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Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Creativity and Cognition

Fullname:ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2009
Editors:Nick Bryan-Kinns; Mark D. Gross; Hilary Johnson; Jack Ox; Ron Wakkary
Location:Berkeley, California, USA
Dates:2009-Oct-26 to 2009-Oct-30
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-60558-865-2; 978-1-60558-865-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CC09
Papers:124
Pages:500
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Keynotes
  2. Young creators
  3. Inclusion & identity
  4. Design I
  5. Craft & art I
  6. Theory, metrics, methods & tools I
  7. Design II
  8. Craft & art II
  9. Culture & context
  10. Design III
  11. Theory, metrics, methods & tools II
  12. Graduate student symposium
  13. Posters
  14. Demonstrations
  15. Invited art pieces
  16. Juried art exhibition
  17. Invited live performances
  18. Juried live performances
  19. Workshops
  20. Tutorials

Keynotes

Using the creative process to map n dimensions: quantum information at your fingertips BIBAKFull-Text 1-2
  JoAnn C. Kuchera-Morin
In this information rich age where voluminous amounts of data are being generated, processed, and transformed at ever-increasing rates, how does one master control of this data as if it were intuitive and second nature? Can one master control much in the same way that an artist, composer, or musician creates or performs a work of art, with intuitive precision? In this Keynote I will discuss the use of the creative process in order to conduct advanced research in science and the arts. I will describe research underway at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where a team of artists, scientists and engineers have found a way to work creatively in consort, mapping very largescale (n-dimensional) data sets for scientific and artistic data generation, exploration and transformation. To this end, this author has created, and implemented an instrument that will allow a team of researchers to control and interact with n-dimensional data as one large multi-user instrument. The AlloSphere is a 3-story metal sphere in an echo-free chamber that is built as a design stage, and is performed as an instrumental ensemble would compose and perform a piece of music [1]
Keywords: creative design, immersive multi-modal systems, multi-modal representation, scientific visualization
One person's everyday creativity is another's extraordinary insight BIBAKFull-Text 3-4
  Jane Prophet
In collaborative work across disciplines, observing and discussing the difference between individuals' everyday creativity can provoke insights. What might a heart surgeon and an artist have in common, how might a biomimetic engineer and an artist work differently to creatively solve a problem of structure? This keynote is an illustrated account of two collaborative projects that seeks to show that there may be an advantage to learning about the patterns that others' see when engaged in their everyday creativity.
Keywords: biomimetics, collaboration, creativity, drawing, imaging, interdisciplinarity, pattern recognition, rapid prototyping, sculpture, selective advantage, surgery, taxonomy, video
The creative person and the creative system BIBAKFull-Text 5-6
  Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
The talk will summarize the Systems Model of Creativity, which views innovation or creativity as not primarily an individual trait or process, but as a confluence of processes taking place in three related sub-systems: the Domain, or the knowledge base in which the innovation/creativity takes place; the Field, or persons who act as gatekeepers to the Domain; and the Person, who introduces a change to the Domain that is accepted by the Field. Characteristics of these elements of the system are discussed, and some applications of the Model mentioned.
Keywords: creativity, individual and systems perspectives, innovation
Promoting social creativity: a component of a national initiative for social participation BIBAKFull-Text 7-8
  Ben Shneiderman; Elizabeth Churchill; Gerhard Fischer; Ken Goldberg
This panel will discuss group processes that promote social creativity in science, engineering, arts, and humanities. We will offer positive and negative examples of social creativity projects, while suggesting research directions for dramatically increased social participation. The goal is to develop strategies that would expand resources and opportunities for research and education in social creativity. This requires our community to develop a unified position, then reach out to national science funding agencies, while building the case for the importance of this topic beyond our own community. How can social creativity, collaborative discovery, distributed innovation, and collective intelligence be framed as an international priority to cope with the problems of the 21st century and how can we identify a clear set of research challenges?
   The theme of technology-mediated social participation is outlined in the white paper for a National Initiative for Social Participation (http://iparticipate.wikispaces.com). The white paper suggests that successful research challenges should have three key elements: (1) compelling national need (healthcare, national security, community safety, education, innovation, cultural heritage, energy sustainability, environmental protection, etc.), (2) scientific foundation based on established theories and well-defined research questions (privacy, reciprocity, trust, motivation, recognition, etc.), and (3) computer science research challenges (security, privacy protection, scalability, visualization, end-user development, distributed data handling for massive user-generated content, network analysis of community evolution, cross network comparison, etc.).
   We seek recommendations for ways to increase the resources and attention for this field. We hope to inspire:
  • universities to change course content, add courses, and offer new degree
       programs
  • industry to help researchers on social creativity
  • government to support these ideas and try them out in government applications
  • scientists and artists to open themselves to more social/collaborative
       approaches
    Keywords: research agenda, social creativity, social participation
  • Young creators

    A tale of two online communities: fostering collaboration and creativity in scientists and children BIBAKFull-Text 9-18
      Cecilia R. Aragon; Sarah S. Poon; Andrés Monroy-Hernández; Diana Aragon
    There has been much recent interest in the development of tools to foster remote collaboration and shared creative work. An open question is: what are the guidelines for this process? What are the key socio-technical preconditions required for a geographically distributed group to collaborate effectively on creative work, and are they different from the conditions of a decade or two ago? In an attempt to answer these questions, we conducted empirical studies of two seemingly very different online communities, both requiring effective collaboration and creative work: an international collaboration of astrophysicists studying supernovae to learn more about the expansion rate of the universe, and a group of children, ages 8-15, from different parts of the world, creating and sharing animated stories and video games on the Scratch online community developed at MIT. Both groups produced creative technical work jointly and were considered successful in their communities. Data included the analysis of thousands of lines from chat and comment logs over a period of several months, and interviews with community members. We discovered some surprising commonalities and some intriguing possibilities, and suggest guidelines for successful creative collaborations. Specifically, systems that support social creativity must facilitate sharing and play, and their design must consider the effects of repurposing, augmentation and behavior adaptation.
    Keywords: collective creativity, computer-mediated communication, computer-supported cooperative work, social creativity
    Children's storytelling and programming with robotic characters BIBAKFull-Text 19-28
      Kimiko Ryokai; Michael Jongseon Lee; Jonathan Micah Breitbart
    We introduce mixed physical and digital authoring environments for children, which invite them to create stories with enriched drawings that are programmed to control robotic characters. These characters respond to the children's drawings as well as to their touch. Children create their stories by drawing props and programming how the robotic character should respond to those props and to physical touch. By drawing, programming the robotic character's behaviors, and organizing and negotiating the order and meanings of the props, children's story events unfold in creative ways. We present our iterative design process of developing and evaluating our prototypes with children. We discuss the role technology can play in supporting children's everyday creative storytelling.
    Keywords: children, programming, robotic toys, storytelling, tangible
    Musicomputation: teaching computer science to teenage musicians BIBAKFull-Text 29-38
      Adam L. Meyers; Marilyn C. Cole; Evan Korth; Sam Pluta
    While algorithms have existed in math, music and other fields for over one thousand years, the use of algorithms to solve problems has become easier than ever before due to the advent of the modern computer. This fact, in combination with advances in signal processing, makes an understanding of computer science an absolute necessity for future composers of music. This paper describes a highly successful intensive three week class called Musicomputation, in which computer science and computer music were taught to eleven 11-17 year old students with previous expertise in music and mathematics. We discuss details of the class and the possible implications for education.
    Keywords: computer music, computer science education, processing

    Inclusion & identity

    Geezers, turbines, fantasy personas: making the everyday into the future BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
      Ann Light; Gini Simpson; Lois Weaver; Patrick G. T. Healey
    This paper describes how a project to challenge digital exclusion resulted in GeezerPower: an artwork that is both a statement about reusable technologies and about older people's continuing interest in the world of the future. We use the story of its production to illustrate and reflect on new methods for engaging people in decisions about the design of technology. And we explore how creative practice informed the design of an intervention workshop inspired by performance art and an exhibition of artists collaborating with older people. We conclude with some comments on marginalization, engagement and envisioning futures.
    Keywords: collaboration, design, digital networks, intervention workshops, marginalization, performance art
    Computational and cognitive infrastructures of stigma: empowering identity in social computing and gaming BIBAKFull-Text 49-58
      D. Fox Harrell
    Computing technologies such as games, social networking sites, and virtual environments often reproduce forms of social stigma encountered in everyday real life, as well as introducing new forms of stigma. When users represent themselves via avatars, characters, and profiles, norms for behavior and group affiliations are established that may introduce prejudices, stereotypes, and associated social ills found in the real world. To empower users against these effects, this paper presents technologies designed to: (1) provide dynamic means of identity representation while avoiding stigmatizing norms, and (2) provide for critical reflection on stigmatizing identity infrastructures found in other systems. The theory and technologies developed with these aims is encapsulated under the rubric of the Advanced Identity Representation (AIR) Project that initiated in the Imagination, Computation, and Expression Laboratory (ICE Lab; D. Fox Harrell, Director) at the Georgia Institute of Technology. This work has a basis in the cognitive science foundations of categorization and metaphor-based bias, and study of social classification infrastructures from sociology of science. Using this theoretical framework, this paper provides a model to reveal a set of inadequacies of many current identity infrastructures in social computing and gaming systems for supporting the needs of people in marginalized categories. As results, several social networking systems and games developed in the ICE Lab to empower users in creating computational identities and/or critiquing the phenomenon of stigma in these applications are presented.
    Keywords: cognitive categorization, empowerment, gaming, social classification, social identity, social networking, stigma

    Design I

    A cognitive account of collective emergence in design BIBAKFull-Text 59-68
      Benjamin G. Shaw
    Design in many settings is an inherently collective and creative undertaking, with phenomena of emergence at the heart of the activity. Cognitive accounts of emergence in the context of design have not taken its collective nature into account. At the same time accounts of collective emergence do not recognize certain salient attributes of design, including the importance of visual thinking and various media for external representation. With reference to two distinct theories of emergence, Oxman's account of design emergence in terms of visual cognition, and Sawyer's account of collaborative emergence in conversation and performance, this paper reports results from a study of a high-performing, technologically mediated concurrent design practice. Participant observation, interviews, and video interaction analysis were used to render the creative process of engineering design in fine-grained detail. The resulting insights support aspects of both theories in that creative activity appears to proceed substantially through modalities of visual cognition, while collaborative products are arrived at through an essentially collective process involving multiple participants and unpredictable developments. The combined view presents a richer picture than either theory alone.
    Keywords: collaboration, design cognition, emergence, interaction analysis, visualization
    Situated design: toward an understanding of design through social creation and cultural cognition BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
      Christopher A. Le Dantec
    Video and transcripts of two architectural design meetings are presented in an analysis of a specific design process. The focus of the analysis presented here is the social and cultural aspects of cognition in design. The argument begins with a discussion of the parallels in design studies and cognitive science as each begun to consider the importance of environmental influences in how we design and how we think. By applying three situated frameworks to understand the situated nature of design meetings, the analysis shows that notions of social creation and cultural cognition are complimentary and necessary when trying to understand how the design process works.
    Keywords: collaborative design, empirical study, social design
    Assistive devices: stroke patients' design BIBAKFull-Text 79-86
      Ana Correia de Barros; Carlos Duarte
    The following paper describes a number of solutions for activities of daily living created by stroke patients in order to achieve independence in certain tasks. We interviewed 48 stroke patients in clinics and their private homes and found that many of them come up with their own personal assistive devices made at home or adapt existing objects to serve yet another function. We believe that by researching into these persons' habits designers not only gain new insights about what it is to actually live with disabilities but also new ideas for new products and approaches to designing better assistive devices.
    Keywords: assistive devices, folk creativity, stroke, universal design
    Microsketching: creating components of complex interactive products and systems BIBAKFull-Text 87-96
      Jodi Forlizzi; Carl DiSalvo
    One of the problems with empathic research methods in interaction design is that the leap between findings about people and design is often left undocumented. In this paper, we describe a microsketching, a method for producing rapid concept sketches that emphasizes creative exploration of the aesthetic and interactive possibilities of the individual elements of a technology, rather than seeking to develop a complete product. We discuss the use of microsketching within the design process, and provide a case study of its use with an experienced designer and in a design studio course. We discuss how microsketching can be used to scaffold the leap between data collection and design, to quickly introduce designers outside of the research team to the elements of the design problem, and to teach novice interaction designers how to design the interface and interaction for complex products and systems.
    Keywords: cultural probes, design, design research, interaction design, sketching

    Craft & art I

    Creativity in algorithmic art BIBAKFull-Text 97-106
      Frieder Nake
    Early algorithmic art (also called computer art or digital art) is chosen as a case to differentiate three aspects of creative behavior: trivial, personal, and historic creativity. Extending a remark by Marcel Duchamp on the role of the spectator in fully completing a work of art, one -- perhaps controversial -- position in the history of art of the 20th century claims that the artist only generates the material work, whereas society transforms the work into an accepted work of art. This position leads to differentiation in the concept of creativity. The paper discusses different shades of creativity. It is of interest both to digital art, and to creativity research.
    Keywords: algorithmic art, computer art, digital art, historic creativity, personal creativity, trivial creativity
    Directed and emergent play BIBAKFull-Text 107-116
      Brigid M. Costello; Ernest A. Edmonds
    We describe a case study of the audience experience of an interactive artwork titled Just a Bit of Spin. This study was part of practice-based research project that aimed to develop strategies for designing for a play experience. In this paper, we focus on results relating to the two play characteristics of difficulty and competition. These results lead us to reflect on the importance of creating a balance between directing the play experience and providing opportunities for play to emerge through the creative activities of the player.
    Keywords: human-computer interaction, interaction design, interactive art, play, practice-based research, user experience
    An empirical study of cognition and theatrical improvisation BIBAKFull-Text 117-126
      Brian Magerko; Waleed Manzoul; Mark Riedl; Allan Baumer; Daniel Fuller; Kurt Luther; Celia Pearce
    This paper presents preliminary findings from our empirical study of the cognition employed by performers in improvisational theatre. Our study has been conducted in a laboratory setting with local improvisers. Participants performed predesigned improv "games", which were videotaped and shown to each individual participant for a retrospective protocol collection. The participants were then shown the video again as a group to elicit data on group dynamics, misunderstandings, etc. This paper presents our initial findings that we have built based on our initial analysis of the data and highlights details of interest.
    Keywords: cognition, drama, empirical study, improvisation, narrative, performance

    Theory, metrics, methods & tools I

    Creativity factor evaluation: towards a standardized survey metric for creativity support BIBAKFull-Text 127-136
      Erin A. Carroll; Celine Latulipe; Richard Fung; Michael Terry
    We present a new survey metric, the Creativity Support Index (CSI) that is designed to help researchers and designers evaluate the level of creativity support provided by various systems or interfaces. We initially employed a top-down literature-based approach to develop a beta version of the Creativity Support Index (Beta CSI). We discuss our usage of the Beta CSI in three different studies and what we learned from those deployments. We also present the results from an extensive creativity vocabulary study (n=300), which revealed a set of orthogonal creativity factors. This led to the current version of the CSI presented in this paper. Initial results from these formative evaluations suggest the value of this tool in assessing and comparing creativity support tools at points in time and longitudinally.
    Keywords: creativity, creativity support tools, factor validation, standardized survey metrics
    Random thinking, ordered doing: understanding group creative practice through repertory grid technique BIBAKFull-Text 137-146
      Shaun McWhinnie; Shaleph J. O'Neill; Louise Valentine
    The aim of our work is to better understand the impact of interactive technology on the creative process. An important part of beginning this research is to understand how creative practitioners make sense of their own creative practice. This paper introduces work carried out using a kit based Repertory Grid Technique (RGT), to examine the conceptual constructs of a small group of creative practitioners in a workshop format. The results, although preliminary, identify a number of shared constructs that help us describe aspects of creative processes from the practitioners' point of view. This leads us to hypothesize about potential models of creativity that we can use in future research.
    Keywords: creativity, hci, interaction
    Alcohol and creativity: a pilot study BIBAKFull-Text 147-154
      Jesse C. Smith; Teresa M. Smith; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
    In this paper, we describe the design, execution, and results of a study of the effects of alcohol consumption on creativity. We are specifically interested in myths surrounding alcohol and creativity; one's view of self as a creative being; and the effects of alcohol on inhibition and perception of creativity.
    Keywords: alcohol, creativity, design, drawing, interaction, poetry, prose, sculpture, social
    Understanding productive, structural and longitudinal interactions in the design of tools for creative activities BIBAKFull-Text 155-164
      Tim Coughlan; Peter Johnson
    A deeper understanding of the interactions between people and artefacts that characterise creative activities could be valuable in designing the next generation of creativity support. This paper presents three perspectives on creative interaction that have emerged from four years of empirical and design research. We argue that creative interaction can be usefully viewed in terms of Productive Interaction -- focused engagement on the development of a creative outcome, Structural Interaction -- the development of the structures in which production occurs, and Longitudinal Interaction -- the long-term development of resources and relationships that increase creative potential. An analysis of each perspective is described, along with the development of an exemplary prototype. The use of the perspectives as a basis for design is considered, including the influence of contextual factors on instances of creative activities.
    Keywords: creative process, creativity, interaction design

    Design II

    The efficacy of prototyping under time constraints BIBAKFull-Text 165-174
      Steven P. Dow; Kate Heddleston; Scott R. Klemmer
    Iterative prototyping helps designers refine their ideas and discover previously unknown issues and opportunities. However, the time constraints of production schedules can discourage iteration in favor of realization. Is this tradeoff prudent? This paper investigates if -- under tight time constraints -- iterating multiple times provides more benefit than a single iteration. A between-subjects study manipulates participants' ability to iterate on a design task. Participants in the iteration condition outperformed those in the non-iteration condition. Participants with prior experience with the task performed better. Notably, participants in the iteration condition without prior task experience performed as well as non-iterating participants with prior task experience.
    Keywords: empirical studies of design, iteration, prototyping
    Generative walkthroughs: to support creative redesign BIBAKFull-Text 175-184
      Danielle Lottridge; Wendy E. Mackay
    Generative Walkthoughs support the redesign phase of an iterative design process, helping designers generate new design alternatives informed by social science principles. Designers first analyze their own scenarios or storyboards with respect to concrete examples drawn from five socio-technical principles: situated action, rhythms & routines, co-adaptive systems, peripheral awareness and distributed cognition. They then walk through the scenario and brainstorm new design alternatives that reflect the design principle in question. This combination of structured walkthroughs with focused brainstorming helps designers, particularly those with little social science background, to generate concrete, actionable ideas that reflect key findings from the social science literature. We taught Generative Walkthroughs in ten courses with over 220 students and found that technically-trained students not only learned these socio-technical principles, but were able to apply them in innovative ways in a variety of design settings.
    Keywords: creative redesign, generative walkthrough, multi-disciplinary design methods, socio-technical principles

    Craft & art II

    Hand e-craft: an investigation into hand use in digital creative practice BIBAKFull-Text 185-194
      Cathy P. Treadaway
    The hands play a vital role in everyday creativity and are our primary interface with the world. This paper focuses on hand use in creative practice and presents case study research that illuminates the ways in which the hands inform creative processes when working with digital technology. The investigation documents the development of a body of work by an artist who uses a hybrid digital practice in which hand craft is combined with digital processes to create intricate digitally printed paper-cut collages.
       Digital technology is shown to support the artist's creative practice by providing access to tools and processes that enable work to be generated that could be made no other way. Interfaces that are used by many artists in everyday computer aided design practice however, are shown to frequently inhibit the expression of emotion and frustrate the user due to their lack of haptic sensitivity.
    Keywords: craft, creativity, emotion, hand use, haptic, interface design
    Reflections on craft: probing the creative process of everyday knitters BIBAKFull-Text 195-204
      Daniela K. Rosner; Kimiko Ryokai
    Crafters today blend age-old techniques such as weaving and pottery with new information and communication technologies such as podcasts, online instructions, and blogs. This intersection of tradition and modernity provides an interesting site for understanding the adoption of new technology. We present a qualitative study of seven knitters introduced to Spyn -- a system that enables the association of digitally recorded messages with physical locations on knit fabric. We gave knitters Spyn in order to elicit their reflections on their craft practices and learn from their interactions with material, people, and technology. While creating artifacts for friends and loved ones, knitters expanded the creative and communicative potential of their craftwork: knitters envisioned travel journals in knitted potholders and sung lullabies in knitted hats. We describe how these unusual craft activities provide a useful lens onto contemporary technological appropriation.
    Keywords: adoption, appropriation, craft, crafters, creativity, design process, handcraft, knitters, knitting, material, material culture
    RiTa: creativity support for computational literature BIBAKFull-Text 205-210
      Daniel C. Howe
    The RiTa Toolkit for Computation Literature is a suite of open-source components, tutorials, and examples, providing support for a range of tasks related to the practice of creative writing in programmable media. Designed both as a toolkit for practicing writers and as an end-to-end solution for digital writing courses (the focus of this paper), RiTa covers a range of computational tasks related to literary practice, including text analysis, generation, display and animation, text-to-speech, text-mining, and access to external resources such as WordNet. In courses taught at Brown University, students from a wide range of backgrounds (creative writers, digital artists, media theorists, linguists and programmers, etc.) have been able to quickly achieve facility with the RiTa components, to gain an understanding of core language processing tasks, and to quickly progress on to their own creative language projects.
    Keywords: computational literature, computer education, creativity support tools, digital writing, software libraries
    Supporting remote creative collaboration in film scoring BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
      Julien Phalip; Ernest A. Edmonds; David Jean
    This paper reports on research supporting online and asynchronous collaboration between stakeholders in the film scoring industry. Here, the authors present two studies conducted with filmmakers and composers to test the design principles of a prototype system. Outcomes from this research have identified a need for establishing a clear scope in creative discussions and for resolving the ambiguity that occurs in remote collaboration. Feedback from participants also revealed the complex nature of the composer-filmmaker relationship and highlighted some interpersonal and coordination issues that should be addressed when designing systems for distant communication.
    Keywords: creative collaboration, film scoring, multidisciplinary collaboration, remote communication

    Culture & context

    Cultivating and commodifying everyday creativity in postwar American childhood BIBAKFull-Text 221-228
      Amy F. Ogata
    In this paper, I explore the construction of the creative child after World War II and argue that the concept of "everyday creativity" is bound up with a cultural ideal firmly rooted in postwar circumstances. In addition to goods and spaces made for children, such as toys, playrooms, and schools, I suggest that the historiography of the idea of creativity can show how this abstract concept became so apparently concrete.
    Keywords: baby boom, childhood, creativity, material culture
    Promoting creativity in education -- from policy to practice: an Australian perspective BIBAKFull-Text 229-238
      Carly J. Lassig
    In the 21st century, our global community is changing to increasingly value creativity and innovation as driving forces in our lives. This paper will investigate how educators need to move beyond the rhetoric to effective practices for teaching and fostering creativity. First, it will describe the nature of creativity at different levels, with a focus on personal and everyday creativity. It will then provide a brief snapshot of creativity in education through the lens of new policies and initiatives in Queensland, Australia. Next it will review two significant areas related to enriching and enhancing students' creative engagement and production: 1) influential social and environmental factors; and 2) creative self-efficacy. Finally, this paper will propose that to effectively promote student creativity in schools, we need to not only emphasise policy, but also focus on establishing a shared discourse about the nature of creativity, and researching and implementing effective practices for supporting and fostering creativity. This paper has implications for educational policy, practice and teacher training that are applicable internationally.
    Keywords: Australia, creativity, education, policy, school, self-efficacy, student, teacher
    Dialogue through design: visual communication across the cultural divide BIBAKFull-Text 239-244
      Kara Pecknold
    This paper reports on the use of probes in a rural village in Rwanda. They were employed as a tool for dialogue and collaboration when working with underserved communities who do not share the same language and lack assumed technologies. The aim of this project was to invite a participant to engage in creative activities during the rituals of daily life in order to reveal ideas about improving the community. These activities were created to help a designer collaborate through a more democratic process and allow for the creativity of the underrepresented to surface when dealing with complex issues. The outcomes address how the probes can be used to sensitize a community for the next stages of a design process.
    Keywords: co-design, creativity, democracy, design, governance, human-centered, participatory, probe, social impact, social innovation, sustainable development
    Local issues, local uses: tools for robotics and sensing in community contexts BIBAKFull-Text 245-254
      Carl DiSalvo; Marti Louw; Julina Coupland; MaryAnn Steiner
    This paper describes six creativity support tools we developed to foster community engagement and expression with robotics and sensing, assessing the benefits and shortcomings of each tool. From the descriptions of these tools and their uses, we highlight two issues. The first is the challenge of, and a general strategy for, enabling informed speculation with unfamiliar technologies. The second issue is that in enabling such speculation, the research process is opened to significant shifts in trajectory. These shifts concomitantly serve as markers of technological fluency and challenge the research project, reinforcing the value of a community co-design approach.
    Keywords: community co-design, creativity support tools, critical engagements, participatory design, participatory sensing, robots, technological fluency

    Design III

    Nature of creative analogies in biologically inspired innovative design BIBAKFull-Text 255-264
      Swaroop S. Vattam; Michael E. Helms; Ashok K. Goel
    Analogy is a fundamental process of creativity. Biologically inspired design by definition entails cross-domain analogies, and in practice has led to many innovative designs. Thus, biological inspired design is an ideal domain for studying creative analogies. In this paper, we describe an intricate episode of biologically inspired design that unfolded over an extended period of time. We then analyze the episode in terms of Why, What, How and When questions of analogy. This analysis provides a content theory of creative analogies in biologically inspired design.
    Keywords: analogy, bioinspiration, biomimetics, cognition, creativity, design, innovation
    The elusive act of synthesis: creativity in the conceptual design of complex engineering products BIBAKFull-Text 265-274
      Claudia M. Eckert; David F. Wyatt; P. John Clarkson
    In engineering design it is necessary not only to find creative solutions to problems, but to be able to do so without introducing unacceptable levels of risk into the process. This paper studies how engineering firms use creativity within a Business Process Excellence framework, through a case study of diesel engine design. Overall it appears that the emphasis on reliable and repeatable processes causes creativity to be displaced backwards into R&D and forwards into "emergency innovation" during integration.
    Keywords: business process excellence, case study, creativity in engineering, diesel engine, engineering design
    Designing to support reasoned imagination through embodied metaphor BIBAKFull-Text 275-284
      Alissa N. Antle; Greg Corness; Saskia Bakker; Milena Droumeva; Elise van den Hoven; Allen Bevans
    Supporting users' reasoned imagination in sense making during interaction with tangible and embedded computation involves supporting the application of their existing mental schemata in understanding new forms of interaction. Recent studies that include an embodied metaphor in the interaction model, which relates action-based inputs to digital outputs, have provided evidence that this approach is beneficial. Yet the design of such systems has been difficult and full of setbacks. Wide spread adoption of this approach requires a better understanding of how to design such embodied metaphor-based interactional models. We analyze three recent design-based research studies in which we have been involved in order to derive design knowledge that may inform others. Following a case study methodology we identify kernels or points in the design process where discontinuities between predicted and actual interaction highlight important design knowledge.
    Keywords: case study, design knowledge, embedded computation, embodied interaction, image schema, interactive environments, metaphor, reasoned imagination, tangibles
    Collaboration and framing as dimensions of design innovation BIBAKFull-Text 285-294
      Vanessa Svihla
    This study of student teams learning to design in an engineering course reveals that interaction and framing are important dimensions for understanding innovative design. By employing social network analysis to incorporate interaction within statistical models, it is apparent that teams viewed early as having innovative ideas, who score higher on perspective-taking and who have higher team cohesion, tend to produce more innovative final designs. Case studies suggest that for iteration to lead to productive design innovation it should be framed as practical, design activity rather than as scientific or theoretical activity.
    Keywords: collaboration, innovation, learning

    Theory, metrics, methods & tools II

    Growing and destroying the worth of ideas BIBAKFull-Text 295-304
      Ricardo Sosa; John S. Gero; Kyle Jennings
    This paper presents a novel computational approach to the study of creativity. In particular, it discusses a modeling framework that addresses the worth of ideas ascribed by agents embedded in a social world. The triple objective of this system is to improve our understanding of how ideas may emerge from a few individuals, how social interaction may result in the ascription of value to new ideas, and how culture may evolve through time, transforming or replacing dominant or consensual ideas. The proposed system encompasses commonalities in existing theories of creativity, and suggests future theoretical directions that can be explored via simulation.
    Keywords: change agents, creative autonomy, creative destruction, multiagent simulation, social simulation
    Discovery is never by chance: designing for (un)serendipity BIBAKFull-Text 305-314
      Paul André; m.c. schraefel; Jaime Teevan; Susan T. Dumais
    Serendipity has a long tradition in the history of science as having played a key role in many significant discoveries. Computer scientists, valuing the role of serendipity in discovery, have attempted to design systems that encourage serendipity. However, that research has focused primarily on only one aspect of serendipity: that of chance encounters. In reality, for serendipity to be valuable chance encounters must be synthesized into insight. In this paper we show, through a formal consideration of serendipity and analysis of how various systems have seized on attributes of interpreting serendipity, that there is a richer space for design to support serendipitous creativity, innovation and discovery than has been tapped to date. We discuss how ideas might be encoded to be shared or discovered by 'association-hunting' agents. We propose considering not only the inventor's role in perceiving serendipity, but also how that inventor's perception may be enhanced to increase the opportunity for serendipity. We explore the role of environment and how we can better enable serendipitous discoveries to find a home more readily and immediately.
    Keywords: creativity, design suggestions, insight, serendipity, survey
    Fostering metaphorical creativity using computational metaphor identification BIBAKFull-Text 315-324
      Eric P. S. Baumer; Bill Tomlinson; Lindsey E. Richland; Janice Hansen
    Metaphor is often seen as a mode of creative thinking or as a means of fostering creativity. However, little work has studied creative generation of novel metaphors. This paper explores the use of computational metaphor identification (CMI) to foster creative generation of novel metaphors. CMI is a technique for analyzing textual corpora to identify potential conceptual metaphors. Drawing those metaphors to readers' attention can provide an opportunity to consider alternatives to current metaphors. This paper describes results from a study using CMI to foster metaphorical creativity in the context of science education. The results show that CMI leads to more creative mappings within metaphors. The key contributions of this paper are a demonstration that CMI can be used to foster more original metaphorical reasoning, and, more generally, implications for the study of metaphorical creativity.
    Keywords: computational metaphor identification, creativity, metaphor, science education

    Graduate student symposium

    Designing collaborative services on the digital platform BIBAKFull-Text 325-326
      Joon Sang Baek; Ezio Manzini
    This paper is based on an on-going doctoral research on service design for social innovation and sustainability. It introduces the notion of collaborative service and discusses its two dimensions in relation to ICT (information communication technologies). Case studies of collaborative service on the digital platform were conducted to identify the role of ICT in developing and diffusing collaborative service and a part of the result is introduced.
    Keywords: collaboration, ict, p2p, service design, social innovation, social network, sustainability
    Creativity under constraints: the affect of problem space on design learning among engineering students BIBAKFull-Text 327-328
      Andrea M. Goncher
    An understanding of the factors that facilitate creativity in the design process is essential to construct and implement educational engineering design activities. While experts agree that it is necessary to include design constraints in learning environments, it is unclear exactly how the constraints contribute to the decision-making process and final design choice. This study examines the creative practices among college students engaging in an authentic engineering project situated within a design based learning environment, specifically investigating the role of design constraints on creative processes. The study compares the effects imposed by the design space at two different levels: (1) goal constraints, where the overall goal of the design is specified, and (2) task constraints, where the only the task is defined and the goal is not. One section of student design teams was required to create design solutions for a specific site utilizing renewable energy sources, implementing goal constraints; the second grouping of design teams created design solutions for a broader context only constrained by the utilization of a renewable energy source.
    Keywords: constraints, creativity, engineering design
    Assimilate.net: creativity support for situated collaborative storytelling BIBAKFull-Text 329-330
      Damian Hills
    How we assimilate stories into our common experiences and shape culture is the field of study known as narrative intelligence. By following this hypothesis and investigating theories of conversation modeling, this research outlines a creativity support system for collaborative storytelling that invites participatory narration and shared understanding in a situated context.
    Keywords: conversational information system, interactive digital storytelling, narrative intelligence
    Evaluating machine creativity BIBAKFull-Text 331-332
      Anna K. Jordanous
    Can a computer be creative? And what can we learn about our own creativity from studying computational creativity? My research offers a comprehensive and practically useful investigation into how to evaluate the level of creativity demonstrated by computational systems. How should something so subjective as creativity be measured? I argue that it is most productive to treat creativity as a collection of inter-related factors such as originality, value and productivity, which are more tightly defined and therefore more amenable to measurement. Potential factors are being derived from empirical studies examining a wide variety of our writings on creativity. These will be tested in a simulation of a creative environment: the best performing factors will be applied to evaluation of existing creative systems, in comparison to assessments made by human judges. The aim of this is to identify key components for creativity, giving insight into how to approach the evaluation and improvement of computational systems and also towards human creativity as well.
    Keywords: aspects of creativity, creativity, evaluation
    Flexible environment and creativity: a preliminary case study of interdisciplinary student design teams BIBAKFull-Text 333-334
      Kahyun Kim
    A case study of five interdisciplinary student design teams was conducted to inform future research strategies for the next phases. The students conducted a semester-long design project using a flexible environment, a classroom featuring movable furniture and wheeled whiteboards. In order to confirm the positive impact of the flexible environment on creativity, observation, interviews and surveys were conducted. The findings suggested that team interactions enhanced creativity, and the students valued the positive influence of the flexible environment. From the findings and additional insights gained during the study, research strategies to examine the impact of physical environment, team interactions, and shared mental models on creativity are proposed.
    Keywords: engineering creativity, human factors, organizational design
    Student engineers learning to become designers BIBAKFull-Text 335-336
      Micah Lande
    My doctoral research explores how student mechanical engineers are taught, learn, and apply a design thinking process to routinely create and innovate in the context of training for industry practice. I am interested in the maturation of master's students with backgrounds in mechanical engineering adjusting to a project-based learning experience centered on design thinking methodology and processes. I use a combination of theoretical approaches from design research, engineering education and the learning sciences. My methodology draws on field observations in the classroom of a capstone-plus core mechanical engineer course on design innovation at Stanford University [1] as well as interviews, document analysis and other qualitative methods. I am gathering empirical evidence of what design learning looks like and how it changes over time and how students conceptualize design and engineering.
       In order to characterize the transition that students make along the novice to expert design continuum, students' concept maps for their design processes and drawings of their notions of engineers and designers at work were collected. Students were asked to generate a concept map of their "typical design process" and to draw a designer at work and an engineer at work along the lines of the Draw-a-Scientist Test [2]. Initial findings from qualitative content analysis indicate that the concept maps of design process mature over time along a consistent learning trajectory. Students also have distinct but complimentary mental models of the roles of a designer and engineer mainly along two emerging themes: idea generation/implementation and human/tech-centerness.
       A preliminary framework of "Ways of Thinking" [3] relating design thinking activities to engineering thinking activities and production and future thinking has been developed and is being used to analyze student project team design activity. Students in the design innovation course capture their work regularly on a wiki and in quarterly design documentation reports. By coding and analyzing the reports of each team, their design steps and order they take in their design processes can be noted. Preliminary analysis of project matched pairs shows that the more leaps around in their design process steps and prototyping activities a team makes a more novel project deliverable outcome as well as bettering the students' learning experience.
       Additional observations of students have been done to capture the barriers and catalysts to them learning along the way. With field observations of regular team meetings, it's apparent students are hindered by a predisposition to plan and calculate repeatedly before taking action and making. The students' learnings are helped by a close proximity to other groups in a shared design space ("situative zeitgeist"), a series of front-loaded prototype milestone assignments ("scaffolded prototyping"), a practice of encouraging reflection on what is gained from prototyping ("cognitive iteration") and repeatedly stepping through the steps of the design process ("cognitive apprenticeship").
       Data collection is complete and the analysis is ongoing.
    Keywords: design and engineering thinking, design learning
    Adolescents' conceptions and experiences of creativity BIBAKFull-Text 337-338
      Carly J. Lassig
    Creativity is no longer synonymous with genius or giftedness. It is now a skill required by everyday people, to varying degrees, for successful participation in current and future societies. An ensuing priority for schools, therefore, is to effectively nurture students' creative potential and abilities in a range of domains. The purpose of this research is to describe, analyse and theorise about: how creativity is conceptualised by adolescents; their creative products and processes; and significant personal, social and environmental factors that influence adolescents' creative development and production. The study employs mixed methods research and uses a case study design.
    Keywords: adolescent, case study, creativity, education, grounded theory, mixed methods, school, student, survey
    Learning about creativity from an artificial artist BIBAKFull-Text 339-340
      David Norton
    Creativity is a nebulous, albeit vital part of every society. Regardless of whether or not a computer program can actually be creative, much can be learned in an attempt to emulate creativity. We outline an original computer system designed to produce artefacts that are perceived as creative, and do so through arguably creative processes. We show how the computer system, called DARCI (Digital ARtist Communicating Intention), can augment the study of human creativity while assisting in the field of artificial intelligence.
    Keywords: artificial creativity, intention, neuroevolution, visual arts
    A study of lay graphic communication BIBAKFull-Text 341-342
      Sarah T. Owens
    This PhD thesis aims to describe and analyse lay (non-expert and non-professional) graphic communication and its relation to professional design practice. It investigates the ways in which lay designers understand and make sense of design tasks by examining their practical reasoning and everyday knowledge about design, and their awareness of graphic rules, principles, genres and conventions. It furthermore considers the degree to which lay designers are aided or hindered by technology during the design process. This project is expected to illuminate the nature of ordinary design ability and thus contribute to a fuller comprehension and conceptualisation of design knowledge and expertise.
    Keywords: design expertise, design knowledge, desktop publishing, ethnography, ethnomethodology, laypeople
    Exploring illuminative systems in informal networks of adults BIBAKFull-Text 343-344
      Amy K. Scatliff
    Are 'higher' and hard to define sensations like synchronicity, love, wholeness, and appreciation part of a pattern or illuminative system that is connected to a larger ecological network or evolutionary design meant to establish homeostasis within the planet? Meeting as groups, in person, or online posting to an interactive website, adults tracked, recorded and described in their own terms everyday encounters with illumination. Illumination in this sense could encompass both spiritual and/or secular significance. Participants built data files of illuminative sensation recorded in video, text, sound bite, drawing and/or journaling. This spatial and sensory awareness activity, initiating from an appreciative foundation, eventually leads to participants conducting informal skillshares in which adults teach one another the strengths they possess when illuminated. A possible outcome of such skillshares could be adults collectively designing new courses, programs, and products for their immediate community.
    Keywords: adult learning, appreciative inquiry, creativity, design thinking, generative metaphor, illumination
    Remixing realities: distributed studios for collaborative creativity BIBAKFull-Text 345-346
      Viveka Weiley
    Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) can support interdisciplinary, heterogeneous geographically distributed creative teams. However research and commercial approaches to CVEs to support creative work have focused on implementation, paying little attention to the design of the virtual place that the system creates.
       Over the last ten years CVEs have moved out of the lab and into mass-market commercial deployment. Significant investment in virtual worlds (perhaps half a billion dollars in 2008 [3]) has seen technical advances, but the design of the virtual places has not advanced in a comparable manner. Just as in 1998, they still default to the Virtual Office, with avatars on chairs facing a virtual presentation screen.
       I am developing a set of design principles for virtual collaborative place, through a process of iterative design. In this process, five draft principles have been derived from existing theories of collaboration and creative place, and from exploratory ethnographic enquiries into real and virtual creative places [4].
       The draft design principles are: 1. Support Reconfiguration, 2. Mix Realities, 3. Control Access, 4. Be A/Synchronous, 5. Transform Space into Inhabited Place.
       Now I am expressing the principles in prototypes which will be introduced into the environments of working distributed creative teams in a programme of action research.
    Keywords: creativity support, geographically distributed collaboration, mixed reality, place, practice-based research

    Posters

    An ecology of practice: chiptune marching band BIBAKFull-Text 347-348
      Jamie Allen; Areti Galani; Kazuhiro Jo
    Chiptune Marching Band (CTMB) is a workshop-performance held in diverse public venues internationally (http://chiptunemarchingband.com/). The CTMB project proposes a contemporary form of dialogic art -- an inclusive, participatory event designed to provide direct experience of resource, social and creative dynamics. In this poster we invoke the phrase "ecology of practice" to describe CTMB in terms of a number of interrelationships: amongst skills, with materials, in creativity and between participants. We also present our evaluative methods for 'participant' feedback within this type of event that are designed to be congruous with the overall intention.
    Keywords: art, community, diy, hacking, performance, user studies
    Ideation2.0 project: web2.0 tools to support brainstorming networks and innovation teams BIBAKFull-Text 349-350
      Oscar Ardaiz Villanueva; Xabier Nicuesa Chacón; Oscar Brene Artazcoz; María Luisa Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga; María Teresa Sanz de Acedo Baquedano
    Ideation2.0 project aims at improving innovation processes with Web2.0 based tools. These tools we have developed enable the participation of many people in idea generation and evaluation sessions forming brainstorming networks. They also allow the formation of innovation development teams based on the affinity among the participants for their creativity and their interest in implementing the ideas.
    Keywords: electronic brainstorming, innovation support systems, social networks, team formation, wikis
    The usability of creativity: experts v. novices BIBAKFull-Text 351-352
      Julie L. Baher; Bill Westerman
    In developing software for creative professionals, one goal is to enable new users to learn to use the product well. In this paper, we describe a study comparing how novices and experts use Adobe Photoshop. When asked to perform specific tasks in Photoshop, we found that, contrary to our expectations, the expert users often took longer at the tasks than the novices. While most usability practitioners assert that when users take a short time to perform a task, an application is more usable, when they take longer, it is less usable [4], based on our study's results, we posit that this is not always true. We posit that professional designers undertaking a creative task, are less aware or time, as in a flow state [1, 2, 3] and thus can take longer to perform tasks than novices. Furthermore, we found that rather than explore the interface for new features to complete a task, expert users frequently use slower, but more familiar, approaches.
    Keywords: creativity, photoshop, software, usability
    Managing information in a creative environment BIBAKFull-Text 353-354
      Carol J. Bales; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
    Prior knowledge and domain expertise are key to successful design and creativity. New digital workspaces should support the management of ever-increasing amounts of digital information and design artifacts as well as support collaboration during the creative process. In this paper, we present the findings of an observational study describing how expert designers organize and utilize information in their design workspaces throughout the initial creative phases of problem-structuring and high level design. We describe how these findings could inform further study in mixed reality creative environments.
    Keywords: collaboration, creative environment, creativity, design, information access and management, problem finding
    Navigator: applications and integrations of wave data BIBAKFull-Text 355-356
      Derek Michael Besant; Paul Connolly
    Navigator is a digitally built image + sound art installation that juxtaposes two divergent sources of transmitted information from sound gathering. Our project theoretically formulates an intriguing record of how different elemental particle data navigates its way towards a conclusion over time (and space) by means of digital coalescence. We have chosen sources that are not readily visible to us in everyday encounters, but by way of scientific equipment, are translated into visible or audible data that is all digital. From this digital matrix we are able to reconstitute that data into visible art forms of image and sound that are related.
    Keywords: codes, progressive, transponder, ultrasound
    Everyday experience as stimuli for technology enhanced creativity workshops BIBAKFull-Text 357-358
      Angela Carell; Thomas Herrmann
    The design of a creativity workshop is presented which helps to develop new ideas of how to support elderly people to live in their own home as long as possible. The participants of the workshops were provided with special stimuli which are based on everyday experiences with the needs and problems of elder people. The facilitation of the workshop had to introduce these stimuli and to combine it with appropriate brainstorming questions, material to work with and technical support which offers the display of and interaction with information units on a 4.8m x 1.2m interactive large screen. Various modes of work and collaboration were combined. The case study is concluded with lessons learned about how everyday experience can be appropriately introduced into creativity workshops.
    Keywords: co-located meeting, collaborative creativity, technology
    STOLEN!: categories of in-context response to unauthorized reuse of user-generated media BIBAKFull-Text 359-360
      Eric Cook; Ingrid Erickson; Jennifer Thom-Santelli
    In this poster, we describe the current findings of a work-in-progress that seeks to understand the normative climate that arises within user-generated media communities when contributions are interpreted as stolen or otherwise misappropriated. We outline our data collection on the photosharing service flickr.com and then briefly discuss the emergent categories of user response to perceived unauthorized reuse that appear within our sample.
    Keywords: amateur creativity, appropriate use, community standards, intellectual property, ownership, photography, social norms, user-generated media
    Designing case libraries to encourage creative design BIBAKFull-Text 361-362
      Chandan Dasgupta; Janet L. Kolodner
    Youngsters engaging in designing meaningful artifacts while browsing a case library produced creative artifacts. Our pilot study highlighted three factors that seem to promote creative designs: (1) making the design ideas and struggles of others available as designers are attempting to achieve personal design goals, (2) promoting exploration of these ideas, and (3) attaching to the case library resources to promote understanding of the scientific and technological concepts behind these ideas.
    Keywords: case libraries, case-based reasoning, design-based learning
    Increasing and sustaining participation to support and foster social creativity BIBAKFull-Text 363-364
      Holger Dick; Hal Eden; Gerhard Fischer
    The rise in social computing has facilitated a shift from consumer cultures to cultures of participation. These developments represent unique and fundamental opportunities and challenges for social creativity.
       The CreativeIT Wiki project represents an effort to explore and build a socio-technical environment for members of the emerging research community interested in creativity and information technology.
    Keywords: cultures of participation, democratizing creativity, next-generation wikis, social creativity
    A quantitative analysis of the collective creativity in playing 20-questions games BIBAKFull-Text 365-366
      Wen Dong; Taemie Kim; Alex Pentland
    Creativity is an important ingredient in problem solving, and problem solving is an important activity for both individuals and societies. This paper discusses our novel approach of discovering the structure of problem-solving creativity with statistical methods, and mapping the interaction patterns of group processes to their performances through the discovered creativity structure. Our discussion is based on a lab study data set using the meeting mediator system through which we collected objective quantitative data. We hope our findings and quantitative approach could be applied to many other real-world problem-solving processes and to helping people.
    Keywords: computer supported/mediated creativity, empirical study
    Towards the ultimate aesthetic experience BIBAKFull-Text 367-368
      Haakon Faste; Massimo Bergamasco
    Robotic interfaces combined with virtual reality provide an unparalleled platform for cognition research. Using a combination of design strategy, trend analysis and immersive virtual reality systems, our intent has been to design and build the "ultimate" interactive aesthetic experience. This paper discusses the creative process and the preliminary results of this engineering research.
    Keywords: 3d environments, aesthetics, creativity, design strategy, multimodal cognition, perceptual robotics, virtual reality
    Class-wide projects: fostering collaboration and creativity in computer science courses BIBAKFull-Text 369-370
      Alexandre R. J. François
    This poster reports on the introduction of class-wide projects in computer science courses at different levels in the curriculum, as a means to fostering collaborative teamwork and creativity.
    Keywords: class-wide project, collaboration, creativity
    Destination, imagination & the fires within: design thinking in a middle school classroom BIBAKFull-Text 371-372
      Shelley Goldman; Maureen Carroll; Adam Royalty
    The purpose of the Taking Design Thinking to Schools Research Project was to extend the knowledge base that contributes to an improved understanding of the role of design thinking in K-12 classrooms. The ethnographic qualitative study focused on the implementation of an interdisciplinary design curriculum by a team of university instructors in a public charter school. Three questions framed the study:
  • How did students express their understanding of design thinking classroom
       activities?
  • How did affective elements impact design thinking in the classroom
       environment?
  • How is design thinking connected to academic standards and content learning
       in the classroom?
    Keywords: ethnography, human-centered design, multidisciplinary /interdisciplinary design
  • Design patterns in creative design processes BIBAKFull-Text 373-374
      Paula Gomez Zamora; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
    The paper presents the analysis of nine architects design processes with different design experience and expertise levels. The main goal is to visualize and analyze patterns between their design processes, design phases, design iterations, and software used to support creative process in every design phase. This study focused on four major components for analysis: lengths of design processes, naming of design phases, flows of design directions, and the number and types of software used in each phase. The future goal is to investigate whether specific software capabilities would increase or hinder creative behavior patterns during the design process.
    Keywords: creativity processes, design flows, design patterns, design phases, design process, software
    Extending the reggio emilia educational approach to creativity support environments BIBAKFull-Text 375-376
      Keith Evan Green; Angela Eckhoff; Suzanne Rosenblith; Ian D. Walker
    Intelligent Systems can effectively bridge the wondrous world of childhood and the adult world of rules, goals and expectations. This paper explores the possibility of an embodied child-computer interaction that cultivates creativity -- a core value of the successful adult in an increasingly digital society. We draw specifically on the Reggio Emilia method of education, not by adding to it PCs (as has been done, with mixed results), but instead, by respecting its focus on haptics -- on the handling of physical things as a way of learning -- embedding computation in the very fabric of the physical environment. We call this embodied system a Creativity Support Environment to emphasize the role of the physical environment as, itself, a "teacher" of creativity.
    Keywords: architecture, children, computer support tools, creativity, hri, human factors, intelligent environments
    In search of a perceptual basis for interacting with parametric images BIBAKFull-Text 377-378
      Daryl H. Hepting; Leila Latifi; Chris Oriet
    Many people appreciate the aesthetics of fractal images, but few are inclined to engage in the mathematics needed to create them. Finding a perceptual basis for interacting with parametric images like fractals could make the parameter space more accessible, which is an important step towards democratizing this creative activity. This paper discusses an experiment to gather perceptions of fractal images and compare them with computational analyses.
    Keywords: creativity, democratization, design, human factors, perception
    MobileAct: applying mobile design and kinetic art to an interactive visualization tool BIBAKFull-Text 379-380
      Jee Yeon Hwang
    MobileAct is an interactive visualization tool that enables users to create their own visualizations and integrate visualized information into their daily tasks. It provides a novel interaction mechanism in which the mobile, one of the most well-known kinetic art forms, is used as an interactive visualization. The mobile structure transparently presents contextually relevant, balanced, and user-specific information through its key features, connectivity, and equilibrium. MobileAct's connected frame allows for visualization of hierarchical or relative information. Users can set structures and balancing factors of their data components based on their importance or frequency level. Using its balancing and scalable capabilities, users can obtain reflective feedback regarding their data patterns. The applications of MobileAct are designed and presented to describe its implementation details. Lastly, this paper suggests how MobileAct can be improved and how its design pattern will benefit future interactive visualizations.
    Keywords: information awareness, interactive visualization
    The one-week curious 'hood: creative inhabitation as a mode of urban revitalization BIBAKFull-Text 381-382
      Joanne Jakovich
    This paper explores the methods, observations and outcomes of one-week intensive site-specific workshops as a means of urban revitalization. Intensive interaction with local communities facing issues of urban decline, commercial redevelopment or demographic polarities is the basis for the exploration and development of a series of operative modalities of creative inhabitation. The paper poses that through these modalities the intensification of the creative use and production of urban space can instigate a shift towards revitalization.
    Keywords: creativity, urban revitalization
    Early results with faceted classification of "alternate uses" test responses BIBAKFull-Text 383-384
      Kyle E. Jennings
    Generating ideas is central to creativity. To improve understanding of the idea generation process, measurements are needed that go beyond the typical indices of fluency, originality, elaboration, and flexibility. Faceted classification, which puts each idea into several conceptually orthogonal hierarchies, is suggested as an alternative. A distance metric over faceted classifications is defined. When applied to adjacent ideas on alternate uses tests, it correlates highly with time between responses. This demonstrates faceted classification's promise as a high-resolution (though also time intensive) way to characterize ideation.
    Keywords: assessments of creativity, cognition, empirical study
    Relationship between the diversity of information and idea generation BIBAKFull-Text 385-386
      Sachiko Kiyokawa; Yuichi Washida; Kazuhiro Ueda; Eileen Peng
    We attempted to determine whether the provision of diverse information could facilitate creative idea generation. For this purpose, we enlisted 35 students to generate two ideas individually by using the scanning material provided. The results revealed that the participants tended to select similar articles and to reduce their diversity even though diverse materials were provided. Further, the diversity of the materials they used actually was positively correlated with the quality of the generated ideas. We concluded that the diversity of materials that were not provided but nevertheless used had an effect on idea generation.
    Keywords: diversity of information, idea generation, scanning method
    The effects of computing technology in creative design tasks: a case study of design collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 387-388
      Seunghyun Lee; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
    We present two empirical studies of two pairs of students collaborating on two small product design sessions in both face-to-face and distributed settings while using computer-mediated communication technologies and a collaborative virtual environment. The study shows that teams spent more time working together when using programs that support shared sketching capabilities or shared viewing of 3D objects.
    Keywords: collaborative design, collaborative virtual environment, computer-mediated communication, computer-supported collaborative design
    The artist loft effect in the clustering 'creative types': a computer simulation BIBAKFull-Text 389-390
      Stefan Leijnen; Liane Gabora
    Simulations using a computer model the Evolution Of Culture (EVOC) indicate that the clustering of creative agents decreases the mean fitness of ideas in the short term (when imitators have not yet been exposed to them) but increases idea fitness in the long term (presumably because agents swap partial solutions). With the steep fitness function used here, clustering decreases idea diversity.
    Keywords: agent-based modeling, artist loft effect, clustering, creativity, cultural evolution, imitation
    Predicting successful completion of online collaborative animation projects BIBAKFull-Text 391-392
      Kurt Luther; Kevin Ziegler; Kelly E. Caine; Amy Bruckman
    Online creative collaboration projects are started every day, but many fail to produce new artifacts of value. In this poster, we address the question of why some of these projects succeed and others fail. Our quantitative analysis of 892 online collaborative animation projects, or "collabs," indicates that the early presence of organizational and structural elements, particularly those of a technical nature, can predict successful completion.
    Keywords: animation, leadership, online communities, online creative collaboration, predicting success, social computing
    Cultivating creativity in tangible interaction design BIBAKFull-Text 393-394
      Fred G. Martin; Karen E. Roehr
    As part of a larger team developing collaborations between computing and the arts, the co-authors created a general education undergraduate course, Tangible Interaction Design. We briefly describe the course, "Tiddles" (in-class exercises that promote creativity), and three exemplar student final projects. We conclude with observations about creativity in the arts and in engineering.
    Keywords: arts, computing, creativity, sensors, tangible interaction
    HandJabber: an enactive framework for collaborative creative expression BIBAKFull-Text 395-396
      Cristóbal Martinez; Jessica Mumford; Stjepan Rajko; Lisa Tolentino; Ellen Campana; Todd Ingalls; Harvey Thornburg
    HandJabber is a movement-based interactive sound installation and research environment for exploring collaborative creative expression. HandJabber utilizes the emergence of semantic meanings from gesture and interpersonal behavior as a single interface for music performance by responding to an individual participant's hand and arm gestures, and reacting to the non-verbal interpersonal behavior between two participants. Within this context, we explore three major areas of non-verbal behavior, (a) metaphoric hand and arm gesture, (b) interpersonal space, and (c) body orientation. Our poster presents results from informal user and case studies.
    Keywords: collaboration, gesture interface, motion capture, multimedia interaction, music controller
    Notes on the creative process of artist collectives BIBAKFull-Text 397-398
      Meredith Tromble McDonald
    This paper explores the relationship between the creative process of artist collectives and emergence, the appearance of "higher order" from the actions of a group of relatively simple agents following local rules. The author asks if there are "rules" or "cultures" of collective art activity that are particularly productive. The paper suggests applications of ideas from biology, cognitive science, and psychology to creative interaction, using examples from the collective in which the author participates.
    Keywords: art, artist, biology, cognitive science, collaboration, collectives, creative process, emergence, psychology
    Supporting human creative story authoring with asynthetic audience BIBAKFull-Text 399-400
      Brian O'Neill; Mark Riedl
    Human creativity plays an important role in the production of many of the media products that permeate our society. However, non-expert creators are often limited by a lack of technical ability, as opposed to creative ability. This is especially true for story authoring. We present an approach to supporting creativity using synthetic audience -- an intelligent agent that acts as (a) a surrogate story recipient and (b) critic capable of providing constructive feedback. We describe initial efforts based on computational modeling of cognitive processes and creativity.
    Keywords: audience modeling, creativity support, story authoring
    Visualization and empowerment BIBAKFull-Text 401-402
      Indhira Rojas; Wendy Ju
    Data visualization, commonly used to make large sets of numerical data more legible, also has enormous potential as a storytelling tool to elicit insights on long-standing social problems. It can help to synthesize diverse personal narratives about history, causes and impacts, and thereby give a voice to populations seeking to create change.
       In this work, we explore the potential for using data visualization as a vehicle for social change through creative engagement. Our intent is to design and deploy an interactive visualization of development in the Dominican Republic which brings empathy to the society's cultural psychology, helps frame limitations and challenges, and highlights opportunities for progress. Some of the major challenges in designing this work lie in layering both the "big picture" perspective -- historical events and statistical trends -- with personal narratives -- vivid stories that illuminate the current state of the society. We discuss how this work can foster conversations and promote creative thought, motivating actions that can transform the current state of the country.
    Keywords: design, interaction, participatory, perception, reflection, social interfaces, visualization
    Big lampan lamps: designing for DIY BIBAKFull-Text 403-404
      Daniel Saakes
    I present a design of repurposed IKEA lamp that was shared on a DIY website and became popular. Based on the considerations that went into the design and the online discussion on the community website, I discuss requirements for "designing for DIY" as a new design approach to serve the tip of the long tail of design.
    Keywords: diy, dodecahedron, ikea
    Enhancing the creativity of engineers by idea drawing BIBAKFull-Text 405-406
      Yoshifumi Tanaka; Sumio Nakamura; Kazuya Takemata
    Externalizing ideas in universally understandable diagrams may enhance communication and contribute to creative design. "Idea drawing" is a freehand drawing method developed to express accurately how an object looks based on elemental geometry and perspective. To examine whether idea drawing could contribute to the product design process, we held a course for engineers involved in manufacturing a product. An interview of a participant suggested that idea drawing may enhance communication between the engineers and thus help substantially in the creative design process.
    Keywords: communication, education, freehand drawing, product design
    Affective support for the creative user BIBAKFull-Text 407-408
      Priyamvada Tripathi; Winslow Burleson
    The relationship between affect and creativity represents an intriguing opportunity for creativity support tools. A fine grain model that links affect with creativity can lead to development of feedback environments that maximize a user's effectiveness and creative output. In this paper, we present an empirical study that will lead us to formulation of such environments for affective support of the user. Five members in a research group reported their daily affect and creativity using an online social science survey. In addition, they used a PDA liken social sensing device called socioscopes that captured their affective and social behavior patterns. The results show that creativity is positively correlated with positive affect. Furthermore, person's speech and movement profiles are also significantly correlated with creativity. More studies are planned for future that will refine these results. Based on these empirical investigations, we propose that creativity support tools will benefit by actively considering the impact of affect on the creative process. Physiological and behavioral sensors can serve an important role in providing this measurement. The proposed research lays the foundation for future work in development of such affect driven real time measurement and modulation systems for creativity support.
    Keywords: affective computing, creativity, creativity support tools, social sensing
    A sub-symbolic model of the cognitive processes of re-representation and insight BIBAKFull-Text 409-410
      Dan Ventura
    We present a sub-symbolic computational model for effecting knowledge re-representation and insight. Given a set of data, manifold learning is used to automatically organize the data into one or more representational transformations, which are then learned with a set of neural networks. The result is a set of neural filters that can be applied to new data as re-representation operators.
    Keywords: cognitive model, insight, re-representation
    Improvisation: the neural foundation for creativity BIBAKFull-Text 411-412
      Morten Friis-Olivarius; Mikkel Wallentin; Peter Vuust
    Nearly all neuroimaging studies of creative behavior investigate verbal associations. These studies find an involvement of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In contrast, two recent studies of pianists found the right DLPFC to be linked with non-verbal creative behavior. Musicians, however, often communicate on stage through their playing. But does this improvised interaction involve left- or right-lateralized prefrontal brain regions? To investigate this, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment where participants had to improvise a musical answer to a given musical rhythmic phrase. We found that only the left DLPFC was activated during response creation compared to control, indicating that musical communication resembles that of linguistic behavior rather than strictly non-linguistic behavior.
    Keywords: creativity, improvisation, music creation
    The creative footprint: the impact of physical space on workplace creativity BIBAKFull-Text 413-414
      Alison Williams
    This poster puts forward the concept of a physical creative footprint which is specific and necessary to individuals' and groups' creativity in the workplace. The impact of physical space on people's ability to be creative in the workplace has been largely neglected by the creativity research community. This poster, based on doctoral research findings, goes some way towards redressing the balance. The poster posits that identifying one's own creative footprint and that of others is an essential part of optimum workplace creativity. The necessary elements are explored and an approach to identifying one's unique creative footprint is set out.
    Keywords: creative footprint, creativity, physical press, workplace creativity
    Locomotion storytelling: kinesthetic intelligence and tangible objects in storytelling creativity BIBAKFull-Text 415-416
      Jasmine Williams; Ellen Li-Luen Do
    This project studied the influence of kinesthetic intelligences on creativity in young children. To understand this relationship preschoolers were observed in their daycare setting during story-time over a period of four sessions. During the sessions observations focused on the children's ability to propose narratives when the teacher used different storytelling methods. The children's responses were videotaped and coded later for analysis. The coding was used to calculate the baseline Ideational Fluency of the children. Total fluency was calculated by adding the number of popular and original responses. Behavior patterns also emerged from the study. Children generated not only more responses, but a greater variation in narratives when they were allowed to interact with tangible characters and act out behaviors. Also, children generated more responses when they were given 3D stimuli than when given 2D stimuli. The degree of familiarity with the scenario also influenced the number of responses. The more familiar the children were with the scenario, their ability to contribute to the narrative improved.
    Keywords: children, creativity, interactive environments for children, narratives, storytelling
    VIP: a creative drawing system for the visual imagination puzzle BIBAKFull-Text 417-418
      Eun Joo Youk; Doo Young Kwon
    In this poster, we propose a creative drawing system called the VIP (Visual Imagination Puzzle). The VIP enables users to visually think their own concrete image from the abstract image and to draw the emergent shapes in different layers. The VIP supports a collaborative work by allowing two or more users to think and draw together. Using the VIP, users can be visually inspired from the natural or artificial images and they can express their own visual ideas and share with others.
    Keywords: drawing, picture puzzle, visual imagination

    Demonstrations

    In translation: a visualization of language BIBAKFull-Text 419-420
      Linda Becker
    In Translation is an interactive application that takes an alternative visual approach to translating languages using colors and shapes. The visual output reveals aspects of everyday language that most of the time go unnoticed but are intrinsic to language and meaning. In Translation combines concepts from both traditional InfoViz research and the Visual Arts to create an audience-focused, interactive learning experience. It is a computer-based application that viewers can use to generate and compare visualizations of chosen texts from 9 different languages that use the Roman alphabet.
    Keywords: info graphics, information visualization, interactive application, linguistics, translation
    Our house BIBAKFull-Text 421-422
      Julia Burns; Ardrian Hardjono; Alla Bekker; Doreen Ee
    Accepted concepts of privacy and public access to the private sphere are shifting dramatically in the face of technological and cultural changes online. [Rosen 2000] Social-networking and micro-blogging sites, in particular, invite users to publish excerpts and photos from their own private lives for an internet-based viewing public. This paper discusses an interactive new media artwork, "Our House" that addresses these issues and demonstrates aspects of this phenomenon in both the real and internet-based spheres.
       The artwork features an interactive sculpture, paired with an on-line micro-blogging simulation. Interactions with the sculpture generate tweets (text-based posts of up to 140 characters) and video on the screen-based simulation. The proximity of the real and the virtual worlds come together, prompting debate on the psychological and dangerous aspects of indiscriminate publishing to the web.
    Keywords: interactive art, micro-blogging, privacy, social-networking, twitter
    BodyDaemon BIBAKFull-Text 423-424
      Carlos Castellanos; Thecla Schiphorst
    This paper describes BodyDaemon a techno-conceptual art project that includes a server that is powered and configured by a participant's physiological states and a protocol for exchanging bio/server data across the Internet.
    Keywords: biofeedback, body, diy, embodiment, first-person methodologies, interactive art, network, physiological monitoring, protocol, xml
    Sim-Suite BIBAKFull-Text 425-426
      Manuela Jungmann; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
    In this paper, we describe the installation Sim-Suite which engages members of the public through interactive experiences based on everyday play strategies and basic full-body human movement. The underlying concept of Sim-Suite explores a recombinant approach to cultural understandings in regards to the social practice of play and embodiment. Our approach deploys digital technologies to facilitate human-to-human tangible interaction using common materials and objects. In this context, the experience of the physical world is expanded and reconfigured together with the transient virtual space of play and digital media.
    Keywords: creative digital media, embodied interaction, games, interaction design, interactive art, tangible interaction
    ToneZone: image exploration with spatial memory cues BIBAKFull-Text 427-428
      Celine Latulipe; Michael Youngblood; Ian Bell; Carissa Orlando
    We present two versions of the ToneZone tool, which allows users to explore image tone ranges. The original ToneZone tool is a dual-mouse, dual-cursor tool, while a modified version requires only a single mouse and cursor. Both tools are designed to encourage non-experts to explore the powerful interaction of tone range manipulation.
    Keywords: bimanual interaction, image exploration, levels, photo editing, refinding, tone mapping
    Subliminal wiretapping BIBAKFull-Text 429-430
      Shawn Lawson
    Subliminal Wiretapping is a subtly interactive artwork that utilizes random number generation modified through mind-matter effects to supply a continuous stream of words. Frequent, personal connections emerge from participants interpreting the stream as the words appear.
    Keywords: automatic writing, interactive, listen, mind-matter, ouija, psyleron, random event generator, random number generator, reg, rng, subtle, wiretap
    Designing space for socially meaningful creativity enhanced by new technologies BIBAKFull-Text 431-432
      Yoshiro Miyata; Nobuyuki Ueda; Keiko Onishi; Tomoyuki Sowa; Yasushi Harada; Kazuzi Mogi; Chihiro Tetsuka; Masaki Inoue
    We will demonstrate some workshop space that we have designed for creating and sharing socially meaningful activities that transcend differences in culture and age. We argue for the importance of: 1. Sharing at multiple levels: bodily/sensory, emotional, intellectual, and social levels. 2. Connecting these levels by introducing technologies in response to socially shared meanings. In our demonstration, we will show some activities incorporating Scratch/Cricket technologies to enhance sharing and connecting these levels.
    Keywords: collaborative creativity, lifelong creativity, scratch/cricket, trans-cultural learning, workshops
    A surfaceless pen-based interface BIBAKFull-Text 433-434
      Joshua M. Peschel; Brandon Paulson; Tracy Hammond
    Freehand drawing on a computer screen allows users to provide input through a natural mode of human interaction. With this freedom of expression, however, there exists a paradoxical limitation: the user is bound through the existing interface to the fixed drawing surface. In this work, we overcome this limitation by presenting a surfaceless pen-based interface with an application in the field of sketch recognition. A pilot study was conducted to examine the usability of the surfaceless pen-based interface. Results indicated that learning to use the device is relatively straightforward, but that interaction difficulty increases in a directly proportionally manner with drawing complexity.
    Keywords: pen-based technology, surfaceless user interface
    2DEQ: an intuitive audio equalizer BIBAKFull-Text 435-436
      Andrew T. Sabin; Bryan Pardo
    The complexity of music production tools can be a significant bottleneck in the creative process. Here we describe the development of a simple, intuitive audio equalizer with the idea that our approach could also be applied to other types of music production tools. First, users generate a large set of equalization curves representative of the most common types of modifications. Next, we represent the entire set of curves in 2-dimensional space and determine the spatial location of common auditory adjectives. Finally we create an interface, called 2DEQ, where the user can drag a single dot to control equalization in this adjective-labeled space.
    Keywords: adaptive filters, music, user interfaces
    Fun with blow painting!: making leaf collages by blowing at toy windmill BIBAKFull-Text 437-438
      Yang-Ting Shen; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
    Blow Painting is a novel play interaction that enables children to blow at a toy windmill to create collage paintings of leaves on a digital canvas. The windmill is embedded with a microphone (to detect the blowing action) and a rotation sensor (to detect the blowing direction). Four kinds of leaves (Red Maple, Sugar Maple, Hickory and White Oak) are embedded inside transparent RFID sheets that can be placed under the windmill to provide different leaf "stencils" for the Blow Paining game.
    Keywords: blowing, children, collage, daily experience, game, interactive play, leaf stencil, painting, rfid, tangible object
    Exploring architectural robotics with the human hive BIBAKFull-Text 439-440
      Michael Philetus Weller; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
    We present an activity we developed to demonstrate bottom-up form construction, the human hive. Participants team up to construct a hive structure from large interlocking cardboard blocks. Each participant is given a visual rule that describes where new cells should be added to the hive. The design of these rules guides the form of the structure that emerges from this uncoordinated activity. Bottom-up, distributed methods for specifying physical forms and behaviors are central to the emerging field of architectural robotics that deals with designing objects composed of self-reconfiguring materials.
    Keywords: distributed algorithms, education, stigmergy
    Alchemy: experiments in interactive drawing, creativity, & serendipity BIBAKFull-Text 441-442
      Karl D. D. Willis; Jacob Hina
    This paper presents an overview of Alchemy, an experimental drawing application aimed at exploring how we can sketch, draw, and create on computers in new ways. Alchemy focuses on the absolute initial stage of the creative process, to provide an expanded range of possibilities for serendipitous sketching and shape creation. The main aim of Alchemy is to explore how computer based forms of drawing can extend the early stage idea creation process.
    Keywords: alchemy, art, concept art, creative process, creativity, creativity support tools, design, draw, serendipity, sketch
    A collaborative interface for managing design alternatives BIBAKFull-Text 443-444
      Anbang Xu; Brittany Smith; Brian Bailey
    Generating and managing multiple ideas is a fundamental part of the creative process for both individual and teams of designers. To be useful for early design, computer tools must effectively support this common practice. This paper proposes a demonstration of a new collaborative interface for managing ideas in computer-based design tools. The core of the interface provides interactive spatial maps for creating, organizing, and reflecting on ideas. The interface was also substantially revised in response to lessons learned from a study comparing its use to the use of other tools for managing multiple ideas during early design work. The revised interface allows designers to tag and filter the idea space, arrange ideas in three distinct views, and efficiently compose and decompose content from multiple ideas.
    Keywords: creativity, design, management, multiple ideas
    Toward entertainment blimps for everyone by everyone BIBAKFull-Text 445-446
      Hideki Yoshimoto; Kazuhiro Jo; Koichi Hori
    This paper describes our vision and approach toward "entertainment blimps for everyone by everyone" through DIY prototyping. Our vision of "entertainment blimps for everyone" is that operators, who control the blimps, and spectators, who observe the blimps, could share and enjoy the activities together. Our vision of "entertainment blimps by everyone" is that both of developers, who are skilled in electronics or computer programming, and users, who are not, could reproduce and modify their own entertainment blimp projects.
    Keywords: air ship, blimp, diy, open source, performance, spectators, visual programming

    Invited art pieces

    Call for bags BIBAKFull-Text 447-448
      Sarah Atkinson
    Inspired by the theme of Everyday Creativity, we asked people across the world to post their old conference bag(s) to us so that they could be recycled into one-of-a-kind reusable conference bags. Each bag sent was then hand crafted and sculpted by up-and-coming British designer Sarah Atkinson. Unlike many consumer products that we buy today, each bag has its previous history attached.
    Keywords: bag, everyday creativity, history, recycled
    Inescapable BIBAKFull-Text 449-450
      A Amuse-Bouche
    The illusive Amuse Bouche provide you with a glimpse into the flow of the peripheral imperceptible and inescapable unknown.
    Keywords: imperceptible, inescapable, interactive art, peripheral
    The sheep market BIBAKFull-Text 451-452
      Aaron Michael Koblin
    The Sheep Market, is a web-based artwork that appropriates Amazon's Mechanical Turk system to implicate thousands of workers in the creation of a massive database of drawings. From one simple request, submitted to the MTurk system as a 'HIT' or Human Intelligence Task, workers create their version of "a sheep facing to the left" using simple drawing tools. The artist responsible for each drawing receives a payment of two cents for their labor.
       The inspiration for The Sheep Market project stems from the urge to cast a light on the human role of creativity expressed by workers in the system, while explicitly calling attention to the massive and insignificant role each plays as part of a whole.
       The project will be presented at the Creativity and Cognition Conference as a large projection of each sheep's animated creation process as drawn by the original artist.
    Keywords: art, crowdsourcing, data visualization, design, drawing, media art
    Swab drawings BIBAKFull-Text 453-454
      Jane Prophet
    Video artwork presented on DVD.
    Keywords: collaboration, drawing, surgery

    Juried art exhibition

    (in)box with Malcom BIBAKFull-Text 455-456
      Evan Barba; Blair MacIntyre; Rebecca Rouse; Jay Bolter
    This paper describes an interactive Augmented Reality (AR) art installation based on, and in, an ISO (International Organization for Standardization) shipping container. The work was inspired by the book, "The Box" [1] written by Marc Levinson, and the theatrical work of Petr Sourek [2] which explores the persona of Malcom McLean, inventor of the shipping container as we know it today.
    Keywords: art installation, augmented reality, box, interactive media
    Where i come from...: an art exhibition highlighting how digital tools are helping at-risk youth make meaning of their world BIBAKFull-Text 457-458
      Angela E. Brown; Joseph Alter
    In this paper, we describe how we used digital media tools to engage at-risk students in the creative process. Through allowing these students to make their own, "Where I Come From..." mini-video poems, they were given the chance to learn how to use digital media tools to express the meaning of their lives. And in some cases, the students evolved their poems beyond self and ventured into the realm of addressing more global issues. This allowed them to build personal strength and courage in themselves, while sharing a bit of themselves to the world.
    Keywords: adobe youth voices, at-risk youth, creative process, digital media, engagement, media-making, poetry
    Material inspiration: the practice-led research of a craft artist BIBAKFull-Text 459-460
      Nithikul Nimkulrat
    A tangible material is a primary element in the everyday creative practice of any craft artist. Although craft artists implicitly understand the expressive aspects of the tangible material they use to create their artworks, they rarely discuss or give a written account of them. In this paper, I present a way in which my practice-led research on the expressivity and materiality of a fiber material can shape the total artistic process as well as the resulting artworks and their meanings. The research generates the conception of materialness in fiber art, which can assist fiber artists and other craft artists in creating aesthetic and meaningful artworks.
    Keywords: expressivity, fiber art, materiality, practice-led research, reflective practice
    Uberobjects: père Ubu installation BIBAKFull-Text 461-462
      Carla Diana
    This paper describes a proposal for an installation entitled "Uberobjects: Père Ubu" which features one of a series of dynamic virtual objects. Borrowing from the most seductive formal qualities of today's slick consumer gadgets, the piece consists of a photorealistic, elegantly formed, reactive "virtual object" rendered as an oversized projected image and exhibiting unexpected behaviors in response to visitors' actions. Appearing as a larger-than-life modern device, the Uberobject will glow, hum, unfold, depress, expand or otherwise morph in reaction to the viewer's movements in order to exhibit seemingly life-like behaviors (e.g. recoiling, hiding, blossoming). The installation encourages a dynamic relationship with the viewer based on a predetermined narrative.
    Keywords: 3d animation, art, design, interactivity, product design, three dimensional interfaces
    Stratification: embodied poetry works by high school students BIBAKFull-Text 463-464
      Sarah Hatton; Ellen Campana; Andreea Danielescu; David Birchfield
    In this art submission we describe a collection of twelve multimedia art works that combine sound, images and animation. These works are the result of collaborative creative practice between media artists and students in the context of two high school Language Arts classes for non-Native English speakers. The works were created, in part, by the students physically acting out aspects of the composition within SMALLab, a mixed reality environment for multimodal composition. We call the works "Embodied Poetry" because of this physical action aspect. The title of the collection, Stratification, refers to the layers of meaning within human language. The theme of the collection is English Idioms and the works incorporate both literal and figurative meanings. Examples of idioms include "bringing home the bacon," "fighting a losing battle", and "cutting through red tape." These works were created in an everyday educational setting, with the goal of improving student learning. Nevertheless, they should be viewed as works of art. For us, the artistic contribution of this work includes the pieces themselves and also the guided creative process by which they were created. Thus, for the exhibit we will showcase the works themselves and a documentary describing the process.
    Keywords: digital media, embodiment, gesture, hybrid spaces, metaphor, mixed-reality, multimedia
    Vehicle #3: heliotropic furniture -- an autonomous installation BIBAKFull-Text 465-466
      Matthew G. Hebert
    My objective is to exhibit a group of furniture pieces titled Vehicle #3: Heliotropic Furniture. With the help of funding from San Diego State University, I have been engaged in the research, development, and construction of a body of work that features solar-powered electromechanical furniture objects that respond to changes in their immediate environment. These benches will move within an environment based on their own logic. Together they will create a autonomous interactive via photovoltaics. To work with the limited energy generated by the photovoltaic panels, I have incorporated composite materials, known for their incredible strength-to-weight ratio, to create ultra-light structures. I intend to exhibit Vehicle #3: Heliotropic Furniture as an interior installation allowing the furniture to roam within a delimited space.
    Keywords: art, embodied interaction, reflection, sensing technologies
    Paruresis BIBAKFull-Text 467-468
      Luke Moloney; Jan Rod; Marc Tuters; Miyuru Dayarathna; Adrian David Cheok
    Paruresis is an object critical design that addresses the phobia of an inability to urinate in the presence of others. It combines machine vision and sensors with a camera recording the gaze triggered for playback by urination.
    Keywords: art, computer vision, feminism, gaze, gender, paruresis, phallocentrism, queer theory, shy bladder, surveillance, toilet, urinal
    Glowdoodle: a medium for expressive inquiry BIBAKFull-Text 469-470
      Eric Rosenbaum
    Expressive inquiry is a process of exploration and discovery within an artistic medium that supports both intuitive play and iterative experimentation. Glowdoodle is a system that enables people to paint with light using objects in their environment, see the results as they paint, and share their creations on the web. I describe properties of systems that support expressive inquiry, illustrate them with glowdoodle as an example, and describe diverse examples of glowdoodle creations.
    Keywords: expressivity, inquiry, light-painting
    Telematic timelapse: surveillance suite BIBAKFull-Text 471-472
      Joshua Pablo Rosenstock
    Interactive installation comprising a suite of musical video compositions. Footage is harvested from public surveillance cameras; a synchronized musical score accompanies the micro-narratives. Time-lapse videos are presented alongside live networked camera feeds.
    Keywords: digital art, electronic music, found materials, interactive media, multimedia, music video, networked art, quotidian, remix, sampling, soundtracks, surveillance, telematic, time-lapse, video, webcam

    Invited live performances

    Two generative pieces: port hacking and DC_release BIBAKFull-Text 473-474
      Ernest Edmonds; Mark Fell
    Edmonds and Fell collaborate on generative performances in which sound and image are integrated. The idea is to operate with structures that can mediate between sound and vision, so that a unified work can be produced that integrates both. Thus a single generative abstract structure is mapped into sound and image to produce the integrated work. Each work has its own generative process that develops over time, but during the performance Edmonds and Fell manipulate the rules being used and so modify the generative processes. The works are abstract and minimal in their aesthetic. Visually, they are concerned with colour and change over time. A very restricted range of forms hold a carefully selected closely connected colours, with the exception of one outlier. The sounds are similarly minimal. Two pieces will be performed. Port Hacking, was first performed in Sydney in 2003. DC_Release was first performed in Washington DC in 2007 as part of ColorField Remix, a celebration of the Washington color field painters. Both works have been performed in various UK venues. The basic structure of each work remains the same but as each performance is undertaken they develop as Edmonds and Fell explore different aspects of their audio-visual landscape.
    Keywords: generative art, performance
    Addressing the unexpected BIBAKFull-Text 475-476
      Di Mainstone
    My research strives to examine clothing as an instrument for creative social encounters. It is my strong belief that the natural tactility of a wearable structure and its' proximity to the body hold great possibility for intuitive play. A hands-on choreography of fashion, technology, and performance, my work aims to explore this theory, through the pro-active assembly of body-centric modules and the physical exploration of textiles.
       Utilizing the body as a tangible landscape, I employ both manual and electronic devices designed to unleash curiosity in the wearer and those around them. Using combinations of tailoring, upholstery, origami and electronics, I create tactile interfaces that reveal hidden narratives through the exploration of the wearer. Rarely viewed solely on the body, the work is often found hidden in portable boxes, concealed in urban cupboards, or merged with the city's landscape. Ripe for discovery, it must be exposed, unpacked, assembled, and then mastered. To become a virtuoso of each wearable device, we must be social, inquisitive, playful, and intrepid.
       I use digital fabrication methods such as the laser cutter and 3d printers alongside traditional fashion and upholstery techniques to create reconfigurable body-centric landscapes. Blending soft malleable textiles with robust industrial materials more associated with architecture and furniture design, I create ambiguous structures that are both foreign and familiar to their inquisitors. Through cross-disciplinary collaboration, I connect with musicians, dancers, filmmakers, architects and scientists. Diving beyond my own pool of expertise allows the work to grow through the sharing and harvesting of new skills, knowledge and working methodologies.
       A recent example of my approach is 'Sharewear', a project implemented at the V2 Institute in Rotterdam, which explores openings for playful connectivity within the public realm. The work comprises of a pair of reconfigurable, electronic dresses that are housed in wooden boxes, and left in public space to be unpacked and assembled. On discovering these containers, inquisitive pioneers are invited to construct their own portable space around the body by manipulating a series of soft, upholstered modules. Unleashing potential for intimate chance encounters, these squashy components can physically slot together to activate pools of light. Through this interaction, they invite participants to get close, lean on one another, morph space and cast long shadows.
       This research focus is being further developed with a project entitled 'Municipal Instruments', implemented as part of my residency at Eyebeam Art and Technology Center in New York City. The project aims to remix the behavior of urban inhabitants through a series of wearable musical devices intended to be found, assembled, worn, and shared within public space. Their curvilinear structures, which naturally conform to the body, aim to entice experimental play. The output of this interaction will be an urban symphony, composed from the orchestral reverberations of the city and its inhabitants. Through these and other material explorations, I have become focused on the links between hands-on assembly, creative movement, and communal experience, via the malleable landscape of textiles and technology. Throughout this process, it is my aim to unleash an unexpected sequence of events for those who choose to observe, discover, play, and connect.
    Keywords: fashion, interactive, performance, wearable technology

    Juried live performances

    I seek the nerves under your skin BIBAKFull-Text 477-478
      Joe Marshall
    I Seek the Nerves Under Your Skin is a wearable audio performance which uses the intense physical activity of sprinting to alter the state of mind of a person listening to a poem. Running hard causes their state of mind to echo the intense emotions of the poet who is performing the poem.
    Keywords: art, interaction, poetry, running, wearable
    Graffiti dance: interaction of light, information, and environment BIBAKFull-Text 479-480
      David A. Shamma; Jürgen Scheible; Renata M. Sheppard
    Graffiti Dance creates a collaborative space for the voice of a local community to express a statement about the world around them. Several participants become graffiti artists, painting with an arsenal of lights via virtual graffiti mechanisms. Colors, images, and terms from popular sources (syndicated news Images & Twitter) and local influences (from mobile uploads) are suggested for use in the graffiti. Participants and viewers watch the graffiti's creation and receive feedback provided by a set of dancers who interact with the virtual (light) and physical space. Graffiti Dance presents a holistic experience using a plurality of sources that reflects our understanding of the world around us, how we speak out in public forums, and how we interpret the creative act.
    Keywords: art, community, dance, graffiti, network, projection
    Chiptune marching band: a public workshop and performance BIBAKFull-Text 481-482
      Kazuhiro Jo; Jamie Allen; Areti Galani
    This paper proposes a public workshop and performance, "Chiptune Marching Band", where participants make a sensor-reactive sound instrument, powered by a localized power resource, and perform with their instrument as a band.
    Keywords: diy workshop, participation, sound performance
    Nature as interface: MacGyver'ing and Martha-Stewart'ing interactivity with trees, pencils, grandpa, even the kitchen sink BIBAKFull-Text 483-484
      Jay S. Silver
    What do you get when you cross MacGyver with Martha Stewart? Inventions made of magic markers, chewed bubble gum, flowers, friends, and rainwater! More importantly, you get a person who knows how to work with her environment. In this paper I'll introduce an experimental framing for a new class of interfaces which consist of Nature itself. I'll call people interconnectors instead of "users/producers," and I'll call the things they make interducts instead of "products." Then, I'll talk concretely about Drawdio and Twinkle: two working prototypes (which I created) that let interconnectors create musical inventions by improvising with Nature. Finally, I'll propose some future work and describe the performance I will give (live at Creativity and Cognition) which demonstrates all these ideas.
    Keywords: constructionism, drawdio, interconnector, interduct, interface, modern nature, nature
    Ghost scraper: urban sonic activation on wheels BIBAKFull-Text 485-486
      Eva Sjuve
    In this paper Ghost Scraper is described, a solar powered, networked sonic activator on wheels. Ghost Scraper is an urban device used to enhance the way we think about invisible sonic layers embedded in urban space's materiality and making these layers auditory. Ghost Scraper is a custom made interactive apparatus, using embedded computing, networks, solar panels, real-time audio processing, on wheels, to engage the audience into participation and reflection of sonic evidence in the city, weather it is invisible layers of imaginary memories, or the electronic presence of ghosts in the city's material.
    Keywords: alternative energy, creativity, embedded computing, interaction design, music technology, networks, situated art, sonic art, trans-disciplinary research, urban space

    Workshops

    Creativity and cognition in engineering design: theoretical and pedagogical issues BIBAKFull-Text 487-488
      Aditya Johri; Helen L. Chen; Micah Lande
    This workshop will bring together researchers from the engineering design, engineering learning, and creativity communities to explore emerging theoretical and pedagogical issues related to creativity and cognition in engineering design. The need to produce a creative engineering workforce for the 21st century is well recognized. This workshop will help bridge the study of creativity (what is creativity in an engineering context) and cognition (how do engineering students become or act creatively). This workshop will lead to a framework for future research and strategies to prepare creative engineers.
    Keywords: cognition, creativity, design learning, engineering design
    Design of a learning place for collaborative creation by the mode of Byo-bu (Japanese folding screen) BIBAKFull-Text 489-490
      Chihiro Tetsuka; Kazuzi Mogi; Yoshiro Miyata; Nobuyuki Ueda; Yasushi Harada; Tomoyuki Sowa; Keiko Onishi; Masaki Inoue
    This workshop aims increase understanding through experience the style of a traditional Japanese art. The idea is to develop growing "images" from the impressions gotten from the paintings on the "Byo-bu (Folding screen)", and then to re-create with the others a "New story" coming from these "images". Thus, we would like to think about a collaborative creation based on individual or common ideas and the process of creative thinking that were raised by Byo-bu.
    Keywords: collaborative creation, collaborative learning, Japanese art, Japanese traditional culture
    Understanding the creative conversation: modeling to engagement BIBAKFull-Text 491-492
      David A. Shamma; Dan Perkel; Kurt Luther
    This workshop is aimed at describing the elusive creative process: addressing models and of creative practice, from art to craft, from dance to education. In particular, we wish to discuss creative models that are conversational: connect the creator and the consumer via the creative act or artifact. The goal is to foster creative collaboration across domains and address the practice and design of the creative act to bring new ideas for researchers and practitioners alike.
    Keywords: creativity, design, process, theory
    Designing for a sustainable future BIBAKFull-Text 493-494
      Daniela K. Busse; Eli Blevis; Catherine Howard; Brinda Dalal; David Fore; Lara Lee
    In 1987 Brundtland defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." [1] The simplicity of this statement is seductive -- but what really constitutes sustainable development, and defines the role of user experience research and design within it, is at best elusive. This workshop aims at bringing together experts and researchers in User Experience and related disciplines for a hands-on discussion of questions, insights, and approaches in designing for a sustainable future.
    Keywords: design, research, sustainability
    Using user research in creativity: informing systems, service and product experience design BIBAKFull-Text 495-496
      Catriona Macaulay; Daniela Busse
    Within the context of everyday creativity, there is a growing demand for new systems, products and services that mediate such activity. Some of these tools are emerging from commercial design worlds (iPhone apps, sound and image production software, etc.) and some from creative communities/academia (interactive storytelling tools, new programming tools for interactive artworks, physical computing devices, etc.). Across the design disciplines, and from academia to industry, practicing user research is becoming an increasingly important activity informing the design and development of any product, system or service. Whilst our understanding of the methods and techniques available for generating user research is maturing, the understanding of how to leverage its insights effectively is less well developed. Does user research within the design process in itself incubate or quash creativity and innovation? Is there such a thing as 'too data-driven design'? Can researchers (or those practicing research) be educated for depth of insight, not just method? By the same token, how can we be sure that the user research is actionable? What is the best way to communicate user research? Or is co-development and integrated user research the way to go anyway? What role does user research play in the overall development process? Is user research something best gathered from users or generated with users? Do different communities (e.g. academia and industry) define 'valid user research' in the same ways?
    Keywords: user research

    Tutorials

    Understanding and evaluating creativity BIBAKFull-Text 497-498
      Linda Candy; Zafer Bilda
    This tutorial presents different perspectives on creativity based on knowledge from research and practice. The aim is to provide an understanding of creativity and how to evaluate it in terms of the ways audiences respond, how we assess the creative works themselves and the role of the expertise and skills of those who make works. Participants will be introduced to tools for analyzing and evaluating creative engagement and creativity support through group work. It is intended for people who would like to learn ways of demystifying the creative activities and practitioners who would like to create more intriguing audience/user experiences and better understand their creative processes.
    Keywords: artifacts, audience, creativity, creators, design, evaluation