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Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition

Fullname:Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Creativity & Cognition
Editors:Tom Maver, II; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
Location:Glasgow, Scotland
Dates:2015-Jun-22 to 2015-Jun-25
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3598-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CC15
Papers:90
Pages:399
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynote Address 1
  2. Paper Session 1: Textiles and Objects (4 papers)
  3. Paper Session 2: Tools and Interfaces (4 papers)
  4. Paper Session 3: Finding (2 papers 2 notes)
  5. Keynote Address 2
  6. Paper Session 4: Moments and Movements (4 papers)
  7. Posters and Demos Session 1
  8. Posters and Demos Session 2
  9. Paper Session 5: Working and Learning (2 notes 3papers)
  10. Paper Session 6: Ideation Play, and Experience (3 papers)
  11. Paper Session 7: Places of Creativity (3 paper 2 notes)
  12. Graduate Student Symposium (14 papers)
  13. Art Exhibition
  14. Performances
  15. Workshop Summaries
  16. Keynote Address 3

Keynote Address 1

Of Guitars, Stories, Luthiery and Hybrid Craft BIBAFull-Text 1
  Steve Benford
Every guitar tells a story, from the provenance of its tonewoods, to the craft of its making, to the players that own it, to the places it visits, to the many songs that it plays. I will tell you the story of a unique guitar, one that has been created with the express purpose of telling its own life story. My guitar is called Carolan in honour of the legendary composer Turlough O'Carolan, the famous itinerant harper who roamed Ireland at the turn of the 18th century. Like its namesake, Carolan is a roving bard; a performer that passes from place to place, learning tunes, songs and stories as it goes and sharing them with those it encounters along the way. This is made possible through interactive decorative patterns that are inlaid into the instrument?s wood and that can be scanned using mobile devices in order to reveal different facets of Carolan?s digital footprint. By reflecting on how Carolan was constructed by a luthier and graphic designer and subsequently experienced by players, I will explore the relationship between a valuable physical artefact and its digital footprint. What does such a footprint comprise? How might it add value to the artefact? And how can this digital footprint become permanently associated with the physical artefact? By reflecting on the challenges of making Carolan's interactive decorative inlay, I will explore the wider relationship between digital interactivity and traditional craft skills such as luthiery. I will draw on these reflections to inform an emerging research agenda for hybrid craft -- the skillful interleaving of physical materials and digital interactions to create valuable handmade artefacts. You can follow Carolan's story at: www.carolanguitar.com

Paper Session 1: Textiles and Objects (4 papers)

Imagining Future Technologies: eTextile Weaving Workshops with Blind and Visually Impaired People BIBAFull-Text 3-12
  Emilie Giles; Janet van der Linden
The traditional approach for developing assistive technologies for blind and visually impaired users is to focus on problems and to try and resolve them by compensating for the loss of vision. In this research we took the approach of involving blind and visually impaired people, from a range of ages, in a hands-on making activity using an eTextile physical computing toolkit. Our aim was to create an environment where people could both make and learn form each other, but also where they would share their thoughts and imagine future scenarios for the technologies they were developing. We observed highly creative ways of working at all levels, from unique weaving techniques to choices in fabrics and materials, as well as expressions of personal preferences. We discuss the "in-home enjoyment" scenarios sketched by the participants and point to the role of creative workshops and eTextile toolkits as a tool for imagining future technologies.
Challenges for Creating and Staging Interactive Costumes for the Theatre Stage BIBAFull-Text 13-22
  Michaela Honauer; Eva Hornecker
In this paper, we discuss the requirements and critical challenges for creating and staging interactive costumes in the theatre. Different to other types of performance, theatre costumes are secondary to acting. Our investigations are based on two practice-based case studies: a self-directed design research within a student project, and a collaboration with a local theatre house, where interactive costume elements were developed in a real-life setting. These reveal requirements and challenges for the design process as well as the effective staging of interactive costumes, the biggest challenge being how to integrate these into existing structures of traditional theatre houses, and requirements for the costumes themselves. Because interactive costumes integrate technological features and traditional analogue crafts, they require interdisciplinary collaboration and transcend established boundaries between departments in theatre houses, challenging established work processes and structures.
The Textility of Emotion: A Study Relating Computational Textile Textural Expression to Emotion BIBAFull-Text 23-32
  Felecia Davis
Computational textiles are textiles that respond to computer programming commands through embedded electronics. The purpose of this study is to determine what still and shape-changing, textural expressions of computational textiles can communicate emotionally to people. The central hypothesis is that for both kinds of textiles, there will be differences depending on whether the study participants experience the textiles via vision alone or via both vision and touch.
   If designers could begin to understand the nature of what various textile expressions communicated, and what computational textiles communicated in transformation then it would be possible to more clearly understand the role that texture of a computational textile plays in communicating emotion through a computational object.
Intersecting with Unaware Objects BIBAFull-Text 33-42
  William Odom; Ron Wakkary
We adopt a design-oriented approach aimed at motivating and expanding the notion of everyday creativity beyond explicit interactions or purposed manipulations to also include the implicit, incremental and, at times even, unknowing encounters that emerge among people, technologies, and artifacts over time. Specifically, we explore these ideas through the design and investigation of two interaction design research artifacts: the Photobox and table-non-table. Through analyzing and synthesizing insights that emerged across our studies, we describe a related set of concepts in support of a more implicit form of everyday creativity, which include: unaware objects, intersections and ensembles. We conclude by interpreting findings in context of prior implications for everyday creativity and outline considerations for future work.

Paper Session 2: Tools and Interfaces (4 papers)

Building Support Tools to Connect Novice Designers with Professional Coaches BIBAFull-Text 43-52
  Daniel Rees Lewis; Emily Harburg; Elizabeth Gerber; Matthew Easterday
Creativity support tools help learners undertake creative work, such as facilitating coaching by creative professionals. How might we design creativity support tools that in-crease learners' access to coaching by creative professionals? This study took place in an extracurricular project-based learning program where students were co-located, and met professional coaches face-to-face once a week but otherwise communicated online. To test an online creativity support tool called the Loft and investigate coach-student communication we collected data from 47 interviews, online log data and field observations. We found that (a) explicit help-seeking was rare outside of meetings, (b) help from professionals was highly-valued but not sought out, and (c) online systems could surface learner struggles and trigger help-giving. Our findings suggested that online creativity platforms can support professional coaching through: (1) structured virtual updates (2) coach thanking, (3) Computer-Supported Group Critique, (4) disclosure of expertise, and (5) help-seeking training.
Evaluating TweetBubble with Ideation Metrics of Exploratory Browsing BIBAFull-Text 53-62
  Ajit Jain; Nic Lupfer; Yin Qu; Rhema Linder; Andruid Kerne; Steven M. Smith
We extend the Twitter interface to stimulate exploratory browsing of social media and develop a creative cognition method to establish its efficacy. Exploratory browsing is a creative process in which users seek and traverse diverse and novel information as they investigate a conceptual space. The TweetBubble browser extension extends Twitter to enable expansion of social media associations@usernames and #hashtags-in-context, without overwriting initial content. We build on a prior metadata type system, developing new presentation semantics, which enable an integrated look and feel consistent with Twitter.
   We show how exploratory browsing constitutes a mini-c creative process. We use prior ideation metrics as a basis for new ideation metrics of exploratory browsing. We conducted a mixed methods crowdsourced study, with data from 54 participants, amidst the 2014 Academy Awards. Quantitative and qualitative findings validate the technique of in-context exploratory browsing interfaces for social media. Their consistency supports the validity of ideation metrics of exploratory browsing as an evaluation methodology for interactive systems designed to promote creative engagement.
You're the Voice: Evaluating User Interfaces for Encouraging Underserved Youths to express themselves through Creative Writing BIBAFull-Text 63-72
  Frederica Gonçalves; Pedro Campos; Julian Hanna; Simone Ashby
Minority groups are the fastest growing demographic in the U.S. In addition, the poverty level in the U.S. is the highest it has been in the last 50 years. We argue that the community needs more research addressing this user segment, and we present a novel study about how underserved youths react when presented with different UI designs aimed at promoting creative writing. The act of creative writing per se can become the driver of change among underserved teenagers, and researchers should strive to discover novel UI designs that can effectively increase this target group's productivity, creativity and mental well-being. Using MS Word as baseline, our contribution analyzes the influence of a Zen-like tool (designed by the authors and called Haven), a nostalgic but realistic typewriting tool (Hanx Writer), and a stress-based tool that eliminates writer's block by providing consequences for procrastination (Write or Die). Our results suggest that the Zen characteristics of our tool Haven were capable of conveying a sense of calm and concentration to the users, making them feel better and also write more. The nostalgic Hanx typewriter also fared very well with regard to mental well-being and productivity, as measured by average number of words written. Contrary to our initial expectations, the stress-based UI (Write or Die) had the lowest productivity levels.
MetaMorphe: Designing Expressive 3D Models for Digital Fabrication BIBAFull-Text 73-82
  Cesar Torres; Eric Paulos
The creative promise of 3D digital fabrication tools is tremendous. However due to the wide range of tools and interfaces, a common static file format called STL is used for sharing designs. While customization tools add creative handles to these digital models, they are often constrained to pre-configured parameters limiting the creative potential of shared digital models. We introduce MetaMorphe, a novel digital fabrication framework that uses a common web-programming metaphor to enable users to easily transform static 3D models into re-formed, re-made, and re-imagined customized personal artifacts. We demonstrate the compatibility of MetaMorphe with three well-established design interfaces, direction manipulation, scripted-CAD, and generative design. Through a user study with design experts, MetaMorphe reveals that decisions that physically produce bespoke artifacts or encode unique metadata actively affect perceptions of authorship, agency, and authenticity. We discuss how expressive model-building tools such as MetaMorphe enable a cultural shift in 3D design in terms of participation, personalization, and creativity.

Paper Session 3: Finding (2 papers 2 notes)

Providing Timely Examples Improves the Quantity and Quality of Generated Ideas BIBAFull-Text 83-92
  Pao Siangliulue; Joel Chan; Krzysztof Z. Gajos; Steven P. Dow
Emerging online ideation platforms with thousands of example ideas provide an important resource for creative production. But how can ideators best use these examples to create new innovations? Recent work has suggested that not just the choice of examples, but also the timing of their delivery can impact creative outcomes. Building on existing cognitive theories of creative insight, we hypothesize that people are likely to benefit from examples when they run out of ideas. We explore two example delivery mechanisms that test this hypothesis: 1) a system that proactively provides examples when a user appears to have run out of ideas, and 2) a system that provides examples when a user explicitly requests them. Our online experiment (N=97) compared these two mechanisms against two baselines: providing no examples and automatically showing examples at a regular interval. Participants who requested examples themselves generated ideas that were rated the most novel by external evaluators. Participants who received ideas automatically when they appeared to be stuck produced the most ideas. Importantly, participants who received examples at a regular interval generated fewer ideas than participants who received no examples, suggesting that mere access to examples is not sufficient for creative inspiration. These results emphasize the importance of the timing of example delivery. Insights from this study can inform the design of collective ideation support systems that help people generate many high quality ideas.
InkWell: A Creative Writer's Creative Assistant BIBAFull-Text 93-102
  Richard P. Gabriel; Jilin Chen; Jeffrey Nichols
InkWell is a writer's assistant -- a natural language revision program designed to assist creative writers by producing stylistic variations on texts based on craft-based facets of creative writing and by mimicking aspects of specified writers and their personality traits. It is built on top of an optimization process that produces variations on a supplied text, evaluates those variations quantitatively, and selects variations that best satisfy the goals of writing craft and writer mimicry. We describe the design and capabilities of InkWell, and present an early evaluation of its effectiveness and uses with two established literary writers along with an experiment using InkWell to write haiku on its own.
InspirationWall: Supporting Idea Generation Through Automatic Information Exploration BIBAFull-Text 103-106
  Salvatore Andolina; Khalil Klouche; Diogo Cabral; Tuukka Ruotsalo; Giulio Jacucci
Collaborative idea generation leverages social interactions and knowledge sharing to spark diverse associations and produce creative ideas. Information exploration systems expand the current context by suggesting novel but related concepts. In this paper we introduce InspirationWall, an unobtrusive display that leverages speech recognition and information exploration to enhance an ongoing idea generation session with automatically retrieved concepts that relate to the conversation. We evaluated the system in six idea generation sessions of 20 minutes with small groups of two people. Preliminary results suggest that InspirationWall contrasts the decay of idea productivity over time and can thus represent an effective way to enhance idea generation activities.
A Playful Affinity Space for Creative Research BIBAFull-Text 107-110
  Kam Star; Fotis Paraskevopoulos; Maria Taramigkou; Dimitris Apostolou; Marise Schot; Gregoris N. Mentzas
We present a system designed with the aim to facilitate the social creativity processes underlying creative research. It provides asynchronous and synchronous facilities for multi-user interaction while leveraging creativity with computational tools for inspirational search, inspirational clue generation and problem solving advice. Initial evaluation with a small group of users indicated that the software is in-line with the creative research approach where users work together with concept developers taking on multiple roles throughout the design process.

Keynote Address 2

The Production of Unprecedented Events BIBAFull-Text 111
  Stephen A. R. Scrivener
What is primary in the production of new knowledge: new concepts or unprecedented events (surprising observations)? Often, when we talk about research, the focus would appear to be on the production and testing of concepts. Induction relies on observations, but its purpose is seen as being to arrive at new concepts, deductions and propositions, which when confirmed in empirical test provide grounds for belief. Reflective thought about research has tended to focus on the nature of confirmation rather than discovery, the latter being generally accepted as inaccessible to rational analysis. However, confirmation relies on discovery and whilst some new idea might come about through the rational analysis of existing concepts, discovery tends to arise in inductions stimulated by the event of surprising or unprecedented observations.
   Given the suggested significance of unprecedented events in the production of new knowledge and understanding, can we construct environments in which they can be made to happen, rather than merely waiting until we happen upon them? I will refer, in my talk, to current thinking in which experimental systems in science are conceived in this way, but will focus attention on how creative material practices, such as art and design, can also be understood as generators of unprecedented events.

Paper Session 4: Moments and Movements (4 papers)

Captured Moments: Defining a Communicative Framework for Social Photography BIBAFull-Text 113-119
  Robin Fogel Avni
As photography takes center stage on today's social media platforms, given the ease of modern capture devices (i.e. mobile phones, point and shoot cameras, tablets, etc.), the ability to produce and publish images occurs at a much quicker rate than the humble Kodak Brownie camera afforded the masses when introduced in January 1900. This enhanced ease has generated an opportunity for the everyday photographer to creatively communicate through the distribution of their images.
   This paper applies research results from a qualitative visual ethnographic study focusing on the non-verbal posts of a select group of Facebook users. The Dell Hymes' SPEAKING framework was used to structure the visual data; analysis leveraged Gerry Philipsen's Speech Codes Theory and James W. Carey's Ritual Communication Theory contributes to the creation of a communicative framework for the non-verbal social media postings.
   In conclusion, what emerges through the data is a visual speech code that tacitly leverages traditional photographic genres while at the same time supporting a system of meanings and symbols that enhance the instantaneous posts and communications of the day-to-day ebb and flow of life.
Strategies for Embodied Design: The Value and Challenges of Observing Movement BIBAFull-Text 121-130
  Sarah Fdili Alaoui; Thecla Schiphorst; Shannon Cuykendall; Kristin Carlson; Karen Studd; Karen Bradley
In this paper, we investigate the value and challenges of observing movement experience in embodied design. We interviewed three design researchers selected from a CHI2014 panel on designing for the experiential body. For each designer, we analyzed a publication describing their process of observing movement experience. By analyzing the interviews and publications, we studied how these researchers observe movement and how they articulate it in their design process. From our study, we contribute a set of techniques for performing movement observation inspired by somatics and body-based practices which we define as: attunement, attention, and kinesthetic empathy. We illustrate how these techniques have been applied by the selected researchers, and also highlight the remaining challenges related to articulating, translating, and sharing the felt movement experience in the context of design within HCI. Finally, we address these challenges by arguing for further exploration of movement frameworks from the fields of somatics, body-based practices, and movement studies as specific strategies that can be applied to HCI.
Moment by Moment: Creating Movement Sketches with Camera Stillframes BIBAFull-Text 131-140
  Kristin Carlson; Thecla Schiphorst; Karen Cochrane; Jordon Phillips; Herbert H. Tsang; Tom Calvert
While mobile authoring applications are proliferating, choreographic tools that support the generation and transformation of user-created movement 'samples' are less readily available. iDanceForms is a novel mobile choreographic application that generates unique movement choices through a camera stillframing technique to provoke movement catalysts. In keeping with the principles of whole body interaction (and principles of 'defamiliarization'), the design of iDanceForms supports opportunities for surprise, unexpected movement choices and meaning-making. This paper presents data collected from an observational study of choreographers using iDanceForms. In the study we found that choreographers appropriated the intended functionality of iDanceForms to create highly individualized and unexpected movement sequences. They found inspiration in exploring unexpected framing of form and content, which resulted in creative explorations that produced unique movement possibilities provided by the system. Drawing from our observations we discuss possible roles that sensor-enabled mobile devices could play in movement generation through personal meaning-making, creative choreographic strategies and discovery, and in provoking whole body interaction through principles of 'defamiliarization' in the context of HCI.
Express it!: An Interactive System for Visualizing Expressiveness of Conductor's Gestures BIBAFull-Text 141-150
  Kyungho Lee; Donna J. Cox; Guy E. Garnett; Michael J. Junokas
A conductor provides a single unified vision of how to interpret and perform music. However, perceiving a conductor's musical intention and expression is quite challenging as they convey information to performers with subtle, nuanced, and highly individualized gestures. This artwork visualizes the conductor's gestures in order to give the audience a better understanding of its expressivity. To represent the expressivity of the gestures, we created motion profiles over eight frames, at 30 frames per second, and compared them to previously modeled gestures using three motion factors, called Weight, Space and Time from related concepts in Laban Movement Analysis (LMA). Based on this, we have created a real-time, interactive visualization that is driven by the motion factor parameters. The visualization receives the input video stream, and it is transformed into a representation of the three motion factors extracted from the real-time conducting gestures.

Posters and Demos Session 1

#Scanners: Integrating Physiology into Cinematic Experiences BIBAFull-Text 151-152
  Matthew Pike; Richard Ramchurn; Max L. Wilson
In this paper we present #Scanners, a digital arts installation that aims to bridge the gap between digital arts and neuroscience. #Scanners is an experience in which an individual wears a wireless brain scanners whilst being presented media which is dynamically affected by the individuals physiology. A prototype system has been successfully trialled on roughly 100 users over the past 18 months and has received unanimously positive feedback. We state the minimal additional requirements for demonstrating a Higher Fidelity prototype system and argue the value of including #Scanners at C&C2015.
[self.]: an Interactive Art Installation that Embodies Artificial Intelligence and Creativity: A Demonstration BIBAFull-Text 153-154
  Axel Tidemann; Øyvind Brandtsegg
This demonstration paper describes [self.], an open source art installation that embodies artificial intelligence in order to learn, react, respond and be creative in its environment. Biologically inspired models are implemented to achieve this behaviour. The robot is built using a moving head, projector, camera and microphones. No form of knowledge or grammar have been implemented in the AI, the entity learns everything via its own sensory channels, forming categories in a bottom-up fashion. The robot recognizes sounds, and is able to recognize similar sounds, link them with the corresponding faces, and use the knowledge of past experiences to form new sentences. It projects neural memories that represent an association between sound and video as experienced during interaction.
The Aesthetics of Activism BIBAFull-Text 155-156
  Michael Heidt; Vicki Moulder
For this demonstration the authors intend to present the Aesthetics of Activism as a work-in-progress. The artwork is designed to aggregate visual material from social networks to form themed compositions that can be explored jointly within a shared interactive space. Visual elements are programmatically arranged according to formal aesthetic criteria, while motion within the exhibition space is detected via optical sensors. Artistry built into the algorithms used for creating the visual compositions and those used to present, filter and rank content within the social web are exposed for people interested in the relationships between the cultural and computer layers inherent to the system design.
Designing Creativity Support Tools for Failure BIBAFull-Text 157-160
  Joy Kim; Avi Bagla; Michael S. Bernstein
Creative tools today strive to amplify our ability to create high-quality work. However, experiencing failure is also an important part of mastering creative skills. While experts have developed strategies for engaging in risky experiments and learning from mistakes, novices lack the experience and mindset needed to use failures as opportunities for growth. Current tools intimidate the unsure novice, as they are designed around showcasing success or critiquing finished work, rather than providing safe spaces for experimentation. To better support experiences of failure for novices, we instead propose flipping the value of failure in creativity tools from something to avoid to something to pursue actively. To do this, we develop a taxonomy of creative activities that people engage in when they aim to succeed. We then invert this taxonomy to derive a new set of creative activities where deliberate failure can provide a path towards creative confidence. Lastly, we envision possible creativity support tools as examples of the potential value of supporting activities where failure is encouraged and showcased.
Choreography in the Mapping of New Instruments BIBAFull-Text 161-164
  Alon Ilsar; Andrew Johnston
This paper discusses the use of choreography in mapping sound to movement in the field of new instrument design. Using the analogy of the drum kit player utilising all four limbs in a similar fashion to a dancer, we investigate the notion of mapping movement to prerecorded sound in that order, as opposed to sound mapped to movement. In this way the mapping process becomes a type of "choreography", where a particular piece of music is learnt to be played as the mapping is determined. We outline three main factors which must be balanced within the mapping process. We present findings from the development of a new gestural interface for electronic percussionists and several collaborations that this interface has been used in.
Creativity and Goal Modeling for Software Requirements Engineering BIBAFull-Text 165-168
  Jennifer Horkoff; Neil Maiden; James Lockerbie
In order to be successful, software (applications) must be both useful and innovative. Techniques for determining the requirements (functions and qualities) of software have traditionally focused on utility, with a prominent body of work using graphical goal modeling and analysis to ensure that system functions meet the needs (goals) of users. However, these techniques are not designed to foster creativity, meaning that resulting systems may be functionally useful but not sufficiently innovative. Further work has focused on creativity workshops for finding and developing software requirements. However, creative outputs are not grounded in user goals, are not amenable to decision support techniques, and cannot be easily captured by non-experts. In this work we report initial progress on a project aiming to combine goal modeling and creativity techniques for enhanced software Requirements Engineering (RE). We apply our methods to a historical case in air traffic control, providing example outcomes, illustrating the benefits of a creativity- and goal-oriented approach to early software development.
Decreasing the Effect of Verbal Noise in Analyzing Cognitive Activity of a Design Process BIBAFull-Text 169-172
  Mina Tahsiri; Jonathan Hale; Chantelle Niblock
In studying cognitive activity in design it is common practice to use designers' verbalizations during a design process to elicit the reasoning behind design actions. These verbalizations are segmented in order to enable a quantifiable analysis of the cognitive processes. Researchers have shown how Shannon's entropy can be applied to coded verbal data to provide a measure of creativity of those processes. We applied this method to a pilot study, investigating the effects of different design tools on creativity in the context of architectural design. Participants had to design three tasks of isomorphic nature, each with a different tool, in one design session. As shown a significant number of verbal comments were repetitions of already established ideas. Such comments brought nothing new to the sequence of activities but affected the value of information carried within that process which biased the measure of creativity. The paper regards these utterance as verbal noise. It proposes the use of corpus linguistic tools together with a coding scheme that can depict the hierarchical relationship of cognitive patterns used in the process to eliminate verbal noise from analysis. The method was applied to one participant's data, which shows a promising step in increasing the veracity of using verbal data in analyzing cognitive activity.
Nature Bot: Experiencing Nature in the Built Environment BIBAFull-Text 173-176
  Sophie McDonald; David Kirk; Nick Bryan-Kinns
Nature Bot is a two-part, interactive art installation that uses technology to facilitate a remote exploration of nature through a remote controlled robot with video link, whilst simultaneously reflecting the exploration through a kinetic reactive sculpture within a local built environment. Attention Restoration Theory (ART) was used to design the system so that it harnesses the beneficial properties of "wild nature." The project presents a unique approach to using technology to mediate a sense of immersive connection to nature, providing the user with agency within an external natural environment. The results of a qualitative user experience study suggest the installation fulfilled the elements of ART necessary for an environment conducive of mental restoration and feelings of well-being, and that it reflected a sense of nature within the built environment.
"I could play here for hours.." (thinks the visitor and leaves): Why People Disengage from Public Interactives BIBAFull-Text 177-180
  Ben Bengler; Nick Bryan-Kinns
This paper examines factors that influence how long audience members actively engage with an interactive installation in public settings. The study draws on data from three field studies of an interactive multi-person installation, encompassing questionnaires, video recordings and user-system interaction data. The studies were conducted with unsolicited exhibition audiences during public exhibitions in the UK, China and Spain. In all three studies it was found that the time participants spent interacting with the installation was largely determined by social and contextual factors rather than by how they rated their playing experience. Common triggers identified for leaving were an 'obligation to leave' to accommodate other, potentially waiting audience members, and 'leaving by necessity' in order to follow companions who were moving on.
[self.]: an Interactive Art Installation that Embodies Artificial Intelligence and Creativity BIBAFull-Text 181-184
  Axel Tidemann; Øyvind Brandtsegg
This paper describes [self.], an open source art installation that embodies artificial intelligence (AI) in order to learn, react, respond and be creative in its environment. Biologically inspired models are implemented to achieve this behaviour. The robot is built using a moving head, projector, camera and microphones. No form of knowledge or grammar have been implemented in the AI, the system starts in a "tabula rasa" state and learns everything via its own sensory channels, forming categories in a bottom-up fashion. The robot recognizes sounds, and is able to recognize similar sounds, link them with the corresponding faces, and use the knowledge of past experiences to form new sentences. It projects neural memories that represent an association between sound and video as experienced during interaction.

Posters and Demos Session 2

Drawing Apprentice: An Enactive Co-Creative Agent for Artistic Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 185-186
  Nicholas Davis; Chih-PIn Hsiao; Kunwar Yashraj Singh; Lisa Li; Sanat Moningi; Brian Magerko
This paper describes a co-creative web-based drawing application called the Drawing Apprentice. This system collaborates with users in real time abstract drawing. We describe the theory, interaction design, and user experience of the Drawing Apprentice system. We evaluate the system with formative user studies and expert evaluations from a juried art competition in which a Drawing Apprentice submission won the code-based art category.
Psychogeographical Sound-drift BIBAFull-Text 187-188
  Ivan Chaparro; Ricardo Duenas
This demo is one of the results of a practice-based research, which explored the generation of interactive experiences based on the cooperative collection of data for ethnographical purposes. In this case, a collection of soundscapes from Stockholm has lead to some experiments where the audio clips gathered are controlled in real-time according to a brain computer interface and a set of rules that determines a real time composition.
   One of the most significant inputs at this point has been the theory of Psychogeography, which posits that the territory and its transformation can be understood as an psychological and emotional setup, susceptible of being understood by means of different kinds of dynamic measurements and modes of representation.
   The result described here is an experimental performance and sound-video installation in which the visitors can "stroll" through a data archive, according to their brain activity, and by means of a brain scan device. The measurement of specific brain waves creates a sound and video synthesis related to the media collection.
   This demo seeks to expose the concept and technological implementation behind the result and also to perform the interactive sound experience at the event.
Between the Bottle Cap and the Battery: An Investigation of Interrupted Gameplay BIBAFull-Text 189-192
  Jesús Ibáñez; Yoram Chisik; Monchu Chen
In this paper we present the initial results of a pilot study designed to explore the reactions and actions of children who experience a power failure while playing a hybrid physical/digital game. We wanted to see whether we can maintain the engagement of the children with the game if the digital component of the game (a tablet based game) ceases to function and if so whether they will continue from where they left off in the digital game or whether they will start a new round of gameplay. Early results suggests that the power failure and the resultant interruption to gameplay did not hamper the children engagement with the game but provided them with the opportunity to re-engage with the physical elements of the game. This suggests new directions for exploring the design of hybrid physical/digital games.
Playable Art: Physical Art with a Playable Digital Counterpart BIBAFull-Text 193-196
  Jesús Ibáñez
This paper contributes an approach to create playable art consisting of physical art with a playable digital counterpart. We propose the use of Inventame, an App that allows the user to focus on the creative and artistic part. He crafts his own game in the real world with his preferred physical materials (pencils, markers, coloured wooden blocks, etc.). Then, he takes a picture of his creation, configures a few options in the App, and the picture becomes playable. This paper also describes four examples that illustrate the creation of playable art from several different kinds of art, using different materials and with different functions and playability.
Remote Control of Complex Interactive Art Installations BIBAFull-Text 197-200
  Andrew Bluff; Andrew Johnston
Movement based interactive artworks are capable of instantly engaging audiences by reacting to physical motion consistently with real-world physics. Sustaining this engagement, however, requires a constant alteration of both the output and interaction aesthetics. Mobile devices (such as the iPad or iPhone) can be used to control the often-overwhelming plethora of parameters found in many interactive systems. The effect that mobile control of these parameters has on the inception, refinement and live performance of two separate art works is examined. An open-source dynamic remote control system is being developed to further facilitate the creative development and performance of interactive artwork as demonstrated by these case studies.
How Space and Tool Availability Affect User Experience and Creativity in Interactive Surfaces? BIBAFull-Text 201-204
  Michail Giannakos; Ioannis Leftheriotis
As computing increasingly deals with our complex daily experiences, designers are challenged with new methods and ways of implementing complex interactions in limited user space and tools, but without hindering user experience and creativity. In this paper, we present the results of an empirical investigation regarding the effect of space and tool availability on user experience and creativity. The goal is to understand whether and how space and tool availability allow users to be more creative and improve their overall experience. To do so, we developed a connect-the-dots drawing multi-user application with a focus on having certain restrictions in size and specific tool availability. Based on this application, we conducted an empirical study with 38 users. For the evaluation, surveys, photos and observations were recorded and used in our analysis. The results showed that: (a) tool availability does not affect user creativity and experience and (b) space availability affects user creativity, collaboration and hedonic motivation (pleasure). Although our results are early, provide insights that tools' limitation does not hinder users' ability to be creative; and space availability is of great importance in creative activities.
Examining the Association Between Users Creative Thinking and Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style through Eye Movement Components BIBAFull-Text 205-208
  Efi A. Nisiforou
This eye tracking study investigated the association between individuals' field dependence -- independence cognitive style and level of creative thinking based on users' eye movement behaviour while interacting with a set of visual perceptual tasks. Subjects FD-I cognitive style and creativity were measured with the use of the Hidden Figures Test (HFT) and Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). The psychometric methods and the eye tracking-derived data were statistically examined demonstrating a relationship between users' cognitive style, creativity attributes and eye gaze behaviour. This research study adds further to the evidence and theory base of Human-computer interaction for applications in the user-centred design and suggests future directions for research.
Scranvas: Gamified Forum for Amateur Designers to Share Creative Work and Generate Constructive Feedback BIBAFull-Text 209-212
  Abhishek Chakraborty
Feedback is important for cultivating creativity. Constructive feedback on design is crucial for helping design students and amateur designers iterate towards better solutions. However most of the current platforms don't promote honest design feedback and are primarily used only for self-promotion. This paper proposes Scranvas, a community for students and non-experts to encourage sharing of creative work and generate constructive feedback. Users interpret the designs based on the context and goals stated by the designer and share feedback through annotations.
Sketch-Play-Learn -- An Augmented Paper Based Environment for Learning the Concepts of Optics BIBAFull-Text 213-216
  Bhawna Agarwal; Richa Tripathi
In this paper, we introduce Sketch-Play-Learn, an augmented paper-based tabletop system to support students learning of the principles of light behaviour. This project emphasises the use of the most ubiquitous and inexpensive learning medium, which is paper. Students engage themselves in completing a goal-based task sketched by the teacher on paper and observing the visual feedback on the same paper. We argue that augmenting the paper with digital information while providing a tabletop setup provides a novel and appealing approach to learning for classroom use. In this paper, we discuss the motivations for our project and describe the design and implementation our system. We also describe an initial evaluation with children and outline future research goals.

Paper Session 5: Working and Learning (2 notes 3papers)

The Haggle-O-Tron: Re-inventing Economic Transactions in Secondhand Retail BIBAFull-Text 217-220
  Siobhan Magee; Fionn Tynan-O'Mahony; Martin De Jode; Mark Hartswood; Eric Laurier; Chris Speed
Secondhand retail in the UK charity sector plays a number of important social and economic roles: charity shops are community focal points; money is generated for good causes; and goods are re-circulated that might otherwise be discarded as abject and unwanted. However, like much of the UK high street, the prosperity of charity shops is under significant threat from the rise of internet shopping. Access to online markets via smart phones equips customers to check prices for secondhand items, some customers then deploy information, usually from eBay, to haggle with shop staff. The Haggle-o-Tron playfully subverts both normative and emerging secondhand retail valuation practices by revealing secondhand goods' financial, moral, social and aesthetic properties. This paper reports on how we employ vibrant yet uncomplicated design interventions that embed the charity's values and ethos to reconfigure store-based economic transactions.
Creative Language in a Student-generated Bioorganic Chemistry Wiki Textbook BIBAFull-Text 221-224
  Andrea Tartaro; Brian C. Goess; Mike Winiski
We describe an approach to analyzing student-created content on wiki systems based on identifying creative linguistic content. We apply this approach to wiki entries written by students in an advanced chemistry course. We illustrate creative linguistic forms, how they change over time, and, based on in-depth student interviews, their value to student producers and consumers of wiki content.
Creativity Support to Improve Health-and-Safety in Manufacturing Plants: Demonstrating Everyday Creativity BIBAFull-Text 225-234
  Konstantinos Zachos; Neil Maiden; Sergio Levis
This paper reports the development and deployment of digital support for human creativity in a domain outside of the creative industries -- health-and-safety management in manufacturing plants. It reports applied research to extend a risk detection and resolution process at a world-class manufacturing plant that produces tractors with creativity techniques and new digital support for the plant employees to use these techniques effectively as part of the risk detection and resolution process. The development of the digital support was constrained by the plant's processes, resources and manufacturing culture, and the new digital support reported in this paper was designed for quick use across the plant with minimum training or management overhead. The paper reports the development, implementation and early evaluation of the creativity techniques and digital support in the plant as a demonstrator for the wider application of creativity techniques and digital support tools.
Critiki: A Scaffolded Approach to Gathering Design Feedback from Paid Crowdworkers BIBAFull-Text 235-244
  Michael D. Greenberg; Matthew W. Easterday; Elizabeth M. Gerber
Feedback is important to the creative process, but not everyone has a personal crowd of individuals they can turn to for high-quality feedback. We introduce and evaluate Critiki, a novel system for gathering design critiques on crowdfunding project pages from paid crowdworkers. Stemming from previous research on crowdfunding project creators and their need for early-stage design feedback, we design and build a working system which fits the need of this population: rapid and inexpensive feedback. To solve issues with critique quality we describe a scaffolding technique designed to assist crowdworkers in writing high-quality critiques. We evaluate Critiki with two field deployments: 1) A randomized controlled experiment with 450 crowdworkers to evaluate the efficacy of the scaffolding technique and 2) A user study with 31 crowdfunding project creators to determine usability and user satisfaction. We contribute to research on Creativity and Cognition by demonstrating a working creativity support system, empirically evaluating the system, and describing how scaffolding approaches can be designed for other crowdsourced tasks.
A Modular Approach to Promote Creativity and Inspiration in Search BIBAFull-Text 245-254
  Alice Thudt; Uta Hinrichs; Sheelagh Carpendale
When searching through collections of books or written texts, the efficient yet limiting query paradigm is still the most dominant entry point. Previous work characterizes search processes in various contexts and describes them as integral and closely related to creative endeavours. We revisit this work from a design perspective, proposing guidelines for versatile search interfaces that are based on a modular approach to search. Inspired by aspects of search in physical environments, our recommendations address learning, creativity, inspiration, and pleasure as positive aspects of (book) search. Based on in-depth interviews with library patrons about search practises in physical and digital environments and drawing from previous work on search behaviour, we discuss search patterns as modular constructs consisting of micro-strategies. We illustrate how the structure of these patterns is highly flexible. Much like creative processes, they fluidly evolve based on learning and ideation during search, particularly in physical environments. This modular perspective provides a basis for designing interfaces that facilitate creative approaches to search in digital environments.

Paper Session 6: Ideation Play, and Experience (3 papers)

Creating a Collaborative Space for Creativity through a Pervasive User Experience BIBAFull-Text 255-264
  Deborah Maxwell; Chris Speed; Karl Monsen; Diego Zamora
This paper explores the potential of a pervasive user experience to inspire, provoke and support creative thinking amongst participants in an intensive ideation workshop. The pervasive experience used a iPad-based virtual narrator to guide groups of participants around a physical and digital environment. It took place towards the start of a three-day workshop and the playful, self-directed nature of the experience was designed to align with subsequent workshop activities. This paper describes the user experience, presenting observations and findings through the lens of space (facilitation, augmentation and story), considering how the experience related to and supported the overall workshop aims of ideation and creative thinking. We conclude by examining some of the tensions that emerged, namely; 1) the disconnect between researcher and participant expectations, 2) the potential trade off between "authentic" outputs and participant engagement, and 3) bridging the knowledge within the workshop with the world outside the workshop.
Emotion and Creativity: Hacking into Cognitive Appraisal Processes to Augment Creative Ideation BIBAFull-Text 265-274
  Alwin de Rooij; Philip J. Corr; Sara Jones
Creativity thrives when people experience positive emotions. How to design an interactive system that can effectively make use of this potential is, however, still an unanswered question. In this paper, we propose one approach to this problem that relies on hacking into the cognitive appraisal processes that form part of positive emotions. To demonstrate our approach we have conceived, made, and evaluated a novel interactive system that influences an individual's appraisals of their own idea generation processes by providing real-time and believable feedback about the originality of their ideas. The system can be used to manipulate this feedback to make the user's ideas appear more or less original. This has enabled us to test experimentally the hypothesis that providing more positive feedback, rather than neutral, or more negative feedback than the user is expecting, causes more positive emotion, which in turn causes more creativity during idea generation. The findings demonstrate that an interactive system can be designed to use the function of cognitive appraisal processes in positive emotion to help people to get more out of their own creative capabilities.
An Enactive Characterization of Pretend Play BIBAFull-Text 275-284
  Nicholas Davis; Margeaux Comerford; Mikhail Jacob; Chih-Pin Hsiao; Brian Magerko
This paper presents the result of an empirical study of 32 adult dyads (i.e. groups of two people) engaged in pretend play. Our analysis indicates that participatory sense-making plays a key role in the success of pretend play sessions. We use the cognitive science theory of enaction as a theoretical lens to analyze the empirical data given its robust conceptual framework for describing participatory sense-making. We present here five enactive characteristics of pretend play that appear to be necessary and sufficient for the emergence and maintenance of successful pretend play -- mental preparation, meaning building, narrative enaction, narrative deepening, and flow maintenance. This enactive formalization is used to propose a computational model of pretend play that can be used to design an agent capable of playing in real time with human users.

Paper Session 7: Places of Creativity (3 paper 2 notes)

Beyond Slideware: How a Free-form Presentation Medium Stimulates Free-form Thinking in the Classroom BIBAFull-Text 285-294
  Rhema Linder; Nic Lupfer; Andruid Kerne; Andrew M. Webb; Cameron Hill; Yin Qu; Kade Keith; Matthew Carrasco; Elizabeth Kellogg
We investigate how presentation in a free-form medium stimulates free-form thinking and discussion in the classroom. Most classroom presentations utilize slideware (e.g. PowerPoint). Yet, slides add intrusive segregations that obstruct the flow of information. In contrast, in a free-form medium of presentation, content is not separated into rigid slide compartments. Instead, it is visually arranged and transformed in a continuous space.
   We develop a case study that investigates student experiences authoring, presenting, viewing, and discussing free-form presentations in a graduate seminar class. We analyze interviews, present a sampling of student presentations, and develop findings: free-form presentation stimulates free-form thinking, spontaneous discussion, and emergent ideation.
Creative and Opportunistic Use of Everyday Music Technologies in a Dementia Care Unit BIBAFull-Text 295-298
  Kellie Morrissey; John McCarthy
This paper describes everyday technologies in use in a long-term dementia care ward, and ways in which these technologies facilitated creative expression for residents within. Drawing on ethnographic research focusing on participation in creative activities for people with dementia living in care, the paper details how residents engaged with technologies (such as television) in a passive way (spending hours sitting in front of the TV without engaging with others around them), and in an active way (singing and dancing to music played via stereo and record player). Findings from this research emphasise the importance for interaction design for dementia in appreciating the role of active creative participation in sustaining personhood in dementia. Given a lack of both time and resources in publicly-funded care homes, we also highlight the value of opportunistic design in the field.
Tightly Coupled Agents in Live Performance Metacreations BIBAFull-Text 299-302
  William Marley; Nicholas Ward
We consider how the application of AI in digital musical instruments might maximally support exploration of sound in performance. Live performance applications of AI and machine learning have tended to focus on score following and the development of machine collaborators. In our work we are interested in exploring the development of systems whereby the human performer interacts with a reactive and creative agent in the creation of a single sonic output. The intention is to design systems that foster exploration and allow for greater (than with acoustic instruments) opportunities for serendipitous musical encounters. An initial approach to the integration of autonomous agency, based on gesture reshaping schemes within the Reactable performance system, is first outlined. We then describe a simple platform based on the non-player characters within Pacman, which serves as a test bed for guiding further discussion on what musical machine collaboration at this level may entail. Pilot studies for both systems are outlined.
Biological Citizen Publics: Personal Genetics as a Site of Public Engagement with Science BIBAFull-Text 303-312
  Stacey Kuznetsov; Aniket Kittur; Eric Paulos
Low-cost genetic sequencing, coupled with novel social media platforms and visualization techniques, present a new frontier for scientific participation, whereby people can learn, share, and act on data embedded within their own bodies. Our study of 23andMe, a popular genetic testing service, reveals how users make sense of and contextualize their genetic results, critique and evaluate the underlying research, and reflect on the broader implications of genetic testing. We frame user groups as citizen science publicsgroups that coalesce around scientific issues and work towards resolving shared concerns. Our findings show that personal genetics serves as a site for public engagement with science, whereby communities of biological citizens creatively interpret, debate, and act on professional research. We conclude with design trajectories at the intersection of genetics and creativity support tools: platforms for aggregating hybrid knowledge; tools for creative reflection on professional science; and strategies for supporting collaborations across communities.
Making Magic: Designing for Open Interactions in Museum Settings BIBAFull-Text 313-322
  Robyn Taylor; John Bowers; Bettina Nissen; Gavin Wood; Qasim Chaudhry; Peter Wright; Lindsey Bruce; Sarah Glynn; Helen Mallinson; Roy Bearpark
This paper describes three interactive artefacts created for a children's exhibition intended to encourage creativity and allow educational opportunities to emerge naturally through playful exploration. We describe five sensibilities that were used to inform our designs: considering artefacts as resources and scaffolds for imaginative engagement, rewarding extended investment, facilitating requisite unpredictability, encouraging an imaginative orientation to participation, and permitting multiple loci for interaction. Based on observation of how our interactives were used by the public, we discuss how our approach facilitated "open interactions" in a manner that was sensitive to the museum context, favoured a mix of materialities, and manifested a subtle mix of participation and designer autonomy.

Graduate Student Symposium (14 papers)

Architecture by Tools: The Syntax of Drawing and the Creativity of Thought BIBAFull-Text 323-324
  Mina Tahsiri
This short paper summarizes a PhD research in progress as titled in the heading. The research investigates the effect that design tools have on the method of drawing and creativity in early stages of architectural design with an intention of contribution to the procurement of CAD tools. Currently into the second year of the PhD, pilot protocol studies have been executed and new propositions for coding schemes and method of analysis are being tested.
Researching Design Fiction With Design Fiction BIBAFull-Text 325-326
  Joseph Lindley
The term design fiction was first used in 2005 by Bruce Sterling [18:30] and in 2009 Julian Bleecker built on the idea by combining it with various other characterisations [cf. 1,2,10] and catalysed a step change in design fiction discourse. Since then design fiction has gained significant traction across academic contexts; at symposia and conference events; and through its practice within commercial design studios and industry. Despite becoming a popular way of framing speculative design, the characterisation of design fiction as research approach still remains "up for grabs" [19:22] as it is -- enticing and provocative, yet [...] remains elusive" [7:1]. In 2013 Bleecker remarked in terms of his studios own practice "I don't think we've figured it out" and that studying it, understanding it and trying to devise some of the principles -- of what we're calling design fiction -- is what we're trying to do? [1]. Adopting a research through design approach [5,6], this doctoral research intends to shed light on the questions raised by Bleecker by researching design fiction, with design fiction.
Intelligent Systems to Support Large-Scale Collective Creative Idea Generation BIBAFull-Text 327-328
  Pao Siangliulue
In recent years, it has become possible for large groups of people to collaborate and generate ideas together in ways that were not possible before. However, the large number of ideas and participants in this setting also pose new challenges in helping people find inspiration from a large pool of ideas, and coordinating the collective effort. My research aims to address the challenges of large scale idea generation platforms by developing methods and systems for helping people make effective use of each other's ideas, and orchestrate collective effort to reduce redundancy and increase the breadth of generated ideas.
SolidSketch: Toward Enactive Interactions for Semantic Model Creation BIBAFull-Text 329-330
  Chih-PIn Hsiao
SolidSketch is a solid and parametric modeling program that enables users to rapidly construct 3D parametric and semantic models through sketch and multi-touch input. The interaction design principles of SolidSketch are based on the cognitive science theory of enaction. We argue enactive interactions would support design creativity by enabling rapid iteration and continuous feedback throughout a flexible design exploration. SolidSketch infers the intention of the user by continuously analyzing the surrounding context and user's behavior. This paper briefly introduces the enaction theory, the interaction designs as well as the implementations of SolidSketch.
Pen + Touch Diagramming to Stimulate Design Ideation BIBAFull-Text 331-332
  Andrew M. Webb
Ideation, the process of generating new ideas, is central to design where the goal is to find novel solutions around a set of requirements. Designers engage in diagramming, creating external representations of ideas. Diagramming connects the body and creative cognitive processes, as the hands transform physical media to explore ideas. HCI researchers need to leverage body-based interaction to support creativity. My Ph.D. research develops a new body-based diagramming environment to stimulate design ideation.
Public Online Failure With Crowdfunding BIBAFull-Text 333-334
  Michael D. Greenberg
Kickstarter is a growing online crowdfunding platform where individuals attempt to raise funds for creative projects by leveraging their personal social networks for small financial contributions. Crowdfunding platforms like Kickstarter are actively growing, with thousands of individuals attempting projects each month. While other scholarly research and the popular press has focused on the success stories from crowd-funding, the fact remains that a majority of projects fail. Little attention has focused on the majority of individuals who have run failed projects and experienced a publicly embarrassing event in the process. We see crowdfunding platforms as a unique opportunity to study and understand how individuals react to online embarrassment.
Distributed Affect as a Framework for Understanding Creative Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 335-336
  Taylor Jackson Scott
Historically, the study of affect has been intimately tied to theories of both cognition and creativity, and there are still unexplored connections between these related phenomena. This paper discusses research to expand and refine the formulation of distributed affect as a theoretical framework for analyzing and understanding creative collaboration. I elaborate on parallels between theories of cognition that extend beyond the individual as the unit of analysis and the text-based chat communication of affect between members of a distributed group who utilize creative problem solving to achieve their goals. Directions for future research are also discussed. A better understanding of the way in which distributed affect operates will have a significant impact on research into collaborative creativity as well as implications for the design of interfaces to support this type of distributed work.
Tools for Wools: An Interactive Urban Knitting Installation and Creative Research Method BIBAFull-Text 337-338
  Janis Lena Meissner
Urban knitting (also known as yarn bombing, knitted graffiti and guerilla knitting) is a globally occurring street art trend which uses traditional craft techniques to modify objects in urban space. It is the chosen tool of present-day craftspeople for creative expression in public. However, the personal narratives woven into the installations usually remain inaccessible for the broad audience. This paper presents my Master's thesis work on "Tools for Wools", an interactive prototype which integrates physical wool panels, touch sensors and an information device with intent to fill the identified information gap. The subsequent evaluation allowed insights on the manifold reasons for urban knitters to engage in this particular form of everyday creativity. I therefore suggest that such prototype projects can also serve as a qualitative research tool to reveal motivations underlying creative craft practices.
Assessing the Creativity of Designs at Scale BIBAFull-Text 339-340
  Christopher J. MacLellan
How best to assess the creativity of a large number of designed artifacts remains an open problem. The typical approach is to have a panel of experts answer Likert questions about individual artifacts. This process typically requires a substantial amount of training to ensure the judges achieve an acceptable level of agreement. Consequently, the approach does not scale well as it is infeasible to have a panel of experts regularly evaluate the creativity of a large number of designs. The current work explores an alternative approach that uses both individual and pairwise judgements from novice crowd workers to support reliable and scalable assessment of creative designs. This approach, which we call TrueCreativity, can operate over a set of evaluations from a large number of judges and appropriately weights their evaluations based on their past reliability and agreement with other judges. We show that this approach produces results that strongly correlate with another measure of creativity.
Feminist Hackerspaces as Sites for Feminist Design BIBAFull-Text 341-342
  Sarah Fox
This paper describes the work I have conducted with colleagues in and around feminist hackerspaces -- workspaces that support the creative and professional pursuits of women. Through action research, interviews, and participant observation, I have explored the motivations, activities, and ideals of people organizing feminist hackerspaces. Additionally, I have begun to investigate what feminist design of technology might look like through the facilitation of a series of design workshops in two of these spaces. Through this work, I examine the feminist ideals that develop in these spaces as both discursive and material phenomena that shed new light on what counts as hacking, technology and collaboration.
Visualizing Computer Activity to Support the Resumption of Long-term Creative Work BIBAFull-Text 343-344
  Adam Rule
Creative projects can span weeks, months, or even years. Working on these timescales can be difficult due to the need to restore context -- a task's physical, digital, and mental resources -- after each break. Prior research on using computers to restore context has focused on digital context, reopening collections of documents or visualizing interactions with a single program. My research explores how visualizing system-wide activity can help people restore the mental context of creative work.
An Enactive Approach to Facilitate Interactive Machine Learning for Co-Creative Agents BIBAFull-Text 345-346
  Nicholas Davis
This paper introduces a novel approach to developing co-creative agents that collaborate in real time creative contexts, such as art and pretend play. Our approach builds upon recent work in computational creativity called interactive machine learning (IML). In IML, agents learn through demonstration, interaction, and real time feedback from a human user (as opposed to offline training). To apply IML to open-ended creative collaboration, we developed an enactive model of creativity (EMC) based upon the cognitive science theories of enaction. This paper introduces our enactive approach to building co-creative agents within the broader field of interactive machine learning by describing the theory, design, and initial prototypes of two co-creative agents.
Leveraging Online Communities for Novice Designers BIBAFull-Text 347-348
  Julie Hui
While universities teach students how to build new products, few students choose to further implement their work due to limited resources and mentorship. Theories of learning and innovation describe the importance of working in a social context to acquire resources from peers. While HCI researchers have built recommender and expert routing systems to identify help givers, novice designers still fail to contact expert peers for various psychological reasons, such as fear of contacting someone older or more experienced. By designing online tools and platforms that encourage and scaffold that act of help-seeking, we can connect more designers with informal mentors who can help them improve and implement their work as a professional product. The goal of my dissertation is to support help-seeking among novice designers by 1) developing an emergent model of help-seeking behavior in the context of crowdfunding, and building a tool that 2) recommends potential help-givers from one's social network and 3) presents their information in a way that encourages reaching out for advice.
Designing Crowdsourcing Techniques Based on Expert Creative Practice BIBAFull-Text 349-350
  Joy Kim
Current crowdsourcing workflows comprise of discrete tasks that guide the crowd towards predetermined goals. However, this approach is ill-suited towards supporting massively collaborative open-ended creative work, which often involves an exploration of possible end results and revision of creative goals. My dissertation explores how existing expert creative practice can inform new crowdsourcing techniques that allow the crowd to collaborate on complex creative tasks such as writing short stories.

Art Exhibition

Glitching BIBAFull-Text 351-352
  Beverley Hood
Glitching is a digital installation and performance project led by artist Beverley Hood, that attempts to re-describe the movement derived from characters in contemporary sports and action computer games. Based on the premise of home entertainment dance and fitness training games, it uses the motion-sensor controller, Microsoft Kinect, and large-screen display to create a digital installation for the public to interact with. The exhibition visitor is invited to step into the digital shoes of the 'lead dancer', and attempt to follow the awkward and intricate, glitch choreography performed by the dancing troupe on screen.
Dreams of Mice BIBAFull-Text 353-354
  Vicky Isley; Paul Smith
Dreams of Mice explores a changed understanding of sleep brought about by networked technologies. A contemporary world of instant messaging and 24/7 connectivity encourages us to remain permanently available. Using computer modeling, recorded neurological data and game engine technology, boredomresearch http://www.boredomresearch.net ask if we can afford to disconnect; questioning the importance of the non-productive third of our lives we spend asleep. Brain activity during sleep reveals that far from downtime, sleep is complex and beautiful. Developed from research exploring the interaction between environmental factors effecting sleep and human neurological disorders Dreams of Mice considers the increased control, management and disruption of sleep behaviours. Collaborating with a neuroscientist at the University of Oxford, capturing and recording the dreams of laboratory mice, boredomresearch have revealed the intriguing beauty of slumber in a real-time artwork driven by the firing neurons of dreaming mice (see Fig.1). When we go to sleep we disconnect from our social networks and perpetual status updates, entering the last remaining sanctuary from the demands of a permanently connected and networked society. But is the space of dreams at risk from the relentless encroachment of connective technologies?
Crypto Heater: A Design Fiction BIBAFull-Text 355-356
  Joseph Lindley
This proposal is to exhibit the work named Crypto Heater which is part of a design fiction [c.f 1,5,8:30] series intended to explore a near future world in which cryptographic currencies such as Bitcoin [6] have become commonplace. This work opens up space for discussion about the activities of the distributed peer-to-peer network of so-called "miners" that ensure the security of the Bitcoin network and regulate the supply of new currency in the Bitcoin economy. The physical part of the work (the heater itself) is set within a fictional near-future reality. In this reality, Bitcoin has become central to our financial service industry, and "mining" in domestic settings is promoted by the government, as a means of heating our homes and to ensure security of the network. A "story world" is constructed using devices such as promotional materials from the UK Government's Ministry of Crypto Currency; technical specifications; customer testimonials; and the heater itself. The main element of the exhibit is a fully working Crypto Heater prototype. This device is (in the fictional world, and the real world) part of the distributed network of Bitcoin miners. Through computation, it converts electrical energy into cryptographic currency. Uniquely Crypto Heater dissipates the heat energy (a by-product of the computational effort required to be a Bitcoin miner) through a standard household radiator. By offsetting the value of the cryptographic currency produced, against the cost of electricity used, the heater provides subsidized domestic heating.
How to Catch a Cloud BIBAFull-Text 357-358
  Minka Stoyanova
For the digitally tethered, life is defined at the intersection of the virtual and the physical. Our experience is necessarily tempered by a stream of simultaneous meta interactions, each an archive, an extension, and a reflection of some experienced reality. "How to Catch a Cloud" is a tool, a web-based application for the communal creation of such a stream. It also results in a democratically rendered, visual archive of experiences and impressions. But, more than either of these it is a proposition, an invitation, and an experiment. We manifest our existence through a process of obsessive archival. By referencing the parallel associations inherent in the use of the term, "cloud," this work proposes the possibility of capturing that which exists, but cannot be located, the climate. Finally, it wonders what we are truly collecting/creating in this manic cycle of perpetual archival. What are we placing in this uncontrollable and ephemeral space, "this cloud" Is it, perhaps, that equally indescribable idea of "the soul," or is it merely another representation, perpetually updated but always at a remove, never able to come fully into synchronicity with the experience it represents.
Skin Music (2012): an Audio-Haptic Composition for Ears and Body BIBAFull-Text 359-360
  Lauren Hayes
Skin Music (2012) is a musical composition that is experienced as a private, multisensory installation by one person at a time. By lying on a piece of bespoke furniture, the listener perceives the music both through the usual auditory channels, as well as by different types of haptic sensation, through their body. The piece addresses the shared perceptual experiences of sonic and haptic sensation through an exploration of vibrational feedback.
Viewpoints AI BIBAFull-Text 361-362
  Mikhail Jacob; Brian Magerko
The Viewpoints AI installation attempts to create an interactive movement-based art experience that has minimal predefined instantial content. As opposed to focusing on designer-created content that reflects their specific view of an interactive experience, we have instead created a movement-based play space where interactors can freely dance with a virtual AI-based character named VAI, teaching it as they interact. VAI analyses interactor movements through procedural representations of the Viewpoints movement theory (from theatre and dance) and improvises responses as an equal collaborator from its past experience with people. VAI uses this procedurally and experientially realized content to present an engaging movement-based experience that any audience member can walk up to and immediately begin dancing with. The Viewpoints AI installation uses shadow theatre as inspiration for creating a liminal space for the projected AI character and an interactor's shadow to co-exist within a real / virtual space. Interactors step in front of a spotlight that projects their shadow onto a large muslin screen. VAI is also projected onto that same space. Viewpoints AI, thus builds on ancient and new media forms, creating an experience that is a playful -- but coherent -- expression between both the interactor and VAI.
COTree Scripting the Truth BIBAFull-Text 363-364
  Lasse Steenbock Vestergaard; Joakim Old Jensen; Christina Exner; Agnete Horup; Anna Lindebjerg; Kirstine West Andersen; Nikolaj Christian Mikkelsen
COTree is a physical interaction design installation shaped as a climbing plant. COTree is composed of smart materials, and electronic design tools like Arduino. The installation has leaves that change shape and color depending on CO2 concentrations in the surrounding environment. When the audience experiences a plant withering caused by too much CO2, they become aware that pollution is happening all around us -- the audience is breathing the same air as the plant! How do you get away from the pollution, and where should you go?
Hudson Valley Muddy Waters: Using AR to Reveal Microscopic Life in the Macroscopic Forest BIBAFull-Text 365-366
  Cynthia Beth Rubin
Hudson Valley Muddy Waters makes visible the microscopic life that is key to the health of our forests and streams. The work demonstrates how Augmented Reality and creative imaging can expand the role of the artist in facilitating deeper public connections with the material of science and the macro/microscopic environment. The artist reverses the usual AR relationship of "real" to "aesthetically mediated" by presenting a painterly digital image as point of departure onto which "reality" is layered, rather than the other way around. Using the app Aurasma, the viewer is prompted to experience the thrill of discovering microscopic life in water via short videos of an actual stream and video micro-captures from the same site.
Dream Vortex: Artwork in Interactive 3D BIBAFull-Text 367-368
  Meredith Tromble; Dawn Sumner
Dream Vortex is a virtual art installation with interactive 3D objects, developed for a CAVE, Oculus Rift, or 3D monitor by artist Meredith Tromble and scientist Dawn Sumner. The central structure is an interactive vortex of hand-drawn dream images that appear in 3D space before the viewer, accompanied by a sound environment. A viewer interacts with the vortex by selecting dream emblems with a game controller. With it, the viewer has the ability to "touch," move, and compose the images, much like picking up physical objects and moving them around. Once a dream is selected, the vortex disappears; the chosen dream and a suite of related dreams fade into view. For the time span of a typical dream (a few minutes) the viewer can interact with them, moving, resizing, and arranging them in new patterns. The dreams are contributed by the research community at UC Davis, so conceptually the work links "opposites": subjective and objective knowledge; 2D and 3D space; and our oldest and newest art-making media.
System Self Assembly: Exploring the Self in the City BIBAFull-Text 369-370
  Andrew Welsby
System Self Assembly (2015) is an installation that is the result of a year long auto-ethnographic study. The work explores performative concepts of the self, agency, and the redundancy of the modern medium.
Sense-a-Ball Pong BIBAFull-Text 371-372
  Mark Palmer
The attraction of classic computer games wasn't their verisimilitude. Games like Battlezone and Elite blended perception and action through interactivity that flowed around the immateriality of the game object; cinematic tropes then emphasised this in films like Tron and Minority Report.
   Arguably this reveals a facet of perception we have passed over in favour of the fixed outlines of objects. But if this is a part of perception per se rather than being limited to the screen, shouldn't we be able to experience this within the physical world?
   Sense-a-Ball Pong explores this by making the classic computer game of Pong "physical". A grid of vanes will orientate themselves towards the "ball" implying its position whilst it will be invisible. Utilising distance sensors player's will then use their hand to play with the ball. If perception does flow around the object it should become evident in this work.
City | Data | Future: Envisioning Interactions in Hybrid Urban Space BIBAFull-Text 373-374
  Michael Smyth; Ingi Helgason; Ivica Mitrovic
The City | Data | Future installation is a collection of "design fiction" video scenarios that speculate about the experience of urban life and how it might change in the near future. These visions were collaboratively created over the course of an interdisciplinary summer school, exploring the emergent field of urban interaction design. The focus of this field is public space and the relationships between people -- with and through technology. Cities in the future will contain a tangled mesh of interlocking data streams, and this complexity is increasingly forming the backdrop to human activities. The installation presents a series of works that invite the viewer to consider how technology might shape the city of the future and subsequently, our relationship with the city, and with each other. The works have been created as part of the UrbanIxD project, which ran between 2013-14 and was funded under the EU FP7 FET Open initiative.
Lichtsuchende: A Society of Cybernetic, Phototropic Sunflowers BIBAFull-Text 375-376
  Dave Murray-Rust; Rocio von Jungenfeld
Lichtsuchende is an interactive installation, built using a society of biologically inspired, cybernetic creatures who exchange light as a source of energy and a means of communication. Visitors are invited to engage with the installation using torches to influence and interact with the phototropic robots. The embodied algorithms give rise to emergent behaviours with communicative and emotional resonance, allowing a duet between the humans and the cybernetic beings.
Lucid Peninsula: DreamScope -- An Interactive Physical Installation BIBAFull-Text 377-378
  Mara Dionisio; Paulo Bala; Rui Trindade; Valentina Nisi; Julian Hanna
In this paper we present Lucid Peninsula, an interactive installation designed to immerse participants in a dreamlike, post-apocalyptic story world. The goal of the installation is to offer a way for people to experience the future through a physical interactive installation. To achieve this aim we designed and developed the interactive DreamScope device, while the Time's Up collective designed and built the physical installation. On one side with the Dreamviewer binoculars users will be able to see the world outside and absorb data relating to factors such as air quality, presence of plant and other life forms, etc. On the other side of the installation, the audience will be able to borrow mobile devices (Dreamcatchers) and venture into the actual landscape of the city, in order to "catch" the dreams of the inhabitants of the peninsula, which are mixed with memories of the world before it was transformed.
Statuevision: Glasgow BIBAFull-Text 379-380
  Ali Momeni; Claire Hentschker
Statuevision is an interactive public projection performance that engages citizens in conversations about urban histories. Statuevision: Glasgow invites participants to explore Glasgow's history through its iconic statues and monuments. This performance employs interactive technologies that enable participants to animate three-dimensional renderings of the cities statues while learning about the lives of the figures.

Performances

Aquatint BIBAFull-Text 381-382
  Michael Denton; Anna McCrickard
Live audiovisual event. Duration: 30 to 70 minutes. Venue: single screen/ cinema. Music & Imagery Overlap. Overlap have developed a style outside film, TV and video art -- a way of abstracting and combining imagery that has a musical or painterly logic rather than a narrative based or conceptual one. A visual take on serialism -- wallpaper with conceits. Recent works explore the relationship between still and moving imagery through systems of implied motion within transitions, use of discreet picture planes and obscuration techniques. The view is in movie time but limited to flat photographic space, through a perceptual keyhole more akin to memories and dreams. Experiments with sound and image are distilled into single screen pieces -- Lazy Wave, Cloud Edged, Forest Tree, Returning -- forming useful components for live mixing, audiovisual polyphonies for installations and performances. Aquatint is a mesmeric dance of shapes, lights and abstract imagery on the cusp of the recognizable, reflecting the emotional response we experience in powerful natural environments. Atmospheric, complex, sensual and earthy, yet delivered through a systematic patterning within a synthetic void. In a world of ubiquitous, immediately interpret-able imagery and information, perhaps a crucial purpose for abstraction is a kind of universal yet personal sensory mapping. Whilst referencing a traditional art form through painterly, processed delivery, Aquatint is at once romantic and analytical, closer to memories and dreams than cinema: prompting thoughts about portrayals of beauty and the quasi-religious reverence that landscape can trigger. Elemental, technological, dramatised, abstraction.
Torrrque: Augmented Drum-Kit BIBAFull-Text 383
  Christos Michalakos
Torrrque is an improvised piece of music with the Augmented Drum-Kit, a bespoke electro-acoustic instrument comprising of a traditional acoustic drum-kit, embedded speakers, microphones, motors, solenoids, DMX lights and live electronics. The setup is controlled by a Max/MSP patch, which works with a combination of machine-listening techniques, timed events, and direct intervention by the performer.
Sarlacc BIBAFull-Text 385-386
  Shawn Lawson; Ryan Ross Smith
Sarlacc, an audio-visual performance, features visuals live coded within the OpenGL fragment shader, that are reactive to incoming audio frequencies parsed by band, beats per minute, and Open Sound Control data. The sound component is performed using Ableton Live and analog synthesis.
Playing with InMuSIC: An Interactive Multimodal System for Improvised Composition BIBAFull-Text 387-388
  Giacomo Lepri
InMuSIC is a real-time interactive musical system conceived to be used in a context related to the practice of electroacoustic free improvisation. By integrating the observation of both non-verbal expressive behavior cues (motion tracking) and several sonic parameters (audio stream analysis) the system is able to identify, during the performance, relevant expressive musical properties. The real-time measurements control different digital sound processes through the correlation of different mapping strategies. The generated audio interventions should then be perceived as a consolidated sonic integration of the improvised performance. The research is based on the belief that human behaviors and their ambiguity must be taken into consideration in order to design and shape meaningful and sustainable technologies.
'AirStorm,' A New Piece for AirSticks and Storm: Gestural Audio-Visual for Electronic Percussionists BIBAFull-Text 389-390
  Alon Ilsar; Andrew Bluff
'AirStorm' is a semi-improvised short 10-min piece for solo AirSticks and physical model visualisation performed by Alon Ilsar and Andrew Bluff respectively. It will be made up of a drum synth, drum samples, other selected samples and room feedback triggered and manipulated by Ilsar on this newly built interface for electronic percussionists. The piece will display some of the capabilities of the AirSticks along with Ilsar's dedication to practicing and composing for this new interface. "AirStorm" will be based around the conferences theme of "Computers, Arts and Data" through the choice and samples and ways are played. The movement data from Ilsar's AirSticks is processed in real-time by Bluff's physics based visualisation engine, Storm. Particles are pushed around a virtual 3D world in response to the movements of the AirSticks and rigid body collision adds a sense of real-world authenticity and complexity. The system responds to drums and movements of the AirSticks with a combination of different visual and physical effects. The real-time visualisations exemplify the movement and sonic complexity of Ilsar's AirSticks performance, providing a visually stimulating and highly synesthetic element to the piece.
Performance: Constellation Theory of Knowledge Electronic Music and Philosophical Metaphor BIBAFull-Text 391-392
  Scott L. Simon
This short paper describes a performance in the Artworks section of the Creativity and Cognitions conference 2015. The artwork makes use of the author's research into creating a dialog between the fields of music and philosophy. Specifically the artwork is a multimedia piece that structures a philosophical text as a metaphor realized as electronic musical shape and process. The piece is entitled: Constellation theory of knowledge. Utilizing the philosophical concept of the "constellation" (an idea that Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin both made use of) the work seeks to first describe the idea and then articulate it in metaphorical form. This process is an extension of earlier modes of composition that utilized ideas in music via symbolic abstraction. R. Strauss and R. Wagner both made use of this form -- the procedure has not been developed further and offers interesting possibilities in terms of orienting motion processes within electronic music.

Workshop Summaries

Creativity in Collaborative Design BIBAFull-Text 393-394
  Monica Landoni; Paloma Diaz
With this half-day workshop we will offer a venue to colleagues in Arts and Humanities, designers and computer scientists at large for sharing their experiences about raising creativity levels when running collaborative design sessions. We will target researchers interested in collaborative design involving different types of users including adults, children, teenagers and senior citizens, as much as truly intergenerational experiences. We will hear about the challenges they face in terms of keeping participants engaged and stimulate their individual and social creativity. We will aim at discussing the practicalities of setting up a collaborative design study that are so crucial to its success but rarely reported in literature. There will also be time for exploring more theoretical issues such as when a stimulus is genuinely thought provoking and when instead it becomes overpowering. We will debate on how to measure creativity in this setting and whether it is possible to relate and attribute it to specific activities and roles played by participants.
Supporting Creative Design Processes in Blended Interaction Spaces BIBAFull-Text 395-396
  Peter Dalsgaard; Kim Halskov; Wendy Mackay; Neil Maiden; Jean-Bernard Martens
Creative processes involve a repertoire of digital devices ranging from mobile phones over tablets and desktop computers to electronic whiteboards and wall-sized displays. While some integration across multiple devices is supported more sophisticated kinds of integration that connect devices and amplify their potential are limited. Many creative practices also rely on physical materials and tools. This will workshop investigate how the combination of physical and digital artifacts can support creative work practices. In this context, we propose to examine: Individual and social creative activities; Creativity methods; Emergence and transformation of design ideas; Generative design materials; Design constraints.
Psychogeographical City: The City Understood as an Emotional Scenario BIBAFull-Text 397-398
  Ivan Chaparro; Ricardo Duenas
This workshop is the result of a practice-based research, which explored several interrelated elements: first the theory of Psychogeography, applied to the creative representation of urban environments from a multilayered approach and from an emotional and psychological perspective; second, the exploration of sound and acoustic theory, as research tools and artistic possibilities, directed towards the analysis of public space, its documentation and understanding in relation to processes of identity, intangible patrimony and storytelling. And finally, an experimentation and technical research related to audio postproduction, real-time data processing and interactivity. This exploration lead altogether to the design of a persuasive experience that sought to communicate the research outcomes to a broader audience by means of an experimental performance and sound installation presented initially in several cities in the north of Europe.
Performing Digital Media Design BIBAFull-Text 401-402
  Jocelyn Spence
This workshop explores a novel design practice and the methodology behind it in an entirely hands-on way. Participants will create a performance centring on their own personal digital media using Collect Yourselves! -- a two-phase online system that guides the selection, sharing, and live performance of digital photos. Through using the system and briefly analysing the results, participants will gain first-hand understanding of the potential for using performance to extend interactions with technology into an emotionally and aesthetically charged space. The workshop will then cover the basics of the methodology used to create this system, leading to a brainstorming session for how to use Performative Experience Design to interrogate and enhance each participant's own research interests. Participants in this workshop will create and experience a compelling and potentially transformative engagement with digital technology, then use this experience and the methodology behind it to pursue the unique aesthetics of performance in their own work.

Keynote Address 3

Mind's Ratchet: Ecologies of the Artificial: Transverging Cognition and Creativity BIBAFull-Text 399
  Marcos Novak
How can we, in the 21st century, understand creativity and cognition is a way that is at once consonant with both the "sciences of the artificial" and with the "ecology of mind"? Given our accelerating advances in the understanding of mind as mechanism, and given our evident aim to imbue autonomous machines with artificial life, artificial intelligence, and artificial consciousness, and, given that the built world is always and necessarily the mirror of our choices and values, by what ethics can we guide our technics, and by what means, and to what ends?
   Transvergence is an evolving framework for research, pedagogy, and creative production. Among its aims is "transformation the leads to speciation" of works, ideas, disciplines, and everything else that might be brought together to combine into new formations. Motives and mechanisms drawn from nature and culture are extended through technology into means by which to explore a broader spectrum of the possible than might otherwise be attainable.
   As with natural systems, this effort must convert noise into life, thought, and beauty.