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GROUP Tables of Contents: 97990103050709101214

GROUP'10: International Conference on Supporting Group Work

Fullname:Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work
Editors:Wayne Lutters; Diane H. Sonnenwald; Tom Gross; Madhu Reddy
Location:Sanibel Island, Florida, USA
Dates:2010-Nov-06 to 2010-Nov-10
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 978-1-4503-0387-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: GROUP10
Papers:66
Pages:366
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Create, donate, collaborate
  2. Designing for collaboration I
  3. Home and care
  4. Individuals and groups
  5. Social networks and social media
  6. Beyond the surface
  7. Wikis and tagging
  8. Software code and gaming
  9. Social interaction
  10. Designing for collaboration II
  11. Intention and awareness
  12. Practice, patterns, and models
  13. Posters session I
  14. Poster session II -- doctoral colloquium
  15. Workshops

Create, donate, collaborate

Why it works (when it works): success factors in online creative collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Kurt Luther; Kelly Caine; Kevin Ziegler; Amy Bruckman
Online creative collaboration (peer production) has enabled the creation of Wikipedia and open source software (OSS), and is rapidly expanding to encompass new domains, such as video, music, and animation. But what are the underlying principles allowing online creative collaboration to succeed, and how well do they transfer from one domain to another? In this paper, we address these questions by comparing and contrasting online, collaborative animated movies, called collabs, with OSS projects. First, we use qualitative methods to solicit potential success factors from collab participants. Then, we test these predictions by quantitatively analyzing a data set of nearly 900 collabs. Finally, we compare and contrast our results with the literature on OSS development and propose broader theoretical implications. Our findings offer a starting point for a systematic research agenda seeking to unlock the potential of online creative collaboration.
Everyday favors: a case study of a local online gift exchange system BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Emmi Suhonen; Airi Lampinen; Coye Cheshire; Judd Antin
This paper focuses on online gift exchange in a setting where online and offline interactions are tightly intertwined and most of the exchanges require face-to-face interaction to be completed. We present a local online gift exchange system, Kassi, and a seven-month case study of its use. Based on survey material and logs of system usage, we analyze users' motivations to contribute to the system and the community. While most users held favorable attitudes towards the system, many reasons for not using the service were found. We set our findings into perspective by discussing different ways of defining participation, measuring use, and qualifying different types of contributions. We argue that when users try to fit a system into their everyday lives, designers should consider supporting such efforts -- even if user behavior does not match expectations. Designers who encourage emergent and unanticipated behaviors can enhance users' sense of participation and encourage the leap from intention to realized action.
Televiewpointer: an integrated workspace awareness widget for real-time collaborative 3d design systems BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Agustina Sun; Chengzheng Sun
Various workspace awareness widgets and supporting techniques have been developed for collaborative 2D systems, but little has been done in supporting these widgets in collaborative 3D systems. In this paper, we contribute a novel awareness widget -- televiewpointer, which provides integrated and flexible televiewing and telepointing capabilities in real-time collaborative 3D design systems that allow relaxed WYSIWIS and concurrent work. Distinctive features of the televiewpointer include: (1) extension of telepointers from 2D to 3D representation with a distant telepointing capability; (2) integration with view frustums to represent users' view scope and workspace contextual information for telepointing; (3) incorporation of mirror views to provide complementary views to the shared 3D workspace and a distributed radar view; and (4) combination with 2D telepointers to provide a flexible telepointing service in multiple working/viewing spaces without requiring users to synchronize their working perspectives. Supporting televiewpointers in real-time collaborative 3D designs systems is challenging because the free and concurrent work and televiewpoint raises a potential problem of inconsistent and incorrect workspace awareness information. This paper discusses the design rationales behind the proposed televiewpointer features, presents technical solutions in supporting these features and maintaining their consistencies, and formulates usability hypotheses in relation to these features for future evaluation. All features and techniques reported in this paper have been implemented in the CoMaya collaborative 3D design system. The demonstration video of the televiewpointer is available at http://cooffice.ntu.edu.sg/comaya/videoTVP.php.

Designing for collaboration I

Progressive scenarios: a rapid method for understanding user interpretations of technology BIBAFull-Text 31-34
  Jina Huh; Mark S. Ackerman; Mark W. Newman; Ayse G. Buyuktur
For emerging group technologies that require evaluations on long-term use and social norms, assumptions, and implicit rules that develop around the technologies, standard usability testing may not be adequate. At the same time, field based research that allows for observing technology use over long-term is costly in terms of time. In this paper, we present a rapid method that we call progressive scenarios, which could help replicate the processes by which interpretations evolve over time in natural settings and how invisible assumptions and social norms dictate the technology use. Using a preliminary design concept of a publicly available ambient personal information and communication system, we demonstrate how the method helped to elicit design implications.
Avatars meet meetings: design issues in integrating avatars in distributed corporate meetings BIBAFull-Text 35-44
  N. Sadat Shami; Li-Te Cheng; Steven Rohall; Andrew Sempere; John Patterson
The difficulties remote participants of distributed meetings face are widely recognized. In this paper we describe the design of an avatar-based e-meeting support tool named Olympus, which aims to ameliorate some of the challenges remote participants face in distributed meetings. Olympus provides a customizable peripheral display on the bottom of existing e-meeting solutions. An initial observational study was conducted of the use of Olympus in 6 meetings, three each of a status meeting and a presentation meeting. By illustrating how avatars were used in the two meeting types, we hope to surface design issues and refine our understanding of how avatars may be useful in the design of online meeting spaces.
Design methods as discourse on practice BIBAFull-Text 45-54
  Marisa Leavitt Cohn; Susan Elliott Sim; Paul Dourish
In this paper, we present a view of design methods as discourse on practice. We consider how the deployment of a particular set of design methods enables and constrains not only practical action but also discursive action within the design practice. A case study of agile software development methods illustrates the ways that methods establish conditions for who can speak in the design process and how. We identify three main kinds of discourse work performed in the invoking of design methods. These are the establishing of ontologies, the authorizing of voices, and the legitimizing of practices. We then discuss implications of this view on methods for CSCW research on the relationship between methods and practice as well as implications for participation in the design process.

Home and care

The effects of group composition on decision quality in a social production community BIBAFull-Text 55-64
  Shyong K. Lam; Jawed Karim; John Riedl
Online social production communities allow efficient construction of valuable and high-quality information sources. To be successful, community members must be effective at collaboration, including making collective decisions in the presence of disagreement. We examined over 100,000 decisions made by small working groups in Wikipedia, and analyzed how decision quality in these online groups is influenced by four group composition factors: the size of the group, how members were invited to the group, the prior experience of group members, and apparent bias shown by the group administrator. Our findings lead us to recommendations for designers of social production communities.
Coordination by avoidance: bringing things together and keeping them apart across hospital departments BIBAFull-Text 65-74
  Naja Holten Møller; Paul Dourish
Coordination is central in CSCW systems design, where it is often considered as a process of bringing artifacts and activities together and making them part of a larger system. In this paper, we argue that existing conceptualizations of coordination in CSCW can be successfully extended with the notion of coordination by avoidance. We introduce this notion to describe particular coordination mechanisms whereby actors avoid routines or routes of actions when it conflicts with those of other actors. In a study of pre-diagnostic work, we found that actors coordinate by avoidance when they realize alternative routes of action or that a routine has to be set to a halt to ensure that practices stay coordinated. Routines in diagnostic work are for instance the rescheduling of patients and requesting of relevant patient records that are mundane practices, however, necessary when responsibility is shared or shifts between various actors collaborating to diagnose a patient. Thus, the contribution of this paper lies in empirically identifying practices of avoidance and extending dominant conceptualizations of coordination through the notion of avoidance. We identify four ways that actors coordinate their practices by avoidance; by demarcating, procrastinating, delegating and accommodating routines or routes of action. Furthermore, we conceptualize coordination by avoidance as a distinct type of coordination mechanism to be taken into consideration in CSCW information systems design.
Dealing with wandering: a case study on caregivers' attitudes towards privacy and autonomy when reflecting the use of LBS BIBAFull-Text 75-84
  Claudia Müller; Lin Wan; Dalibor Hrg
We present an empirical study that is being conducted in the context of developing a GPS locating system for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Germany. A disposition of wandering is one of the most problematic symptoms as it fosters anxiety, disorientation and can even lead to life-threatening situations. Our qualitative empirical study contributes to the research on social phenomena which reveals some technical implications for the development of location-based services (LBS) in dementia care. We demonstrate that common concepts such as the dilemmas "awareness vs. privacy" in general and "safety vs. autonomy" in the context of monitoring systems for wandering patients need to be tackled from practice-based views. Our study attempts to understand caregivers' practices and attitudes towards these concepts.

Individuals and groups

The effects of life disruptions on home technology routines BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Jill P. Dimond; Erika Shehan Poole; Sarita Yardi
Conflict and disruption are a part of everyday life, yet research in the home largely examines consensus and rituals. In this paper, we use Holmes and Rahe's categorization of major life events in order to investigate disruption within the home. We examine posts contributed to an online technology support board and show how life disruptions fundamentally impact technology practices and routines. We conclude that examining technology in the context of life disruption is a worthwhile area for further work.
Shared identity helps partially distributed teams, but distance still matters BIBAFull-Text 89-96
  Nathan D. Bos; Ayse Buyuktur; Judith S. Olson; Gary M. Olson; Amy Voida
Previous research on partially distributed teams has revealed a cluster of problems, including difficulty coordinating, 'ingroup' formation among members in different locations, and lower trust in teammates across distance. But these prior studies involved groups of strangers; would pre-existing groups have the same problems? We recruited groups from the same fraternity or sorority to test groups with a pre-existing shared identity. We found that these groups did indeed coordinate work better, cooperated more, and were more willing and able to take on larger scale projects. However, even within these high-performing shared identity groups, there were significant differences between collocated and remote members in performance, group efficacy, and sense of group identity.
Enhancing group recommendation by incorporating social relationship interactions BIBAFull-Text 97-106
  Mike Gartrell; Xinyu Xing; Qin Lv; Aaron Beach; Richard Han; Shivakant Mishra; Karim Seada
Group recommendation, which makes recommendations to a group of users instead of individuals, has become increasingly important in both the workspace and people's social activities, such as brainstorming sessions for coworkers and social TV for family members or friends. Group recommendation is a challenging problem due to the dynamics of group memberships and diversity of group members. Previous work focused mainly on the content interests of group members and ignored the social characteristics within a group, resulting in suboptimal group recommendation performance.
   In this work, we propose a group recommendation method that utilizes both social and content interests of group members. We study the key characteristics of groups and propose (1) a group consensus function that captures the social, expertise, and interest dissimilarity among multiple group members; and (2) a generic framework that automatically analyzes group characteristics and constructs the corresponding group consensus function. Detailed user studies of diverse groups demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques, and the importance of incorporating both social and content interests in group recommender systems.

Social networks and social media

Network analysis of trace data for the support of group work: activity patterns in a completely online course BIBAFull-Text 107-116
  Sean P. Goggins; Krista Galyen; James Laffey
A 16-student, completely online software design course was studied using social network analysis and grounded theory techniques. Bi-directional (read and post) log data of user activity was recorded to understand how small group networks change over time with activity type (individual, peer-to-peer, and small group). Network structure was revealed through sociograms and triangulated with discussion board topics and interview data on group experience. Results show significant differences in network structure across activity types, which are supported by open coding and axial coding of the text of member discussions and editing patterns of member work products. It is also indicated that bi-directional log data, contextualized to specific activities and artifacts, revealed a more accurate and complete description of small group activity than ordinary, uni-directional log data would have. Our findings have implications for tool development revealing group structure and software design for completely online group work.
On the hierarchicalness of q&a posting networks BIBAFull-Text 117-120
  Michael Ovelgönne
Many internet users turn to online knowledge exchange communities to get information they cannot find elsewhere. Question&Answer sites are one of the largest hosts of such communities where users reciprocally answer their questions. Research on expert identification in online communities tries to rank community members by their expertise or to separate experts from non-experts. Until now proposed algorithms for expert identification do not perform well on all datasets. We present an analysis of the structures of topic-induced sub-communities of Question&Answer communities. This analysis aims to provide a basis for expert identification research. The results from the analysis of the network structures explain why common expert identification algorithms are not suitable for all communities.
A study of cultural effects on mobile-collocated group photo sharing BIBAFull-Text 121-130
  Nirmal J. Patel; James Clawson; Namwook Kang; SeungEok Choi; Thad Starner
International and intercultural collaborations provide a unique opportunity to explore cultural differences in the usage and appropriation of a technology. Mobile photo capture and sharing has been growing in popularity in the Western world but nowhere has the practice been as eagerly adopted as in South Korea. In this paper we present an evaluation of a mobile-collocated photo sharing technology probe designed to determine the ways in which photo capture and sharing can effect and enhance face-to-face interaction for pre-existing social groups. We explore the interaction of culture and automatic, real-time photo capture and sharing on groups of friends engaging in a walking tour. We assemble a multicultural research team to better understand our observations and isolate cultural and technological artifacts. We relate our findings to prior work in the area to show that culture can have as much, if not more, impact on group usage of a technology than the technical capabilities of a system.

Beyond the surface

An algorithm for selective undo of any operation in collaborative applications BIBAFull-Text 131-140
  Bin Shao; Du Li; Ning Gu
Selective undo allows users to undo any operation in the history and is considered a key feature in collaborative applications. Operational transformation (OT) is a powerful tool for implementing selective undo because it can be used to rearrange operations in a history in arbitrary orders. Despite the significant progress over the past two decades, however, there is still a space for improvements. Most existing works take time quadratic or even exponential in the size of the operation history H to undo an operation. Although this might be acceptable for real-time collaboration, it would be suboptimal in mobile and asynchronous collaborative applications in which a long history may accumulate. In addition, it is important to prove an algorithm with regard to the correctness criteria it assumes. This paper proposes a novel OT-based algorithm that provides integrated do and selective undo. The algorithm achieves time complexity of O(|H|) in both do and undo by keeping the history in a special operation effects relation order. Its correctness is formally proved with regard to formalized, provable conditions that are extended from a recent theoretical framework.
Forming reasonably optimal groups: (FROG) BIBAFull-Text 141-150
  Michelle Craig; Diane Horton; François Pitt
Instructors often put students into groups for coursework. Several tools exist to facilitate this process, but they typically limit the criteria one can use for forming groups. We have defined a general mathematical model for group formation: a set of attribute types, group-formation criteria, and fitness measures. We have implemented an optimizer that uses an evolutionary algorithm to create groups according to the instructor's criteria. Our experiments support the hypothesis that, even with a general model, reasonably optimal solutions to the group-formation problem can be found in reasonable time. Several instructors have used the tool to form groups for their courses. In all cases, they were impressed by the expressiveness of the model and pleased with the quality of the groups produced.
Transform 'pipeline' into 'pebble': an approach to improve efficiency BIBAFull-Text 151-154
  Yue Xi
Traditionally, many system designs focus on achieving efficiency through worker's standardized and uninterrupted operation. In this paper, I propose an alternative design approach: improving efficiency by transforming 'pipeline' systems into 'pebble' systems, i.e. reducing the constraints on workers' actions and augment their activities of managing local contingencies and utilizing local resources. I further illustrate this approach through a research project in the warehouse, in which a design vision was developed to transform the current pipeline system into a pebble system to improve efficiency.

Wikis and tagging

bumpy, caution with merging: an exploration of tagging in a geowiki BIBAFull-Text 155-164
  Fernando Torre; S. Andrew Sheppard; Reid Priedhorsky; Loren Terveen
We introduced tags into the Cyclopath geographic wiki for bicyclists. To promote the creation of useful tags, we made tags wiki objects, giving ownership of tag applications to the community, not to individuals. We also introduced a novel interface that lets users fine-tune their routing preferences with tags. We analyzed the Cyclopath tagging vocabulary, the relationship of tags to existing annotation techniques (notes and ratings), and the roles users take on with respect to tagging, notes, and ratings. Our findings are: two distinct tagging vocabularies have emerged, one around each of the two main types of geographic objects in Cyclopath; tags and notes have overlapping content but serve distinct purposes; users employ both ratings and tags to express their route-finding preferences, and use of the two techniques is moderately correlated; and users are highly specialized in their use of tags and notes. These findings suggest new design opportunities, including semi-automated methods to infer new annotations in a geographic context.
Negotiating with angry mastodons: the wikipedia policy environment as genre ecology BIBAFull-Text 165-168
  Jonathan T. Morgan; Mark Zachry
Groups collaborating in online spaces on complex, extended projects develop behavioral conventions and agreed-upon practices to structure and regulate their interactions and work. Collaborators on Wikipedia have developed a multi-tiered policy environment to document a set of evolving principles, processes, and rules to facilitate productive group collaboration. Previous quantitative studies have noted this hierarchical structure, but have evaluated the policy environment as a singular entity rather than investigating potential differences between the three main regulatory genres that enable it. These studies also excluded essays, the least official regulatory genre, from their analyses. We perform a comparative content analysis of all three genres (policies, guidelines, and essays) and demonstrate that they focus on different areas of community regulation. Drawing on the theory of genre ecologies we discuss the possible role of unofficial genres such as essays in articulating and regulating work practices in online, organized collaborative work.
kultagg: ludic design for tagging interfaces BIBAFull-Text 169-172
  Justin Cheng; Dan Cosley
While there has been significant research around aspects of tagging systems such as the vocabulary people use and the reasons they tag, there has been little focus on the design of the tagging interface itself. This paper discusses how kultagg, a ludic interface that includes the ability to color tags and place them directly on images, affect people's behavior and attitudes toward tagging. We conducted interviews with 10 people, asking them to use and reflect on kultagg. Color plays a significant role in enhancing a user's interest and enjoyment in tagging and has uses from self-expression to organization. People appreciated on-image tagging for its personal nature, ease of use, and specificity, although these tags tended to be less abstract and holistic than tags created in a more typical interface. Participants' generally positive response to kultagg suggests that including ludic elements in task-oriented domains is useful in creating rich, expressive systems.

Software code and gaming

Social regulation in an online game: uncovering the problematics of code BIBAFull-Text 173-182
  Mark S. Ackerman; Jack Muramatsu; David W. McDonald
More and more interaction is becoming code-based. Indeed, in online worlds, it is all there is. If software is providing a new basis for social interaction, then changing the infrastructure of interaction may necessarily change social interaction in important ways. As such, it is critical to understand the implications of code -- we want to know what the use of code means for socio-technical design.
   In this paper, based on an ethnographic study of an online game, we examine social regulation in an online game world as a case study of socio-technical design using code. We wanted to know how changing interaction based in code conditioned use in our site. We found that code changed social regulation in three specific ways. First, code made some user actions that were socially unwanted to be immediately visible. Second, code could prevent some actions from occurring or punish users immediately. Finally, software was not able to see all action. Some user actions were too nuanced or subtle for code to catch; others were too ambiguous to place into code. Following Agre, we argue i that a "grammar of action" resulting from the use of code limits the kinds of behaviors that can be seen and dealt with.
   These findings suggest that there is more than just a gap between the social world and technical capabilities. There are new possibilities, tradeoffs, and limitations that must be considered in socio-technical design, and all come simultaneously.
Searching for reputable source code on the web BIBAFull-Text 183-186
  Rosalva E. Gallardo-Valencia; Phitchayaphong Tantikul; Susan Elliott Sim
Looking for source code on the Web is a common practice among software developers. Previous research has shown that developers use social cues over technical cues to evaluate source code candidates. However, current source code search engines do not take full advantage of social information. We present a prototype, an extension of Sourcerer, that shows reputation information for each developer involved in the project and the developer's activity level. From this implementation, we have learned that the effectiveness of this approach depends on the amount of reputation information available on the Web, which is currently scarce. We also learned that a ranking algorithm that relies on both relevance and reputation would be beneficial. More research needs to be done to explore ranking algorithms that combine both social and technical information and also reputation information for source code and people.
The human factors of consistency maintenance in multiplayer computer games BIBAFull-Text 187-196
  Cheryl Savery; T. C. Nicholas Graham; Carl Gutwin
Consistency maintenance (CM) techniques are a crucial part of many distributed systems, and are particularly important in networked games. In this paper we describe a framework of the human factors of CM, to help designers of networked games make better decisions about its use. The framework shows that there is wide variance in the CM requirements of different game situations, identifies the types of requirements that can be considered, and analyses the effects of several consistency schemes on user experience factors. To further explore these issues, we carried out a simulation study that compared four CM algorithms. The experiment confirms many of the predictions of the framework, and reveals additional subtleties of the algorithms. Our work is the first to look comprehensively at the tradeoffs and costs of CM, and our results are a strong starting point that will help designers improve on the user's quality of experience in distributed shared environments.

Social interaction

Speaking through text: the influence of real-time text on discourse and usability in IM BIBAFull-Text 197-200
  Jacob Solomon; Mark Newman; Stephanie Teasley
Real-time, character-by-character transmission of messages in synchronous forms of text-based communications has seen a recent resurgence in CMC. We evaluated the impact of real-time text display on the usability of an instant messaging (IM) client. Participants were randomly assigned to dyads to participate in two discussion tasks using IM with both real-time text and enhanced message-by-message display (i.e., line-by-line display with additional cues to show when the remote party is typing). We found that real-time text helped users better coordinate turns and lead to less self-editing of messages, but had no overall influence on users' typing ability and provided minimal support for collaborative completion of sentences. Users who typed less or had less experience with IM tended to prefer real-time text. These findings have significance for several forms text-based CMC, including IM, chat, text telephony, and collaborative document editing.
We are all lurkers: consuming behaviors among authors and readers in an enterprise file-sharing service BIBAFull-Text 201-210
  Michael Muller; N. Sadat Shami; David R. Millen; Jonathan Feinberg
Most knowledge repositories focus on the role of knowledge-creators. In this paper, by contrast, we examined the work of Lurkers in an enterprise file-sharing service, and we compared their lurking behaviors to the lurking behaviors of users who uploaded files (Uploaders), and users who contributed metadata about files (Contributors). For comparability, we restricted our analyses to the consuming behaviors that are common to the three roles (Uploaders, Contributors, and Lurkers). Independent principal components analysis showed highly similar seven-factor solutions of lurking activities across all three roles, although the relative emphases of those factors varied across roles. Uploaders tended to view and download more groups of files, showed less emphasis on searching for files, and tended to work directly with the file-sharing application, unmediated by external applications. Contributors showed the opposite pattern: more emphasis on searching and responding to recommendations from other users, often via a form of remote access. Lurkers' lurking behaviors were less intense, and showed little difference in emphases among the lurker factors. We use these results, and the published research literature, to motivate a research agenda for lurkers in social media.
CollaBoard: a remote collaboration groupware device featuring an embodiment-enriched shared workspace BIBAFull-Text 211-214
  Martin Kuechler; Andreas M. Kunz
In this paper we present a mixed presence groupware device called "CollaBoard". The device improves collaboration between co-located and remote partners by providing a high level of workspace awareness. This is achieved by superimposing a life-size video showing the entire upper body of remote collaborators atop the displayed shared workspace. By doing so, the CollaBoard enriches the shared workspace with embodiments of remote collaborators. It shows pose, gaze and gestures of collaborators to their remote partners, and preserves the meaning of deictic gestures when pointing at displayed shared artifacts. The separate transmission of video and data allows the shared artifacts to remain editable at both conference sites. The functionality of two interconnected CollaBoard prototypes was verified in a public demonstration, a usability test, and a comparative user study.

Designing for collaboration II

Design, implementation, and evaluation of an approach for determining when programmers are having difficulty BIBAFull-Text 215-224
  Jason Carter; Prasun Dewan
Previous research has motivated the idea of automatically determining when programmers are having difficulty, provided an initial algorithm (unimplemented in an actual system), and performed a small student-based evaluation to justify the viability of this concept. We have taken the next step in this line of research by designing and developing two-different systems that incorporate variations of the algorithm, implementing a tool that allows independent observers to code recorded sessions, and performing studies involving both student and industrial programmers. Our work shows that (a) it is possible to develop an efficient and reusable architecture for predicting programmer status, (b) the previous technique can be improved through aggregation of predicted status, (c) the improved technique correlates more with programmers' perception of whether they are stuck than that of observers manually watching the programmers, (d) the observers are quicker than the developers to conclude that programmers are stuck, (e) with appropriate training, the tool can be used to predict even the observers' perceptions, and (f) a group training model offers more accuracy than an individual one when the training and test exercises are the same and carried over a small time frame.
Coordination in innovative design and engineering: observations from a lunar robotics project BIBAFull-Text 225-234
  Laura A. Dabbish; Patrick Wagstrom; Anita Sarma; James D. Herbsleb
Coordinating activities across groups in systems engineering or product development projects is critical to project success, but substantially more difficult when the work is innovative and dynamic. It is not clear how technology should best support cross-group collaboration on these types of projects. Recent work on coordination in dynamic settings has identified cross-boundary knowledge exchange as a critical mechanism for aligning activities. In order to inform the design of collaboration technology for creative work settings, we examined the nature of cross-group knowledge exchange in an innovative engineering research project developing a lunar rover robot as part of the Google Lunar X-Prize competition. Our study extends the understanding of communication and coordination in creative design work, and contributes to theory on coordination. We introduce four types of cross-team knowledge exchange mechanisms we observed on this project and discuss challenges associated with each. We consider implications for the design of collaboration technology to support cross-team knowledge exchange in dynamic, creative work environments.
Places for lightweight group meetings: the design of come together BIBAFull-Text 235-244
  Yibo Sun; Saul Greenberg
Lightweight group meetings are opportunistic, ad-hoc, or lightly planned gatherings characterized by the informal nature of their members and their tasks. Critically, they must be very easy to set up and maintain over time. We contribute the design of Come Together, a system that supports lightweight, persistent meetings between distance-separated people. Its design is theoretically motivated by the Locales Framework, with features derived from the best of Instant Messengers and the Community Bar. Its main motivation is that any action must be simple and fast to do if it is to support lightweight group meetings. In particular, Come Together represents both people and their things as media items, which -- unlike prior systems -- can be quickly brought together to form an ad hoc place. Places, which are persistent, can be presented in a variety of forms (e.g., as a stand-alone window, or as an element in a sidebar), with interaction mechanisms that let a person quickly adjust the degree of awareness he or she wishes to maintain of the place and its contents. Somewhat akin to buddy lists, a console collects all people, artifacts, and places, where users can select them to rapidly compose meeting places.

Intention and awareness

Supporting ad-hoc re-planning and shareability at large-scale events BIBAFull-Text 245-252
  Sarah Lindström; Mårten Pettersson
In this paper we present results from a research and development project focusing on the use of mobile phones at a music festival. Our aim is to explore how the festival experience can be enhanced with the introduction of mobile services. Two questions are addressed: Are there any design-openings for new services supporting groups at large-scale events? If so, what design challenges can be identified as important to consider in order to enhance the festival experience? Our conclusion is that there are several design-openings for new services supporting groups at large-scale events. We identify two different design challenges to address when designing new services; Supporting ad-hoc re-planning and shareability. The study contributes to better suited designs of services and technology in mobile settings as this music festival as well as for other large-scale events.
The Japanese garden: task awareness for collaborative multitasking BIBAFull-Text 253-262
  Hideto Yuzawa; Gloria Mark
Most technical support for multi-tasking considers multi-tasking as a single-user activity. We consider multi-tasking instead as a collaborative activity and in this paper, we report on a prototype designed to help people manage interruptions by broadcasting to colleagues their availability for interruptions for specific projects. The prototype is designed as a tangible interface, a desktop "Japanese Garden" where rocks represent a person's projects. We first performed ethnographic observations of the prototype in a natural work environment and found that users used the prototype easily to signal work on their current task-at-hand. However, we found that social agreements are needed as well as a technical solution. We then conducted an experiment to test the use of the prototype compared to using a chat system alone to signal availability for interruptions. Our results showed that with our prototype, task performance results did not differ, but collaborating partners sent significantly fewer coordination messages, fewer inappropriate messages, and produced fewer interruptions. We discuss future design ideas using tangible interfaces to manage multi-tasking.
Show me a good time: using content to provide activity awareness to collaborators with ActivitySpotter BIBAFull-Text 263-272
  Brian Y. Lim; Oliver Brdiczka; Victoria Bellotti
In order to study the effect supporting awareness of a colleague's activity on a collaborator's communication intentions, we developed ActivitySpotter. It is a research tool and awareness display that determines a user's current activity through a semantic analysis of documents s/he accesses and shares this information with collaborators. We ran a user study on 22 participants to investigate how accurately ActivitySpotter represents user activity and whether different representations of activity (presence only, topic keywords, or activity labels) influence awareness differently and lead users to change their contact intention. Our findings suggest that activity content awareness can help users glean more about what their collaborators are doing, especially if they are more socially distant, and can afford screen space to have the display showing. This increase in awareness also positively influences users' intentions to communicate in a socially appropriate manner.

Practice, patterns, and models

Towards building a productive, scalable and sustainable collaboration model for open educational resources BIBAFull-Text 273-282
  Airong Luo; Dick Ng'ambi; Ted Hanss
This paper reports on a case study of a Health Open Educational Resources (OER) project in order to examine how to facilitate cross-institutional collaboration for OER production. This study assesses collaboration needs, identifies social and technical barriers, and builds a collaboration model to facilitate OER production. In doing so, we make three contributions to the GROUP community: (1) Whereas previous studies on distributed collaboration tend to focus on well-developed collaboration, in this study we research collaboration in Health OER at an early stage of development; (2) By studying collaboration involving both developing and developed countries, we identify components that are particularly critical for collaboration between teams spanning differently resourced nations; (3) By studying the Health OER project, we better understand factors that affect distributed collaboration when participants are not externally funded and are constrained by their local organizations.
A review of patterns in collaborative work BIBAFull-Text 283-292
  Yiannis Verginadis; Nikos Papageorgiou; Dimitris Apostolou; Gregoris Mentzas
Patterns, repeatable processes for recurring high-value tasks, have great potential for assisting computer-mediated collaboration. In this paper we focus on patterns for collaborative work as a means to capture best practices about recurring collaborative problems and solutions amongst dispersed groups. We present a comparative review of relevant research and commercial efforts related to patterns that can be used to facilitate collaboration.
Practice-centered e-science: a practice turn perspective on cyberinfrastructure design BIBAFull-Text 293-302
  Tyler Pace; Shaowen Bardzell; Geoffrey Fox
Cyberinfrastructure is a rapidly growing area of global research and funding with a history of emphasizing the role technology will play in changing scientific work practices. This paper proposes a practice-theoretic perspective that is informative to cyberinfrastructure research and design. To illustrate the relevancy of a practice-theoretic perspective to cyberinfrastructure, this paper presents a critical review of 160 cyberinfrastructure research papers and reports published in the last decade through a perspective of embodied practice. After relating common cyberinfrastructure research themes through a focus on embodied practice, we propose a series of early implications for design aimed at incorporating the lessons of embodied practice into the design and development of future cyberinfrastructure applications.

Posters session I

Alternate reality games and groupwork BIBAFull-Text 303-304
  David Gurzick; Brian Landry; Kevin F. White
Alternate reality games (ARGs) represent a unique form of group collaboration. The comparison of ARGs to more traditional groupware systems around themes of group formation and collective storytelling provides several questions for the study of groupwork and groupware systems.
Collaborative poetry on the Facebook social network BIBAFull-Text 305-306
  Foad Hamidi; Melanie Baljko
Previous research has identified many characteristics of social networks that can support creative collaboration. To examine the possibilities and issues involved, we created a collaborative poetry project on the popular social network Facebook. Nineteen participating poets from five cities contributed to a multimedia poem written in two languages.
Conceptualizing social information BIBAFull-Text 307-308
  Warren S. Allen
In this paper, I propose a research agenda based on the concept of the social information system, a form of information system designed to process information about individuals and their social relationships for the explicit purpose of producing a particular social order, i.e, organizational culture. The agenda is based on a review of extant research on organizationally-bound social network(ing) sites, categorizing findings according to labor-oriented and social-oriented uses. The proposed research agenda establishes as an object of socio-technical inquiry the design and use of the social information system as a facilitator of organizational culture.
Conferencing room for telepresence with remote participants BIBAFull-Text 309-310
  Eunyee Koh
Many HCI researchers have demonstrated that web and video conferencing do a poor job of preserving nonverbal cues and may not be comparable to person-to-person meetings because it changes the nature of information processing and imposes more cognitive burden by users. However, many industrial conferences and meetings are moving from person-to-person communication to device-to-device communication including phone/web/video conferencing because of benefits like travel cost/time reduction, convenience, and to leverage the global workforce.
   To overcome limitations of device-to-device communication, novel commercial devices and research prototypes, such as spatial audio/speaker, high-definition and spatial video/display, physical surrogates, or interactive digital whiteboard, have been developed. We would like to understand better about effectiveness of these new devices for conferencing, and drive suggestion and direction for future conferencing room environment.
Designing Qbox: a tool for sorting things out in digital spaces BIBAFull-Text 311-312
  Doug Divine; Jonathan T. Morgan; Jamie Ourada; Mark Zachry
This poster introduces Qbox, a flexible tool developed by the Communicative Practices in Virtual Workspaces research group at the University of Washington to support traditional and innovative forms of analysis for web-based and digital material. Qbox integrates three functional areas of work associated with content analysis: consolidating and presenting source data, performing coding or classification work, and analyzing results. Developed using an iterative user-centered design approach to support ongoing research, this tool enhances research protocol by providing a flexible application to organize digital spaces, and demonstrates the power of productivity associated with agile, user-based development.
Empathy & enjoyment in computer-mediated design work BIBAFull-Text 313-314
  Amanda Rotondo
While there have been vast theoretical and pragmatic advances in the field of CSCW, significant questions still remain about what makes for a successful distance collaboration, particularly in the field of design. Through an experimental design, this research examines the role that empathy and related psychological constructs may play in the experiences of designers working at a distance. Findings show that in fact empathy does matter, and may affect both the enjoyment of the experience and the efficiency with which the designers work. This study shows a link between empathy and empathic constructs, and the outcomes of computer mediated distance design collaborations.
Flag: an ambient awareness tool to support informal collaborative learning BIBAFull-Text 315-316
  Hamed S. Alavi; Pierre Dillenbourg
We present Flag, an awareness tool that gives information on the presence and status of students in a university leaning center with the aim of promoting informal collaboration among them.
   Considering learning centers as ecosystems in which the learners can benefit from sharing knowledge with one another, we believe that giving information about the ongoing activities in this ecosystem would encourage and facilitate interactions.
Group's affective relevance: a proposal for studying affective relevance in collaborative information seeking BIBAFull-Text 317-318
  Roberto I. González-Ibáñez; Chirag Shah
In an interactive information-seeking environment, it is important to consider more user-centric notion of relevance, which includes motivational and affective relevance. In this poster we introduce the notion of group's affective relevance for collaborative information seeking. We propose a new model for implementing and studying group's affective relevance in information systems that provide support for collaborative information seeking. In addition, we present preliminary results from a laboratory experiment for studying how affective information judgments are related to the performance of a group.
R u ok?: increasing perceptions of safety and community through social networks BIBAFull-Text 319-320
  Sheena Lewis
Current university emergency alert systems use email, text messages, and automated phone calls to contact people about incidents that occur. One major goal of these systems is to reassure university community members that administrators are aware of emergencies and are in control. These generic alerts, however, can cause panic because it increases concern for the safety of family and friends. Furthermore, people receive alerts that are irrelevant based on their current location. This poster describes an emergency alert system that provides personalized information to users. R U OK?, a SMS-based service, distributes emergency alert information along with status updates of those in one's close social network. By providing personalized information, the system aims to increase feelings of safety and sense of community.
Navigation companion: a web portal for Volkswagen drivers BIBAFull-Text 321-322
  Jackie C. Chang
In this paper, we describe the VW Labs Navigation Companion website, an online portal Volkswagen customers can use to send destination addresses to their cars. The Navigation Companion website is part of a larger VW Labs site where we are developing a suite of tools that will allow people to customize and update different types of information about their Volkswagen vehicles online, and then transfer that information to their Volkswagen cars. More tools with different features will be coming in the future.
Perceptions of copyright compliance BIBAFull-Text 323-324
  Trisha Brewer
Modern technology provides the opportunity to readily copy and distribute pirated versions of copyrighted material. In many cases this material is indistinguishable from the original. Since today's information assurance (IA) students are tomorrow's security specialists, they must maintain an increased sensitivity to the protection of intellectual property. Do these future security specialists hold this knowledge, or does society simply assume that they do? Are today's IA programs successfully instilling this sensitivity? Hiring managers make certain assumptions about these security students that extend into the work force when designing and developing computer-based collaborative systems. Are these assumptions correct? The answers to these questions and more will be reported in the results of a research project on the student awareness of copyright laws among the IA students at a Midwestern university and will evaluate the effectiveness of current curriculum.
PeTEX -- platform for e-learning and telemetric experimentation: a holistic approach for tele-operated live experiments in production engineering BIBAFull-Text 325-326
  Christian Pleul; Claudius Terkowsky; Isa Jahnke
Particularly in environments where experiments are the core elements of learning, it is considerably important how experiments are accessible and operable. Especially in the field of production engineering education, real-time remote "hands on" laboratories did not exist in the past. During the EU funded project "Platform for e-learning and Telemetric Experimentation (PeTEX)", the team has designed and developed a prototype of a networked and distributed learning environment (see figure 1) for individual and cooperative lifelong learning aiming at experiment-based education in production engineering. The distributed prototype consists of three physical real laboratories in the areas of material characterization in forming technology, cutting using a milling machine and joining using friction stir welding. The experiments are holistically integrated into the modularized learning material. The proposed demonstration will focus on the example of material characterization in forming technology and will include the presentation of online learning material and the tele-operated experiment.
Promoting oneself on Flickr: users' strategies and attitudes BIBFull-Text 327-328
  Linda H. Hwang; Pallavi Damera; Linda Brooking; Charlotte P. Lee
Towards a group recommender process model for ad-hoc groups and on-demand recommendations BIBAFull-Text 329-330
  Christoph Beckmann; Tom Gross
Movie recommender systems simplify the movie selection by providing movie suggestions based on the respective user's personal taste. Most of the current systems address individual users, support stationary use, and require pre-configuration. In this paper we present an approach for group recommendations for movies based on a novel group recommender process model for ad-hoc groups with on-demand recommendations.
Using social media for social activism BIBAFull-Text 331-332
  Pausali Sen; Irini Spyridakis; Silvia Amtmann; Charlotte P. Lee
This paper uses qualitative research methods to analyze how members of the Seattle chapter of a social activist group, Asha for Education, use social media, such as Yahoo! Groups, Microsoft distribution lists, and Facebook to coordinate their organizational activities, fundraise, and build and strengthen community.

Poster session II -- doctoral colloquium

Bringing back channels up front: towards an active learning environment BIBAFull-Text 333-334
  Honglu Du; Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
In many college classrooms, students are passive spectators and the transmittal model of teaching is prevalent in most classes. In contrast, Vygotsky's social-constructivist view emphasizes the importance of making students become active learners. Many active learning techniques have been developed, primarily focused on making students active participants in various kinds of in class activities like discussion, writing and talking. However, there is evidence that the typical university classroom setting presents some obstacles for realizing maximum effectiveness of class wide discussion. These obstacles include the effects of production blocking, the hierarchical power structures within the classroom and the lack of sense of community. Having realized the great potential of Web 2.0 social software in meeting these challenges, the objective in the proposed research is to build an active learning environment by bring backchannel discussion up front using CMC tools. A design based research method will be used to explore effects of using this tool in classes.
Collaborative information foraging: an application to emergency response BIBFull-Text 335-336
  Babajide Osatuyi
Crowdsourcing science: organizing virtual participation in knowledge production BIBAFull-Text 337-338
  Andrea Wiggins
Citizen science is a form of research collaboration that involves the public in scientific research to address real-world problems. Virtual citizen science projects, entirely mediated by information and communication technologies (ICTs), are often considered a form of crowdsourcing applied to science. The use of ICTs to support citizen science has already yielded significant impacts on the scale and scope of participation and research, but there is little guidance to help projects choose and implement appropriate technologies to support research and participation goals. This dissertation study employs a comparative case study methodology to examine how virtuality and technology shape processes of organizing and participation in citizen science, and how these processes influence scientific outcomes. The goal of the study is to conceptualize virtual participation by examining the relationship between ICT and practice in order to inform design and management of cyberinfrastructure for citizen science.
Examining the ways in which people learn in social groups in second life: an ethnographic study BIBAFull-Text 339-340
  Wan-Ying Tay
Virtual worlds are computer-simulated spaces which allow a large number of users to interact in real-time through an array of communication modes. The social and participatory nature of virtual worlds provide new places of assembly and generate opportunities for forming groups in which users can share information and engage in joint activities, potentially leading to a range of learning outcomes. The purported benefits are especially evident in user-created virtual worlds such as Second Life® (http://secondlife.com). Given the possibilities that virtual worlds may have for information sharing and learning, there is a need to understand these relatively new environments and the activities within them. This study adopts an ethnography of three social groups in Second Life over a nine-month period, employing methods such as participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Specifically, it seeks to examine information sharing within the groups and investigate the extent to which members learn from the group's activities.
Integrating older adults into social networking sites through ambient intelligence BIBAFull-Text 341-342
  Raymundo Cornejo
Social Networking sites (SNS) use helps teenagers and younger adults to increase their social network and maintain those offline connections made in their daily activities. However older adults are often left aside from SNS, missing interaction opportunities with the members of their social network. The lack of participation and access to these social capital sources might be relevant because several studies indicate the impact that causes the quality of the social network in the physical and mental health of the older adult. Therefore the goal of my dissertation is to investigate the impact and issues raised by the use of ambient information systems to help older adults to socialize through SNSs in natural ways creating an ambient social network site.
Practices of balancing privacy and publicness in social network services BIBAFull-Text 343-344
  Airi Lampinen
While social media is all about sharing content with a community, few people wish to share everything, with everyone, all the time. This means that users balance between making some things public and keeping other content private. The presented dissertation research concerns practices of managing privacy and publicness in social network services (SNS), with a focus on group co-presence, interdependence and differing levels of use activity. The work aims at gaining insight into social identities and self-presentation in the era of technologically mediated social interaction. The findings are expected to contribute to design solutions that could lighten the privacy and publicness management burden that users of social media currently bear.
The socio-technical design of a library and information science collaboratory BIBAFull-Text 345-346
  Monica Lassi
The aim of this research is to design a collaboratory that is a socio-technical platform to support sharing research data collection instruments in a social science discipline, in particular library and information science. A socio-technical approach to design that includes a literature review, an empirical study and use cases, are used to create specifications for a collaboratory prototype. Future work includes an evaluation of the collaboratory prototype.
Technology as a resource for reconstituting the social world: life in a war zone BIBAFull-Text 347-348
  Bryan C. Semaan
We argue that the disruption associated with war can help develop a deeper theoretical and practical understanding of how Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) enable people to repair practices in the work, social, and education spaces. We focus on how people leverage various ICTs in order to reconstitute their social world, which will allow us to develop new technologies to aid those who experience similar situations.
Using cultures of participation to change behaviors BIBAFull-Text 349-350
  Holger Dick
My doctoral research addresses two major systemic problems: energy sustainability and education, specifically how to engage learners as active contributors and decision makers rather than passive consumers. I design, develop, and evaluate socio-technical environments that facilitate cultures of participation in order to change human behavior towards energy sustainability.
   I analyze group interactions that influence and determine cultures of participation and I am conducting crowd-sourced user studies with the goal of creating theoretically-based and empirically-supported frameworks for the creation of socio-technical environments.
Using language-retrieved pictures to support intercultural group brainstorming BIBAFull-Text 351-352
  Hao-Chuan Wang
Group brainstorming is a commonly practiced technique to enhance creative outcomes. A close observation of group brainstorming suggests that ensuring the abundance and diversity of stimuli available in brainstorming sessions is critical. Cultural differences in knowledge and perspectives are valuable sources for diversity, while cultural discrepancy in communication styles and language may impede knowledge sharing. My dissertation research aims to reconcile the tension between the benefits and obstacles of intercultural brainstorming with pictures that are triggered by verbal ideas. Pictures provide extra stimulation without explicitly interrupting normal communication. Pictures may also mediate concepts in a language-independent manner, which may complement the still imperfect machine translation and make cross-lingual brainstorming feasible.
The virtual home mode: photography & biography work BIBAFull-Text 353-354
  Eric C. Cook
In this paper, I describe an ongoing qualitative study into the collaborative production and social uses of snapshot photography in the context of modern user-generated content systems. Through semi-structured interviews and in-home observation, I examine how these everyday media practices support the biographies and well-being of the participants. I build on Chalfen's concept of the home mode media production to frame the set of users and social behaviors in this study, terming current analogous activities as the "virtual home mode." In doing so, I contribute to the body of research investigating the relationships between technology and well-being, as well as providing rich description of user practices in the pervasive context of personal digital photography.

Workshops

Clorg: collective intelligence in organizations BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  Gregorio Convertino; Antonietta Grasso; Giorgio De Michelis; David R. Millen; Ed H. Chi
Web 2.0 tools are penetrating into organizations after their successful adoption in the consumer domain (e.g., social networking; sharing of photos, videos, tags, or bookmarks; wiki-based editing). Some of these new tools and the collaborative processes that they support on the large scale are often referred to as Collective Intelligence (CI). The workshop brings together leading researchers and designers who are studying or developing CI tools aimed at workers in organizations. The goal is to further articulate the emerging research agenda for this new CSCW area and define new observed forms of CI in organization. Studies of communities, CI tools, and new methods are discussed.
Collaborative information seeking (CIS): toward new theories and applications BIBAFull-Text 359-360
  Chirag Shah; Madhu Reddy; Michael Twidale
The nature of the available information and its role in our lives have changed significantly, but the methods and tools that are used to access and share that information in collaboration have remained largely unaltered. Within the GROUP/CSCW community, the area of collaborative information seeking/retrieval/behavior (CIS/CIR/CIB) has drawn a new stream of interest to it in the recent years. This has been possible due to involvement and initiatives of several prominent researchers from various fields, such as IR, HCI, LIS, and CSCW. This workshop is aimed to take these efforts to the next level by focusing on theories and models that are grounded in the literature and existing empirical studies, as well as applications and tools that help us advance the field further. We are interested in bringing together a group of researchers working on various conceptual and technical aspects of collaborative information seeking, search, retrieval, and sensemaking. The workshop will provide an excellent opportunity to share your work-in-progress, seek valuable feedback from your fellow researchers, and start or strengthen collaborative endeavors.
Computer supported collaborative learning at work: CSCL at work BIBAFull-Text 361-362
  Sean P. Goggins; Isa Jahnke
We propose an interdisciplinary workshop to explore collaborative learning in the workplace. The workshop's theme is, simply "CSCL at work". The ACM Group conference is an ideal venue for a workshop on this topic because the North American and European communities who participate in Group include leading members of the international CSCL and CSCW communities. The proposed workshop will be a full day. It will open with a situating presentation by the organizers and be followed by topically oriented small group breakout sessions. To participate in the workshop, discussants will be asked for a position paper of up to 4 pages in standard ACM format. Up to three papers will be selected for featured talks in the afternoon. The workshop will conclude with a decision on next steps. We have an outstanding book proposal with Springer on this topic, and an edited book is one possible next step.
Connecting families: new technologies, family communication, and the impact on domestic space BIBFull-Text 363-366
  Carman Neustaedter; Tejinder K. Judge; Steve Harrison; Abigail Sellen; Xiang Cao; David Kirk; Joseph Kaye