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GROUP Tables of Contents: 97990103050709101214

GROUP'01: International Conference on Supporting Group Work

Fullname:Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work
Editors:Clarence (Skip) Ellis; Ilze Zigurs
Location:Boulder, Colorado, USA
Dates:2001-Sep-30 to 2001-Oct-03
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-294-8; ACM Order Number:612010; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: GROUP01
Papers:34
Pages:300
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Workshops
  2. Mobile Collaboration
  3. Collaborative Learning
  4. Workflow Systems
  5. Virtual Environments
  6. Coordination Challenges
  7. Use and Effectiveness
  8. Architecture and Development
  9. Social and Relational Effects
  10. Tools and Infrastructure
  11. Collaborative Workspaces
  12. Groupware/Group Characteristics
  13. Collaborative Learning
  14. Work Communities
  15. Tools for Different Tasks
  16. Dimensions of Ubiquity

Workshops

A computer game virtual environment for collaboration BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Peter Frost; Michael Johansson; Peter Warren
Third annual collaborative editing workshop BIBAFull-Text 3-4
  Jeffrey D. Campbell
Collaborative editing systems support groups of people editing a document together over the computer network. People may work simultaneously on the same document, simultaneously on different copies of the document, or at different times on the original or copied document. The document types include text, diagrams, more complicated graphic objects, images, CAD drawings, multimedia, etc.. Collaborative editing research addresses many fundamental and challenging issues facing the designers of real-time groupware systems in general.

Mobile Collaboration

Decentralized ad-hoc groupware API and framework for mobile collaboration BIBAFull-Text 5-14
  Dominik Buszko; Wei-Hsing (Dan) Lee; Abdelsalam (Sumi) Helal
We describe a mobile collaborative system designed for wireless, ad-hoc collaboration. In recent years, mobile computing has emerged as a new discipline in the field of computer science. Due to advances in technology, portable computing devices have become more pervasive. From smart phones, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) running embedded operating systems, to portable computers running conventional desktop operating systems, these devices have increasingly provided communication capabilities that utilize wireless connections. With those communication capabilities firmly established, the next logical step is in the direction of greater interactions between mobile users equipped with such devices. However, conventional collaborative tools are ill suited for the demands of portable computers and mobile networks, especially in situations in which no fixed-network infrastructure is present. With these considerations in mind, we designed and implemented a collaborative environment and a framework API suited towards ad-hoc networks of small mobile devices. By creating such a framework, developers can easily take advantage of a decentralized and fault-tolerant collaborative environment, and rapidly develop custom collaboration spaces suited towards their specific need.
A diary study of rendezvousing: implications for position-aware computing and communications for the general public BIBAFull-Text 15-23
  Martin Colbert
This paper presents a diary study of rendezvousing as performed by university students. The study suggests that endezvousing frequently does not occur exactly as planned, but this is not necessarily problematic. It also reveals that 'problem' rendezvous were attributed more frequently to modes of travel, over-running of previous activities and lack of information about other rendezvousers, than to lack of information about travel, or local geography. These, and other, findings have implications for the design of position-aware computing and communications for the general public.

Collaborative Learning

Group formation in computer-supported collaborative learning BIBAFull-Text 24-31
  Martin Wessner; Hans-Rudiger Pfister
Group formation in CSCL environments is either done manually with little support from the system, or the system needs an elaborated model of the learning domain in order to select potential peer learners and to form learning groups in a pedagogically sound way. Our research objectives include the integration of collaborative learning into the learning environment so that knowledge about the collaboration context can be used to support collaboration, including group formation without the need for a detailed model of the learning domain. In this paper we describe how so-called Intended Points of Cooperation (IPoCs) can be integrated into a (web-based) course. The course author defines at which points in the course a collaborative activity should occur and specifies the cooperative activity, i.e., type and size of the learning group, the collaboration type, and additional material for each activity. We explain how the system can utilize the knowledge about the collaboration context in order to form appropriate learning groups. Finally, we illustrate our approach with examples from the project "L3: Lifelong learning as a utility", a German federally funded project which serves as a use case.

Workflow Systems

Interaction as a framework for flexible workflow modelling BIBAFull-Text 32-41
  Havard D. Jorgensen
There are a number of approaches to making workflow management systems more flexible. Most follow conventional notions of workflow models as formally complete and consistent, and look at how change can be handled by migrating instances from one stable state to another. This paper argues that interaction should be pursued more vigorously as an approach to enactment. In this framework, interpretation is not fully automated. Involving users in situated model interpretation, interactive enactment allows inconsistent and incomplete models to emerge, better matching the contingencies of real work. This reassessment of the concept of workflow models is illustrated by the Workware prototype and modelling language, showing that the interaction perspective can inform design of simple and flexible workflow architectures. A case from an interorganisational project further illustrates this.
Beyond workflow management: product-driven case handling BIBAFull-Text 42-51
  W. M. P. van der Aalst; P. J. S. Berens
In the last decade, workflow technology has become one of the building blocks for realizing enterprise information systems. Unfortunately, the application of contemporary workflow management systems is limited to well-defined and well-controlled environments. In practice, workflow technology often fails because of limited flexibility. We advocate a paradigm shift to overcome this problem: Workflows should not be driven by pre-specified control-flows but by the products they generate. This paper presents the software package FLOWer which fully supports this paradigm shift.
Process descriptions as organisational accounting devices: the dual use of workflow technologies BIBAFull-Text 52-60
  Paul Dourish
Workflow technologies present a problem for CSCW. On the one hand, they are perhaps the most successful form of groupware technology in current use; but on the other, they have been subject to sustained and cogent critiques, particularly from perspective of the analysis of everyday working activities. This leads inevitably to the question: in the face of these critiques, just why and how do workflow technologies prove effective? This paper suggests that part of the solution lies in the fact that workflow technologies play more than one role in organisations, and that, in fact, the success of workflow technologies may have little to do with the typical relationship of those technologies to the accomplishment of everyday work. On the basis of the notion of a dual role for workflow technologies, I lay out a framework for considering the design and analysis of workflow systems that may help to bridge between these two roles.

Virtual Environments

An integrative framework for knowledge extraction in collaborative virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Robert P. Biuk-Aghai; Simeon J. Simoff
Collaborative virtual environments are becoming an intrinsic part of professional practices. In addition to providing collaboration support, they have the potential to collect vast amounts of data about collaborative activities. The aim of this research is to utilize this data effectively, extract meaningful insights out of it and feeding discovered knowledge back into the environment. The paper presents a framework for integrating knowledge discovery techniques with collaborative virtual environments, starting from early conceptual development. Discovered patterns are deposited in an organizational memory which makes these available within the virtual environment. Two examples of the application of the framework are included.
Experiencing a presentation through a mixed reality boundary BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  Boriana Koleva; Holger Schnadelbach; Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh
We describe a pilot study of the use of a mixed reality environment for distributed presentations involving virtual and physical audiences and speakers. Our aims were to establish mutual awareness between all participants; to present physical and virtual worlds as being spatially integrated; and to support moderate sized audiences. We used a mixed reality boundary to join a physical space to a collaborative virtual environment so that the two appeared to be adjacent but distinct components of a single space. Two presentations were staged to a mixed physical and virtual audience, one by a virtual speaker and one by a physical speaker. Each presentation was followed by a question and answer session. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and video recordings revealed that some degree of mutual awareness was established between participants and that physical participants may have viewed the environment as being more spatially integrated than virtual participants. We propose that improving avatars and video textures in the virtual environment may further enhance the experience.

Coordination Challenges

Characterizing modes of coordination: a comparison between oral and artifact based coordination BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Peter H. Carstensen; Morten Nielsen
The choice of communicative modality will greatly affect the way cooperative work is coordinated. Computer supported coordination brings about changes to communicative modalities-often the change is from oral to artifact based coordination. In order to inform the designed changes in modality we need to understand the characteristics of individual modes of coordination, and we need to compare modes before changes are implemented. Within this context the paper has two objectives: (1) to characterize oral and artifact based coordination, and (2) to establish an initial set of dimensions which will support a comparison between the two modes of coordination. The basis for both points is empirical: a field study of oral coordination in maritime operations, and a study of artifact based coordination in software engineering.
Towards an optimal resolution to information overload: an infomediary approach BIBAFull-Text 91-96
  Jinwon Ho; Rong Tang
The rapid growth of Internet and the improved accessibility of web information amplify the problem of information overload in our modern life. Information overload affects not only individual's work performance, but also business productivity on an organizational level. In this paper, we investigated the information overload problem as reported by five industry cases and identified three common factors that are related to the problem: information quantity, information format and information quality. We found that in the current practice of infomediary models, solutions to the information overload are mainly established through the control of information quantity, while the two additional dimensions are partially ignored or not resolved in an optimal manner. We thus conclude that the effective resolution to information overload may only be reached after a fully evolved infomediary approach is implemented. Such approach integrates all three aspects of information overload, with information format and information quality being considered as having an equal significance as information quantity.
Demonstrational customization of a shared whiteboard to support user-defined semantic relationships among objects BIBAFull-Text 97-106
  Du Li; Jason Patrao
As a promising approach to end-user computing, programming by demonstration (PBD) techniques have been explored by many researchers in single-user applications. This paper investigates how PBD techniques can be used to support end-user customization of groupware tools. In collaborative applications, complex semantic relationships can emerge unanticipatedly among objects (participants, data artifacts, tools, devices, etc.) such as the hierarchical organization of participants, consistency maintenance among different views of the same data, and awareness control. It is important that end users are empowered to customize the groupware application to model and enforce such relationships. We present an active rule based approach to modeling user-defined semantic relationships in collaborative applications and explore a demonstrational approach for end-user customization of collaboration tools to support the definition of those relationships. The presented work is based on our work on a shared whiteboard tool, CAB or Collaborative Active whiteBoard. Our approach is being generalized to support end user defined object relationships in shared workspaces.

Use and Effectiveness

Exploration environments: concept and empirical evaluation BIBAFull-Text 107-116
  Volker Wulf; Bjorn Golombek
Exploration environments support users to learn groupware in a self-directed way. They allow users to perceive the way a groupware function works by simulating the impacts of the function's execution on other users' interfaces. This paper motivates and describes the concept of exploration environments and presents an exemplary implementation. Moreover, it reports about the results of an experimental study, which evaluated the effects of this concept on users' learning. The results of this study are discussed and compared to findings from a field study which evaluated the concept, as well.
Effects of communication medium on interpersonal perceptions BIBAFull-Text 117-124
  Joanie B. Connell; Gerald A. Mendelsohn; Richard W. Robins; John Canny
This paper uses a social psychological perspective to study the effectiveness of different media of communication and how they influence interactions in social groups and organizations. In particular, we are interested in the social richness of the media-how effectively they convey the personalities and intentions of their users. We studied CMC (email and chat) and voice telephony, and compared them with face-to-face interaction. Study 1 was a controlled laboratory study in which people got acquainted with a partner. Study 2 was a field survey in which employees reported on naturally occurring interactions at work that took place with people of varying levels of power (supervisor, peer, subordinate). The surprising result is that the telephone generally came out on top in both studies, suggesting that the telephone may provide the optimum blend of richness and presence for natural and satisfying interactions.
A comparison of usage evaluation and inspection methods for assessing groupware usability BIBAFull-Text 125-134
  Michelle Potts Steves; Emile Morse; Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
Many researchers believe that groupware can only be evaluated by studying real collaborators in their real contexts, a process that tends to be expensive and time-consuming. Others believe that it is more practical to evaluate groupware through usability inspection methods. Deciding between these two approaches is difficult, because it is unclear how they compare in a real evaluation situation. To address this problem, we carried out a dual evaluation of a groupware system, with one evaluation applying user-based techniques, and the other using inspection methods. We compared the results from the two evaluations and concluded that, while the two methods have their own strengths, weaknesses, and trade-offs, they are complementary. Because the two methods found overlapping problems, we expect that they can be used in tandem to good effect, e.g., applying the discount method prior to a field study, with the expectation that the system deployed in the more expensive field study has a better chance of doing well because some pertinent usability problems will have already been addressed.

Architecture and Development

Workflow performance and scalability analysis using the layered queuing modeling methodology BIBAFull-Text 135-143
  Kwang-Hoon Kim; Clarence A. Ellis
The design and implementation of a workflow management system is typically a large and complex task. Decisions need to be made about the hardware and software platforms, the data structures, the algorithms, and network interconnection of various modules utilized by various users and administrators. These decisions are further complicated by requirements such as flexibility, robustness, modifiability, availability, performance, and usability. As the size of workflow systems increases, organizations are finding that the standard server/client architectures, and off-the-shelf solutions are not adequate. We can further see that in the farther future, very large-scale workflow systems (VLSW) will become more complex, and more prevalent. Thus, one further requirement is an emphasis of this document: scalability. For the purposes of our scalable workflow investigations, we describe a framework, a taxonomy, a model, and a methodology to investigate the performance of various workflow architectures as the size of the system (number of workcases) grows very large.
   First, this paper presents a novel workflow architectural framework and taxonomy. In fact, most current workflow architectures fall into only one of the many categories of this taxonomy: the centralized server/client category. The paper next explains a performance analysis methodology useful for exploring this taxonomy. The methodology deploys a layered queuing model, and performs mathematical analysis on this model using a modified MOL (method of layers) combined with a linearization algorithm. Finally, the paper utilizes this methodology to compare and contrast the various architectural categories, providing interesting results about performance as the number of workcases increases. Our analytic results suggest that (a) for VLSW performance determination, software architecture is as important as hardware architecture, and (b) alternatives to the client server architecture provide significantly better scalability.
From local to global coordination: lessons from software reuse BIBAFull-Text 144-153
  Rebecca E. Grinter
Software reuse offers the promise of reducing product costs and increasing system reliability by making it possible to share code. However, software reuse in practice has proved much harder. This paper examines three cases of software reuse to understand why reuse remains elusive. The findings show that reuse encounters three coordination problems: the work required to traverse boundaries, the effects of organizational and environmental changes, and the coordination required to align and assemble multiple pieces of software.

Social and Relational Effects

Social presence with video and application sharing BIBAFull-Text 154-161
  Erin Bradner; Gloria Mark
We present two experimental studies examining the effects of videoconferencing and application sharing on task performance. We studied performance on a cognitive reasoning task while subjects were observed via two-way video, one-way video and application sharing. Results demonstrate that performance is impaired when subjects are observed via media compared to when they are not observed. Surprisingly, we found no significant difference in awareness of the observer's presence between the application sharing and the two-way video conditions. This is surprising because application sharing lacks visual feedback of the observer. This finding contradicts social presence theory which claims that media which provides visual feedback of others produce the greatest sense of social presence. Our data also show that media use heightens the perception of task difficulty. We extend social presence theory and argue that these social effects need to be considered in the design and deployment of video and application sharing technologies for use in the workplace.
Building boundaries and negotiating work at home BIBAFull-Text 162-170
  Christine Salazar
Millions of people are now working full-or part-time at home. Computer technology allows workers remote access to materials and facilitates communication with coworkers and supervisors. Companies are developing telecommuting programs to benefit both the company and the employees. But working at home is not as simple as placing a computer somewhere in the home and beginning to work. The interaction with family members needs to be taken into consideration. This research looks at the process of negotiating the time and space needed to do work in the home and reveals a variety of relational and situational boundaries.

Tools and Infrastructure

Collaborative document monitoring BIBAFull-Text 171-178
  Natalie Glance; Jean-Luc Meunier; Pierre Bernard; Damian Arregui
In this paper we present a second generation URL monitoring tool which enables the collaborative evaluation of URL content changes. In our implementation, a document monitoring agent works alongside a recommender system. Using information provided by the monitoring agent, the collaborative system alerts users when documents they are monitoring have changed. The monitoring agent provides automatic evaluation of the nature of the change. Users, however, add subjective evaluations; one user's effort informs all others monitoring the same URL. Based on these subjective evaluations, the collaborative system can filter the changed URLs, providing customized notifications for each user based on individual preferences. In this paper, we describe the implemented system and usage results.
WWG: a wide-area infrastructure to support groups BIBAFull-Text 179-187
  Joan Manuel Marques; Leandro Navarro
Group learning at Internet scale is becoming more frequent in university courses. This complex process requires support by distributed computing learning support infrastructures.
   This paper describes the design of WWG (World-Wide Groups): a distributed and decentralized infrastructure with the aim of supporting distributed group learning and team work, centered on the distribution of events, so that every participant can be notified and thus be aware of the actions, changes, progress of the groups he belongs to.
   The design issues, requirements and the resulting architecture are presented. WWG is based on a multi-component architecture where metainformation agents are responsible for helping the events to reach the members of the group; the repository agents are responsible for the storage of group information; and user agents are responsible for the representation of users (sources and sinks of events). In this paper we tried to show that, applying events transformation policies, WWG is scalable at group level.

Collaborative Workspaces

A team collaboration space supporting capture and access of virtual meetings BIBAFull-Text 188-196
  Werner Geyer; Heather Richter; Ludwin Fuchs; Tom Frauenhofer; Shahrokh Daijavad; Steven Poltrock
In this paper, we address the design issues of a collaborative workspace system, called TeamSpace, that supports geographically distributed teams by managing shared work processes and maintaining shared artifacts in a project. TeamSpace attempts to integrate both synchronous and asynchronous types of team interaction into a task-oriented environment. Since meetings are an integral part of teamwork, our current work focuses on supporting virtual meetings as part of a larger collaborative work process. We present an initial TeamSpace prototype that supports asynchronous meeting management seamlessly integrated with capture and access of synchronous distributed meetings. The captured synchronous data is integrated with other related information in TeamSpace, enabling users to efficiently gain knowledge of both current and past team activities.
Undoing any operation in collaborative graphics editing systems BIBAFull-Text 197-206
  David Chen; Chengzheng Sun
Undo is a useful and widely supported feature which can be used to recover from erroneous operations, learn new system features, and explore alternative solutions. The ability to undo any operation at any time is especially important for collaborative editing systems because it can be used to support local or global undo and also multiple undo models. The Any Undo solution presented in this paper is able to undo any operation in collaborative graphics editing systems. The major challenge in designing the Any Undo solution is to produce the correct undo/redo effect when operations may be undone/redone in any order. The solution is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on how to produce the undo/redo effect on individual objects. Due to the use of multi-versioning concurrency control protocol, the second part of the solution focuses on producing the correct version and the correct number of versions. This Any Undo solution has been implemented in a collaborative graphics editing system called GRACE.

Groupware/Group Characteristics

When culture and style aren't about clothes: perceptions of task-technology "fit" in global virtual teams BIBAFull-Text 207-213
  Anne P. Massey; Yu-Ting Caisy Hung; Mitzi Montoya-Weiss; V. Ramesh
The rise of the virtual organization in response to global competition and advances in technology has led to the deployment of global virtual teams. Global virtual teams are increasingly commonplace when team members are geographically dispersed and as travel budgets are cut. A global virtual team can be described as a culturally diverse, geographically dispersed, and electronically communicating work group. Virtual teams and the technologies that support them promise the flexibility, responsiveness, lower costs, and improved resource utilization necessary to compete. There is a need for research on how to make virtual teams work effectively when the central medium of the team's process is technology. In this paper, we will explore how cultural tendencies, specifically country-of-origin differences relate to communication styles and how these may influence perceptions of task-technology fit by members of global virtual teams.
Evaluating expertise recommendations BIBAFull-Text 214-223
  David W. McDonald
Finding a person who has the expertise to solve a specific problem is an important application of recommender systems to a difficult organizational problem. Prior systems have made attempts to implement solutions to this problem, but few systems have undergone systematic user evaluation. This work describes a systematic evaluation of the Expertise Recommender (ER), a system that recommends people who are likely to have expertise in a specific problem. ER and the organizational context for which it was designed are described to provide a basis for understanding this evaluation. Prior to conducting the evaluation, a baseline experiment showed that people are relatively good at judging coworkers' expertise when given an appropriate context. This finding provides a way to demonstrate the effectiveness of ER by comparing ER's performance to ratings by coworkers. The evaluation, the design, and results are described in detail. The results suggest that the participants agree with the recommendations made by ER, and that ER significantly outperforms other expertise recommender systems when compared using similar metrics.

Collaborative Learning

Symgroup: applying social agents in a group interaction system BIBAFull-Text 224-231
  Jacques Wainer; Danillo Palacio Braga
This paper introduces the idea of social agents, that is, agents whose goals are to maintain or improve the social context of a group, while working with a groupware system. We discuss Symgroup, a discussion tool augmented with three social agents, one that implements a Symlog agent, that analyses the participant's behavior, and two others that implement ad hoc theories about attitudes toward the discussion.

Work Communities

Diffusion of a collaborative technology cross distance BIBAFull-Text 232-241
  Gloria Mark; Steven Poltrock
Achieving a common set of collaboration tools is a significant challenge for people working together in a geographically distributed enterprise. It requires coordinated technology adoption across geographic distance and organizational boundaries. In this paper, we report on the diffusion of a data conferencing technology in a large distributed enterprise. Two years ago we studied the early adopters; now the technology is widespread. We conducted a company-wide survey and found that it is generally the users, and not management, who are the driving force in diffusing the technology across distance. We discuss the organizational conditions that led to the diffusion, how barriers have changed, and emerging work practices as a result of the diffusion.
'Safety in numbers': calculation and document re-use in knowledge work BIBAFull-Text 242-251
  Richard Harper; Rob Procter; Dave Randall; Mark Rouncefield
This paper presents detailed examples of document use and re-use, through an ethnographic study of the knowledge work associated with road safety audit in a civil engineering consultancy The paper incorporates some detailed observation of practices, conversations, and other activities occurring around document re-use in everyday work. It outlines some aspects of the everyday use and re-use of engineering documents in the practical accomplishment of everyday knowledge work as the first stage in considering how these activities can be technologically supported.
The social web cockpit: support for virtual communities BIBAFull-Text 252-259
  Wolfgang Grather; Wolfgang Prinz
This paper describes the design and functionality of the Social Web Cockpit, an assistant that supports users while traversing the World Wide Web. The cockpit provides social awareness and supports collaboration, notification of interesting Web pages, collaborative construction of community knowledge, and the development of a community vocabulary. The cockpit aims at turning the World Wide Web from an interaction medium into a cooperation tool, for the active support and self-organization of virtual communities.

Tools for Different Tasks

Visual and spatial communication and task organization using the visual knowledge builder BIBAFull-Text 260-269
  Frank Shipman; Robert Airhart; Haowei Hsieh; Preetam Maloor; J. Michael Moore; Divya Shah
When people share a workspace, they naturally create visual structures which organize resources, communicate interpretations, and coordinate activities. To support this mode of communication and coordination we have built the Visual Knowledge Builder (VKB.) VKB supports the incremental visual interpretation of information. Through the emergence and evolution of visual languages, communication between VKB users sharing a workspace grows over time. VKB has been used for two years in note taking, writing, curriculum development, project management, and conference organization. These tasks include short-and long-term synchronous and asynchronous activities. Features such as the recognition of implicit spatial structure and navigable history facilitate the authoring and comprehension of shared visual information spaces. VKB has also been used in a more controlled setting by pairs of people writing a poem with a constrained vocabulary. This use of VKB has been compared to the same task using Magnetic Poetry sets to better understand how the characteristics of the tools and information space impact collaborative practice.
Effects of group task pressure on perceptions of email and face-to-face communication effectiveness BIBAFull-Text 270-278
  E. Vance Wilson; James R. Connolly
This paper adds to a growing group systems literature in the area of task-technology fit by investigating effects of group task pressure on perceptions of media effectiveness. A quasi-experiment was conducted using long-term participants in low-and high-level group task pressure treatments. Following treatment, participants rated email and face-to-face communication effectiveness on four task dimensions based on the well-known McGrath group task circumplex. Significant effects were found between treatments and among task dimensions, suggesting a number of implications for both practice and research.

Dimensions of Ubiquity

Organizational adoption and diffusion of electronic meeting systems: a case study BIBAFull-Text 279-287
  Bjorn Erik Munkvold; Robert Anson
The obvious benefits for team collaboration achieved through the use of Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS), do not appear to be so obvious on an organizational scale. After years of trying, there are relatively few published reports of rapid and broad adoption and diffusion of this technology. The broader class of Group Support System (GSS) technologies, that include highly successful products such as Lotus Notes and NetMeeting, has fared substantially better. This case study is of one large company that has been relatively successful in diffusing Lotus Notes and NetMeeting, while only slowly winning an uphill battle implementing GroupSystems, a popular EMS.
RoamWare: an integrated architecture for seamless interaction in between mobile meetings BIBAFull-Text 288-297
  Mikael Wiberg
This paper reports the final step of a research project that has aimed at developing novel meeting support for mobile CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work). The underlying idea was to integrate spontaneous mobile meetings with in between meeting support, and divide the use between different situations rather than users attention. We propose a novel integrated architecture called RoamWare that illustrates the concepts of divided use, invisible computer support, and seamless ongoing interaction across physical and virtual meetings. We then report on some initial use results and relate it to other research attempts near us before concluding the paper.