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Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Creativity and Cognition

Fullname:ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2005
Editors:Linda Candy; Paul Brown; Thomas Hewett; Janis Jefferies
Location:London, United Kingdom
Dates:2005-Apr-12 to 2005-Apr-15
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-025-6; ACM Order Number 608058; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CC05
Papers:57
Pages:323
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Invited Keynote
  2. Full papers
  3. Poster papers
  4. Demonstrations
  5. Exhibition papers
  6. Invited workshop
  7. Tutorial
  8. Panel

Invited Keynote

Aesthetics and interactive art BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Margaret A. Boden
The renaissance is over: long live the renaissance BIBFull-Text 3
  Bill Buxton

Full papers

Causality and virtual reality art BIBAFull-Text 4-12
  Marc Cavazza; Jean-Luc Lugrin; Sean Crooks; Alok Nandi; Mark Palmer; Marc Le Renard
In this paper, we discuss how a cognitive concept, causality, can be used for the conceptual underpinning of Virtual Reality Art installations. Causality plays an important role in our construction of reality and, as such, it makes sense to use it as a principle to define VR experiences. We have developed a VR platform using cognitive data on causal perception to create artificial event co-occurrences in virtual worlds, which can be perceived as possible outcomes for user actions. After a preliminary validation of this technology by user experiments, it has been used to implement prototypes of artistic installations by two different artists. We describe the technical approach behind the elicitation of causal perception in virtual reality, and illustrate its use through the two artistic installations being developed with this new VR platform.
The homespun museum: computers, fabrication,and the design of personalized exhibits BIBAFull-Text 13-21
  M. Eisenberg; N. Elumeze; L. Buechley; G. Blauvelt; S. Hendrix; A. Eisenberg
The traditional view of the "home computer" is as a self-contained appliance: computation, on this view, is something that takes place within a desktop box, and that produces interesting visual effects only on a screen. In this paper, we argue that one can alternatively view "the computer" through its tangible effects on larger settings: that is, the computer can be imagined as the heart of a creative workshop centered within the home or classroom. The advent of accessible fabrication devices, as well as small computers that can be embedded in craft items, permits users to think of the room at large as a place in which computationally-enriched or computationally-designed "exhibits" of various types may be displayed. We illustrate this idea with a variety of projects undertaken within our laboratory.
Computational schemes for biomimetic sculpture BIBAFull-Text 22-31
  Brower Hatcher; Karl Aspelund; Andrew Willis; Jasper Speicher; David B. Cooper; Frederic F. Leymarie
A prototype system for the automatic evolution of biomimetic structures using structural automata is described and its utility for generating digital sculpture is demonstrated. Sculptures are generated from a primordial shape which is represented in terms of a triangular mesh and sculpture is created by extending the original surface using tetrahedral structural elements. Recursively applicable rules or equivalently, automata, are defined which allow the sculptor to generate a volumetric scaffold from the original surface. This scaffold is generated using the stated rules for inserting and connecting together the tetrahedral elements. The software is operated as a generative process where sculptures are grown from an original triangular surface mesh as a sequence of layers. Each layer is created as a 2-step process. In step 1, we populate the surface with tetrahedral structures where the base of each tetrahedron coincides with a surface triangle. Step 2 re-triangulates the apexes of the tetrahedra from step 1 creating an offset and deformed version of the original surface mesh. The sculptor has artistic control of the process at all points and may assign or change rules to generate different biomimetic behaviors, i.e., structures which tend to replicate natural phenomena.
Memory rich clothing: second skins that communicate physical memory BIBAFull-Text 32-40
  Joanna Berzowska
This paper examines the development of wearable technologies that display a garment's history of use and communicate physical memory. We explore how trends in digital technologies and conventional wearable research contrast the ways our bodies and clothing register memory at a personal and social level. Our research concentrates on the production of garments that take into consideration aspects of playfulness and that reflect more subtle or poetic aspects of our identity and embodied history. The pieces described here are part of a larger series called Memory Rich Clothing and employ several soft computation techniques developed in our labs.
Constituting, traversing and perforating boundaries: embodied interaction in immersive virtual spaces BIBAFull-Text 41-48
  Petra Gemeinboeck
This paper looks at the conditions and the constitution of the boundary between participants and virtual environments. Based on two of the author's immersive, interactive scenarios, this boundary is regarded as a transformative extension of the participants' body. As the CAVE environment Uzume is bodily explored through moving and gesturing, participants continuously affect the current environment's state and behaviour. The tele-immersive installation Ma?a--Veil of Illusion connects two remote sites, creating a dynamically evolving virtual passage in-between. Here the design of interfacing the human participant and the virtual surrounding is inseparably interwoven with the evolutionary behaviours of the environments themselves. It challenges the Cartesian notion of the body as a passive receptor and addresses its constituting role of the relationship between the participant's embodied self and its computated representation. Considering this boundary as dynamic and permeable, enables a mutual relationship that is able to unfold beyond the author's predefined responses and interpretations.
Gridjam BIBAFull-Text 49-53
  Jack Ox
In this paper Ox will continue the story of the 21st Century Virtual Color Organ. At C&C4 (2002)[7] she told of the performance of Clarence Barlow's "Im Januar am Nil" and also the early concept of "Gridjam". She showed an early model of one of the Gridjam sounds which had been created at Loughborough University. This paper will trace the development of the project through the last two years of both the music and the visualized sounds.
Computer art: a personal recollection BIBAFull-Text 54-62
  Frieder Nake
The story of some early computer art drawings in 1965 is told. It is a story of randomness. Computer art is viewed here as the programming of classes of aesthetic objects. In the mid 1960s, information aesthetics was a powerful and radical theory that had some influence on constructive and concrete forms of art in Europe. A connection is drawn to computer supported works by A. Michael Noll in the US, and Georg Nees in Germany. "Experiment and tendency" is identified as an important principle still valid today. The concept of the algorithmic sign appears at the horizon. Digital media are claimed to be explorations of algorithmic signs.
The tools of online community: the first five years of the trAce online writing centre BIBAFull-Text 63-70
  Sue Thomas
The trAce Writing and Technology Research Project grew out of a small research project called CyberWriting that established in 1995 in the Department of English Media Studies at Nottingham Trent University. It rapidly made close links with arts organisations in Australia and America and operated almost exclusively on the internet, researching information about internet-based writing resources of all kinds including fiction, poetry, hypertexts, cyberculture theory, conferences, journals, and webzines. In May 1996 trAce launched its own website and quickly became a popular and useful resource for the dissemination of information about writers and writing on the net. In 1997 it received a substantial grant from the Arts Council of England Lottery Fund and has continued to grow to the present day. This paper gives an account of the first five years of trAce, 1995-2000, and looks to the future from the vantage point of 2005.
The CACHe project: its work and outcomes BIBAFull-Text 71-75
  Nicholas Lambert
The CACHe Project at Birkbeck, University of London, was established in 2002 and is now entering its final year. This paper details CACHe's work in archiving the early days of British computer arts, from their origins in the 1960s to the beginning of the 1980s. Its goals are to investigate and recover this history, thereby confirming its cultural and aesthetic legitimacy. The principal archival resources of the CACHe project are also described. Its outcomes are assessed in terms of its funding by the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) and possible future projects to emerge from it.
A cultural systems approach to collaboration in art & technology BIBAFull-Text 76-85
  Stephen Jones
In this paper I take a wider, cultural theory based, view than is usual in the literature of collaboration and its role in creativity. I will explore the nature of the collaborative interaction as a cybernetic process and draw on the systems theoretic approaches of Burnham's systems aesthetics, Wiener's cybernetics, Deleuze and Guattari's machinic phylum and Maturana and Varela's autopoiesis to build up a cultural framework of the interactive behaviours between individuals that constitute collaboration. I then canvass some actual historical collaborations as well as my own personal experience as both an artist working in Art & Technology and as a technologist working for many other artists. I will also look at some of the empirical work that has been done on collaboration and explore how it and the historical and personal experiences fit into the structure of interactive relations that the cultural systems approach has brought out.
Reflections on Gordon Pask's adaptive teaching concepts and their relevance to modern knowledge systems BIBAFull-Text 86-91
  George Mallen
This paper revisits work carried out when the author worked at System Research Ltd the freelance cybernetics research group founded and headed by Gordon Pask in the 1960s. It presents some historical background and focusses on just two of the many strands which emerged from the convergence of digital simulation techniques on the multidisciplinary ferment of cybernetic thinking of that time. First we'll look at computer models of learning processes and their relevance to human computer interaction and, second, we'll consider the broader aspects of systems theory and the foundation that provided for the emergence of knowledge systems.
   The paper then relates that early work to current thinking about the evolution of the modern human mind, the emergence of computer based cognitive systems and the implications for future creative knowledge building.
Sponge: a case study in practice-based collaborative art research BIBAFull-Text 92-101
  Christopher L. Salter; Sha Xin Wei
In this paper, we describe the origins, thematics, projects and practices of the art research collective Sponge. In particular, we focus on Sponge as a useful case study in transdisciplinary, collaborative practice-based research in creative art and design production and specifically, on Sponge as a unique example of a community of practice that spans artistic production, techno-scientific research, and critical studies. Issues essential to collaborative work practices such as shared language, construction of boundary objects, accommodation of differing epistemic cultures as well Sponge's thematic interest in performance, materiality and agency are examined in the context of several large scale artistic projects produced in the US, Canada and Europe. Finally, we examine the relationship between Sponge and the second author's Topological Media Lab in trying to come to terms with the differing scales and life cycles in partnering between the university-based research lab and the sphere of artistic and cultural production.
The development of a cybernetic sculptor: Edward Ihnatowicz and the senster BIBAFull-Text 102-108
  Aleksandar Zivanovic
Edward Ihnatowicz (1926-1988) built one of the world's first computer-controlled robotic sculptures, The Senster, in 1968-70. Rather than concentrate entirely on this groundbreaking and influential piece of work, this paper describes the stages he went through in developing his ideas, as an illustration of how a conventional artist became a cybernetic sculptor.
The summer 1968 in London and Zagreb: starting or end point for computer art? BIBAFull-Text 109-117
  Christoph Klutsch
The Exhibition Cybernetic Serendipity (London 1968) is often considered to be the first major exhibition of computer art. Nearly forgotten, is an exhibition in Zagreb that also took place in August 1968 connected to an international Colloquy "Computers and Visual Research. Zagreb August 3-4, 1968". Both dealt in a systematically different way with the possibilities of computer art. While the show in London tried to give a wide range of possibilities, the 'visual researchers' in Zagreb bridged computer art with social and political implications, as well as with new philosophical and aesthetical theories on Information aesthetics. For a further scientific analysis of the first phase of graphical computer art, a deeper look into the events in Zagreb will be indispensable.
Understanding design as a social creative process BIBAFull-Text 118-127
  Andy Warr; Eamonn O'Neill
The Human-Computer Interaction community has long been concerned with design. Terms such as 'creativity' and 'innovation' are frequently used when referring to the design process and in this paper we examine what creativity is with respect to design. Design is often a collaborative and, therefore, a social activity. We review the evolution of definitions of creativity, leading to our proposal of a unified definition, we present a theoretical account of why social creativity should in principle be more productive than individual creativity. We explain findings to the contrary in terms of three social influences on creativity and suggest that research in supporting design should focus on mitigating the effects of these social influences on the creativity of design teams.
Distances and diversity: sources for social creativity BIBAFull-Text 128-136
  Gerhard Fischer
The power of the unaided, individual mind is highly overrated: The Renaissance scholar no longer exists. Although creative individuals are often thought of as working in isolation, the role of interaction and collaboration with other individuals is critical to creativity. Creative activity grows out of the relationship between individuals and their work, and from the interactions between an individual and other human beings. Because complex problems require more knowledge than any single person possesses, it is necessary that all involved stakeholders participate, communicate, collaborate, and learn from each other. Distances (across spatial, temporal, and technological dimensions) and diversity (bringing stakeholders together from different cultures) are important sources for social creativity.
   This paper describes conceptual frameworks and socio-technical environments (derived from the systems that we have developed over the last decade) in which social creativity can come alive.
A strange dance: the creative collaborative origins & processes of "9 evenings: theatre & engineering" BIBAFull-Text 137-143
  Robin Oppenheimer
This paper examines the creative collaborative practices and processes of the historic 1966 "9 Evenings: Theatre & Engineering" event that spawned the Experiments in Art & Technology (E.A.T.) group in New York City. It presents the cultural origins and collaborative goals of this group of avant-garde artists and Bell Labs engineers who came together to produce the landmark event based on first-hand accounts, and examines the elements and intentions of their creative and collaborative processes. It concludes with speculation as to the significance of this historical event as a source for further exploration into the nature of creative collaboration, dialogue, and collective wisdom.
Digital cultural communication: designing co-creative new media environments BIBAFull-Text 144-149
  Jerry Watkins; Angelina Russo
The design and implementation of audience-focused immersive media-rich physical environments is a familiar landscape within the commercial sphere. From theatre and theme parks to autoshows and airports, commercial interdisciplinary design and production teams have extended and solidified the new media agenda. The success of this track record is demonstrated by the increasing presence of commercial design techniques and knowledge in the creation of immersive new media within the cultural sphere, as proven by London's Natural History Museum, or the Melbourne Museum.
   This paper introduces the notion of digital cultural communication, a continuum through which designers can consider the place of narrative and experience and their attributes within public and commercial institutions. Digital cultural communication allows users to become co-creators of knowledge by providing tools and methods which enable the co-construction of creative artefacts. This paper uses a case study from Australia's rich cultural institution sector to illustrate the conceptual design of new media co-creative environment using an HCI-derived methodology supported by participatory action research. It is hoped that this method will demonstrate to curators of cultural experiences the cost-effective possibilities for enabling audiences to create rich narrative from user-led content.
Supporting reflective practice in creativity education BIBAFull-Text 150-157
  Norio Ishii; Kazuhisa Miwa
In this study, we design a learning environment to foster participants' creative attitude and evaluate its effectiveness in a university class. Our educational program consists of the following three phases: (1) introduction (studying the basics of Mindstorms used as a tool), (2) creative activities (producing playground equipment using Mindstorms), and (3) self-reflective activities on the creative processes (each group constructing a diagram describing their own creative processes and discussing the processes). We evaluate the effectiveness based on comparisons of pre- and post-tests and the contents of the participants' discussions. In particular, we confirm the following three learning activities: (1) the participants discussed their creative activities from various viewpoints, (2) they also discussed the viewpoints considered to be important for creative activities, and (3) they realized the importance of idea generation, idea embodiment, and collaboration in creative activities.
The amateur creator BIBAFull-Text 158-165
  Stephen Boyd Davis; Magnus Moar
Important design problems are raised in developing software for amateur users, a group distinguished here from novices. The authors argue that these design problems can be approached by understanding how systems for amateurs are derived from those for skilled users, through a combination of transformations we describe as foregrounding, backgrounding, automation, integration and constraining. Useful comparisons are offered with popular product designs. A broader, partly historical, context is then described in which media technologies propagate from use by specialists to use by these amateurs, and the latter change from consumers to creators. The discussion is focused by a description of difficulties with existing software encountered in the course of a creative schools-based project, intended to enable young users both to explore virtual worlds and to design and populate them with their own avatars. The authors argue that HCI design would benefit from a clearer grasp of the special characteristics of designing for amateur users and of transforming existing software for their use.
Amplifying reflective thinking in musical performance BIBAFull-Text 166-175
  Andrew Johnston; Shigeki Amitani; Ernest Edmonds
In this paper we report on the development of tools that encourage both a creative and reflective approach to music-making and musical skill development. A theoretical approach to musical skill development is outlined and previous work in the area of music visualisation is discussed. In addition the characterisation of music performance as a type of design problem is discussed and the implications of this position for the design of tools for musicians are outlined. Prototype tools, the design of which is informed by the theories and previous work, are described and some preliminary evaluation of their effectiveness is discussed. Future directions are outlined.
Tangible social interfaces: critical theory, boundary objects and interdisciplinary design methods BIBAFull-Text 176-186
  Pamela Jennings
The Constructed Narratives project has been designed for use in public spaces where there is the opportunity for individuals and groups of people, who are not acquainted with each other, to encounter the game and subsequently each other. The goal is to provide a platform that supports discourse in environments where "keeping comfortable distance" between oneself and others is the norm. The system framework developed for this project can be applied for use in computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), and collaborative design activities in the tradition of computer supported collaborative work (CSCW). The current domain explored in the Constructed Narratives project is computer systems designed to enable shared experience through play, or computer supported collaborative play (CSCP). This paper examines the theories that influenced and design methodologies used by an interdisciplinary team of artists, designers and technologists used to develop solutions for multiple wicked design problems that can arise during the development of the system architecture for a tangible social interface.
Developing character personas and scenarios: vital steps in theatrical performance and HCI goal-directed design BIBAFull-Text 187-194
  Lori Shyba; James Tam
In this paper, the works of theatrical performance practitioners are drawn upon to develop key points of conceptual convergence between the artistry of theatrical performance and the system of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) known as Goal-Directed design (GDD). These findings are then framed within a supplemental instructional design that identifies an innovative method of developing personas and constructing goal-initiated scenarios that may, theoretically, improve upon Cooper's Goal-Directed design methodology.
From function to context to form: precedents and focus shifts in the form creation process BIBAFull-Text 195-204
  John Restrepo; Henri Christiaans
In design, the form creation process involves imagining, seeing and drawing. Translating the vague and imprecise initial ideas into sketches requires significant ability, and in this process, images of existing products (precedents) are a welcomed aid. Searching for them, however, is difficult, because it requires either exhaustive browsing or verbalization of the ideas to be able to use search engines.
   This paper presents an approach that uses images as query seeds instead of keywords called Query by Example (QBE). This approach is tested through an empirical study. It shows that the approach is a significant step into helping designers satisfy their visual information needs. It also shows that, as designers change their focus from function to context to form, their way of expressing their information needs changes. It concludes suggesting ways of improving both current systems and the QBE software tested.
Gesture and response in field-based performance BIBAFull-Text 205-209
  Sha Xin Wei; Satinder Gill
Ambience and immersive technological environments allow us to explore some basics of human pragmatics that lie beyond linguistics, intentionality and the subject-agency perspectives of human interaction. We focus on gesture and the body in sense-making and propose a discussion drawing on a non-dualist and agent-free account of embodied, material experience. By agent-free we mean an approach that does not presume a monolithic subject. Moreover, we deal with the problem of intersubjectivity by studying the human coordination of activity without appealing to a transmission theory of communication. [6].
   We achieve this by considering how gesture spans multiple bodies and how aesthetic design works with this and facilitates it. The paper is in two parts, the first part covers movement studies, focusing on gesture and body movement, drawing on the acting and pragmatics, and the second part develops this with the example of the TGarden, a responsive play space for experimental performance augmented by gesturally nuanced computational media.
Losers and finders: indexing audio-visual digital media BIBAFull-Text 210-217
  Mike Leggett
The contemporary burgeoning usage of digital movies, photos, audio and text, their distribution through networks both electronic and physical will be considered in the context of a convergence of these media with a popular interest in personal and community history and identity.
   The paper introduces interdisciplinary research into human memory as a context for understanding its relation to machine memory and methods of storing and retrieval. It proposes an approach to indexing audio-visual media utilising a time-space representational system, drawing upon a real-world time-space representation as the taxonomy of the indexing procedure.
   An interactive experimental prototype, PathScape, will be described and evaluated and further practice-based research approaches to author-defined storage and retrieval systems will be outlined.

Poster papers

Knowledge nebula crystallizer for time-based information BIBAFull-Text 218-221
  Shigeki Amitani; Ernest Edmonds
In this paper, we are going to describe a system for managing and authoring time-based information artefact, as an implementation of Knowledge Nebula Crystallizer [9]. The design rationale of the system and its implementation are described.
GoingPublik: suggesting creativity inside the ivory tower BIBAFull-Text 222-225
  Jurg Gutknecht; Art Clay; Thomas Frey
This paper wishes to convey in the large the experience of a mutual collaboration between science and art and in the small the fruits of that collaboration both technically and artistically. Technologies in the area of human interface design which reconsider and extend the desktop metaphor as a means of com-puter interaction in the light of the progress made in hardware and software technology recently will be discussed. These include subsets stemming from the implementation of a new general purpose graphical user interface and multimedia framework, zoomable and textual user interfaces and translucent free-form windows. Artistic issues rooted in many works of the artist will be briefly touched upon in order to show where the artist's interests lay and the directions being pursued in general. These include the use of transparency for modularity in design and optical phenomena to bring about kinetic relationships between elements of that modularity. Both aspects finding implementation separately in acoustic and electronic works preceding GoingPublik. Finally, how the diverse interests manifesting in the arts and sciences were then brought together coherently into a creative tool for realtime score synthesis (RSS) whose central element revolves around the possibilities of a mobile-multimedia system and which was employed in the sonic art work GoingPublik, are concluded with.
Musical form and algorithmic solutions BIBAFull-Text 226-231
  Peter Copley; Andrew Gartland-Jones
In this paper we explore some issues with implementing purely algorithmic solutions to compositional strategies around musical form, and suggest the limits to such approaches. We explore the differences between textbook definitions, of musical form, often modelled by those implementing computational strategies, and what significant composers actually produced. We then suggest the impact this should have in computational approaches to creative composition.
Computational aesthetics as a tool for creativity BIBAFull-Text 232-235
  Gary R. Greenfield
We consider the problem of designing software tools that automatically evaluate the aesthetic content of images. Our purpose is to enhance the creative potential of generative art systems. We propose a number of meta-rules for enhancing creativity.
PathScape: indexing audio-visual digital media BIBAFull-Text 236-239
  Mike Leggett
The contemporary burgeoning usage of digital movies, photos, audio and text, their distribution through networks both electronic and physical, will be considered in the context of a convergence of these media with a contemporary engagement with personal and community history.
   An interactive experimental prototype, PathScape, will be described and evaluated and further practice-based research approaches to author-defined storage and retrieval systems will be outlined.
Design for design: support for creative practice in computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW) in design BIBAFull-Text 240-243
  Phebe Mann
This paper describes a novel methodology for observing and analysing collaborative design by using the concepts of cognitive dimensions related to concept-based misfit analysis. The study aims at gaining an insight into support for creative practice of graphical communication in collaborative design processes of designers while sketching within a shared white board and audio conferencing environment. Empirical data on design processes have been obtained from observation of groups of student designers solving an interior space-planning problem of a lounge-diner in a shared virtual environment. The results of the study provide recommendations for the design and development of interactive systems to support such collaborative design activities.
Drawing in three dimensions: a paradigm shift BIBAFull-Text 244-247
  Stuart Mealing
This paper considers issues explored during the inaugural project of the Feral Drawing Group (University of Plymouth, Exeter) in which rapid prototyping technology was investigated as a potential drawing environment. It concentrates on a paradigm shift in the grammar of traditional objective drawing that was found to occur when the drawing device is not constrained to a flat surface but can move freely in a three dimensional space. It also describes practical and conceptual considerations arising from the translation of a virtual 3D drawing into a real-world object.

Demonstrations

Tech-tiles: exploring texture BIBAFull-Text 248-251
  Tim Blackwell; Janis Jefferies
This paper describes the tech-tile project: an exploration of visual and sonic texture enabled by a mapping of textile images into sound. The mapping from a rectangular element (a tile) of an image onto a sonic event is explained, and it is demonstrated that the result gives interesting and distinctive sonic textures and preserves, in part, the visual structure of the image. An entire image can be converted to a single tech-tile, which can be performed as a composition, or a swarm of small tiles can fly over the image, generating a sonic improvisation.
Social networks for creative collaboration BIBAFull-Text 252-255
  Tracy Cohen; Ben Clemens
The Authors are colleagues within the User Experience Discipline at Avenue A | Razorfish, a services consulting firm that designs user centered applications and solutions for business and consumer brands.
   The User Experience discipline employs approximately 50 interface designers, information architects and experience designers across the United States. A social networking application has been developed in-house to promote creative collaboration within the organization. The organizational problem we were solving for was a need to create greater visibility in to the work of each information designer as well as the opportunity to support smarter collaboration and drive innovation within the organization.
Generating pen-plotter drawings from selective point-sets of digital photographs BIBAFull-Text 256-258
  Hans E. Dehlinger
A significant property of pen-plotter drawings is their reliance on a physically / mechanically drawn line. It is the pen, which is drawing the line. Interesting aesthetic consequences follow from this for drawings executed on pen-plotters. The paper addresses a particular generative approach to produce such drawings. It is assumed that the starting points of lines play an important role in the generative algorithm and a strategy has been programmed to collect selective point-sets from digital photographs, which are then used as starting points for an algorithmically generated drawing. The generative sequence is discussed.
Wearable body organs: critical cognition becomes (again) somatic BIBAFull-Text 259-262
  Kelly Dobson
Three factors involved in cognition - the individual, the collective, and the objective reality - are related and investigated through the safe facilitation offered by Wearable Body Organs. Each device is adaptable to its current user and the community it is active in, made by the person and community, becoming another plane of experience. We return to a body based knowledge and communication, and simultaneously breech our once assumed body boundaries.
Constructed narratives a tangible social interface BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  Pamela Jennings
Constructed Narratives is a tangible social interface designed for use in public spaces where people have the opportunity to encounter the game and subsequently learn about each other. The hardware and software system architecture developed for this project could be applied for experimental computer-based interfaces for several human computer interaction domains including collaborative learning (CSCL), and collaborative design activities in the tradition of computer supported collaborative work (CSCW). The current domain explored for Constructed Narratives is that of computer systems designed to enable shared experience through play, or computer supported collaborative play (CSCP).
Twining: a demonstration in wearable computing BIBAFull-Text 267-268
  Barbara Layne; Yacov Sharir
Barbara Layne and Yacov Sharir will introduce their first collaborative project, Twining. The presentation will discuss wearable computing devices and the intersection of their individual research in dance/choreography and the textile arts. A demonstration of their new wearable interactive system will show how this device can affect onstage interaction and offer new communication possibilities with the audience.
   Wearable interactive devices are often subsumed into the personal space of the user or placed in a desired location where the performer can activate them as needed. They possess operational command systems when placed on the physical body of the user/performer and interactional constancy when used in performance: they are always on and always accessible. These devices have become an integral part and extension of the user body and operate in and around a communications "area".
Timeline of a drawing research methodology 1983 - 2004 BIBAFull-Text 269-272
  Peter Steel
I propose to demonstrate the evolution, methodology and current status of my ongoing practice based research into drawing systems, that began in 1983 at Ravensbourne College of Art in the UK.
   My intention is to use digital media to deliver a Timeline status report on DVD with a connected website and through live presentation and demonstration during C&C 2005. The DVD and website will contain material from the start of the project in 1983 up to 2004 and will incorporate notes, sketchbooks, photographs and scanned drawings in a range of media, video and connected digital art work. The visual material will be supported by contextual information to outline the issues and concerns that have directed my practice during this period, through to its current investigation involving motion capture (mocap) technology, augmented reality, and preparation for and extension to PhD research. Examples of creative projects and work made in conjunction with research into the development of my own drawing practice over a sustained twenty year period are detailed here, as references for what will be included in the complete Timeline documentation and material.

Exhibition papers

Digital crustaceans: homesteading on the world wide web BIBAFull-Text 273-274
  Ingrid Bachmann
In Digital Crustaceans: Homesteading on the World Wide Web, a low level biological entity -- a hermit crab -- explores the World Wide Web to find sites for occupation and modification. This project views the World Wide Web as more than an address in cyberspace for the exchange of information or promotion. It views the Web as a form of organic architecture to be worked in and on and across to explore the material base of digital technologies, a factor often overlooked amidst the transcendent claims of new technologies. This web project is a pictorial and video narrative of those explorations.
Sleepless night: amnesia BIBAFull-Text 275-278
  Derek Michael Besant
If cognition is "an investigation of the action of knowing -- or consciousness -- or a product of such action (recognition)" as defined in the Oxford Dictionary on Historical Principals; then cognition could be an artefact in and of itself, as an artificial premise conceived by the human brain, as a way of dealing with how we think... To this, I would ask the question whether or not Memory might indeed be more about Forgetting than Remembering?
Art, digitality and consciousness BIBAFull-Text 279-282
  Guy Birkin
This paper is intended as an accompaniment to digital artworks, and forms a concise outline of the practical and theoretical elements of my research into digital processes.
   It begins by describing the processes used to create the artworks, then the scientific paradigm shift from which these processes are derived. This new kind of science begins with or leads to the question, 'What if space and time are digital?' My research prompted a reassessment of the meaning of 'digital', which in turn re-defined the potential 'digital media' and, therefore, what may be called 'digital art'.
   Lastly, it is shown that this new science relates to the older field of Process Philosophy. That these fields share an emphasis on the importance of the concepts of time, change and process can be seen as supporting evidence for Jean Gebser's model of evolutionary consciousness. This model enables cohesion of the scientific ideas and is the context in which the artworks were conceived.
Streaming video: an experiment in new aesthetics BIBAFull-Text 283-285
  Jim Bizzocchi
In my research program, Ambient Video, I am investigating the impact of the introduction of large, high-resolution, flat-screen displays on the aesthetics and techniques that will be used in productions created in the future when this type of display is common. This paper for Creativity & Cognition 2005 provides background and context for the exhibition of a video art work, Streaming Video, which has been created as part of the research.
Work in process: artists' collaborations in fashion and textiles BIBAFull-Text 286-288
  Sandy Black; Morris Baker
This paper accompanies the showing of a pilot digital film, Work in Process, analysing the creative process and working methods of four significant artists: Lucy Orta, Maria Blaisse, Helen Storey and Caroline Broadhead, who have been selected for their engagement within and between the areas of textiles, fashion and the body in a range of contexts, and for the maturity of their work. Revealed behind the artworks, through the artists' own words and practice, is often a complex process of collaboration, dialogue and debate, which normally remains hidden to the audience. The film presents new insights into creative collaborations, draws parallels and highlights contrasts in the range of approaches encompassed by the artists, and allows comparison with some of the established and emerging theories of creative process in scientific and other disciplines. The film is itself a work in progress towards a larger project, which will include additional artists. Accessibility and fluidity are key aspects of the digital film medium, allowing for an evolutionary approach to film-making, variable according to purpose and context, and questioning the notion of a 'finished' film.
Kyoto to Sheffield BIBFull-Text 289-290
  Ernest Edmonds; Mark Fell
A theory of error BIBAFull-Text 291-293
  Kellyann Geurts
Ideas developed in A Theory of Error explore notions of art and corporality, and in particular art representing the brain and mechanisms of thought, reflections about exploring the creative process and considering thought when the brain is simulated through digital imaging.
   Using personal thought processes as a model, this project explores the creative process resulting from error. Error, not in the mechanical or technical sense, or even in the form of diagnosed mental conflicts, but discussed in terms of cognitive functioning.
   In this instance the conception of error may be referred to as unpredictable disturbances to thought patterns.
   Forming a theoretical background to the project are various interwoven theories from cognitive psychology, neuroscience, art and technology that examine the mechanisms of creativity in relation to mutation and disorder, chaos and abstraction [1].
   A Theory of Error is illustrated through visual metaphors, a weave of text and image, constructing a picture of a thought.
Burning Sappho's books BIBFull-Text 294-297
  Alexandra Haeseker
Exhibition: computational schemes for biomimetic sculpture BIBAFull-Text 298-300
  Brower Hatcher; Karl Aspelund; Andrew Willis; Jasper Speicher; David B. Cooper; Frederic F. Leymarie
The Mid-Ocean Studio, Brown University's SHAPE lab, and Goldsmiths College are collaborating on a prototype system for the automatic evolution of biomimetic sculpture using structural automata. This collaboration is resulting in effective, computerized means to autogenerate large, increasingly complex works of art, and allowing for a long-anticipated development of the desire to create works that reflect and respond to the environment they are in. We propose to create an installation that allows visitors to a site at Goldsmiths College to experience and interact with the development of our structures.
Society of neurons: an arts/science project BIBAFull-Text 301-304
  Warren Neidich; Robert Zimmer; Thibaud de Souza
This artwork is one of the deliverables of an arts/science initiative supported by an interdisciplinary program run by Arts Council England and the Arts and Humanities Research Board of the UK. The artwork has two forms: one is a dynamically changing website and the other is a series of three-dimensional sculptures, each of which records a segment of history of the website. The website itself -- which we think of as a web brain -- evolves using principles that model those that are posited as the processes that happen in brains as they learn. The website evolution is informed by interaction with a large community of users and therefore acts as a collective memory of a society of individuals.
Invisible sculpture #1 BIBAFull-Text 305
  Lorraine Oades
Invisible sculpture #1 uses interactive digital interfaces to question the nature of materiality within information-based post-corporal societies. In this artwork the viewer's body controls the speed and direction of a short video sequence inspired by H.G. Wells' science fiction classic "The Invisible Man".
Variations: an interactive musical sculpture BIBAFull-Text 306-309
  Bruce Wands
Variations is an ongoing exploration of multi-channel and interactive music experienced through a sculptural interface. The interface functions as a means by which participants can create their own mix of the music by interacting with elements of a sculpture that consists of individual modules composed of a cube that contains a speaker, a tube and a removable ball that controls which channel of music they hear. Since one or more individuals may interact with the sculpture at any given time, there is an infinite variety of music that can be heard. This paper will discuss the evolution of the sculptural interface and the creative approach used in composing multi-channel and interactive music.

Invited workshop

Freedom and constraint in the creative process in digital fine art: an AHRB invited workshop BIBAFull-Text 310-317
  John Haworth; Sue Gollifer; James Faure-Walker; Paul Coldwell; Tom Kemp; Jon Pengelly
The workshop will explore in depth the nature of freedom and constraint in the creative process in digital fine art from the perspective of embodied mind. The problem is crucial to our understanding of the creative process in fine art. The aims and objectives of the workshop are to bring into visibility critical insights into the creative process, thereby potentially empowering digital artists.

Tutorial

Cognitive factors in design: overview and some implications for design BIBAFull-Text 318-321
  Thomas T. Hewett
This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge which will be useful in interpreting design guidelines and in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize basic general phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.

Panel

Creating histories BIBAFull-Text 322-323
  Paul Brown; Phil Husbands; Margaret A. Boden; Catherine Mason; Alan Sutcliffe
This panel invites four speakers to discuss the history of creativity and cognition. Phil Husbands talks about the pioneering group that played an important role in the emergence of cybernetics in the UK - The Ratio Club; Margaret Boden describes the history of creativity research in AI; Catherine Mason presents her research into the role that institutions played in the development of the computer arts in the UK and; Alan Sutcliffe describes his experiences as a co-founder of the influential Computer Arts Society.