.
Keywords: NGH, game usability, heuristic evaluation, multiplayer games, networked game heuristics, networked games, usability
Presence & placement: exploring the benefits of multiple shared displays on an intellective sensemaking task BIBAKFull-Text 179-188
  Christopher Plaue; John Stasko
Relatively little is known about how the presence and location of multiple shared displays changes the performance and dynamics of teams collaborating. We conducted a case study evaluating several shared display configurations with groups collaborating on a data-intensive, sense-making task. Teams completed the same task using either a single display, side-by-side dual, or opposing dual shared displays. The location of the second shared display significantly impacted the ability for teams to make logical connections amongst the data. Users were also significantly more satisfied with the collaboration process using the side-by-side dual display condition than those using a single display.
Keywords: large displays, meeting spaces, multi-display environments
Supporting group decisions by mediating deliberation to improve information pooling BIBAKFull-Text 189-198
  Joshua E. Introne
Group decision support systems (GDSS) hold significant potential for improving decision making, but they have not been broadly adopted. One reason for this is that these platforms introduce representational work for users that is distinct from a more familiar deliberative interaction but they offer uncertain payoff. This article presents a study with a platform that addresses this problem by leveraging the argumentative structure of deliberative conversation to drive a decision support algorithm. The platform uses argument visualization to mediate the collaborators' conversation. The study demonstrates that the platform addresses a known deficiency in human information pooling called the common knowledge phenomenon.
Keywords: collaborative argument visualization, group decision support

Cooperative knowledge management

The dissemination of knowledge management BIBAKFull-Text 199-208
  Hiroko N. Wilensky; David F. Redmiles; Norman Makoto Su
Our study on a community of knowledge management (KM) practitioners in the aerospace industry reveals challenges in the dissemination of KM concepts and tools. In this paper, we identify four reasons: (1) disparity of the community's stated purpose and the actual motives of its members; (2) multidisciplinary nature of KM; (3) unique characteristics of the aerospace industry and its engineering culture and (4) adoption of preferred or recommended solutions provided by chosen reference groups rather than a grounded approach. In particular, we address the issues in promoting recommended ideas and tools by chosen reference groups in work organizations without fully understanding work practices.
Keywords: aerospace industry, communities of practice, diffusion, knowledge management, reference groups, work practice
Member behavior in company online communities BIBAKFull-Text 209-218
  Vanessa Rood; Amy Bruckman
A growing number of corporations have created sites where customers talk to one another. What kind of interaction takes place on these sites? In this study, we interviewed eleven members of company online communities (COC). We found that while users initially come to such sites looking for product information, they often stay to socialize, and develop meaningful friendships with other members (even turning to one-another for support in times of personal tragedy). We present case studies of interaction on two sites for Campbell's Soup, and for MINI Cooper car owners. We found that users are drawn to these sites because the product's brand image attracts a group of like-minded individuals. Adjectives used to describe the brand are also used to describe site members. I.e., Campbell's is trusting and down-to earth; MINI is fun-loving. Implications for website design are discussed.
Keywords: brand, branding, company online communities, online brand community, online communities
WaterCooler: exploring an organization through enterprise social media BIBAKFull-Text 219-228
  Michael J. Brzozowski
As organizations scale up, their collective knowledge increases, and the potential for serendipitous collaboration between members grows dramatically. However, finding people with the right expertise or interests becomes much more difficult. Semi-structured social media, such as blogs, forums, and bookmarking, present a viable platform for collaboration-if enough people participate, and if shared content is easily findable. Within the trusted confines of an organization, users can trade anonymity for a rich identity that carries information about their role, location, and position in its hierarchy.
   This paper describes WaterCooler, a tool that aggregates shared internal social media and cross-references it with an organization's directory. We deployed WaterCooler in a large global enterprise and present the results of a preliminary user study. Despite the lack of complete social networking affordances, we find that WaterCooler changed users' perceptions of their workplace, made them feel more connected to each other and the company, and redistributed users' attention outside their own business groups.
Keywords: attention, blogs, collaboration, organizational issues, social media

Computer-mediated communication I

Exploring bilingual, task-oriented, document-centric chat BIBAKFull-Text 229-232
  Hao Jiang; Kevin Singley
We study a new type of workplace communication made possible by the recent advent of real-time bilingual chat tools. Because of the imperfect accuracy of real-time text translation services, this type of communication imposes extreme difficulties on user collaboration and task performance. The problems are compounded by the narrow task awareness and communication bandwidth afforded by standard chat. We report an exploratory study of users attempting to arrive at a joint understanding of a document using a bilingual chat tool. We observed many problems concerning the establishment of common ground and task coordination. We derive design implications for an improved chat tool that better supports the sharing of mental state and task coordination in this communication environment.
Keywords: instant messaging, workplace collaboration
I felt like a contributing member of the class: increasing class participation with ClassCommons BIBAKFull-Text 233-242
  Honglu Du; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll; Craig Ganoe
In this paper we describe the design and first deployment experiences of a platform-independent, interactive video commenting system, ClassCommons, using a large public display in two sections of a large-enrollment university class. Our preliminary evaluation suggests that students enjoyed the activity of commenting, that they participated a great deal, and that their sense of community was greater after using the system. Further analysis revealed that reading the comments and posting relevant comments are associated with increases in community members' sense of community. We discuss lessons learned and describe further work we are planning using this and similar interactive activities.
Keywords: public display, sense of community, video commenting
How and why people Twitter: the role that micro-blogging plays in informal communication at work BIBAKFull-Text 243-252
  Dejin Zhao; Mary Beth Rosson
Micro-blogs, a relatively new phenomenon, provide a new communication channel for people to broadcast information that they likely would not share otherwise using existing channels (e.g., email, phone, IM, or weblogs). Micro-blogging has become popular quite quickly, raising its potential for serving as a new informal communication medium at work, providing a variety of impacts on collaborative work (e.g., enhancing information sharing, building common ground, and sustaining a feeling of connectedness among colleagues). This exploratory research project is aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of how and why people use Twitter -- a popular micro-blogging tool -- and exploring micro-blog's potential impacts on informal communication at work.
Keywords: Twitter, informal communication, micro-blog

Computer-mediated communication II

Image, appearance and vanity in the use of media spaces and video conference systems BIBAKFull-Text 253-262
  Jose Eurico de Vasconcelos Filho; Kori M. Inkpen; Mary Czerwinski
Media spaces and videoconference systems are beneficial for connecting separated co-workers and providing rich contextual information. However, image sharing communication tools may also touch on sensitive spots of the human psyche related to personal, perceived image issues (e.g., appearance, self-image, self-presentation and vanity). We conducted two user studies to examine the impact of self-image concerns on the use of media spaces and videoconference systems. Our results suggest that personal, perceived image concerns have a considerable impact on the comfort level of users and may hinder effective communication [8]. We also found that image filtering techniques can help users feel more comfortable. Our results revealed that distortion filters, which are frequently cited to help preserve privacy, do not tend to be the ones preferred by users. Instead, users seemed to favor filters that make subtle changes to their appearance, or, in some instances, they preferred to use a surrogate instead.
Keywords: appearance, image, image filter, media space, privacy, self presentation, telepresence, vanity, videoconference
Grounding interpersonal privacy in mediated settings BIBAKFull-Text 263-272
  Natalia A. Romero; Panos Markopoulos
Recent technologies supporting continuous connectivity enable sustained awareness within social networks, which eventually boosts interaction and therefore the need of individuals to manage their interpersonal privacy. This paper introduces the Privacy Grounding Model that describes how people develop and use mechanisms to establish a shared understanding of their intentions to interact with others. The main design implication of this model is the need for lightweight interactive mechanisms by which individuals can collaboratively ground needs for interaction. To illustrate how the model supports the design of grounding mechanisms, we present examples and discuss a case study that informs about their use during several weeks.
Keywords: ambiguity, coordination, interpersonal privacy, mediated communication, social communication
CIVIL: support geo-collaboration with information visualization BIBAKFull-Text 273-276
  Anna Wu; Xiaolong Zhang; Gregorio Convertino; John M. Carroll
Teams of specialized experts, such as emergency management planning teams, while making decisions need to efficiently pool domain-specific knowledge, synthesize relevant information, and keep track of collaborators activities at a low interaction cost. This requires tools that allow monitoring both low-level information (e.g., individual actions and external events) and higher-order activities (e.g., how members contribute to groupwork). This paper presents design of CIVIL, a system prototype developed to support map-based decision-making. We report our empirical evaluation of the effects of visualizations on the decision process and the final product.
Keywords: cscw, decision support, geo-collaboration, multiple-view

Collaborative management

Collaborative feed reading in a community BIBAKFull-Text 277-280
  Netta Aizenbud-Reshef; Ido Guy; Michal Jacovi
Feed readers have emerged as one of the salient applications that characterize Web 2.0. Lately, some of the available readers introduced social features, analogously to other Web 2.0 applications, such as recommendations and tagging. Yet, most of the readers lack collaborative features, such as the ability to share feeds in a community or divide the reading task among community members. In this paper we describe CoffeeReader, a web-based feed reader, which combines social and collaborative features, and is deployed in a small community within our company. CoffeeReader provides awareness of other users' feed lists and read status; it enables information sharing such as tags and recommendations; and aims to support coordination of filtering through feeds to locate important items. We compare these group collaboration features of CoffeeReader with emerging features in publicly available feed readers; present the outcomes of using CoffeeReader within our community; and discuss our findings and their implications on making feed readers more collaborative.
Keywords: collaboration, feed aggregator, feed reader, rss reader, social media, social software
All My People Right Here, Right Now: management of group co-presence on a social networking site BIBAKFull-Text 281-290
  Airi Lampinen; Sakari Tamminen; Antti Oulasvirta
A mundane but theoretically interesting and practically relevant situation presents itself on social networking sites: the co-presence of multiple groups important to an individual. This primarily qualitative study concentrates on the point of view of individual SNS users and their perspectives on multiple group affiliations. After charting the perceived multiplicity of groups on the social networking site Facebook, we investigated the relevance of multiple groups to the users and the effect of group co-presence on psychological identification processes. Users deal with group co-presence by managing the situation to prevent anticipated conflictive and identity-threatening situations. Their behavioral strategies consist of dividing the platform into separate spaces, using suitable channels of communication, and performing self-censorship. Mental strategies include both the creation of more inclusive in-group identities and the reciprocity of trusting other users and being responsible. In addition to giving further evidence of the existence of group co-presence on SNSs, the study sheds light on the management of the phenomenon. Management of group co-presence should be supported, since otherwise users may feel the urge to resort to defensive strategies of social identity protection such as ceasing to use SNSs altogether or, less dramatically, limit their use according to "the least common denominator". Hence, the phenomenon merits the attention of researchers, developers, and designers alike.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, group co-presence, groups, social networking, social networking site
Locating patient expertise in everyday life BIBAKFull-Text 291-300
  Andrea Civan; David W. McDonald; Kenton T. Unruh; Wanda Pratt
Coping with a new health issue often requires individuals to acquire knowledge and skills to manage personal health. Many patients turn to one another for experiential expertise outside the formal bounds of the health-care system. Internet-based social software can facilitate expertise sharing among patients, but provides only limited ways for users to locate sources of patient expertise. Although much prior research has investigated expertise location and systems to augment expertise sharing in workplace organizations, the transferability of this knowledge to other contexts, such as personal health, is unclear. Guided by expertise locating frameworks drawn from prior work, we conducted a field study to investigate expertise locating in the informal and everyday context of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Similarities between patients' expertise locating practices and practices of professionals in workplace organizations suggest similar support strategies could apply in both contexts. However, unlike professionals, unsolicited advice often triggered patients to locate expertise. They identified expertise through various forms of gatekeeping. The high-stakes nature of problems patients faced also led them to use triangulation strategies in anticipation of breakdowns in expertise location. Based on these key differences, we explored five design additions to social software that could support patients in their critical need to locate patient expertise.
Keywords: expertise location, expertise sharing, patient expertise

Health

Information handover in time-critical work BIBAKFull-Text 301-310
  Aleksandra Sarcevic; Randall S. Burd
Information transfer under time pressure and stress often leads to information loss. This paper studies the characteristics and problems of information handover from the emergency medical services (EMS) crew to the trauma team when a critically injured patient arrives to the trauma bay. We consider the characteristics of the handover process and the subsequent use of transferred information. Our goal is to support the design of technology for information transfer by identifying specific challenges faced by EMS crews and trauma teams during handover. Data were drawn from observation and video recording of 18 trauma resuscitations. The study shows how EMS crews report information from the field and the types of information that they include in their reports. Particular problems occur when reports lack structure, continuity, and complete descriptions of treatments given en route. We also found that trauma team members have problems retaining reported information. They pay attention to the items needed for immediately treating the patient and inquire about other items when needed during the resuscitation. The paper identifies a set of design challenges that arise during information transfer under time pressure and stress, and discusses characteristics of potential technological solutions.
Keywords: communication, healthcare, information handover, teamwork, time-critical work, traumatic injury
Toward technologies that support family reflections on health BIBAKFull-Text 311-320
  Andrea Grimes; Desney Tan; Dan Morris
Previous research has explored how technology can motivate healthy living in social groups such as friends and coworkers. However, little research has focused on the implications of collecting, sharing, and reflecting upon health information within families. To explore this domain, we conducted a study that consisted of a week-long journaling activity followed by semi-structured interviews and formative design activities with 15 families (66 people). We identified four areas in which these practices are unique in a family context. Based on these findings we propose preliminary considerations for technologies that effectively support family reflections on health data.
Keywords: exercise, family, health, information sharing, lifestyle, nutrition
Implementing new ways of working: interventions and their effect on the use of an electronic medication record BIBAKFull-Text 321-330
  Maren Sander Granlien; Morten Hertzum
Successful deployment of information technology (IT) involves implementation of new ways of working. Under-recognition of this organizational element of implementation entails considerable risk of not attaining the benefits that motivated deployment, yet knowledge of how to work systematically with organizational implementation is sparse. This study investigates a set of interventions undertaken to implement one mandated procedure associated with an electronic medication record, namely that all information about medication is recorded in the system. Medical record audits show that the interventions, which were devised and performed as part of the study, significantly lowered the number of records that violated the procedure. This positive effect was, however, not achieved until multiple interventions had been employed, and there is some indication that the effect may be wearing off after the interventions have ended. We discuss the implications of these results for efforts to work systematically with the organizational implementation of IT systems.
Keywords: adoption, diffusion, electronic medication record, healthcare, organizational implementation

Empirical-qualitative experience

Musical fingerprints: collaboration around home media collections BIBAKFull-Text 331-340
  Robin Sease; David W. McDonald
As people collect more and more digital music, photos, and video, the growing scale of the collection challenges how families share and collaborate around home media collections. We studied the intersection between physical and digital media collections. Through 20 two hour, in home interviews, we explored the when, why, and how of the households' organization, access and sharing. Our grounded approach is framed through the use of the media lifecycle and the spectrum of intimacy of the collector and others involved in the stages of the lifecycle. We found a range of accommodations to facilitate collaboration around media collections in the home. For example, media collections often begin with an individual, but as they become shared and integrated into a household, a member of the household will often play a key curatorial role that includes making changes to the organizational scheme, setting aside sub-collections and selecting items to play that account for the entire household's taste. Our findings identify key practices that can inform the design of future media software for the home.
Keywords: media collection, media management, music sharing
Emergent team coordination: from fire emergency response practice to a non-mimetic simulation game BIBAKFull-Text 341-350
  Zachary O. Toups; Andruid Kerne; William Hamilton; Alan Blevins
We take the work practices of fire emergency responders as the basis for developing simulations to teach team coordination. We introduce non-mimetic simulation: economic operational environments that represent human-centered components of practice, such as team structures and information flows, without mimicking concrete aspects of an environment. Emergent team coordination phenomena validate the non-mimetic simulation of fire emergency response.
   We develop non-mimetic simulation principles through a game, focusing engagement on information distribution, roles, and the need for decisive real time action, while omitting concrete aspects. We describe the game design in detail, including rationale for design iterations. We take the non-mimetic simulation game design to participants for a series of play sessions, investigating how forms of information distribution affect game play. Participants coordinate as a team and, although they are not firefighters, begin to work together in ways that substantively reflect firefighting team coordination practice.
Keywords: emergency response, games, non-mimetic simulation, team coordination, work practice
Probing the potential of non-verbal group communication BIBAKFull-Text 351-360
  Petra Sundström; Tove Jaensson; Kristina Höök; Alina Pommeranz
Designing for non-verbal communication using e.g. gestures and other bodily expressions is difficult. Hardware and software need to be co-designed and harmonize in order to not throw users out of their embodied experience. We aim to design for kinaesthetic expressions of emotion in communication between friends -- in this case, colleagues at work. A probe was built using sensor node technology designed to let users express themselves and their emotional state to a public and shared display where the expressions together formed a collective art piece expressing the individuals but also the group as a whole. Two groups of colleagues used the probe during two weeks. It came to serve as a channel in which some conflicts and expressions of social relations were acted out which were not openly discussed in the office. It exposed different roles and balances in relationships in the group. Finally, the probe taught us the importance of balancing the design for joint group expression and individual, personal expressions. The study also allowed the participants to experience the sensor node-'material' -- enabling a participatory design process.
Keywords: autobiographical design, friends at work, richer expressiveness, technology probe
A view from Mount Olympus: the impact of activity tracking tools on the character and practice of moderation BIBAKFull-Text 361-370
  David Gurzick; Kevin F. White; Wayne G. Lutters; Lee Boot
Moderation within online communities is critical. Though many guidelines are available that describe the goals of successful moderation, these often minimize the complex interplay that exists between tools and practices of moderators. This study investigates the role of moderation through the lens of the moderators in a nascent online community for adolescents. Based on an analysis of their activities, three classes of emergent behavior were uncovered when exploring how the available tools impacted the way moderator work was performed. The findings reveal a need for design considerations that take into account the appropriateness of match between the tools and work processes from a moderator perspective.
Keywords: adolescents, awareness, design, moderation, online communities, sociotechnical systems, tools

Doctoral consortium abstracts

Motivated by information: information about online collective action as an incentive for participation BIBAKFull-Text 371-372
  Judd Antin
This paper describes research focused on understanding the relationships between operational knowledge about how online collective action systems work and participation in those systems. Specifically, I use qualitative interviews to examine knowledge about online systems that form public goods, questioning whether the notions of public goods and social dilemmas are relevant and meaningful for individuals making real-world participation decisions. This paper also describes concurrent experimental research focused on exploring the relationship between knowledge about one's own and others' competence to contribute to collective goals as a factor in participation decisions.
Keywords: collective action, competence, economics, incentives, motivation, operational knowledge, public goods, social dilemmas, social psychology
Open innovation and the solver community BIBAKFull-Text 373-374
  Margarida Cardoso; Isabel Ramos
This paper introduces a doctoral research on open innovation solver's behavior and group factors inducing it. The research is now finishing its first year and exploratory strategies are developed close to open innovation online communities, to prepare a systematic methodological approach.
   Research seeks to understand how solver's patterns of communication and group behavior influence their participation in an open innovation community, through collaborative IT platforms -- and how it weights on their innovation production. A second question is about critical factors that influence solvers' participation, due to the present global economical crisis. By designing a model of the solver's group of belonging characteristics and reflecting that on a collaborative platform's functionalities, the project intends to present some propositions to ease participation in crowdsourcing innovation processes -- through an online platform being designed and developed at University of Minho.
Keywords: crisis, crowdsourcing innovation, online communities, solvers
Validation of an inventory of social connectedness BIBAKFull-Text 375-376
  Amy L. Gonzales
Digital technologies are often designed to enhance a sense of social connection between users across physical space. Currently no quantitative scale has been validated to determine how effective a tool is in establishing social connection. This proposal outlines 3 studies designed to rigorously validate a scale of social connection in mediated spaces. To do this, a 24-item scale was developed and tested. In Study 1 the scale was given to 177 people to establish internal and convergent validity. Preliminary analyses suggests good overall internal reliability and convergent validity. Future studies intend to establish predictive validity across systems (Study 2) and within a single system (Study 3). The inventory should prove useful for tests of usability and theory. In the last section I describe its role in my dissertation.
Keywords: awareness, presence, scale validation, social connectedness
COVE: a visual environment for multidisciplinary science collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 377-378
  Keith Grochow
New technologies and approaches are transforming how we carry out and communicate science. In oceanography, large multidisciplinary teams are developing deep-water ocean observatories of unprecedented scale. These observatories will allow hundreds of scientists from disparate fields to conduct experiments together, provide real-time sensor and data access through the Internet, and create a vast archive of data. My work explores some of the challenges of creating collaborative tools to support this new science. Working together with a team of scientists, I designed and deployed the Collaborative Ocean Visualization Environment (COVE) to bring together the data, processes and people on the team. I then carried out three field evaluations of COVE: a multi-month deployment with the scientists, engineers, and graphics staff of the observatory design team, and two different two-week deployments as the primary planning and collaboration platform for expeditionary cruises to map observatory node sites and geothermal sites. Based on these experiences and insight gained in these deployments, I explore the needs of interactive tools to support the work of large multidisciplinary ocean science teams.
Keywords: collaboration, e-science, visualization
Automated discovery of social networks in text-based online communities BIBAKFull-Text 379-380
  Anatoliy Gruzd
As a way to gain greater insights into the operation of online communities, this dissertation applies automated text mining techniques to text-based communication to identify, describe and evaluate underlying social networks among online community members. The main thrust of the study is to find a way to use computers to discover social ties that form between community members just from the digital footprints left behind in their online forum postings automatically. As part of this work, a web-based system for content and network analysis called the Internet Community Text Analyzer (ICTA) is being developed. A prototype of ICTA is available at http://textanalytics.net.
Keywords: e-learning, network visualization, online communities, social network analysis, text mining
Towards a better understanding of group forking dynamics in virtual contexts BIBAKFull-Text 381-382
  Qing Li
"Group Fork" is defined as more than two group members leave their parent organization and start a new group. While group fork is a common social phenomenon in any type of group, it is still understudied in virtual contexts. Drawing upon the literature from three fields, religious research, social psychology and organization studies, this study attempts to bridge this gap by answering two questions, "what causes group fork?" and how is individual dissatisfaction transformed into group-level dissatisfaction in virtual contexts, thus leading to the eventual fork? Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects will be used as examples of self-organizing virtual work, as they provide a good context to observe the whole process of how group interactions are intertwined toward to the eventual fork. A multi-stage research strategy is conducted in this study and preliminary findings will be reported.
Keywords: floss, group fork, open source, schism, turnover
Supporting and transforming leadership in online creative collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 383-384
  Kurt Luther
Behind every successful online creative collaboration, from Wikipedia to Linux, is at least one effective project leader. Yet, we know little about what such leaders do and how technology supports or inhibits their work. My thesis investigates leadership in online creative collaboration, focusing on the novel context of animated movie-making. I first conducted an empirical study of existing leadership practices in this context. I am now designing a Web-based collaborative system, Sandbox, to understand the impact of technological support for centralized versus decentralized leadership in this context. My expected contributions include a comparative investigation of the effects of different types of leadership on online creative collaboration, and a set of empirically validated design principles for supporting leadership in online creative collaboration.
Keywords: animation, leadership, online creative collaboration
Exploring the use of Wikis for information sharing in interdisciplinary design BIBAKFull-Text 385-386
  Ammy Jiranida Phuwanartnurak
Interdisciplinary design is challenging, in large measure, because of the difficulty in communicating and coordinating across disciplines. Many tools have been developed and used to support information sharing in design, and the use of WWW technology is becoming increasingly important for the sharing of information. Wikis, in particular, have been claimed to support collaboration and information sharing. The backing for this claim, however, has not been rigorously assessed and to date few empirical studies have appeared in the literature. For my dissertation, I am conducting a field study of interdisciplinary design projects, seeking to discover how wikis enable information sharing in software development projects. The research findings will expand our understanding of information sharing behavior of design professionals. It will also provide empirical evidence on the use of wikis in design work, which will be used to develop guidelines on the effective use of wikis to support design collaboration.
Keywords: Wikis, information sharing, interdisciplinary design
Temporal patterns of communication: media combos BIBAKFull-Text 387-388
  Norman Makoto Su
Today's employees are expected to be adept at the usage of multiple communication mediums. With secretaries now regarded as a frivolous luxury, people have essentially become professional "secretaries" of their own interactions. A large body of research in the HCI and CSCW literature has examined how information workers have appropriated certain communication mediums in order to accomplish work. However, how people must combine and integrate a multitude of media adroitly throughout a limited workday (approximately 8 hours) has been relatively ignored. Namely, I propose to examine through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques the temporal and sequential interdependence of different kinds of media. I will examine how/why such media combos arise and their psychological affects in the workplace.
Keywords: communication, computer-mediated communication, media combos, temporal analysis, workplace
Expressing territoriality in collaborative activity BIBAKFull-Text 389-390
  Jennifer Thom-Santelli
Territoriality, the expression of ownership towards an object, can emerge when social actors occupy a shared social space. In my research, I extend the study of territoriality beyond previous work in physical space in two key ways: 1) the object in question is virtual and 2) the social context is an online community engaged in collaborative activity. To do this, I observe the emergence of characteristic territorial behaviors (e.g. marking, control, defense) within collaborative authoring and social tagging. My dissertation then uses these observations to construct a theoretical framework for online territoriality to provide researchers and designers of groupware with guidelines with which to encourage ownership expression when appropriate.
Keywords: collaborative authoring, ownership, social tagging, territoriality
Creativity support in IT research organization BIBAKFull-Text 391-392
  Priyamvada Tripathi
All domains of human activity and society require creativity. This dissertation applies machine learning and data mining techniques to create a framework for applying emerging Human Centric Computing (HCC) systems for study and creation of creativity support tools. The proposed system collects and analyzes high-resolution on-line and physically captured contextual and social data to substantially contribute to new and better understandings of workplace behavior, social and affective experience, and creative activities. Using this high granularity data, dynamic instruments that use real-time sensing and inference algorithms to provide guidance and support on events and processes related to affect and creativity will be developed and evaluated. In the long term, it is expected that this approach will lead to adaptive reflective technologies that stimulate collaborative activity, reduce time pressure and interruption, mitigate detrimental effects of negative affect, and increase individual and team creative activity and outcomes.
Keywords: affect and creativity, creative ubiquitous environments, creativeit, creativity support tools, cscw, human social network, hybrid methodologies
Cross-organizational information reuse: a third vision of collaborative memory in the enterprise BIBAKFull-Text 393-394
  Kevin F. White
Small organizations are facing a knowledge predicament as they operate with increasingly sparse pools of employees that must support a broad range of organizational needs. With reduced human resources comes limited time to devote to ancillary work tasks such as documentation. When no local memory system is available, organizations resort to Internet-based repositories. Though these sources contain nearly limitless information they do so at the cost of rich local context.
   To bridge the gap between internal and Internet-based memory systems this research explores a third vision; one which establishes virtual partnerships between small organizations. Using ethnographic methods this field study examines the: socio-technical ramifications of cross-organizational information reuse, relevance of information developed by partner organizations, and system tools that support efficient cross-organizational knowledge flow.
Keywords: cross-organizational, knowledge management, organizational memory, reuse, socio-technical
Supporting collaborative sensemaking in map-based emergency management and planning BIBAKFull-Text 395-396
  Anna Wu; Xiaolong Zhang
Emergency management and planning often involves multiple domain experts with diverse knowledge backgrounds and responsibilities. Current practices in emergency management and planning have not leveraged the state-of-art technologies in information sharing, synthesis, and analysis. The proposed research will investigate the process of collaborative sensemaking in emergency planning and implement a map-based online system to support this process.
Keywords: collaborative sensemaking, geo-collaboration, supportive system
Social performances: understanding the motivations for online participatory behavior BIBAKFull-Text 397-398
  Jude Yew
"Open contribution systems" (OCS) are online applications that encourage users to contribute and share content in a "public" and open manner. While these systems lower the barriers to participating, what is less clear is why users are motivated to contribute time and effort in these online environments with relative strangers. My dissertation proposes that one way to explain high levels of participation on OCS is to use the lens of social performances. This lens suggests that individual participation on social software websites involves elements of both individual and collective performative behavior. The social performance framework suggests that the participatory behavior is part of a larger sensemaking exercise that rationalizes and aligns individual contributions to the collective effort. The view here is that OCS and its users are part of a socio-technical ecology and are mutually dependent on each other. Understanding participation as a form of social performance can enable us to better design systems that encourage participation, collaboration and sharing.
Keywords: creative commons, motivations, open contribution systems, participation, social network analysis