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DHM Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415-115-2

DHM 2009: 2nd International Conference on Digital Human Modeling

Fullname:DHM 2009: 2nd International Conference on Digital Human Modeling
Note:Volume 11 of HCI International 2009
Editors:Vincent G. Duffy
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5620
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02808-3 (print), 978-3-642-02809-0 (online); hcibib: DHM09
Papers:80
Pages:763
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Face, Head and Body Modeling
  2. Modeling Motion
  3. Modeling Behavior, Emotion and Cognition
  4. Human Modeling in Transport Applications
  5. Human Modeling Applications in Health and Rehabilitation
  6. Ergonomic and Industrial Applications
  7. Advances in Digital Human Modeling

Face, Head and Body Modeling

Static and Dynamic Human Shape Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Zhiqing Cheng; Kathleen M. Robinette
Recent developments in static human shape modeling based on range scan data and dynamic human shape modeling from video imagery are reviewed. The topics discussed include shape description, surface registration, hole filling, shape characterization, and shape reconstruction for static modeling and pose identification, skeleton modeling, shape deformation, motion tracking, dynamic shape capture and reconstruction, and animation for dynamic modeling. A new method for human shape modeling is introduced.
Keywords: Human body; shape modeling; pose; animation
An Advanced Modality of Visualization and Interaction with Virtual Models of the Human Body BIBAKFull-Text 13-18
  Lucio Tommaso De Paolis; Marco Pulimeno; Giovanni Aloisio
The developed system is the first prototype of a virtual interface designed to avoid contact with the computer so that the surgeon is able to visualize models of the patient's organs more effectively during surgical procedure. In particular, the surgeon will be able to rotate, to translate and to zoom in on 3D models of the patient's organs simply by moving his finger in free space; in addition, it is possible to choose to visualize all of the organs or only some of them. All of the interactions with the models happen in real-time using the virtual interface which appears as a touch-screen suspended in free space in a position chosen by the user when the application is started up. Finger movements are detected by means of an optical tracking system and are used to simulate touch with the interface and to interact by pressing the buttons present on the virtual screen.
Keywords: User Interface; Image Processing; Tracking System
3D Body Scanning's Contribution to the Use of Apparel as an Identity Construction Tool BIBAKFull-Text 19-28
  Marie-Eve Faust; Serge Carrier
Humans use apparel as an artifact to construct their identities and present it to the outside world. Beyond textiles and clothing style, garment fit contributes to this image presentation. This research, conducted on the Hong Kong market shows that women view 3D body scanning technology positively and that it therefore could prove an effective and efficient tool, both from a consumer's and from a seller's point of view, in facilitating the body image creation.
Keywords: Body image; 3D body scan; apparel; fashion
Facial Shape Analysis and Sizing System BIBAKFull-Text 29-35
  Afzal Godil
The understanding of shape and size of the human head and faces is vital for design of facial wear products, such as respirators, helmets, eyeglasses and for ergonomic studies. 3D scanning is used to create 3D databases of thousands of humans from different demographics backgrounds. 3D scans have been used for design and analysis of facial wear products, but have not been very effectively utilized for sizing system. The 3D scans of human bodies contain over hundreds of thousand grid points. To be used effectively for analysis and design, these human heads require a compact shape representation. We have developed compact shape representations of head and facial shapes. We propose a sizing system based on cluster analysis along with compact shape representations to come up with different sizes for different facial wear products, such as respirators, helmets, eyeglasses, etc.
Keywords: Anthropometry; shape descriptor; cluster analysis; PCA
Facial Gender Classification Using LUT-Based Sub-images and DIE BIBAKFull-Text 36-45
  Jong-Bae Jeon; Sang-Hyeon Jin; Dong-Ju Kim; Kwang-Seok Hong
This paper presents a gender classification method using LUT-based sub-images and DIE (Difference Image Entropy). The proposed method consists of three major steps; extraction of facial sub-images, construction of a LUT (Look-Up table), and calculation of DIE. Firstly, extraction of sub-images of the face, right eye, and mouth from face images is conducted using Haar-like features and AdaBoost proposed by Viola and Jones. Secondly, sub-images are converted using LUT. LUT-based sub-regions are constructed by calculation of one pixel and near pixels. Finally, sub-images are classified male or female using DIE. The DIE value is computed with histogram levels of a grayscale difference image which has peak positions from -255 to +255, to prevent information sweeping. The performance evaluation is conducted using five standard databases, i.e., PAL, BioID, FERET, PIC, and Caltech facial databases. The experimental results show good performance in comparison with earlier methods.
Keywords: Gender Classification; Difference Image Entropy
Anthropometric Measurement of the Hands of Chinese Children BIBAKFull-Text 46-54
  Linghua Ran; Xin Zhang; Chuzhi Chao; Taijie Liu; Tingting Dong
This paper presents the results of a nationwide anthropometric survey conducted on children in China. Eight hand anthropometric dimensions were measured from 20,000 children with age ranged from 4 to 17 years old. Mean values, standard deviations, and the 5th, 95th percentile for each dimension were estimated. The dimension difference between age, gender and difference between Chinese and Japanese were analyzed. It was found that the mean values of the dimensions showed a gradual increase by age. The dimensions had no significant difference between genders for the children from 4 to 12, but the difference became significant for the children from 13 to 17. Comparison between Chinese and Japanese children showed that Chinese children tended to have relatively longer and broader hands than Japanese children. These data, previously lacking in China, can benefit the children's products design.
Keywords: Hand; anthropometric measurement; Chinese children
Comparisons of 3D Shape Clustering with Different Face Area Definitions BIBAKFull-Text 55-63
  Jianwei Niu; Zhizhong Li; Song Xu
The importance of fit for face-related wearing products has introduced the necessity for better definition of face area. In this paper, three definitions of face area are compared on the context of Three dimensional (3D) face shape similarity based clustering. The first method defines the face area by spanning from the whole head grid surface by the front π/2 wedge angle along a line going through the centroid and pointing to the top of the head. The second method defines the face area as the grid surface enclosed by several anthropometric landmark points (sellion, both zygions, and menton) on the facial surface. The zonal surface where the respirator interferes with the wear's face is taken as the third alternative definition for the comparative study. By utilizing the block-distance measure, each face was converted into a compact block-distance vector. Then, k-means clustering was performed on the vectors. 376 3D face data sets were tested in this study. One-way ANOVA on the block distance based vectors was conducted to evaluate the influence on clustering results by utilizing different face area definitions. No difference was found at the significant level of 0.05. However, the cluster membership shows great difference between different definitions. This emphasizes the value of the selection of face area in 3D face shape-similarity-based clustering.
Keywords: 3D anthropometry; face area; shape comparison; clustering
Block Division for 3D Head Shape Clustering BIBAKFull-Text 64-71
  Jianwei Niu; Zhizhong Li; Song Xu
In our previous Three Dimensional (3D) anthropometric shape clustering study, block-division technique is adopted. The objective of this study was to examine the sensitivity of clustering results on block-division. Such a block-division technique means to divide each 3D surface into a predefined number of blocks. Then by using a block-distance measure, each surface is converted into a block-distance based vector. Finally, k-means clustering is performed on the vectors to segment a population into several groups. Totally 447 3D head samples have been analyzed in the case study. The influence of block division number on clustering was evaluated by using One-way ANOVA. No significant difference was found between the three block division alternatives. This means the adopted method is robust to block division.
Keywords: Three dimensional anthropometry; block-division; clustering; sizing
Joint Coupling for Human Shoulder Complex BIBAKFull-Text 72-81
  Jingzhou Yang; Xuemei Feng; Joo H. Kim; Yujiang Xiang; Sudhakar Rajulu
In this paper, we present an inverse kinamtics method to determining human shoulder joint motion coupling relationship based on experimental data in the literature. The joint coupling relationship is available in the literature, but it is an Euler-angle-based relationship. This work focuses on transferring Euler-angle-based coupling equations into a relationship based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) method. We use analytical inverse kinematics to achieve the transferring. Euler angles are obtained for static positions with intervals of 15 degrees, and the elevation angle of the arm varied between 0 and 120 degrees. For a specific posture, we can choose points on clavicle, scapula, and humerus and represent the end-effector positions based on Euler angles or DH method. For both systems, the end-effectors have the same Cartesian positions. Solving these equations related to end-effector positions yields DH joint angles for that posture. The new joint motion coupling relationship is obtained by polynomial and cosine fitting of the DH joint angles for all different postures.
Keywords: Human shoulder; joint motion coupling; joint limit coupling; shoulder rhythm; Euler angles; DH method

Modeling Motion

Development of a Kinematic Hand Model for Study and Design of Hose Installation BIBAKFull-Text 85-94
  Thomas J. Armstrong; Christopher Best; Sungchan Bae; Jaewon Choi; D. Christian Grieshaber; Daewoo Park; Charles Woolley; Wei Zhou
Kinematic hand models can be used to predict where workers will place their fingers on work objects and the space required by the hand. Hand postures can be used to predict hand strength. Kinematic models also can be used to predict tissue stresses and to study work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Study and design of manual hose installation is an important application for kinematic hand models. Hoses are widely used in many mechanical systems such as autos, aircraft and home appliance, which are all mass-produced on assembly lines. Studies of automobile assembly jobs show that hose installations are one of the most physically demanding jobs that workers perform. Hoses are a good starting point for kinematic model development because they can be characterized as simple cylinders.
Keywords: Hands; kinematic model; manufacturing
Generation of Percentile Values for Human Joint Torque Characteristics BIBAKFull-Text 95-104
  Florian Engstler; Heiner Bubb
This pilot study presents an approach to generate percentile values for joint torque characteristics of digital human models. Detailed angle specific joint torque measurements of few subjects are set in relation to extensive measurements of external maximum forces including percentile values based on many subjects by using muti-body simulation. Results indicate the applicability of the approach but do not generate results of high validity due to some sources of errors along the process. More experiments solving these issues and generating valid results are being planned.
Keywords: DHM; joint force; percentile
Adaptive Motion Pattern Recognition: Implementing Playful Learning through Embodied Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 105-114
  Anja Hashagen; Christian Zabel; Heidi Schelhowe; Saeed Zare
The concept of embodiment plays an emergent role in Human-Computer-Interaction. Accordingly, we conceptualized, implemented, and evaluated an adaptive motion pattern recognition system for an educational installation called Der Schwarm. We implemented three algorithms and compared correctness and processing speed. Der Schwarm aims to encourage children to learn about technology and interprets free body movements. The motion pattern recognition system fosters embodied playful learning, as an evaluation with children shows.
Keywords: Motion Pattern Recognition; Playful Learning; Embodied Interaction; Children Education; HCI; Virtual Environments
A Multi-functional Visualization System for Motion Captured Human Body Based on Virtual Reality Technology BIBAKFull-Text 115-122
  Qichang He; Lifeng Zhang; Xiumin Fan; Yong Hu
This study is to develop a multi-functional visualization system (KINE) for motion captured Human Body based on Virtual Reality (VR) technology, which reconstruct the skeleton rigid model motion in the 3D virtual environment. The KINE is based on VR general application development platform named VRFlier, which provide an innovative human-machine interaction. This paper focuses on the methods of human rigid modeling and motion reconstruction. The human rigid modeling is based on Rigid Body Assumption (RBA) theory and using Virtual Marker (VM) to position the arthrosis of linked body segment. The motion reconstruction is implemented through coordination transformation of Local Coordination System (LCS) defined by VM. KINE is applied in the research project "Mechanical Virtual Human of China", the results show that this software tool can help conveniently analyze the data collected by motion captured system.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Human Skeleton Rigid Model; Measuring Rigid Body (MRB); Virtual Marker (VM); Motion Visualization
Augmented Practice Mirror: A Self-learning Support System of Physical Motion with Real-Time Comparison to Teacher's Model BIBAKFull-Text 123-131
  Itaru Kuramoto; Yoshikazu Inagaki; Yu Shibuya; Yoshihiro Tsujino
An effective way to learn some physical motions such as dancing, playing sports, making traditional crafts, and so on, is to mimic teacher's motion. In this style of learning, it is important for the learner to recognize the difference between the teacher's motion and his/her one. We propose Augmented Practice Mirror (APM) learning support system. APM shows the mirror image of learner's motion overlapped teacher's one, and the difference between them. These three images are shown simultaneously on a large screen as virtual mirror in real time. As a result of the experimental evaluations, it was found that APM was better in recognizing the difference between the participant's motion and the teacher's one than two common methods, and that the hybrid interface of voice recognition and gesture was better than the single interface of voice recognition or gesture for operating APM.
Keywords: mirror interface; gesture; physical motion tracking; learning support; human model; voice recognition; augmented reality
Note: Best Paper Award
Video-Based Human Motion Estimation System BIBAFull-Text 132-139
  Mariofanna G. Milanova; Leonardo Bocchi
This paper presents the system designed to estimate body silhouette representation from sequences of images. The accuracy of human motion estimation can be improved by increasing the complexity of any of the three fundamental building blocks: the measured data, the prior model, or the optimization method. The vast majority of existing literature on human motion estimation has focused on just one of these building blocks: improving the methods for optimization, also called inference. In contrast, our approach seeks to explore the hypothesis that the other two building blocks are critical components, using extremely high accuracy measured data and shape of body motion priors, so that the objective function is more precise and less noisy, resulting in an easier solution. Our main goal is to develop a new module for extracting accuracy measured data from video imagery.
Virtual Human Hand: Grasping and Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 140-149
  Esteban Peña Pitarch; Jingzhou Yang; Karim Abdel-Malek
The human hand is the most complete tool, able to adapt to different surfaces and shapes and touch and grasp. It is a direct connection between the exterior world and the brain. I. Kant (German philosopher) defined how the hand is an extension of the brain. In this paper we present and develop a new algorithm for grasp any object in a virtual environment (VE). The objective is to present a novel theory for grasping in the VE any object with the virtual human (VH). The novel concepts for this application are the autonomous grasp, implementation of several types of grasp, and a new algorithm for grasp.
Keywords: Autonomous grasp; virtual environment; virtual human hand
Harmonic Gait under Primitive DOF for Biped Robot BIBAKFull-Text 150-159
  Shigeki Sugiyama
Here argues about an effective and an energy less-consuming walking for a humanoid type of robot. There are many humanoid types of robots in the world that can walk, run, dance, and get up, etc. Those are mostly used and enjoyed in the field of entertainment for kids' pleasures. For any other usages, humanoid types of robots are not practical enough in a daily life usage or in factory usages or in any others. Because the robotics movements are not smooth enough and not effective enough for doing things in them, that is to say, the stable biped walking and the energy optimization biped walking (series of those walking figures) could not meet the necessary conditions for the expected usages or for other purposes. So here introduces a new idea of humanoid type of harmonic gait, which makes a robot move more effectively and an energy less-consuming walking.
Keywords: harmonic gait; less-consuming walking
Problems Encountered in Seated Arm Reach Posture Reconstruction: Need for a More Realistic Spine and Upper Limb Kinematic Model BIBAKFull-Text 160-169
  Xuguang Wang
In this paper, we will present the main problems encountered for reconstructing in-vehicle reach postures. Among the 2176 successfully captured movements, about 7.4% of them were considered as "bad quality" with a high residual error between reconstructed and measured marker positions. They mainly correspond to the far targets and in the direction that one has to elevate the arm. The results of the present study strongly suggest that a more realistic kinematic model of the upper body including the shoulder complex, pelvis and spine is required. In addition, the natural coordination between joint axes should also be used for compensating the lack of information in case of under-constraint situation and for correcting the uncertainty of surface markers positions.
Keywords: Reach; Digital human; Motion reconstruction; Motion capture; Discomfort
Intelligent Motion Tracking by Combining Specialized Algorithms BIBAKFull-Text 170-179
  Matthias Weber
Motion Capture is a widely accepted approach to capture natural human motion, usually utilizing markers to track certain anthropological points on the participant's body. Unfortunately, these markers do not carry any identification information. Furthermore, marker data can be noisy. To address these problems this work suggests a hybrid approach, i.e. an approach using several experts to solve easier, less complex subproblems. Currently, the presented hybrid approach is built upon three methods, two for identification and one for tracking purposes. For identification of an initial posture, a PCA-based technique for aligning a skeleton model as well as a tree-based optimization comparing anthropometric and tracking data are introduced. To complement the hybrid computation pipeline a neural network algorithm based on self-organizing maps tracks the markers on subsequent frames.
Keywords: Motion Capture; Marker Identification; Neural Networks

Modeling Behavior, Emotion and Cognition

Ambient Compass: One Approach to Model Spatial Relations BIBAFull-Text 183-191
  Petr Aksenov; Geert Vanderhulst; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
The knowledge of spatial arrangements of objects is an important component for the design of migratable user interfaces that target pervasive environments. Objects in these environments are often moving around individually, which leads to a highly dynamic and unpredictable environment. Due to its nature, spatial information cannot be described exhaustively, and uncertainty and imprecision need to be taken into account during both the design phase and at runtime. We present an approach to model dynamic spatial information, providing it with the ability to interpret to some extent uncertain and imprecise knowledge. We then integrate this type of spatial-awareness into ReWiRe, a framework for designing interactive pervasive environments, in order to improve its user-interface distribution techniques.
A Comprehension Based Cognitive Model of Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 192-201
  Martin R. K. Baumann; Josef F. Krems
For safe driving it is an inevitable precondition that the driver possesses a correct mental representation of the current traffic situation, the situation model. This mental representation not only involves a representation of objects and situational features relevant to the driver's behaviour, but also the driver's expectations about the future development of the traffic situation. A concept that describes the processes and the factors influencing them is situation awareness (SA) [1]. Until now the cognitive mechanisms underlying situation awareness have been far from properly understood. In this paper we propose a process model of situation awareness that views the construction of the situation model as a comprehension process comparable to discourse comprehension. Two experiments will be presented briefly that address some predictions derived from this model. The last section of the paper describes a current project that aims at implementing this model in the cognitive architecture ACT-R.
A Probabilistic Approach for Modeling Human Behavior in Smart Environments BIBAFull-Text 202-210
  Christoph Burghardt; Thomas Kirste
In order to act intelligently, a smart environment needs to have a notion about its users. Hidden Markov models are especially suited to recognize for example the state of a meeting in a smart meeting room, as they can cope with the noisy and intermittent sensor values. However, modeling the user behavior as an HMM is challenging, because of the high degrees of freedom the users have when acting in such a smart environment. Therefore, we compare two methods that ease the automatic generation of HMM and express the human behavior.
PERMUTATION: A Corpus-Based Approach for Modeling Personality and Multimodal Expression of Affects in Virtual Characters BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
  Céline Clavel; Jean-Claude Martin
In order to improve the consistency of their affective multimodal behaviors, interactive virtual agents might benefit from a model of personality inspired from psychology. In this paper, we revisit the different approaches considered in personality psychology. We show that previous efforts to endow virtual agents with personality made only a limited use of these approaches. Finally, we introduce our PERMUTATION corpus-based framework.
Keywords: virtual agents; multimodality; emotion; personality
Workload Assessment in Field Using the Ambulatory CUELA System BIBAKFull-Text 221-226
  Rolf P. Ellegast; Ingo Hermanns; Christoph Schiefer
Ambulatory assessment of physical workloads in field is necessary to investigate the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Since more than ten years the BGIA is developing and using the motion and force capture system CUELA (computer-assisted recording and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal load), which is designed for whole-shift recordings and analysis of work-related postural and mechanical loads in ergonomic field analysis. This article gives an overview of the actual state of development and some applications of the system.
Keywords: ambulatory workload assessment; inertial tracking device; motion capturing; CUELA; ergonomic field analysis
Computational Nonlinear Dynamics Model of Percept Switching with Ambiguous Stimuli BIBAKFull-Text 227-236
  Norbert Fürstenau
Simulation results of bistable perception due to ambiguous visual stimuli are presented which are obtained with a nonlinear dynamics model using delayed perception-attention-memory coupling. Percept reversals are induced by attention fatigue with an attention bias which balances the relative percept duration. Periodic stimulus simulations as a function of stimulus off-time yields the reversal rate variation in surprisingly good quantitative agreement with classical experimental results reported in the literature [1] when selecting a fatigue time constant of 1-2 s. Coupling of the bias to the perception state introduces memory effects which are quantified through the Hurst parameter H, exhibiting significant long range correlations (H > 0.5) in agreement with recent experimental results [2]. Percept transition times of 150-200 ms and mean percept dwell times of 3-5 s as reported in the literature, are correctly predicted if a feedback delay of 40 ms is assumed as mentioned in the literature (e.g. [21]).
Keywords: cognitive bistability; modelling; nonlinear dynamics; perception; attention; Hurst parameter
A Computational Implementation of a Human Attention Guiding Mechanism in MIDAS v5 BIBAKFull-Text 237-246
  Brian F. Gore; Becky L. Hooey; Christopher D. Wickens; Shelly Scott-Nash
In complex human-machine systems, the human operator is often required to intervene to detect and solve problems. Given this increased reliance on the human in these critical human-machine systems, there is an increasing need to validly predict how operators allocate their visual attention. This paper describes the information-seeking (attention-guiding) model within the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) v5 software -- a predictive model that uses the Salience, Effort, Expectancy and Value (SEEV) of an area of interest to guide a person's attention. The paper highlights the differences between using a probabilistic fixation approach and the SEEV approach in MIDAS to drive attention.
Keywords: Human Performance Modeling; Modeling Attention; MIDAS v5; SEEV
Towards a Computational Model of Perception and Action in Human Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 247-256
  Pascal Haazebroek; Bernhard Hommel
The evaluation and design of user interfaces may be facilitated by using performance models based on cognitive architectures. A recent trend in Human Computer Interaction is the increased focus on perceptual and motor-related aspects of the interaction. With respect to this focus, we present the foundations of HiTEC, a new cognitive architecture based on recent findings of interactions between perception and action in the domain of cognitive psychology. This approach is contrasted with existing architectures.
Keywords: Cognitive Architecture; Perception; Action; HCI; action effect learning; PDP; connectionism
The Five Commandments of Activity-Aware Ubiquitous Computing Applications BIBAFull-Text 257-264
  Nasim Mahmud; Jo Vermeulen; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
Recent work demonstrates the potential for extracting patterns from users' behavior as detected by sensors. Since there is currently no generalized framework for reasoning about activity-aware applications, designers can only rely on the existing systems for guidance. However, these systems often use a custom, domain-specific definition of activity pattern. Consequently the guidelines designers can extract from individual systems are limited to the specific application domains of those applications. In this paper, we introduce five high-level guidelines or commandments for designing activity-aware applications. By considering the issues we outlined in this paper, designers will be able to avoid common mistakes inherent in designing activity-aware applications.
What the Eyes Reveal: Measuring the Cognitive Workload of Teams BIBAKFull-Text 265-274
  Sandra P. Marshall
This paper describes the measurement of cognitive workload using the Networked Evaluation System (NES). NES is a unique network of coordinated eye-tracking systems that allows monitoring of groups of decision makers working together in a single environment. Two implementations are described. The first is a military application with teams of officers working together on a simulated joint relief mission, and the second is a fatigue study with teams of individuals working together in a simulated lunar search and recovery mission.
Keywords: eye tracking; pupil dilation; cognitive workload; team assessment
User Behavior Mining for On-Line GUI Adaptation BIBAFull-Text 275-284
  Wei Pan; Yiqiang Chen; Junfa Liu
On-Line Graphics User Interface (GUI) Adaptation technology, which can predict and highlight user's next operation in menu based graphics interface, is the key problem in next generation pervasive human computer interaction, especially for remote control device like Wiimote assisting TV interaction. In this paper, a hierarchical Markov model is proposed for mining and predicting user's behavior from Wiimote control sequence. The modal can be on-line updated and highlight the next possible operation and then improve the system's usability. We setup our experiments on asking several volunteers to manipulate one real education web site and its embedded media player. The results shows our modal can make their interaction with GUI more convenient when using Wii for remote control.
Modeling Human Actors in an Intelligent Automated Warehouse BIBAFull-Text 285-294
  Davy Preuveneers; Yolande Berbers
Warehouse automation has progressed at a rapid pace over the last decade. While the tendency has been to implement fully automated solutions, most warehouses today exist as a mixture of manually operated and fully automated material handling sections. In such a hybrid warehouse, men and machines move around goods in between sections in order to retrieve, transport and stack goods according to their nature and quantity. The biggest challenge in hybrid warehouses is to optimize the alignment of manual and automatic processes in order to improve the flow of materials between storage areas and distribution centers. Integrating individuals as human actors in an automation solution is not straightforward due to unpredictable human behavior. In this paper, we will investigate how we can model the characteristics of human actors within an automation solution and how software systems can unify human actors with automated business processes to coordinate both as first class entities for logistics activities within a hybrid warehouse.
Bridging the Gap between HCI and DHM: The Modeling of Spatial Awareness within a Cognitive Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 295-304
  Bryan Robbins; Daniel W. Carruth; Alexander Morais
In multiple investigations of human performance on natural tasks in three-dimensional (3D) environments, we have found that a sense of space is necessary for accurate modeling of human perception and motor planning. In previous work, we developed ACT-R/DHM, a modification of the ACT-R cognitive architecture with specific extensions for integration with 3D environments. ACT-R/DHM could leverage existing extensions from the ACT-R community that implement the spatial sense, but current research seems to indicate that an "egocentric-first" approach is most appropriate. We describe the implementation of a custom spatial module in ACT-R/DHM, which allows for the consideration of spatial locations by adding a single ACT-R module that performs a very small set of operations on existing location information. We demonstrate the use of the 3D, egocentric-first spatial module to simulate a machine interaction task.
Keywords: Digital Human Modeling; Human Performance Modeling; Spatial Cognition; Cognitive Modeling; Cognio simulatetive Architecture; ACT-R/DHM; ACT-R
Behavior-Sensitive User Interfaces for Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 305-314
  Veit Schwartze; Sebastian Feuerstack; Sahin Albayrak
In smart environments interactive assistants can support the user's daily life by being ubiquitously available through any interaction device that is connected to the network. Focusing on graphical interaction, user interfaces are required to be flexible enough to be adapted to the actual context of the user. In this paper we describe an approach, which enables flexible user interface layout adaptations based on the current context of use (e.g. by changing the size of elements to visually highlight the important elements used in a specific situation). In a case study of the "4-star Cooking assistant" application we prove the capability of our system to dynamically adapt a graphical user interface to the current context of use.
Keywords: Layouting; model-based user interface development; adaptation; constraint generation; context-of-use; smart environments; human-computer interaction
Non-intrusive Personalized Mental Workload Evaluation for Exercise Intensity Measure BIBAKFull-Text 315-322
  N. Luke Thomas; Yingzi Du; Tron Artavatkun; Jin-Hua She
Non-intrusive measures of mental workload signals are desirable, because they minimize artificially introduced noise, and can be more accurate. A new approach for non-intrusive personalized mental workload evaluation is presented. Our research results show that human mental workload is unique to each person, non-stationary, and not zero-state.
Keywords: Personalized mental workload evaluation; exercise intensity measurement; biometrics
Incorporating Cognitive Aspects in Digital Human Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 323-332
  Peter Thorvald; Dan Högberg; Keith Case
To build software which, at the press of a button, can tell you what cognition related hazards there are within an environment or a task, is probably well into the future if it is possible at all. However, incorporating existing tools such as task analysis tools, interface design guidelines and information about general cognitive limitations in humans, could allow for greater evaluative options for cognitive ergonomics. The paper will discuss previous approaches on the subject and suggest adding design and evaluative guiding in DHM that will help a user with little to no knowledge of cognitive science, design and evaluate a human-product interaction scenario.
Keywords: Digital human modelling; cognition; context; situatedness; ecological interface design; system ergonomics
Workload-Based Assessment of a User Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 333-342
  Patrice D. Tremoulet; Patrick L. Craven; Susan Harkness Regli; Saki Wilcox; Joyce Barton; Kathleen Stibler; Adam Gifford; Marianne Clark
Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) has designed and developed a tool called Sensor-based Mental Assessment in Real Time (SMART), which uses physiological data to help evaluate human-computer interfaces (HCI). SMART non-intrusively collects and displays objective measures of cognitive workload, visual engagement, distraction and drowsiness while participants interact with HCIs or HCI prototypes. This paper describes a concept validation experiment (CVE) conducted to 1) demonstrate the feasibility of using SMART during user interface evaluations and 2) validate the EEG-based cognitive workload values derived from the SMART system by comparing them to three other measures of cognitive workload (NASA TLX, expert ratings, and expected workload values generated with Design Interactive's Multimodal Information Decision Support tool). Results from the CVE indicate that SMART represents a valuable tool that provides human factors engineers with a non-invasive, non-interrupting, objective method of evaluating cognitive workload.
Keywords: Cognitive workload; human computer interaction; human factors; usability; evaluation; user interface design

Human Modeling in Transport Applications

A Simple Simulation Predicting Driver Behavior, Attitudes and Errors BIBAFull-Text 345-354
  Aladino Amantini; Pietro Carlo Cacciabue
This paper presents the simulation tool called SSDRIVE (Simple Simulation of Driver performance). Following a brief description of the theoretical background and basic algorithms that describe the performance of drivers, the paper presents two case studies of DVE interactions, predicting dynamic situations according to different driver attitudes, in similar traffic conditions. In this way the potential ability of the simulation tool to consider behaviors and errors at different levels of complexity is demonstrated.
Nautical PSI -- Virtual Nautical Officers as Test Drivers in Ship Bridge Design BIBAKFull-Text 355-364
  Ulrike Brüggemann; Stefan Strohschneider
Ship bridges are control centers that operate and manage the ship as a complex socio-technical system. At the University of Jena we have established a project that aims to understand and to explain the nautical officers' behavior. This work is embedded within a broader project network that seeks to develop a ship bridge that is more standardized, more integrated and better adapted to human performance. Our way to achieve these goals involves anthropologic fieldwork and the construction of a computer simulation called Nautical PSI that models the nautical officers' psychological processes on the theoretical foundation of the PSI theory. This virtual nautical officer can be used as test driver for virtual bridges during to the design process.
Keywords: Human / machine interaction; human performance modeling; PSI theory; ship board bridge design
Determining Cockpit Dimensions and Associative Dimensions between Components in Cockpit of Ultralight Plane for Taiwanese BIBAKFull-Text 365-374
  Dengchuan Cai; Lan-Ling Huang; Tesheng Liu; Manlai You
The cockpit dimensions of ultralight plane were determined by suing body and subjective dimensions of Taiwanese. The side view of the cockpit was a trapezoid. The length of the top and bottom sides were 707 and 1773mm, its height was 1280mm. The front view of the cockpit was a rectangle a width of 856mm. The length from SRP to the back and bottom side of the cockpit were 588 and 104-260mm, respectively. The length, width, and height from SRP forward, sideward, and downward to the elevator center were 380-568, 246-319, and 168-254mm. The length, width, and height from SRP forward, sideward, and downward to the throttle center were 356-555mm, 255-328, 179-264mm, respectively. The length from SRP to the rudder pedals was 712-885mm and its angle was 48°. The depth and width of the seat were 238-360 and 396mm, respectively. The height and angle of the seatback was 554 and 91-121°.
Keywords: cockpit dimensions; ultralight plane; anthropometry; controls
Multilevel Analysis of Human Performance Models in Safety-Critical Systems BIBAKFull-Text 375-383
  Jeronimo Dzaack; Leon Urbas
Safety-critical systems are technical systems whose failure may cause injury or death to human beings. Tools used in the design and evaluation of safety-critical systems are redundancy and formal methods to ensure a proper operating behavior. To integrate human factors into the engineering-process of safety-critical systems it is necessary to take into account cognitive aspects of human beings while interacting with these systems. Formal human performance models can be applied to support the design and evaluation. These cognitive models interact with the technical system and provide a wide range of objective data (e.g., execution times). But using human performance models requires validating their behavior and internal structure in advance. Especially in the context of safety-critical systems this is an important issue. In this contribution the possibilities of multilevel analysis of human performance models are shown and discussed. Selected tools are introduced and related to a derived taxonomy of multilevel analysis.
Keywords: cognitive architectures; multilevel analysis; human performance models; tools; human factor; evaluation and design; safety-critical systems
Development of a Driver Model in Powered Wheelchair Operation BIBAKFull-Text 384-393
  Takuma Ito; Takenobu Inoue; Motoki Shino; Minoru Kamata
This paper describes the development of a driver model in a powered wheelchair operation. Existing methods have known problems such as straining the user. This is because improving wheelchairs adjustment requires too many trails and errors. Thus, we proposed solutions using computer simulation in this study. Computer simulation for the improvement of wheelchair adjustment needs three models: surroundings, driver and vehicle. Surroundings and vehicle models based on existing researches can be made, but not driver models for the computer simulation. To construct the model, we extracted the operation characteristics using a powered wheelchair simulator. From these results, we constructed the driver model as the first order preview driver model. In addition, a computer simulation was proposed for adjusting a powered wheelchair.
Keywords: Driver model; Powered wheelchair; Simulator; Operation characteristics
A Model of Integrated Operator-System Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance BIBAKFull-Text 394-402
  Steven J. Landry; Amit V. Lagu
A model for the separation assurance and collision avoidance in air traffic has been developed. The objective of the model is to provide qualitative and quantitative predictions of system behavior with respect to separation assurance and collision avoidance. No such model exists, complicating efforts to understand the impact of adding automation to the current system. The model integrates two concepts. First, the system models at the scope of the human-integrated system, instead of the level of the operator. This follows from the work of Duane McRuer, who found that only at the system level was the human as a control system modelable. Secondly, the system considers the separation assurance and collision avoidance problem as a control problem, where agent (automated and human) actions work to control the system from entering undesirable states. This broadly follows the methodology of system safety. Under this methodology, safety is determined by the ability of the agents in the system to impart control to prevent the system from reaching an unsafe state. The model defines system states, the events and conditions that cause transitions between states, and the control that agents in the system can impart to control those transitions.
Keywords: human performance modeling; aviation; safety; air traffic control
Modeling Pilot and Driver Behavior for Human Error Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 403-412
  Andreas Lüdtke; Lars Weber; Jan-Patrick Osterloh; Bertram Wortelen
In order to reduce human errors in the interaction with in safety critical assistance systems it is crucial to consequently include the characteristics of the human operator already in the early phases of the design process. In this paper we present a cognitive architecture for simulating man-machine interaction in the aeronautics and automotive domain. Though both domains have their own characteristics we think that it is possible to apply the same core architecture to support pilot as well driver centered design of assistance systems. This text shows how phenomena relevant in the automobile or aviation environment can be integrated in the same cognitive architecture.
Keywords: Human Error Simulation; Cognitive Architecture; Pilots; Drivers
Further Steps towards Driver Modeling According to the Bayesian Programming Approach BIBAKFull-Text 413-422
  Claus Möbus; Mark Eilers
The Human Centered Design (HCD) of Partial Autonomous Driver Assistance Systems (PADAS) requires Digital Human Models (DHMs) of human control strategies for simulating traffic scenarios. We describe first results to model lateral and longitudinal control behavior of drivers with simple dynamic
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   Bayesian sensory-motor models according to the Bayesian Programming (BP) approach: Bayesian Autonomous Driver (BAD) models. BAD models are learnt from multivariate time series of driving episodes generated by single or groups of users. The variables of the time series describe phenomena and processes of perception, cognition, and action control of drivers. BAD models reconstruct the joint probability distribution (JPD) of those variables by a composition of conditional probability distributions (CPDs). The real-time control of virtual vehicles is achieved by inferring the appropriate actions under the evidence of sensory percepts with the help of the reconstructed JPD.
Keywords: digital human response models; driver models; Bayesian autonomous driver models; learning of human control strategies; probabilistic Bayesian lateral and longitudinal control; graphical modeling; human behavior learning and transfer; Bayesian Programming
Probabilistic and Empirical Grounded Modeling of Agents in (Partial) Cooperative Traffic Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 423-432
  Claus Möbus; Mark Eilers; Hilke Garbe; Malte Zilinski
The Human Centered Design (HCD) of Partial Autonomous Driver Assistance Systems (PADAS) requires Digital Human Models (DHMs) of human control strategies for simulations of traffic scenarios. The scenarios can be regarded as problem situations with one or more (partial) cooperative problem solvers. According to their roles models can be descriptive or normative. We present new model architectures and applications and discuss the suitability of dynamic Bayesian networks as control models of traffic agents: Bayesian Autonomous Driver (BAD) models. Descriptive BAD models can be used for simulating human agents in conventional traffic scenarios with Between-Vehicle-Cooperation (BVC) and in new scenarios with In-Vehicle-Cooperation (IVC). Normative BAD models representing error free behavior of ideal human drivers (e.g. driving instructors) may be used in these new IVC scenarios as a first Bayesian approximation or prototype of a PADAS.
Keywords: digital human response models; probabilistic driver models; Bayesian autonomous driver models; learning of human control strategies; graphical modeling; human behavior learning and transfer; distributed cognition; mixture-of-experts model; visual attention allocation; partial cooperative problem solvers; partial autonomous assistance system; Bayesian assistance system; shared space; probabilistic detection of anomalies; driver assistance systems; traffic agents; dynamic Bayesian networks; hidden Markov models; between-vehicle-cooperation; within-vehicle-cooperation
A Contribution to Integrated Driver Modeling: A Coherent Framework for Modeling Both Non-routine and Routine Elements of the Driving Task BIBAKFull-Text 433-442
  Andreas Mihalyi; Barbara Deml; Thomas Augustin
This paper is concerned with computational driver modeling, whereby a particular focus is placed on mapping both non-routine and routine elements of the driving task in a theoretically coherent framework. The approach is based on Salvucci's [1] driver model and thus, the cognitive architecture ACT-R [2] is used for modeling non-routine matters; for routine activities, such as the longitudinal and the lateral control of the vehicle, a fuzzy logic approach is suggested. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this procedure, an empirical evaluation study is carried out and the steering behavior of a computational driver model is compared to that of human drivers.
Keywords: Fuzzy logic; cognitive architecture; ACT-R; driver modeling
The New BMW iDrive -- Applied Processes and Methods to Assure High Usability BIBAKFull-Text 443-452
  Bernhard Niedermaier; Stephan Durach; Lutz Eckstein; Andreas Keinath
With iDrive the BMW Group introduced in 2001 a revolutionary HMI concept, which was firstly able to cope with the constantly increasing number of functions in the automobile. It was designed to optimally support drivers in their various tasks while driving. The basic iDrive concept can be described as separating driving functions from comfort functions as well as separating displays from controls. This basic concept together with a highly mounted display ensures that controls can be reached with no need looking at them and that the central display is easy and quick to access. The trendsetting iDrive idea has been widely adopted in the automotive industry. The following article outlines the iterative design and evaluation process that led to the new generation iDrive introduced in 2008 with the new BMW 7 Series. The basic challenge was to come up with an evolution of the iDrive concept by improving it without loosing the revolutionary approach to automotive HMI design.
Keywords: BMW; iDrive; HMI; automotive; usability
Method to Evaluate Driver's Workload in Real Road Context BIBAFull-Text 453-462
  Annie Pauzié
Innovative technology implemented in the vehicle can induce improvement in road safety, as long as its acceptability and its adequacy are checked, taking into account the diversified driver's population needs and functional abilities through a Human Centred Design process. Relevant methodology has to be developed in this purpose. Evaluation of the driver's mental workload is an important parameter, complementary to objective ones such as control of the vehicle and driver's visual strategies. This paper reports on 3 real road experiments run for the assessment of mobile phone and guidance/navigation systems usability. Evaluation has been based upon a method of subjective evaluation of the driver's mental workload: the Driving Activity Load Index (DALI). Use of the DALI allowed identifying which aspects of the system had to be improved, for an improved acceptability and usability by the drivers.
Intelligent Agents for Training On-Board Fire Fighting BIBAKFull-Text 463-472
  Karel van den Bosch; Maaike Harbers; Annerieke Heuvelink; Willem A. van Doesburg
Simulation-based training in complex decision making often requires ample personnel for playing various roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). Using intelligent agents may diminish the need for staff. However, to achieve goal-directed training, events in the simulation as well as the behavior of key players must be carefully controlled. We propose to do that by using a director agent (DA). A DA can be seen as a supervisor, capable of instructing agents and steering the simulation. We explain and illustrate the concept in the context of training in on-board fire fighting.
Keywords: Virtual Training; Intelligent Agents; Simulation; Director Agent; Scenario Based Training

Human Modeling Applications in Health and Rehabilitation

Eprescribing Initiatives and Knowledge Acquisition in Ambulatory Care BIBAKFull-Text 475-482
  Ashley J. Benedict; Jesse C. Crosson; Akshatha Pandith; Robert Hannemann; Lynn A. Nuti; Vincent G. Duffy
Electronic prescribing [eprescribing] is where prescriptions are generated through an automated data-entry process utilizing special software and a network linked to pharmacies. National and state initiatives are intended but are not yet very effective in educating and encouraging healthcare providers to use eprescribing. This study included interviews with 102 healthcare providers from 52 locations (California, Indiana, New Hampshire, and Ohio) to determine the providers' knowledge of eprescribing initiatives as well as how they acquired knowledge about these systems. Providers in New Hampshire had the most knowledge of eprescribing systems and their state initiative. Among nonusers, only two facilities were familiar with the national initiatives. Nonusers comprised 71% of the interviews. Eprescribing information was acquired through journals, conferences, pharmacies, other providers and in some cases when receiving care as a patient.
Keywords: eprescribing; initiatives; knowledge acquisition
Using 3D Head and Respirator Shapes to Analyze Respirator Fit BIBAKFull-Text 483-491
  Kathryn M. Butler
A computational approach to analyzing respirator fit is demonstrated using geometries generated by laser scanning, mechanical drawings, and CAD files. Three fit-related problems that can be solved using computational tools are demonstrated: 1) The study of an outward leak of breathing gases into a near-flammable environment. 2) The study of a flow field inside a half-facepiece respirator. 3) The characterization of the relationship of respirator design and head shape to fit and comfort.
Keywords: Respirator fit; digital human modeling; 3D laser scanning; finite element method
Hyperkalemia vs. Ischemia Effects in Fast or Unstable Pacing: A Cardiac Simulation Study BIBAKFull-Text 492-501
  Ioanna Chouvarda; Nicos Maglaveras
The relation between potassium concentration elevation and action potential duration decrease is well established. While hyperkalemia is present in ischemia, the latter is also followed by other ionic changes, such as acidosis. In this work, hyperkalemic and ischemic changes in relation with various activation patterns in an inhomogeneous tissue were in focus and effort was paid to investigate spatial patterns and draw quantitative conclusions about their effects. A series of simulations were performed with different combinations of short stimulus periods and increased extracellular potassium concentrations. The effect of these perturbations on the cellular and overall tissue activation and wave propagation characteristics was investigated.
Keywords: Ischemia; Potassium elevation; Luo-Rudy model; pacing; heterogeneous tissue
Learning from Risk Assessment in Radiotherapy BIBAKFull-Text 502-511
  Enda F. Fallon; Liam Chadwick; Wil J. van der Putten
The lessons learned from completing a risk assessment of a radiotherapy information system in a public hospital are presented. A systems engineering perspective with respect to the risk assessment was adopted. Standard engineering tools modified for application in healthcare environments were applied, e.g. HFMEA™. It was found that there was a complete absence of the application of systems engineering at the development stage of the radiotherapy system, however aspects of quality systems, i.e. process improvement, were present at the operating stage. Team work played a significant role in the successful operation of the system. However, in contrast to most engineering systems, team composition was highly heterogeneous as roles were clearly defined by professional qualification. There were strong boundaries between the radiotherapy team and other teams in the hospital. This was reflected by their lack of concern regarding the availability of patient information beyond their own department.
Keywords: Radiotherapy; Risk Assessment; Health Information Technology; Systems Engineering
Simulation-Based Discomfort Prediction of the Lower Limb Handicapped with Prosthesis in the Climbing Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 512-520
  Yan Fu; Shiqi Li; Mingqiang Yin; Yueqing Bian
This paper generalizes a discomfort model for climbing tasks of the handicapped with prosthesis limb. The model is integrated, by ICT technology, into the simulated task scenario to indicate to what extent the climbing task causes discomfort and to analyze the direct cause of discomfort at the micro-motion level. Furthermore, it can predict the potential harm and accidents in the climbing tasks by calculating the accumulated biomechanical results of joints posture displacement and torque. Meanwhile the research focuses on the analysis on each movement of around the prosthesis socket, which will provide analysis tool for the design of prosthesis from the point of comfort.
Keywords: discomfort modeling; prosthesis socket; motion analysis; climbing tasks
Application of Human Modelling in Health Care Industry BIBAKFull-Text 521-530
  Lars Hanson; Dan Högberg; Daniel Lundström; Maria Wårell
Digital human modelling (DHM) is commonly utilised for vehicle and workplace design in the automotive industry. More rarely are the tools applied in the health care industry, albeit having similar objectives for cost-efficiency and user-centred design processes. The paper illustrates how a DHM tool is modified and utilised to evaluate a bathing system design from caretakers' and caregivers' ergonomics point of view. Anthropometry, joint range of motion, description and appearance of the manikin was customised to meet the requirements in a health care setting. Furthermore, a preferred bathing posture was defined. A suggested DHM working process scenario illustrates that DHM tools can be customised, applied and useful in health care product design. Except technical customisations of the DHM tool, the development of a working process and work organisation around the tool is proposed for an effective and efficient use of digital human modelling.
Keywords: Digital Human Modelling; Elderly; Ergonomics; Health Care; Human Factors
A Simulation Approach to Understand the Viability of RFID Technology in Reducing Medication Dispensing Errors BIBAKFull-Text 531-539
  Esther Jun; Jonathan Lee; Xiaobo Shi
RFID technology has the potential to reduce medication dispensing errors in hospitals. To determine possible uses for tracking medication within a hospital, we interviewed a pharmacist with knowledge of such processes. Due to cost considerations, the most viable place to use RFID technology is to track medication upon leaving the pharmacy, which can help reduce lost or misplaced medication and ensure that the right medication is given to the right patient. A simulation model that compares the benefits with and without RFID is also discussed.
Keywords: Medication dispensing errors; healthcare IT; RFID; simulation
Towards a Visual Representation of the Effects of Reduced Muscle Strength in Older Adults: New Insights and Applications for Design and Healthcare BIBAKFull-Text 540-549
  David Loudon; Alastair S. Macdonald
This paper details the evaluation of human modelling software, which provides visual access to dynamic biomechanical data on older adult mobility to a new audience of professionals and lay people without training in biomechanics. An overview of the process of creating the visualisation software is provided, including a discussion of the benefits over existing approaches. The qualitative evaluation method, which included a series of interviews and focus groups held with older adults, and healthcare and design professionals, is discussed together with key findings. The findings are illustrated with examples of new dialogues about specific mobility issues impacting on healthcare and design planning which were facilitated by the data visualisations.
Keywords: Virtual human software; data visualization; older adult mobility
A Novel Approach to CT Scans' Interpretation via Incorporation into a VR Human Model BIBAKFull-Text 550-559
  Sophia Sakellariou; Vassilis Charissis; Ben M. Ward; David Chanock; Paul Anderson
This paper presents a novel approach for interpretation of Computerised-Tomography (CT) scans. The proposed system entails an automated transfer of selected CT scans onto a default Virtual Reality human model. Contemporary training requirements often are proven to be time-consuming for the clinical facilities which have to split unevenly their operational time between radiological examinations and the Radiologists' training. Adhering to the contemporary training requirements we employed a plethora of VR and Human-Computer Interaction techniques in order to enable the trainees to familiarise themselves with the interpretation of such data and their actual, spatial correlation inside the human body. Overall the paper presents the challenges involved in the development of this method and examines the potential as well the drawbacks for deployment of such system in large scale teaching audience. Finally the paper discusses the results of an initial user-trial, which involved twelve trainee doctors, and offers a tentative plan of future work which aspires to customise the software for different learning levels.
Keywords: HCI; CT scans; VR Human Model; Medical Training
The Performance of BCMA-Aided Healthcare Service: Implementation Factors and Results BIBAKFull-Text 560-568
  Renran Tian; Vincent G. Duffy; Carol Birk; Steve R. Abel; Kyle Hultgren
Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA) system has been adopted by healthcare providers. Besides its benefits in reducing medication errors, cost and time, various side effects and new medication errors have been reported; however, the nature of the new problems has not been studied systematically. Although there are many studies focusing on IT implementation, very few studies addressing technology acceptance have been done in healthcare context. Due to the complex and dynamic features of the healthcare system, it is necessary to study how new technology acceptance models can be applied in this field. In this study, a model related to BCMA implementation will be constructed to enable the prediction and control of medication error reduction and side effects generation. To achieve that, the relationship between different implementation measures will be studied, and then predictive variables will be selected to construct the model for different measures.
Keywords: BCMA; Healthcare; New Technology Acceptance; Medication Error
On Improving Provider Decision Making with Enhanced Computerized Clinical Reminders BIBAKFull-Text 569-577
  Sze-jung Wu; Mark R. Lehto; Yuehwern Yih; Jason J. Saleem; Bradley N. Doebbeling
A computerized clinical reminder (CCR) system is a type of decision support tool to remind healthcare providers of recommended actions. In our prior study, we found a linear correlation between resolution time and adherence rate. This correlation implies a potentially biased clinical decision making. This study aimed to redesign the Veterans Affairs (VA) CCR system in order to improve providers' situation awareness and decision quality. The CCR redesign incorporated a knowledge-based risk factor repository and a prioritization mechanism. Both CCR designs were prototyped and tested by 16 physicians in a controlled lab in the Indianapolis VA Medical Center. The results showed that 80% of the subjects changed their prioritization decisions after being introduced to the modified design. Moreover, with the modified design, the correlation between resolution time and adherence rate was no longer found. The redesign improved the subjects' situation awareness and assisted them in making more informed decisions.
Keywords: Computerized clinical reminders; decision support system; situation awareness
Facial Shape Variation of U.S. Respirator Users BIBAKFull-Text 578-587
  Ziqing Zhuang; Dennis E. Slice; Stacey Benson; Douglas Landsittel; Dennis J. Viscusi
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a head-and-face anthropometric survey of diverse, civilian respirator users. Of the 3,997 subjects measured using traditional anthropometric techniques, surface scans and 26 three-dimensional (3-D) landmark locations were collected for 953 subjects. The objective of this study was to analyze the size and shape variation of the survey participants using 3-D Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) in order to quantify those facial features that may be relevant to respirator fit using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The first four principal components (PC) account for 49% of the total sample variation. The first PC indicates that overall size is an important component of facial variability. The second PC accounts for long and narrow or short and wide faces. Longer narrow orbits versus shorter wider orbits can be described by PC3, and PC4 represents variation in the degree of ortho/prognathism with positively scoring individuals having longer, wider, and more projecting lower jaws than negatively scoring individuals. Further study will investigate the correlation between respirator fit and these PCs.
Keywords: anthropometry; geometric morphometrics; respirators

Ergonomic and Industrial Applications

Method for Movement and Gesture Assessment (MMGA) in Ergonomics BIBAKFull-Text 591-598
  Giuseppe Andreoni; Marco Mazzola; Oriana Ciani; Marta Zambetti; Maximiliano Romero; Fiammetta Costa; Ezio Preatoni
We present a technique for the ergonomic assessment of motor tasks and postures. It is based on movement analysis and it integrates the perceived discomfort scores for joints motions and the time involvement of the different body districts. It was tested on 8 subjects performing reaching movements. The experimental protocol was designed to have an a priori expected comfort ranking, namely, higher values in presence of more uncomfortable tasks. The validation of the Method for Movement and Gesture Assessment (MMGA) in the ergonomic evaluation of a reaching task gave promising results and showed the effectiveness of the index. Possible applications of the method might be the integration into CAD tools and human motion simulation to provide an early comparative evaluation of the ergonomics of the prototyping process and workplace redesign in industry.
Keywords: Proactive Ergonomics; Ergonomic Index; Movement and Posture Analysis; Occupational Biomechanics; Assessment technique; Joint discomfort
Complexity of Sizing for Space Suit Applications BIBAFull-Text 599-607
  Elizabeth Benson; Sudhakar Rajulu
The 'fit' of a garment is often considered to be a subjective measure of garment quality. However, some experts attest that a complaint of poor garment fit is a symptom of inadequate or excessive ease, the space between the garment and the wearer. Fit has traditionally been hard to quantify, and space suits are an extreme example, where fit is difficult to measure but crucial for safety and operability. A proper space suit fit is particularly challenging because of NASA's desire to fit an incredibly diverse population (males and females from the 1st to 99th percentile) while developing a minimum number of space suit sizes. Because so few sizes are available, the available space suits must be optimized so that each fits a large segment of the population without compromising the fit of any one wearer.
Impact of Force Feedback on Computer Aided Ergonomic Analyses BIBAKFull-Text 608-613
  H. Onan Demirel; Vincent G. Duffy
The objective of this study is to test the correlation between a Physical Task and a Digital Task through integrated sensory feedback mechanism in Virtual Build Methodology. The research question posed regards whether the pressure feedback mechanism in Virtual Build Methodology proposes high fidelity for push-pull tasks. There are many research studies that have been done on DHM, MOCAP, VR and Haptic interfaces individually, but integrating those with a tactile feedback mechanism is still challenging. While being increasingly used, the Virtual Build Methodology has not been studied regarding its human integration through a multi-sensory feedback system. It may seem intuitive, but disregarded many times, that the tactile feedback mechanism is essential for product design and development practices. This study aims to fill this gap by introducing a pressure based sensory feedback system to provide a higher fidelity in virtual product design practices.
Keywords: Computer Aided Engineering (CAE); Ergonomics; Virtual Build Methodology (VBM); Digital Human Modeling (DHM); Motion Capture (MoCap); Haptics; Force Feedback; Product Design; Healthcare Engineering
A Methodology for Modeling the Influence of Construction Machinery Operators on Productivity and Fuel Consumption BIBAKFull-Text 614-623
  Reno Filla
This paper is concerned with modeling the actions of a human operator of construction machinery and integrating this operator model into a large, complex simulation model of the complete machine and its environment. Because human operators to a large degree affect how the machine is run, adaptive operator models are a necessity when the simulation goal is quantification and optimization of productivity and energy efficiency. Interview studies and test series have been performed to determine how professionals operate wheel loaders. Two models using different approaches were realized and integrated into a multi-domain model for dynamic simulation. The results are satisfactory and the methodology is easily usable for other, similar situations.
Keywords: dynamic simulation; operator model; driver model
Human Head 3D Dimensions Measurement for the Design of Helmets BIBAKFull-Text 624-631
  Fenfei Guo; Lijing Wang; Dayong Dong
With the helmet systems becoming increasingly complex, head 3D dimensions are needed for the higher precision, but the traditional anthropometry could not meet the design accuracy. In this paper, a non-contact method of head 3D dimensions measurement was presented to improve the design accuracy of helmets. The boundary 3D coordinate data of head slice was extracted from DICOM images based on the MRI technology. The mathematical model of head slice was described through 2D and 3D coordinate systems. Then we adopted the Fourier transform to fit the boundary of slice and obtained a parameter model with a series of Fourier coefficients. The standard headforms was constructed based on the characteristic slices and nine standard headforms were divided by Head Breadth-length Index and Head Height-length Index in order to preserve analogous facial characteristics. The head 3D data measured by this approach had been applied to the design of helmets.
Keywords: Head; 3D; Standard headform; Slice; Boundary
Realistic Elbow Flesh Deformation Based on Anthropometrical Data for Ergonomics Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 632-641
  Setia Hermawati; Russell Marshall
The human model for ergonomic simulation has improved in terms of its reliability and appearance and yet there seems to be less attention paid to create a realistic and accurate flesh deformation around the joint. This study, a part of ongoing research, proposes a combination of manual and automatic (3D body scanner) measurements to create a database for flesh deformation prediction i.e. flesh deformation area and cross section changes, around the elbow joint. The database consists of two race groups i.e., Caucasian and Asian (23 subjects, 11 males and 12 females), which were carefully chosen to represent a variety of height and body type. The prediction results for both flesh deformation area and cross section changes are discussed as well as their relevance for the next stage of the study.
Keywords: Flesh deformation modeling; 3D body scanner; ergonomics
Database-Driven Grasp Synthesis and Ergonomic Assessment for Handheld Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 642-652
  Keisuke Kawaguchi; Yui Endo; Satoshi Kanai
Recently, simulation-based ergonomic assessments for handheld products, such as mobile phones, have seen a growing interest and have been increasingly studied. In these studies, the combination of 3D product models and "digital hands", which are a parametric 3D models of human hands, have been used. One of the keys to the ergonomic assessment using the digital hand is the "grasp synthesis" where plausible grasp postures for the product model have to be generated. In this paper, we propose a new database-driven grasp synthesis method considering the geometric constraints of grasping handheld products. The proposed method can generate more plausible grasp postures for handheld products in easier interactions than those of previous ones.
Keywords: digital hand; joint range of motion; grasp synthesis
Within and Between-Subject Reliability Using Classic Jack for Ergonomic Assessments BIBAFull-Text 653-660
  Brian McInnes; Allison Stephens; Jim Potvin
As the use of computer-aided ergonomic tools become more prominent in performing ergonomic evaluations early in the design phase, the drive to improve upon the validity, reliability, and accuracy of the technology will increase. Posturing a digital human (DH) in a virtual environment proves to be a challenging task. There are a very large number of possible positions in which the DH can be positioned for any given task, and the position that the DH is postured into may differ depending on the experiences of the user. This may lead to different conclusions regarding the acceptability of an operation.
Human Head Modeling and Personal Head Protective Equipment: A Literature Review BIBAKFull-Text 661-670
  Jingzhou (James) Yang; Jichang Dai; Ziqing Zhuang
Human head is the most important but fragile part of human body. In order to design the head-gear and study the sophisticated capabilities of human head, the head models have been developing for decades. There are two types of human head models: digital headform and finite element model (biomechanical head model). The complexity of head structure makes these attempts very difficult until the invention of the high-speed computers and the modern medical devices like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Head modeling also has widely potential use in the design process of personal head and face protective equipment (PHFPE). Hazards of processes or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants are encountered daily for workers. Those hazards are capable of causing injury or illness through absorption, inhalation, or physical contact. PHFPE includes helmets, masks, eye protection and hearing protection. This study attempts to review different kinds of head models and PHFPE, such as respirators, helmets and goggles. It mainly focuses on the historical developments.
Keywords: Headform; biomechanical model; respirators; helmets; goggles

Advances in Digital Human Modeling

HADRIAN: Fitting Trials by Digital Human Modelling BIBAKFull-Text 673-680
  Keith Case; Russell Marshall; Dan Högberg; Steve J. Summerskill; Diane Gyi; Ruth E. Sims
Anthropometric data are often described in terms of percentiles and too often digital human models are synthesised from such data using a single percentile value for all body dimensions. The poor correlation between body dimensions means that products may be evaluated against models of humans that do not exist. Alternative digital approaches try to minimise this difficulty using pre-defined families of manikins to represent human diversity, whereas in the real world carefully selected real people take part in 'fitting trials'. HADRIAN is a digital human modeling system which uses discrete data sets for individuals rather than statistical populations. A task description language is used to execute the evaluative capabilities of the underlying SAMMIE human modelling system as though a 'real' fitting trial was being conducted. The approach is described with a focus on the elderly and disabled and their potential exclusion from public transport systems.
Keywords: Digital Human Modelling; User Trials; SAMMIE; HADRIAN
The Pluses and Minuses of Obtaining Measurements from Digital Scans BIBAKFull-Text 681-690
  Ravindra S. Goonetilleke; Channa P. Witana; Jianhui Zhao; Shuping Xiong
Digital scanners are commonplace and are used in many different applications to obtain three-dimensional shapes and linear and circumferential measurements. Even though scanners can be highly accurate, measurements obtained from scanners can vary depending on how an object is scanned, aligned and processed. In this study, we examined the effect of three different alignment methods of foot scans and their effects on ten different measurements. Variations among methods in capturing foot length are relatively small relative to arch length. The foot girths can be quite sensitive to the registration process depending on the complexity of the algorithms used. As expected, linear and girth measurements based on anatomical landmarks will always be independent of any registration process and are thus good ways to obtain repeatable measurements.
Keywords: Scanning; foot; measurement; registration; alignment; brannock; width; girth
Auto-calibration of a Laser 3D Color Digitization System BIBAFull-Text 691-699
  Xiaojie Li; Bao-zhen Ge; Dan Zhao; Qing-guo Tian; K. David Young
A typical 3D color digitization system is composed of 3D sensors to obtain 3D information, and color sensors to obtain color information. Sensor calibration plays a key role in determining the correctness and accuracy of the 3D color digitization data. In order to carry out the calibration quickly and accurately, this paper introduces an automated calibration process which utilizes 3D dynamic precision fiducials, with which calibration dot pairs are extracted automatically, and as the corresponding data are processed via a calibration algorithm. This automated was experimentally verified to be fast and effective. Both the 3D information and color information are extracted such that the 3D sensors and the color sensors are calibrated with one automated calibration process. We believe it is the first such calibration process for a 3D color digitization system.
Virtual Task Simulation for Inclusive Design BIBAKFull-Text 700-709
  Russell Marshall; Keith Case; Steve J. Summerskill; Ruth E. Sims; Diane Gyi; Peter Davis
Human modelling tools provide a means to perform virtual task evaluations upon designs within the computer environment. The ability to evaluate the accommodation of a design early on in the design process before physical prototypes can be built has many advantages. These advantages are particularly relevant in supporting people in attempting to design products that are inclusive and accessible. HADRIAN is a new tool developed to provide accessible, and applicable data on people with a broad range of size, age, and ability together with a means of optimising virtual task evaluations. This paper describes the use of HADRIAN in performing a task evaluation, focusing on the underlying methodology that aims to achieve a virtual simulation that mimics a real world user trial.
Keywords: Human modelling; simulation; inclusive design; ergonomics
Data Mining of Image Segments Data with Reduced Neurofuzzy System BIBAKFull-Text 710-716
  Deok Hee Nam; Edward Asikele
The target detection from raw images is a primary task in the image processing. Simultaneously, in order to perform the target detection in the image processing, a large number of variables or factors including unnecessary factors may be involved. This paper presents the pattern recognition through the image scaling based upon the characteristics of various images using the reduced dimension from the original characteristic dimension of the images. Using the less number of dimensions comparing to the original characteristic dimensions, the processing procedures can be simplified and able to overcome the restrictions of the systematic problems. To estimate the performance of the system, neurofuzzy systems with multivariate analysis including factor analysis, principal component analysis, and Fuzzy C-means clustering analysis, are applied. Using the proposed algorithm, the analyses of various image data can be compared.
Keywords: data mining; image processing; image scaling; pattern recognition; system reduction; target detection
The Impact of Change in Software on Satisfaction: Evaluation Using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) BIBAKFull-Text 717-726
  Akshatha Pandith; Mark Lehto; Vincent G. Duffy
This paper describes an exploratory study that analyzes the impact of change in software on users by utilizing the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). A total of 102 critical incidents were collected from the survey. 77 participants reported both satisfactory and unsatisfactory experiences; 22 reported only satisfactory experiences; and 3 reported only unsatisfactory experiences. Analysis of satisfactory or unsatisfactory experiences revealed several factors such as expectations of users and mismatch in the behavior between the actual and anticipated system by the users, which can be attributed to automation surprise. The important findings of this study are the agglomeration of user feedback such as, avoiding the changes themselves in the first place, focusing on the factors of change viz. amount of change, speed of change, and finally, to provide better help support, which can be used in the design process when there is a change in software.
Keywords: Critical Incident Technique; Change in software; Impact of change; Information overload; Automation surprise
Validation of the HADRIAN System Using an ATM Evaluation Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 727-736
  Steve J. Summerskill; Russell Marshall; Keith Case; Diane E. Gyi; Ruth E. Sims; Peter Davis
The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a 'design for all' ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and disabled people. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
Keywords: Human Modelling; design for all; ergonomics; validation
A 3D Method for Fit Assessment of a Sizing System BIBAKFull-Text 737-743
  Jiang Wu; Zhizhong Li; Jianwei Niu
A three-dimensional (3D) method for the evaluation of a sizing system via objective fit assessment is introduced in this study. Taking the evaluation of a helmet sizing system as an example, geometrical models of the human head surfaces of a target population are generated based on 3D anthropometric measurement at first. Then a helmet model for each size is prepared. For each individual, a helmet model of his corresponding size is virtually worn on his head with proper relative position and orientation. After that, objective fit assessment criteria are calculated. Finally, Statistical analysis on these criteria provides an objective evaluation of the sizing system. This method affords a rapid, low-cost, and quantitative approach to carry out fit assessment on a sizing system when critical fit is concerned.
Keywords: fit assessment; sizing system; 3D modeling
Analyzing the Effects of a BCMA in Inter-Provider Communication, Coordination and Cooperation BIBAKFull-Text 744-753
  Gulcin Yucel; Bo Hoege; Vincent G. Duffy; Matthias Roetting
Many hospitals have implemented various kinds of information technologies. Using information technology can improve communication and improve patient safety. One of the information technologies is the application of bar code medication administration (BCMA). For achieving a successful implementation, a semi-formal notation form is used to model and to evaluate the effects of a BCMA system on communication-coordination-cooperation (C3) processes among nurses, physicians and pharmacists. This model could support a successful implementation of the BCMA system by identifying potential unintended and supportive effects related to C3, and providing recommendations for a better implementation. This article describes an approach for an analysis and evaluation of a planned BCMA implementation.
Keywords: healthcare; BCMA; C3; work process
Fuzzy Logic in Exploring Data Effects: A Way to Unveil Uncertainty in EEG Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 754-763
  Fang Zheng; Bin Hu; Li Liu; Tingshao Zhu; Yongchang Li; Yanbing Qi
To unveil effects of data sets with uncertainty, we develop a method applying fuzzy logic to determine data weights in fuzzy inference. Preferable adjustments of initial weight assignment shall be obtained by comparison of assumptions' truth grade values with practical effectiveness evaluation. We apply this method in the process of implying patients' depressive mood for the user case study of developing antidepressant multimedia therapy and evaluate its veracity. According to users' feedback, iterative application of this method may leads to further understanding of EEG data's effects in user context.
Keywords: fuzzy logic; EEG data