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GROUP Tables of Contents: 97990103050709101214

GROUP'05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work

Fullname:Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work
Editors:Kjeld Schmidt; Mark Pendergast; Mark Ackerman; Gloria Mark
Location:Sanibel Island, Florida, USA
Dates:2005-Nov-06 to 2005-Nov-09
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-223-2; ACM Order Number: 612050; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: GROUP05
Papers:57
Pages:356
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Net communities
  2. Collocation and virtual collocation
  3. Finding expertise and information
  4. IM and usability
  5. Decision-making and communication
  6. Collaborative learning
  7. Work rhythms and coordinative artifacts
  8. Open source and distributed software development
  9. Supporting communities
  10. Supporting activities
  11. Consistency maintenance
  12. Transforming health care
  13. Panel
  14. Posters

Net communities

Becoming Wikipedian: transformation of participation in a collaborative online encyclopedia BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Susan L. Bryant; Andrea Forte; Amy Bruckman
Traditional activities change in surprising ways when computer-mediated communication becomes a component of the activity system. In this descriptive study, we leverage two perspectives on social activity to understand the experiences of individuals who became active collaborators in Wikipedia, a prolific, cooperatively-authored online encyclopedia. Legitimate peripheral participation provides a lens for understanding participation in a community as an adaptable process that evolves over time. We use ideas from activity theory as a framework to describe our results. Finally, we describe how activity on the Wikipedia stands in striking contrast to traditional publishing and suggests a new paradigm for collaborative systems.
Follow the (slash) dot: effects of feedback on new members in an online community BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Cliff Lampe; Erik Johnston
Many virtual communities involve ongoing discussions, with large numbers of users and established, if implicit rules for participation. As new users enter communities like this, both they and existing members benefit when new users learn the standards for participation. Slashdot is a news and discussion site that has developed a system of distributed moderation to provide feedback about the value of posts on their site. This study examines three explanations for how new users learn to participate in a digital community: learning transfer from previous experiences, observation of other members, and feedback from other members. We find that new user behavior is affected by a combination of their viewing behavior, the moderation feedback they receive, and replies to their comments.
Supporting social worlds with the community bar BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Gregor McEwan; Saul Greenberg
The Community Bar is groupware supporting informal awareness and casual interaction for small social worlds: a group of people with a common purpose. Its conceptual design is primarily based on a comprehensive sociological theory called the Locales Framework, with extra details supplied by the Focus/Nimbus model of awareness. Design nuances are strongly influenced by observations and feedback supplied by a community who had been using both the Community Bar and its Notification Collage predecessor for a total of five years. As a consequence, Community Bar's design supports how communities of ad-hoc and long-standing groups are built and sustained within multiple locales: places that offer a group the site and means for maintaining awareness of one another and for rapidly moving into interaction. This includes a person's lightweight management of his or her membership in multiple locales, as well as ones varying engagement with the people and artefacts within them.

Collocation and virtual collocation

The proximity factor: impact of distance on co-located collaboration BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Kirstie Hawkey; Melanie Kellar; Derek Reilly; Tara Whalen; Kori M. Inkpen
Groups collaborating around a large wall display can do so in a variety of arrangements, positioning themselves at different distances from the display and from each other. We examined the impact of proximity on the effectiveness and enjoyment of co-located collaboration. Our results revealed collaborative benefits when participants were positioned close together, and interaction with the display was felt to be more effective when participants were close to the display. However, clear tradeoffs were evident for these configurations. When at a distance to the display, the choice of direct versus indirect interaction revealed that interactions were easier when using direct input but the effectiveness of the collaboration was compromised.
Integrating 2D and 3D views for spatial collaboration BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Wendy A. Schafer; Doug A. Bowman
Spatial collaboration is a specialized form of collaboration where the discussion relates to a physical space. This work investigates how to support distributed spatial collaboration activities. It presents a novel prototype that integrates both two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations. This collaborative software is examined in a qualitative study as a group virtually rearranges their lab furniture. The results describe the group's collaboration and their use of the combined representations. The findings highlight the usefulness of multiple representations and the need for additional features to support collaboration across representations.
Benefits of synchronous collaboration support for an application-centered analysis team working on complex problems: a case study BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  John M. Linebarger; Andrew J. Scholand; Mark A. Ehlen; Michael J. Procopio
A month-long quasi-experiment was conducted using a distributed team responsible for modeling, simulation, and analysis. Six experiments of three different time durations (short, medium, and long) were performed. The primary goal was to discover if synchronous collaboration capability through a particular application improved the ability of the team to form a common mental model of the analysis problem(s) and solution(s). The results indicated that such collaboration capability did improve the formation of common mental models, both in terms of time and quality (i.e., depth of understanding), and that the improvement did not vary by time duration. In addition, common mental models were generally formed by interaction around a shared graphical image, the progress of collaboration was not linear but episodic, and tasks that required drawing and conversing at the same time were difficult to do.

Finding expertise and information

Matching human actors based on their texts: design and evaluation of an instance of the ExpertFinding framework BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Tim Reichling; Kai Schubert; Volker Wulf
Bringing together human actors with similar interests, skills or expertise is a major challenge in community-based knowledge management. We believe that writing or reading textual documents can be an indicator for a human actor's interests, skills or expertise. In this paper, we describe an approach of matching human actors based on the similarity of text collections that can be attributed to them. By integrating standard methods of text analysis, we extract and match user profiles based on a large collection of documents. We present an instance of the ExpertFinder Framework which measures the similarity of these profiles by means of the Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) algorithm. The quality of the algorithmic approach was evaluated by comparing its results with judgments of different human actors.
Searching for expertise in social networks: a simulation of potential strategies BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  Jun Zhang; Mark S. Ackerman
People search for people with suitable expertise all of the time in their social networks - to answer questions or provide help. Recently, efforts have been made to augment this searching. However, relatively little is known about the social characteristics of various algorithms that might be useful. In this paper, we examine three families of searching strategies that we believe may be useful in expertise location. We do so through a simulation, based on the Enron email data set. (We would be unable to suitably experiment in a real organization, thus our need for a simulation.) Our emphasis is not on graph theoretical concerns, but on the social characteristics involved. The goal is to understand the tradeoffs involved in the design of social network based searching engines.
Real-world oriented information sharing using social networks BIBAFull-Text 81-84
  Junichiro Mori; Tatsuhiko Sugiyama; Yutaka Matsuo
While users disseminate various information in the open and widely distributed environment of the Semantic Web, determination of who shares access to particular information is at the center of looming privacy concerns. We propose a real-world-oriented information sharing system that uses social networks. The system automatically obtains users' social relationships by mining various external sources. It also enables users to analyze their social networks to provide awareness of the information dissemination process. Users can determine who has access to particular information based on the social relationships and network analysis.
A survey of collaborative information seeking practices of academic researchers BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Patricia Ruma Spence; Madhu C. Reddy; Richard Hall
Information seeking and management practices are an integral aspect of people's daily work. However, we still have little understanding of collaboration in the information seeking process. Through a survey of collaborative information seeking practices of academic researchers, we found that researchers reported that (1) the lack of expertise is the primary reason that they collaborate when seeking information; (2) traditional methods, including face-to-face, phone, and email are the preferred communication mediums for collaboration; and (3) collaborative information seeking activities are usually successful and more useful than individually seeking information. These results begin to highlight the important role that collaborative information seeking plays in daily work.

IM and usability

Broadcasting information via display names in instant messaging BIBAFull-Text 89-98
  Stephanie Smale; Saul Greenberg
Many instant messenger (IM) clients let a person specify the identifying name that appears in another person's contact list. We have noticed that many people add extra information to this name as a way to broadcast information to their contacts. Twelve IM contact lists comprising 444 individuals were monitored over three weeks to observe how these individuals used and altered their display names. Almost half of them changed their display names at varying frequencies, where the new information fell into seventeen different categories of communication supplied to others. Three themes encompass these categories: Identification ("who am I"?), Information About Self ("this is what is going on with me") and Broadcast Message ("I am directing information to the community"). The design implication is that systems supporting person to person casual interaction, such as IM, should explicitly include facilities that allow people to broadcast these types of information to their community of contacts.
"...real, concrete facts about what works...": integrating evaluation and design through patterns BIBAFull-Text 99-108
  Elizabeth S. Guy
Recent CSCW research has focused on methods for evaluating usability, rather than the more problematic evaluation of systems in use. A possible approach to the integration of use, design and evaluation is through the representation of evaluation findings as design-oriented models. A method is described for modeling computer-supported cooperative work and its context: a design patterns language, based on the principles of activity theory. The language is the outcome of an evaluation of the evolving use of tools to support collaborative information sharing, carried out at a global NGO.
Uncovering privacy attitudes and practices in instant messaging BIBAFull-Text 109-112
  Sameer Patil; Alfred Kobsa
We present an analysis of privacy attitudes and practices in Instant Messaging based on responses to an online questionnaire. On a 7-point Likert scale, the reported concern about IM privacy spanned the whole range, with the average being slightly below "medium". Respondents' justifications for privacy concerns revealed that the main contributing factors were: sensitivity of content, personal disposition towards privacy, understanding of technology, and potential persistence of conversations. Expectations for various categories of contacts differed significantly. Our findings indicate that it may be useful to leverage grouping functionality for privacy management. We also propose making the underlying technology more transparent.
Instant messaging bots: accountability and peripheral participation for textual user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 113-115
  Stephen Chan; Benjamin Hill; Sarita Yardi
Over the last several years, studies of instant messaging have observed its increasing role in the workplace[1] and in social situations[2]. We propose that modifying applications to interact with users over Instant Messaging (as IM bots) extends the collaborative benefits of IM into new areas. As IM Bots participating in group chatrooms, applications that had previously been restricted to a single user command line are able to engage in many to many interactions between users and applications. Current command line oriented user interfaces can be made into collaborative interfaces that exhibit (at a basic level) the ethnomethodological property of accountability as well as supporting legitimate peripheral participation.

Decision-making and communication

VERN: facilitating democratic group decision making online BIBAFull-Text 116-119
  Sarita Yardi; Benjamin Hill; Stephen Chan
VERN is an online collaborative tool that coordinates and distributes the process of finding optimal meeting times across the members of a group. The system combines the underlying democratic process inherent in email chain conversations with a remapping of the voting process to a calendar-based graphical user interface. As an alternative to existing forms of constrained democracy in which members vote from a previously defined set of options, we offer VERN as a case study for the potential of using a visual interface to enable all group members to contribute equally without constraints to the group decision making process.
Adaptive radio: achieving consensus using negative preferences BIBAFull-Text 120-123
  Dennis L. Chao; Justin Balthrop; Stephanie Forrest
We introduce the use of negative preferences to produce solutions that are acceptable to a group of users. This technique takes advantage of the fact that discovering what a user does not like can be easier than discovering what the user does like. To illustrate the approach, we implemented Adaptive Radio, a system that selects music to play in a shared environment. Rather than attempting to play the songs that users want to hear, the system avoids playing songs that they do not want to hear. Negative preferences could potentially be applied to information filtering, intelligent environments, and collaborative design.
Quality improvement of email communication in work groups and organizations by reflection BIBAFull-Text 124-127
  Guy Vollmer; Katrin Gassner
Email communication in work groups and organizations suffers from ill-composed messages. In this paper we introduce two approaches aiming to improve the overall quality of email communication by means of reflection. For this purpose, we determine, rate and classify quality problems as encountered in today's email communication. Subsequently, we derive criteria to rate the quality of email communication, both objectively as well as subjectively. The results of these ratings are then presented to the authors of email messages to encourage them to improve their email communication behaviour. Preliminary results suggest that our approach might have the potential to overcome problems of email communication caused by ill-composed messages.
FrameDrops: a mobile VideoBlog for workgroups and virtual communities BIBAFull-Text 128-131
  Tom Gross; Martin Kleppe
In this paper FrameDrops is presented. FrameDrops is a mobile VideoBlog-it allows users to capture videos and pictures on the move with modern mobile phones, and to send these data with a comment and with information on the current geographical position to a FrameDrops server. FrameDrops servers automatically insert the data in a repository, and generate integrated interactive Web pages. FrameDrops can be used for various purposes where users want to easily capture information in-situ and share it with others.

Collaborative learning

Design decisions in the RideNow project BIBAFull-Text 132-135
  Rick Wash; Libby Hemphill; Paul Resnick
The RideNow Project is designed to help individuals within a group or organization coordinate ad hoc shared rides. This paper describes three design decisions the RideNow team made in order to allow incremental adoption and evolution and to capitalize on local conditions. (1) The system allows users to interact with the system through email or Web, because we anticipate that email will be most convenient when there are few users but the Web interface will be more useful as the number of users increase. (2) The system does not force structure on user-entered data such as dates, times, and locations, instead allowing conventions to emerge. (3) We use the group's shared physical spaces to provide additional information about ride sharing activity.
Collaboration support for novice team programming BIBAFull-Text 136-139
  Davor Cubranic; Margaret Anne D. Storey
Learning computer programming in a modern university course is rarely an individual activity; however, IDEs used in introductory programming classes do not support collaboration at a level appropriate for novices. The goal of our research is to make it easier for first-year students to experience working in a team in their programming assignments. Based on our previous work developing and evaluating IDEs for novice programmers, we have identified two main areas of required functionality: 1) features for code sharing and coordination; and 2) features to support communication. We have extended an existing teaching-oriented integrated development environment (called Gild) with features to support code sharing and coordination. We report on a preliminary study in which pairs of students used a prototype of our collaborative IDE to work on a programming assignment. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and usability of the new features and to determine requirements for future communication support.
"Bring your own laptop unless you want to follow the lecture": alternative communication in the classroom BIBAFull-Text 140-143
  Louise Barkhuus
The introduction of laptops and wireless networks in classrooms has increased the possibilities for student-teacher interaction. Here we explore the premises for this interaction by studying the use of ActiveClass, a system that enables students to ask questions electronically and anonymously in-class. The study emphasizes how the diverse prerequisites for teaching interaction separates students even more in the classroom. We then suggest a differentiated approach to the introduction of interactive technologies in the class room.
Supporting the dissertation process with grad tools BIBAFull-Text 144-147
  Michelle Bejian Lotia; Stephanie D. Teasley
Heavy use of an online collaboration and learning environment (CLE) at a large research university led the graduate school to consider how a CLE might support dissertation committees. The project team conducted focus groups with 38 student, faculty, and administrative staff to determine system requirements. Results showed that users would benefit from a tool designed to facilitate the dissertation process, especially if social norms and work-benefit disparity issues were directly addressed. The development team designed and built a "dissertation navigator" in our CLE. 645 users have adopted Grad Tools, suggesting that some traditional groupware design challenges have been overcome.

Work rhythms and coordinative artifacts

Negotiated rhythms of mobile work: time, place, and work schedules BIBAFull-Text 148-157
  Magnus Nilsson; Morten Hertzum
This study investigates the role of rhythms in the collaborative coordination of mobile work as well as in the individual actors' comprehension and command of their work. Drawing on an ethnographic study of home-care work, we examine the ways in which temporal regularities or rhythms are formed and reinforced. Further, we analyse how the major temporal rhythms are configured and furnished by individual, collective, and social rhythms, and how these rhythms contribute to the collaborative flow of activities. Finally, we discuss how the concept of rhythms adds to an understanding of alignment and coordination in mobile and distributed work settings.
When once is not enough: the role of redundancy in a hospital ward setting BIBAFull-Text 158-167
  Federico Cabitza; Marcello Sarini; Carla Simone; Michele Telaro
The paper discusses the role of redundancy in hospital ward work on the basis of a field study that focuses on the use of paper artifacts supporting healthcare and its coordination. On the basis of literature and direct observations, we identified different kinds of redundancy, i.e. redundancy of effort, functions and data. Hence, we analyzed how these different forms of redundancy may affect each other and the coordination inside hospital wards. Redundancy plays a positive or negative role depending on various circumstances. This twofold nature defines different requirements for a technology to support healthcare and ward work by preserving practices linked to paper-based artifacts and by unobtrusively augmenting them with computational capabilities.
A web of coordinative artifacts: collaborative work at a hospital ward BIBAFull-Text 168-176
  Jakob E. Bardram; Claus Bossen
This paper reports from a field study of a hospital ward and discusses how people achieve coordination through the use of a wide range of interrelated non-digital artifacts, like whiteboards, work schedules, examination sheets, care records, post-it notes etc. These artifacts have multiple roles and functions which in combination facilitate location awareness, continuous coordination, cooperative planning and status overview. We described how actors achieve coordination by using different aspects of these artifacts: their material qualities, the structure they provide as templates and the signs inscribed upon them that are only meaningful to knowledgeable actors. We finally discuss the implication for the design of CSCW tools from the study.

Open source and distributed software development

Thematic coherence and quotation practices in OSS design-oriented online discussions BIBAFull-Text 177-186
  Flore Barcellini; Francoise Detienne; Jean-Marie Burkhardt; Warren Sack
This paper presents an analysis of online discussions in Open Source Software (OSS) design. The objective of our work is to understand and model the dynamics of OSS design that take place in mailing list exchanges. We show how quotation practices can be used to locate design relevant data in discussion archives. OSS developers use quotation as a mechanism to maintain the discursive context. To retrace thematic coherence in the online discussions of a major OSS project, Python, we follow how messages are linked through quotation practices. We compare our quotation-based analysis with a more conventional analysis: a thread-based of the reply-to links between messages. The advantages of a quotation-based analysis over a thread-based analysis are outlined. Our analysis reveals also the links between the social structure and elements in the discussion space and how it shapes influence in the design process.
Negotiation and the coordination of information and activity in distributed software problem management BIBAFull-Text 187-196
  Robert J. Sandusky; Les Gasser
Publicly accessible bug report repositories maintained by free / open source development communities provide vast stores of data about distributed software problem management (SWPM). Qualitative analysis of individual bug reports, texts that record community responses to reported software problems, shows how this distributed community uses its SWPM process to manage software quality. We focus on the role of one basic social process, negotiation, in SWPM. We report on the varieties and frequencies of negotiation practices and demonstrate how instances of negotiation in different contexts affect the organization of information, the allocation of community resources, and the disposition of software problems.
Seeking the source: software source code as a social and technical artifact BIBAFull-Text 197-206
  Cleidson de Souza; Jon Froehlich; Paul Dourish
In distributed software development, two sorts of dependencies can arise. The structure of the software system itself can create dependencies between software elements, while the structure of the development process can create dependencies between software developers. Each of these both shapes and reflects the development process. Our research concerns the extent to which, by looking uniformly at artifacts and activities, we can uncover the structures of software projects, and the ways in which development processes are inscribed into software artifacts. We show how a range of organizational processes and arrangements can be uncovered in software repositories, with implications for collaborative work in large distributed groups such as open source communities.

Supporting communities

Supporting the shared experience of spectators through mobile group media BIBAFull-Text 207-216
  Giulio Jacucci; Antti Oulasvirta; Antti Salovaara; Risto Sarvas
Interesting characteristics of large-scale events are their spatial distribution, their extended duration over days, and the fact that they are set apart from daily life. The increasing pervasiveness of computational media encourages us to investigate such unexplored domains, especially when thinking of applications for spectator groups. Here we report of a field study on two groups of rally spectators who were equipped with multimedia phones, and we present a novel mobile group media application called mGroup that supports groups in creating and sharing experiences. Particularly, we look at the possibilities of and boundary conditions for computer applications posed by our findings on group identity and formation, group awareness and coordination, the meaningful construction of an event experience and its grounding in the event context, the shared context and discourses, protagonism and active spectatorship. Moreover, we aim at providing a new perspective on spectatorship at large scale events, which can make research and development more aware of the socio-cultural dimension.
Supporting creativity in distributed scientific communities BIBAFull-Text 217-226
  Umer Farooq; John M. Carroll; Craig H. Ganoe
We are interested in supporting creativity in distributed scientific communities through socio-technical interventions. Based on a synthetic literature analysis of creativity and collaborative groups, we present and justify three requirements for supporting creativity: support for divergent and convergent thinking, development of shared objectives, and reflexivity. We discuss our collaboratory prototype and its existing functionality to support creativity. We propose three design implications to support creativity in CSCW: integrate support for individual, dyadic, and group brainstorming, leverage cognitive conflict by preserving and reflecting on minority dissent, and support flexibility in granularity of planning.
eCell: spatial IT design for group collaboration in school environments BIBAFull-Text 227-235
  Christina Brodersen; Ole Sejer Iversen
In this paper we present the eCell; a temporary, collaborative niche for group work in school environments. The eCell consists of a private inner display and a public outer display located in unused public spaces e.g. in corridors and libraries throughout the school premises. The inner display is a large touch-sensitive screen connected to a standard computer. The outer display consists of a projection on a large semitransparent surface. Combined, the two displays comprise an IT-supported, collaborative environment especially suited for project based education. Through three iterations of design, we describe the technological, the spatial and the educational aspects of the eCell and outline its potential for supporting collaborative activities in a temporary niche, in which the architecture of the school itself reflects ongoing work. Thus, the eCell stimulates knowledge sharing, awareness and social interaction among pupils and teachers who are part of the school community.

Supporting activities

Roles and relationships for unified activity management BIBAFull-Text 236-245
  Beverly L. Harrison; Alex Cozzi; Thomas P. Moran
This paper reports on three ethnographic studies of how people coordinate their activities in various work settings. The findings reported here are a derived set of relationships reflecting the nature of involvement of people in their activities. These findings were then tested by six analysts, who were conducting field studies of patterns of complex business activities. They used the derived relationships in the analysis of their data and in the representation of activity patterns. These usage cases revealed confusion between involvement relationships and job roles. Finally, several implications of these studies for designing an activity management prototype are presented.
Proactive support for the organization of shared workspaces using activity patterns and content analysis BIBAFull-Text 246-255
  Wolfgang Prinz; Baber Zaman
Shared workspace systems provide virtual places for self-organized and semi-structured cooperation between local and distributed team members. These cooperation systems have been adopted by a large community over the past years and the volume of managed information is increasing rapidly. However, a problem that occurs frequently is the missing user support for the workspace organization and a lack of assistance finding the right place for storing new documents and contributions. This often results in poorly organized workspaces, making it difficult to find documents. Starting with a user survey, this paper presents a solution that assists the users in finding the right location based on an analysis of recent individual and group activities combined with a content analysis of the shared workspaces. The evaluation of the system shows evidence that the combination of the two approaches provides a useful assistance for different work situations. Furthermore some unexpected effects could be observed that makes the solution also suitable for cooperative knowledge management.
As technophobia disappears: implications for design BIBAFull-Text 256-259
  Jonathan Grudin; Shari Tallarico; Scott Counts
We conducted two studies of communication: an ethnographic study of communication primarily in homes, cars, and public places, and a survey of communication in a large corporation. A clear pattern emerged. To a greater degree than expected in the ethnographic study, people were familiar with a broad range of communication tools. Awareness and a lack of anxiety was the norm even for tools that a person rarely or had not yet used. As a result, people frequently shifted to the tool that was most appropriate for a task at hand. The resulting behaviors conflict with popular press images and have implications for the designers of communication tools.
What ideal end users teach us about collaborative software BIBAFull-Text 260-263
  David Redmiles; Hiroko Wilensky; Kristie Kosaka; Rogerio de Paula
Many studies have evaluated different uses of collaborative software. Typically, the research has focused on the shortcomings and, sometimes, the ways end users succeed or fail to work around these shortcomings. In a recent field study, surprisingly, a group demonstrated unimpaired dexterity using a full range of collaborative software. Some interesting lessons emerged from observing these "perfect" collaborators. Lessons include implications for more typical or "less than perfect" end users, especially around the adoption of collaboration technology. Also, there is a general, but subtle, lesson that studying successful users of technology (or "ideal end users" as we put it) can be as valuable as studying those who struggle with technology and highlight its shortcomings.

Consistency maintenance

Consistency maintenance based on the mark & retrace technique in groupware systems BIBAFull-Text 264-273
  Ning Gu; Jiangming Yang; Qiwei Zhang
Replicated architecture is widely used for concealing network delay. However, consistency maintenance in fully replicated architecture is a major technical challenge. In this paper, we report a Mark & Retrace based method in replicated groupware systems. Compared with the Operation Transformation technique, it does not adjust the operation's position but retraces the document's address space to the state at the time of the operation's generation. Then the operation can be executed directly in this address space. Mark & Retrace method can not only achieve the same goal of consistency maintenance but also provide a better support for Undo. This paper provides the proof of the algorithm's correctness of consistency maintenance, in which both the orders of character nodes and marks of each node at all sites are kept consistent. Furthermore, the amortized efficiency can reach O(log n).
An optimization approach to group coupling in heterogeneous collaborative systems BIBAFull-Text 274-283
  Carlos D. Correa; Ivan Marsic
Recent proliferation of computing devices has brought attention to heterogeneous collaborative systems, where key challenges arise from the resource limitations and disparities. Sharing data across disparate devices makes it necessary to employ mechanisms for adapting the original data and presenting it to the user in the best possible way. However, this could represent a major problem for effective collaboration, since users may find it difficult to reach consensus with everyone working with individually tailored data. This paper presents a novel approach to controlling the coupling of heterogeneous collaborative systems by combining concepts from complex systems and data adaptation techniques. The key idea is that data must be adapted to each individual's preferences and resource capabilities. To support and promote collaboration this adaptation must be interdependent, and adaptation performed by one individual should influence the adaptation of the others. These influences are defined according to the user's roles and collaboration requirements. We model the problem as a distributed optimization problem, so that the most useful data--both for the individual and the group as a whole--is scheduled for each user, while satisfying their preferences, their resource limitations, and their mutual influences. We show how this approach can be applied in a collaborative 3D design application and how it can be extended to other applications.
A landmark-based transformation approach to concurrency control in group editors BIBAFull-Text 284-293
  Rui Li; Du Li
Operational transformation (OT) is a responsive and nonblocking concurrency control method widely-accepted in group editors. Correctness and performance are the basis of usefulness and usability of OT-based group editors. However, the correctness of previous OT algorithms depends on conditions that are very difficult to verify. In this paper we propose a novel landmark-based transformation (LBT) approach, its correctness no longer depending on those conditions and thus easy to prove. In addition, we give an example algorithm that significantly outperforms a state-of-the-art OT algorithm. This work reveals a more practical approach to developing OT algorithms.

Transforming health care

Designing for transformations in collaboration: a study of the deployment of homecare technology BIBAFull-Text 294-303
  Jakob E. Bardram; Claus Bossen; Anders Thomsen
Transformations in collaborative work due to the introduction of new technology are inevitable, but are often difficult to study. In this paper, we consider the patterns of transformation that are seen in a patient-physician relationship based on the introduction of homecare monitoring equipment. We report findings from interviews and fieldwork with patients and physicians participating in a clinical experiment of homecare monitoring. By studying both the group of patients who receive homecare-based treatment and the control group we were able to identify transformations in the collaborative activity as caused by the homecare monitoring technology. We apply activity theory as a theoretical basis for this analysis. We consider the implications of these findings for the design of pervasive health monitoring technologies.
Involvement matters: the proper involvement of users and behavioural theories in the design of a medical teleconferencing application BIBAFull-Text 304-312
  Margit Biemans; Janine Swaak; Marike Hettinga; Jan Gerrit Schuurman
WoundLog is a mobile application that enables district nurses to consult dermatologists, while being in the home situation of the patient. Next to communication tools for teleconferencing and multimedia messaging, it also provides a wound logbook service, and presence, location and availability information of various healthcare professionals. In this paper, we describe the applied user-centred design approach, and a conducted user experiment. The results of the experiment reveal that even district nurses with modest (or no) computing experiences can work adequately with WoundLog. Moreover, they expect that using WoundLog will increase the quality and efficiency of wound care.
Timing in the art of integration: 'that's how the bastille got stormed' BIBAFull-Text 313-322
  David Martin; Mark Rouncefield; Jacki O'Neill; Mark Hartswood; Dave Randall
This paper uses a long term ethnographic study of the design and implementation of an electronic patient records (EPR) system in a UK hospital Trust to consider issues arising in the multi-faceted process of integration when a customizable-off-the-shelf (COTS) system is configured and deployed in a complex setting. The process involves trying to artfully work out how disparate technologies integrate with existing and evolving patterns of work within developing regulatory requirements. We conclude by suggesting ways in which ethnographic interventions and user involvement may be timed and targeted to aid in achieving this process.

Panel

Intelligent design or felicitous evolution?: sustaining order and activity in online communities BIBKFull-Text 323
  Thomas Erickson; Christine A. Halverson
Keywords: collaboration, community, computer mediated communication, computer supported cooperative work, design, evolution, online community, virtual community

Posters

Why everyone loves to text message: social management with SMS BIBAFull-Text 324-325
  Louise Barkhuus
This poster presents a study of SMS use among young adults and how they manage their social lives by SMS. It focuses on three features: overcoming shyness, facilitating 'appropriate behavior' and how users exploit the conciseness of messages. In conclusion we discuss the surprising value of this modest medium in people's everyday lives.
Proactive behaviour may lead to failure in virtual project-based collaborative learning BIBAFull-Text 326-327
  Pernille Bjorn; Morten Hertzum
This paper argues that proactive behaviour, caused by high engagement and motivation of the learners, may lead to failure of collaborative learning. By examining empirical data from real-world text-only virtual negotiations between dispersed participants engaged in project-based collaborative learning, we discover that volunteering self-initiated activities promotes the participants' individualistic behaviour. Also, the technology made it easy for participants to include their own statements in new contributions and deconstruct the statements of others, permitting few opportunities for others to influence proposals.
SAGE: software agent-based groupware using e-services BIBAFull-Text 328-329
  M. Brian Blake; Daniel Kahan; David H. Fado; Gregory A. Mack
Service-oriented computing (SOC) suggests that the Internet will be an open repository of millions of modular capabilities realized as web services. Organizations may be able to leverage this SOC paradigm if their employees are able to ubiquitously incorporate such capabilities and their resulting information into their daily practices. This paper presents an architecture, Software Agent-Based Groupware using E-services (SAGE), that incorporates the use of intelligent agents to help integrate organizational processes with web services. Our first steps toward the development of SAGE consist of an operational concept and middleware prototype (i.e. groupware plug-in) to mediate service-oriented information.
A survey of personal and household scheduling BIBAFull-Text 330-331
  A. J. Bernheim Brush; Tammara Combs Turner
We describe results from a survey of employees at Microsoft about how they manage personal and household scheduling. We saw a much greater use of digital calendars than we expected. Of our 621 respondents, 51% (317) used their digital calendar at work as the calendar where most of their personal and household events were recorded, while 38% (233) of respondents primarily used paper calendars. We discuss reasons respondents gave for choosing a particular type of calendar as well as challenges faced by respondents in scheduling events for themselves and their households.
Pair programming and the re-appropriation of individual tools for collaborative programming BIBAFull-Text 332-333
  Sallyann Bryant; Pablo Romero; Benedict du Boulay
Although pair programming is becoming more prevalent in software development, and a number of reports have been written about it [4] [6], few have addressed the manner in which pairing actually takes place [5]. Even fewer consider the methods employed to manage issues such as role change or the communication of complex issues. Here we contribute by highlighting the way resources designed for individuals are re-appropriated and augmented to facilitate pair collaboration.
Heterogeneity in harmony: diverse practice in a multimedia arts collective BIBAFull-Text 334-335
  Eric Cook; Stephanie D. Teasley; Judith S. Olson
HCI and CSCW researchers have begun to call for greater and more explicit support of creative endeavors. Current theories of creativity suggest that it is an inherently collaborative activity, situated and highly contextualized. This work argues that a contextualized view of creativity calls in turn for assessment and technological support to be considered in situ.
   This poster presents a case study of the creative collaboration in a multimedia arts collective, with the goal of describing their current practices to inform appropriate information system design. We found that even a small and cohesive collaborative arts group contained a multitude of artistic practices and production tool choices, several distinct but interdependent work tracks and a variety of attitudes about the individual members' collaborative roles. Such heterogeneity, evidenced even within a self-selected and self-organized group, suggests challenges for future technological support of creative practices.
Collaboratory use by peripheral scientists BIBAFull-Text 336-337
  Airong Luo; Judith S. Olson
Recent years have seen an increasing use of collaboratories in scientific work. It is hypothesized that by enabling scientists to reach remotely located data, instruments and experts, collaboratories will benefit peripheral scientists (e.g., scientists from developing countries and scientists from minority colleges in the U.S.) more than core scientists. However, previous studies on computer network use have shown mixed results regarding peripherality effects. Adopting a qualitative approach, this study intends to investigate cultural, political, and technical factors that influence collaboratory use by peripheral scientists.
Mediating the co-production of complex media products BIBAFull-Text 338-339
  Anja Bechmann Petersen; Susanne Bødker
In this poster we present a study of cross-media challenges for an organization that has recently moved from traditional newspaper production to production involving the integrated digital production of newspaper, TV, radio and web-news. The poster shows problems of integrating work pace and contents of the different media. In this poster we will focus on how the rhythms of different media work together and apart and how these rhythms can be supported by different coordinating and planning tools.
Taking juxtaposition into account: supporting people's work with maps BIBAFull-Text 340-341
  Marten Pettersson; Sarah Olofsson
This poster presents research about how maps are used at an emergency service centre. It focus on emergency service operators' work practices, how they use maps in order to find the address and communicate to others the location of incidents, such as traffic accidents and fires. We analyse how the operators juxtapose the physical paper map with the computerised counterpart. When designing new technology there is a need to take juxtaposition into account.
Promoting awareness in distributed mobile organizations: a cultural and technological challenge BIBAFull-Text 342-343
  Julie Rennecker
Increasing mutual awareness among distributed collaborators has been a focus of the CSCW community for over a decade. The majority of these studies, however, have been on availability and contextual awareness among coworkers in distributed but fixed contexts. This paper intends to contribute to our understanding of the awareness needs of distributed, mobile organizations by describing the inadvertent erosion of awareness in a 25-member division of one high-tech firm and the members' responses to proposed solutions. The findings suggest that managerial shifts may need to precede technology developments.
Thoughts on critical infrastructure collaboration BIBAFull-Text 344-345
  Andrew J. Scholand; John M. Linebarger; Mark A. Ehlen
In this paper, we describe what we believe to be the characteristics of the collaborations required in the domain of critical infrastructure modeling, based on our experiences to date. We adopt a knowledge management philosophy, which imposes two classes of requirements, contextual who, when, and why), and semantic what interactions are conducted around). We observe that infrastructure models can often engender more insight when used as the basis for a meaningful discussion between the disparate stakeholder groups (private industry, trade organizations, industry lobbying groups, etc.) than when exercised computationally.
DAView: a linux WebDAV client supporting effective distributed authoring BIBAFull-Text 346-347
  Won-Joon Shin; Dong-Ho Kim; Myung-Joon Lee
Current authoring applications that support WebDAV, such as Word, Photoshop, or Dreamweaver, work by integrating WebDAV capabilities into the application. While this approach provides solid support for collaborative authoring, it is an expensive approach. To add remote authoring capabilities to WebDAV-unaware authoring tools with automatic lock management, we developed DAView running on Linux KDE. DAView provides a GUI view of a WebDAV server, similar to existing WebDAV-enabled file managers. Unique among WebDAV file managers, it also provides the ability to launch an authoring application from its WebDAV view with automatic lock management.
Insightful illusions: requirements gathering for large-scale groupware systems BIBAFull-Text 348-349
  Kevin F. White; Wayne G. Lutters
Large-scale, organization-wide groupware systems are high risk development efforts. Requirements gathering and early evaluation are constrained by the need to attain a critical mass of users and content. One approach to mitigate this risk is to employ Wizard of Oz style system simulations during the requirements gathering phase. While this method has historically been used to test quasi-functional system prototypes, we have found it to be a useful method for assessing organizational feasibility.
Unraveling the ordering in persistent chat: a new message ordering feature BIBAFull-Text 350-351
  Lu Xiao; Jayne S. Litzinger
A common problem in chat is that the chat display only reveals the temporal order of the conversation. A better user interface is desired that reveals the logical order of the messages. The existing tree model groups messages that share the topic together. However, it does not reveal the temporal order of the messages. The temporal order is an important feature for a chat interface, as it is intuitive and similar to face-to-face conversation where people discuss issues following a sequential order. In this paper, we introduce a new message ordering chat feature that addresses the problem of logical ordering while keeping the temporal order of the chat. The trade offs of the new feature are discussed.
Analyzing misconceptions in multilingual computer-mediated communication BIBAFull-Text 352-353
  Naomi Yamashita; Toru Ishida
Multilingual communities using machine translation to overcome language barriers are showing up with increasing frequency. However, when a large number of translation errors get mixed into conversation, it becomes difficult for users to fully understand each other. In this paper, we focus on misconceptions found in high volume in actual online conversations using machine translation. By comparing responses via machine translation and responses without machine translation, we extract two response patterns, which may be strongly related to the occurrence of misconceptions in machine translation-mediated communication. The two response patterns are that users tend to respond to short phrases of the original message and tend to trip on the wording of the original message when responding via machine translation.