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Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Creativity and Cognition

Fullname:ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2007
Note:Seeding Creativity: Tools, Media, and Environments
Editors:Gerhard Fischer; Elisa Giaccardi; Mike Eisenberg
Location:Washington, DC, USA
Dates:2007-Jun-13 to 2007-Jun-15
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-712-4; ACM Order Number 608078; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CC07
Papers:74
Pages:314
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Keynote Addresses
  2. Education
  3. Collaborative models
  4. Creating and sharing
  5. Tools, media and environments
  6. Design methods
  7. Music
  8. Demonstrations and posters
  9. Workshops
  10. Graduate student symposium
  11. Tutorials
  12. Panel
  13. Art exhibit

Keynote Addresses

All I really need to know (about creative thinking) I learned (by studying how children learn) in kindergarten BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  Mitchel Resnick
This paper argues that the "kindergarten approach to learning" -- characterized by a spiraling cycle of Imagine, Create, Play, Share, Reflect, and back to Imagine -- is ideally suited to the needs of the 21st century, helping learners develop the creative-thinking skills that are critical to success and satisfaction in today's society. The paper discusses strategies for designing new technologies that encourage and support kindergarten-style learning, building on the success of traditional kindergarten materials and activities, but extending to learners of all ages, helping them continue to develop as creative thinkers.
Really, really small: the palpability of the invisible BIBAFull-Text 7-16
  Thecla Schiphorst
Our physical technology continues to grow smaller and smaller; so small that the computer itself is no longer seen as an object but a set of invisible distributed processes. Technology is becoming an inseparable aspect of experience, palpable yet invisible. At the same time, an extra-ordinary wealth of literature is emerging within human-computer interaction that is exploring experience, embodiment, subjectivity, and felt-life. This interest is often accompanied by research questions that are continuing to re-balance our understanding of the relationship between subjective and objective knowing, making, and doing. These emerging trends can be seen as a response to the phenomena of the really, really small: and marks a cognitive and creative shift from the visible to the invisible. This paper contextualizes the emerging recognition within HCI that there is value in designing for technology as experience, and offers a framework from the field of Somatics that can contribute to the discourse, particularly with regard to the body in everyday life. Somatics is exemplified through first-person methodologies and embodied approaches to learning and interacting. I present a set of design cases that demonstrate its application within HCI.

Education

Surprising creativity: a cognitive framework for interactive exhibits designed for children BIBAFull-Text 17-26
  Su Zheng; Adrian Bromage; Martin Adam; Stephen A. R. Scrivener
Interactive exhibits in museums are providing exciting and dynamic learning experiences with significant potential to stimulate children's creativity. However, current sophisticated interfaces designed to deliver easily accessible information are not teaching the fundamental skills necessarily to foster genuine creative outcomes. The aim of our research is to promote a design methodology that fosters children's creativity, helping them to gain the formative skills necessary to nurture the process of creative learning. There needs to be more encouragement to motivate children's curiosity and the promotion of observational skills that can help them realise the creative possibilities to be derived from everyday experiences. This paper describes the development of the Creative Surprise Model (CSM): a cognitive framework that informs a methodology to support interactive design practitioners. It identifies the motivational link between surprise emotion and the generation of creativity. We demonstrate how it is applied by describing a real life design task.
Environments for creativity: a lab for making things BIBAFull-Text 27-36
  Ellen Yi-Luen Do; Mark D. Gross
We have, with our students, engaged in cross-disciplinary research in design. We describe parameters and principles that we have found helpful in organizing and conducting this kind of work. A variety of projects that have been developed in our group illustrate these parameters and principles. Our group focuses on making and we have come to see creativity as grounded in the ability to make things.
Group creativity in virtual math teams: interactional mechanisms for referencing, remembering and bridging BIBAFull-Text 37-44
  Johann W. Sarmiento; Gerry Stahl
In this paper, we present a qualitative case study of group creativity online in the domain of mathematics. We define creative work broadly, ranging from the micro-level co-construction of novel resources for problem solving to the innovative reuse of ideas and solution strategies across virtual teams. We analyze the collaborative interactions of virtual math teams with an emphasis on describing the relationship between "synchronic" aspects of creative work (i.e. single episode interactions) and their "diachronic" evolution across time and across collectivities. Our analysis indicates that the synergy between these two types of interactions and the resulting creative engagement of the teams relies on three fundamental processes: (1) referencing and the "configuration of indexicals", (2) collective remembering, and (3) bridging across discontinuities. In addition we also reflect on the aspects of the online environment used by these virtual teams which promote, support or hinder diachronic and synchronic interactions and creativity as aspects of group cognition.
Propagating collaboration: an instructional methodology for artists and engineers BIBAFull-Text 45-52
  Elif E. Ayiter; Selim S. Balcisoy; Murat Germen; Selcuk Artut
This paper reports on a transdisciplinary undergraduate university course designed to bring together fine art/visual communication design and computer science students for the creation and implementation of collaborative visual/audial projects that draw upon the specialised knowledge of both these disciplines. While an overview of syllabus and teaching methodologies is undertaken in the introduction, the focus of the paper concentrates upon an in-depth discussion and analysis of 3 specific projects that were developed by 3 distinct teams of students comprised of one artist/designer and one engineer.

Collaborative models

An in-depth case study of art-technology collaboration BIBAFull-Text 53-62
  Yun Zhang; Linda Candy
This paper presents an in-depth case study of the collaborative process of a creative art-technology project. We begin by providing a brief description of art-technology collaboration research and go on to describe the particular art-technology collaboration project called "GEO Narrative Landscapes". This is followed by an account of a novel method for the analysis of the interaction between artists and technologists based on five communication modes. Findings include common types of conversation topics of communication modes, how these modes related to each other and how they were distributed in terms of frequencies and duration across meetings. Finally, we discuss the contribution of this work to our understanding of art-technology collaboration.
Using empathy to research creativity: collaborative investigations into distributed digital textile art and design practice BIBAFull-Text 63-72
  Cathy Treadaway
This paper describes the use of practice-based distributed collaborative investigations to examine ways in which digital technology can support creative visual art practice. The development of artworks through digital collaboration has enabled empathy to be used as a tool in the research process. The focus of this study concerns how digital technology impacts upon the creative strategies deployed by art practitioners and the resulting effect on creative cognition. Data gathered through qualitative ethnographic research methods has been verified through a series of practical investigations. Findings from this research indicate the importance of mutual experience and memory in the collaborative process. The investigations demonstrate how shared physical experience stimulates imagination through the building of visual concepts, enabling common values, language and trust to be developed concurrently.
Performative roles of materiality for collective creativity BIBAFull-Text 73-82
  Giulio Jacucci; Ina Wagner
This paper seeks to develop a better understanding of the contribution of materiality for creativity in collaborative settings, exploring the ways in which it provides resources for persuasive, narrative and experiential interactions. Based on extensive field studies of architectural design workplaces and on examples from art works, we show: how the variety of material features expands communicative resources and provide border resources for action, in their peripheral, evocative, and referential function; how spatiality supports the public availability of artefacts as well as people's direct, bodily engagement with materiality; and finally how materiality is part of performative action, looking at temporal frames of relevance and emergence in specific events. We conclude with implications for the development of novel interface technologies.
Exact imagination and distributed creativity: a lesson from the history of animation BIBAFull-Text 83-90
  Michael Century
This paper discusses the introduction of software as a creative medium for animation production at the National Film Board of Canada during the 1960s and 70s. In a creative environment shaped by a strong auteur tradition, in which individual film-makers fashioned new technical set-ups as part and parcel of each new expressive work, the first system for figure based computer animation was introduced and proved out with a highly convincing demonstration film, La Faim/Hunger (1973). The techno-aesthetic frame of auteur animation conditioned the collaboration with programmer-engineers so as to sustain an already strongly embedded tradition of individual authorship. The collaborating team seamlessly distributed creative contributions between the roles of director/artist, software programmer, technical animator, and producer. The last two roles were central because they both entailed the ability of a single individual to understand both sides of the technical and artistic creative process, thereby serving as a bridge to the other two more specialized roles (artist and programmer). The collaboration in this emblematic case was a strong instance of "exact imagination", a concept here introduced to designate a close interdependency between the technical and artistic components of a creative work. A particularly valuable result of exact imagination when distributed amongst collaborators is the production of diverse outcomes -- original contributions accepted within multiple disciplinary domains. Collaborative research today will benefit from the emergent formulation of such an exact imagination, distributed across networks of differentiated creative individuals, and buttressed by enlightened institutional policies.

Creating and sharing

Spinning stories: the development of the small histories project as an online facilitator of multiple life stories BIBAFull-Text 91-98
  Stefan Schutt
This paper focuses on the Small Histories research project, a multi-user, database-powered online system for the uploading, storage, display and juxtaposition of multiple individuals' life histories. It discusses issues encountered in the project's initial interface design and testing stage, particularly around the display of users' stories, use of metadata and choices of web technologies. The paper also explores broader issues connected with the creation of narratives via the Small Histories system.
Produsage BIBAFull-Text 99-106
  Axel Bruns
This paper outlines the concept of produsage as a model of describing today's emerging user-led content creation environments. Produsage overcomes some of the systemic problems associated with translating industrial-age ideas of content production into an informational-age, social software, Web 2.0 environment. Instead, it offers new ways of understanding the collaborative content creation and development practices found in contemporary informational environments.
Media for knowledge creation and dissemination: semantic model and narrations for a new accessibility to cultural heritage BIBAFull-Text 107-116
  Stefano Valtolina; Piero Mussio; Giovanna Gianni Bagnasco; Pietro Mazzoleni; Stefano Franzoni; Muriel Geroli; Cristina Ridi
This paper is the result of the clashing but fruitful collaboration of experts of two different cultures -- Computer Science and Archaeology -- and reports on the design and development of the T.Arc.H.N.A System, a new system of accessibility towards Cultural Heritage of the Etruscan culture. The first important result of the collaboration is the rise of an interdisciplinary team of cultural operators, which emerged from the confrontation of the different experiences acquired in each proper field of common research. As a consequence of such a confrontation process, the team was in need of new tools of expression, and communication. An ontology was defined as a new medium for communication between Computer Scientists and Archeologists. New media to record the results of the archaeological researches were introduced to disseminate knowledge to a large public in a novel, context adaptive way. The setting of these media are the base for the implementation of the working seed of the T.Arc.H.N.A System. The paper presents this open and participatory system where different actors cooperate to create and disseminate knowledge about cultural assets.
Promoting emergence in information discovery by representing collections with composition BIBAFull-Text 117-126
  Andruid Kerne; Eunyee Koh; Steven Smith; Hyun Choi; Ross Graeber; Andrew Webb
While sometimes the task that motivates searching, browsing, and collecting information resources is finding a particular fact, humans often engage in intellectual and creative tasks, such as comparison, understanding, and discovery. Information discovery tasks involve not only finding relevant information, but also seeing relationships among collected information resources, and developing new ideas. Prior studies of search have focused on time and accuracy, metrics of limited value for measuring creativity. We develop new experimental methods to evaluate the efficacy of representational systems for information discovery by measuring the emergence of new ideas. We also measure the variety of web sites that participants visit when engaging in a creative task, and gather experience report data. We compare the efficacy of the typical format for collections, the textual list with a new format, the composition of image and text surrogates. We conduct an experiment that establishes that representing collections with composition of image and text surrogates promotes emergence in information discovery.

Tools, media and environments

Tool support for creativity using externalizations BIBAFull-Text 127-136
  Andrew Warr; Eamonn O'Neill
Within the creativity community, researchers and practitioners have developed and studied various support tools and environments. It is important to learn from these tools and environments, identifying requirements for improving the future support of creativity in design. In this paper, we focus on support for generating and interacting with external representations to facilitate shared understanding and common ground amongst stakeholders. In considering external representations, we distinguish between artifacts provided by the tools and boundary objects created by the participants. We evaluate the use of a particular creativity support tool: the Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory (EDC). From this evaluation we identify requirements for future tools and environments to support creative design.
Designing for collaborative creative problem solving BIBAFull-Text 137-146
  Otmar Hilliges; Lucia Terrenghi; Sebastian Boring; David Kim; Hendrik Richter; Andreas Butz
Collaborative creativity is traditionally supported by formal techniques, such as brainstorming. These techniques improve the idea-generation process by creating group synergies, but also suffer from a number of negative effects. Current electronic tools to support collaborative creativity overcome some of these problems, but introduce new ones, by either losing the benefits of face-to-face communication or the immediacy of simultaneous contribution. Using an interactive environment as a test bed, we are investigating how collaborative creativity can be supported electronically while maintaining face-to-face communication. What are the design-factors influencing such a system? We have designed a brainstorming application that uses an interactive table and a large wall display, and compared the results of using it to traditional paper-based brainstorming in a user study with 30 participants. From the considerations that went into the design and the observations during the study we derive a number of design guidelines for collaborative systems in interactive environments.
The drive to create: an investigation of tools to support disabled artists BIBAFull-Text 147-152
  Dharani Priyahansika Perera; Jim R. T. Eales; Kathy Blashki
For people with upper limb disabilities visual art is an important activity that allows for expression of individuality and independence. Through a series of case studies we illustrate the struggles faced by people with upper limb disabilities to be creative. They show remarkable endurance, patience and determination to adapt their remaining capabilities to create visual art. The case studies also show the significant advantages of digital technologies in assisting artists with upper limb disabilities. We discuss the implication of alternative and/or multimodal interactions as possible assistive technologies for creating visual art. A prototype is under development to investigate the possibilities of paralinguistic voice as a mode of creating visual art.
Eco-visualization: combining art and technology to reduce energy consumption BIBAFull-Text 153-162
  Tiffany Grace Holmes
Can creative visualizations of real time energy consumption patterns trigger more ecologically responsible behavior? Media art that displays the real time usage of key resources such as electricity offers new strategies to conserve energy in the home and workplace. This paper details the development of a public art project created for the National Center for Supercomputing Applications that measures electricity usage in real time for the purpose of education and curtailment of power usage. A version of this piece will be on view in the exhibition, Speculative Data and the Creative Imaginary, a component of the 2007 Creativity and Cognition conference.

Design methods

The resourcefulness of everyday design BIBAFull-Text 163-172
  Ron Wakkary; Leah Maestri
We discuss our study that looks at family members as everyday designers. We explain the design actions of family members to be creative, as evidenced by the resourceful appropriation of artifacts and surroundings, the ongoing adaptation of systems and routines through design-in-use that allows emergent properties to arise and addresses individual needs, and how implicit understanding and explicit tests occur for judging quality. We present a preliminary analysis of design implications in the area of interaction design in the home. Our findings are based on a five-month ethnographic study of three families.
Using dramaturgical methods to gain more dynamic user understanding in user-centered design BIBAFull-Text 173-182
  Vesa Kantola; Sauli Tiitta; Katri Mehto; Tomi Kankainen
In this paper we introduce the method of dramaturgical reading, which was originally a method of producing different crystallized and associative theatrical and graphical presentations of a role character in a drama context. We transfer dramaturgical reading into the field of user-centered design in order to understand, analyze and represent user-centered material. We compare a persona created with dramaturgical reading to a user profile and persona. We state that adapting a role character as an embodied and concrete user description in user-centered design improves the designers' ability to empathize and understand the users, thus improving the results of the design process. We believe personas must be enabled to "come to life" and allowed to develop in the minds of the designers using them. The dramaturgical method is one way of accomplishing this.
Interactive evolution for industrial design BIBAFull-Text 183-192
  Boris Georg Bezirtzis; Matthew Lewis; Cara Christeson
Interactive evolutionary design (IED) has the potential to change development processes in industrial design from generating individual solutions to designing parametric models that are employed to create a vast space of possible solutions. This paper describes the current stage of a continuing interdisciplinary project between computer science and industrial design to make IED accessible for designers. The long term goal is to integrate the software into participatory design research methods, since interactive evolutionary design interfaces can be used without extensive training and skills. Everybody can use it to intuitively identify, communicate and explore appealing solutions within a large solution space. A case study is conducted to illustrate initial experiences by applying interactive evolutionary design software to the design process of a small, electric vehicle. The findings of the case study are immediately applied to further develop the software as a new design tool. The main contribution of this article is an explanation of basic techniques for designers/artists to design and shape a solution space.
TEAM STORM: demonstrating an interaction model for working with multiple ideas during creative group work BIBAFull-Text 193-202
  Joshua Hailpern; Erik Hinterbichler; Caryn Leppert; Damon Cook; Brian P. Bailey
Informal design tools can provide immense value during the creative stages of the design process, e.g., by transforming sketches into interactive simulations. Two key limitations of informal and many other design tools are that they do not promote working with multiple design ideas in parallel or collaboration. In this paper, we present a new interaction model that allows a team of designers to work efficiently with multiple ideas in parallel. The model is grounded in theories of creativity and collaboration, and was further informed by observations of creative group work practice. Our interaction model is fully demonstrated within a new system called TEAM STORM. Results from an initial evaluation indicate that design teams are able to effectively utilize our system to create, organize, and share multiple design ideas during creative group work. The benefit of our model is that it demonstrates how many existing single-user design tools can be extended to support working efficiently with multiple ideas in parallel and co-located collaboration.

Music

A computational model of the music of Stevie Ray Vaughan BIBAFull-Text 203-212
  Naresh Vempala; Subrata Dasgupta
Every musician who improvises has a unique musical vocabulary, which may be perceived in his or her compositions. In this paper, we explain our design of a computational model that predicts the creative decisions made by the blues musician, Stevie Ray Vaughan for various input scenarios. Our design brings into effect the fact that creative works involve the use of pre-existing structures stored in the creator's mind or knowledge base, retrieved and reconstructed on the basis of appropriate rules, which are triggered by the nature of specific input. The model was partially implemented as a limited production system using a probabilistic method. It was tested with three different input scenarios. The model predicted the musician's decisions with a limited degree of accuracy. The tests provided valuable insight on ways to improve the current performance and suggested revising the definition of a musical pattern to include specific limits on its duration.
Gestural hyper instrument collaboration with generative computation for real time creativity BIBAFull-Text 213-222
  Kirsty Beilharz; Sam Ferguson
This paper describes the performance, mapping, transformation and representation phases of a model for gesture-triggered musical creativity. These phases are articulated in an example creative environment, Hyper-Shaku (Border-Crossing), an audio-visually augmented shakuhachi performance to demonstrate the adaptive, empathetic response of the generative systems. The shakuhachi is a Japanese traditional end-blown bamboo Zen flute. Its 5 holes and simple construction require subtle and complex gestural movements to produce its diverse range of pitches, vibrato and pitch inflections, making it an ideal candidate for gesture capture. The environment uses computer vision, gesture sensors and computer listening to process and generate electronic music and visualization in real time response to the live performer. The integration of looming auditory motion and Neural Oscillator Network (NOSC) generative modules are implemented in this example.
Exploring mutual engagement in creative collaborations BIBAFull-Text 223-232
  Nick Bryan-Kinns; Patrick G. T. Healey; Joe Leach
Group creativity is a fundamental form of human activity. In this paper we explore what constitutes mutually engaging interaction between people -- interaction in which creative sparks fly and we lose ourselves in the joint action. In this paper we present the results of an experiment to compare the effect representation of identity in a user interface, and task instruction, has on mutual engagement between remote participants. Surprisingly the results indicate that providing no cues to identity increased mutual engagement between participants. We also discuss the appropriateness of quantitative, qualitative, and self-report data for identifying points of mutual engagement.
Instrumentness for creativity mediation, materiality & metonymy BIBAFull-Text 233-242
  Olav W. Bertelsen; Morten Breinbjerg; Søren Pold
We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments are controlled and conceptualized through values such as virtuosity and playability, which are important for computer-mediated creative work supporting development in use beyond what is initially designed for. The paper performs a conceptual investigation into qualities in software interfaces that support creativity, supported by analysis of, and interviews with, musical composers. Instrumentness is explained through discussions of materiality and metonymy as central strategies for computer mediated creativity. The paper is contributing to an investigation of the aesthetics of use in relation to software, pointing to alternative values, differing from traditional usability, which are also relevant in creative work outside art and music composition.

Demonstrations and posters

Interactive experience in a public context BIBAFull-Text 243-244
  Zafer Bilda; Ernest Edmonds; Deborah Turnbull
In this demonstration, we show an interactive artwork that responds to sound and describe a field study evaluating audience engagement within a public context. Audience in the public setting largely recognized the interactivity of the media immediately, engaged very briefly with the work and were highly self conscious about their behavior and voice during their engagement.
Dynamic media arts programming in impromptu BIBAFull-Text 245-246
  Andrew R. Brown; Andrew Sorensen
Dynamic software systems for generative art have particular requirements around rapid development and manipulation of ideas and real-time computational processes. Impromptu is an innovative new programming environment created by Andrew Sorensen, and is designed to facilitate the fluid flow of creative ideas and their expression in software. It has been used for our recent projects, including a variety of Collaborative Music Jamming Systems, because it supports creative processes by leveraging the audio, graphic and video capabilities of the modern operating system within a dynamic programming environment. In our projects collaboration is supported through a synthesis of media types, numerous communication protocols, and facilities for inter-system communications and control. The demonstration will show these environments and how Impromptu supported their development.
Constrain yourselves: exploring end user development in support for musical creativity BIBAFull-Text 247-248
  Tim Coughlan; Peter Johnson
This research explores links between constraint development in creative processes and end user development in environments for creative tasks. A process model describing the development of constraints in creative tasks is presented. To ground the research, support for the user development of musical instruments in a collaborative composition environment is developed, and the use of the system analysed. We find evidence that the development of tangible constraints in the interface has value to users, particularly in focusing collaborative ideation.
Interfectio puerorum: digital projections and the 12th century fleury's massacre BIBAFull-Text 249-250
  Margaret Dolinsky; Timothy Nelson
A unique production of French Medieval liturgical dramas from the 12th century Fleury Playbook was performed on January 13th 2007 through the joined forces of Indiana University's Early Music Institute, the Henry Radford Hope School of Fine Arts, the IU Children's Chorus, and director Timothy Nelson. This new adaptation used innovated approaches to gesture, scenography, and space to question the distinctions between theater, installation, and ritual. The lighting was done with 3D computer graphic projections of iconic imagery done in digital artist oils. These digital projections evolved through the dramatic event and the performers were able to interacted with their display. This paper offers a reflective account of the production.
Graph theory: linking online musical creativity to concert hall performance BIBAFull-Text 251-252
  Jason Freeman
Graph Theory links the creative music-making activities of web site visitors to the dynamic generation of an instrumental score for solo violin. Participants use a web-based interface to navigate among short, looping musical fragments to create their own unique path through the open-form composition. Before each concert performance, the violinist prints out a new copy of the score that orders the fragments based on the decisions made by web visitors.
Software for systematic and imaginative exploration BIBAFull-Text 253-254
  Daryl H. Hepting
This paper describes a software system that has been designed to enhance individual creativity. It was once thought that the era of information visualization would empower people and enable a democratization of visual thinking. Today, many barriers to this democratization still exist. The software, called cogito, is designed from the perspective that it is possible, with appropriate support, to meaningfully explore a very large set of alternatives without becoming overwhelmed. This paper discusses the design choices made for the software, the architecture of the system, and the experience gained in a variety of applications.
Sonictecture: esthetic spatial conditioning through sound, computation and interaction BIBAFull-Text 255-256
  Joanne Jakovich; Dagmar Reinhardt
The field of architecture is radically being transformed by the esthetic potential of embedded sensor technologies and interaction. This demo presents an approach to spatial design that implements techniques of interactive (immersive, spatial) art, to produce architectural 'spaces' that are expressed through the medium of interaction. 'Trivet Fields' is one example from a series of soundspace works that introduce interactive art computing to architectural practice, providing a new platform for cross-disciplinary explorations in esthetics of space.
Partial reflections: interactive virtual instruments controlled by sound BIBAFull-Text 257-258
  Andrew J. Johnston; Benjamin Marks
In this paper we describe two interactive virtual musical instruments that are controlled by sound. These instruments are based on virtual physical models that can be pushed and prodded by making sounds into a microphone. These models provide a mapping between acoustic sounds and computer-generated sounds and visuals.
A periscope for mobile discovery and narrative BIBAFull-Text 259-260
  Eric A. Kabisch
Datascape is a periscope device that allows its operator to view invisible data about the surrounding city. As the user travels through geographic space, they simultaneously explore a 3D virtual topography built from invisible datasets, such as demographic marketing segmentation. As they explore the city, they control a dynamic soundtrack that is generated from local data including the "listening preferences" of the surrounding community. A typical commute or drive around town is turned into a sonic and visual exploration of hidden narratives that surround us and envelop the city.
Reading and writing with Wikis: progress and plans BIBAFull-Text 261-262
  Clif Kussmaul; Sharon Albert
This paper describes an investigation of ways to use wikis to support and improve reading, writing, and related skills. The primary objective is to develop activities that can be adapted to a variety of settings. The paper describes a set of successful activities, and discusses the effects of using a wiki, lessons learned, and future directions.
KMS models for video files using visual mnemonics BIBAFull-Text 263-264
  Mike Leggett
A series of Models were built to explore and test the precept of navigating movies using gesture to control both forward and backward movement, and to launch movie files linked using visual elements associatively and semantically related to the knowledge domain represented within a movie collection.
Eye-balls: juggling with the virtual BIBAFull-Text 265-266
  Joe Marshall; Steve Benford; Tony Pridmore
The authors will introduce and demonstrate a novel computer vision based system for augmented performance. Unlike previous systems, which have primarily focused on 'high art' forms such as modern dance, this system is designed for use during a juggling performance. The system allows a juggler to interact with a computer through their movements, and the movements of the balls, to create audio and visual projections which respond to their performance. This system has been designed in an iterative process involving amateur and professional performers, in order to create a system which is truly accessible. In particular, this project takes inspiration from mass market interactive entertainment and has been developed to only use commodity hardware and to be easily distributable, in order to allow it to be used within the small, self funded groups common in the circus arts community.
Goromi-Web: browsing for unexpected information on the web BIBAFull-Text 267-268
  Goro GO Otsubo
In this paper, we describe an interface that provides information from the Internet, called Goromi-Web. Usually, a search function is used to browse information on the Internet. However, with a search function, the user obtains information that he knows to exist. With Goromi-Web, the user can literally browse information on the Internet, and sometimes can encounter unexpected information previously unknown to the user.
Dancing with words BIBAFull-Text 269-270
  Raisa Rashid; Quoc Vy; Richard G. Hunt; Deborah I. Fels
Music, sound effects and speech prosody are missing from conventional closed captions. Despite advancements, closed captioning has yet to surpass the threshold of 1970s technology. In this study, animated text was used to convey missing sound information to hearing impaired users. Twenty-five hard of hearing and hearing participants watched two television clips containing three different styles of captions: conventional, enhanced and extreme. Participants preferred enhanced, animated text captions as their access to emotive information was improved.
PLAYAS: critical reflection in an immersive space BIBAFull-Text 271-272
  Jack E. Stenner
This paper proposes a demonstration of the hybrid video game and installation environment, Playas: Homeland Mirage. Exhibited at ISEA/ZeroOne 2006 [1]. The collaboratively developed project serves as a model of artist-driven research. This demonstration will discuss the findings gathered from a naturalistic inquiry into the effect of mediation on critical reflection.

Workshops

Tools in support of creative collaboration BIBAFull-Text 273-274
  Piotr D. Adamczyk; Kevin Hamilton; Michael B. Twidale; Brian P. Bailey
Creativity support tools are set an especially difficult task when they are applied to art/science collaboration. Not because of any fundamental incompatibility between the disciplines, but because creativity support tools are rarely supple enough to manage dramatically shifting requirements at various stages of design or handle the diversity of artifacts that might be generated. Traditional methods of evaluation of collaborative support tools may not address these aspects. This workshop aims to examine three specific areas open to expanded modes of evaluation; the social aspects of tools and tool use, how artifacts are created and manipulated in support tools, and how the expanding contexts of art/science collaborations may be rapidly changing support tool requirements.
Design creativity workshop BIBKFull-Text 275
  Yong Se Kim; Toshiharu Taura
Keywords: creativity and cognition, design creativity education
Supporting creative acts beyond dissemination BIBAFull-Text 276-277
  David A. Shamma; Ryan Shaw
In this workshop, we describe and expose the mysterious creative process. We discuss models (both classical and contemporary) of creative practice and experience and their potential application to new media arts and technology. Models that connect the roles of creator and viewer/participant are of particular interest. The goal is to catalyze new ideas and foster creative collaboration across disciplines.

Graduate student symposium

Art & complexity: an exploration of aesthetics BIBAFull-Text 278
  Guy Birkin
This PhD thesis is centred on the idea of complexity as an aesthetic factor. The project aims to explore the role of visual complexity in the making and perception of contemporary art. An experimental methodology combines creative practice with empirical studies of human response to variations in complexity of images. Tools from complexity theory and neuroscience are used to create images and conduct tests of aesthetic perception.
The knot of amateurs & professionals: untangling social roles in creative practice BIBKFull-Text 279
  Eric C. Cook
Keywords: amateur, community of practice, creativity, motivation, social roles
User engagement in physically embodied narrative experiences BIBKFull-Text 280
  Steven Dow
Keywords: augmented reality, narrative media, user engagement
Designing domestic photographic experiences to support autobiographical memory BIBAFull-Text 281
  Abigail C. Durrant
Combining social psychology and interaction design research, this PhD project explores how photographic artifacts become resources for the expression and empowerment of family representations, in order to inform the design of domestic photographic experiences. Inter-disciplinary activities address epistemological questions concerning the nature of design research in the HCI field.
A collaborative approach to the design of interactive systems for the documentation of dance BIBAFull-Text 282
  Natalie Erika Ebenreuter
This research relates to a doctoral project for the development of LabanAssist as a prototype application [2]. To facilitate its development participatory design methods that involve users in the design process assist in capturing a subjective account of user needs and requirements. The research considers an approach that enables the knowledge of mutual design decisions during task analysis workshops, to be made explicit, based on the collaboration and agreement between potential users of the system and designer. It is suggested that a combination of visual tools may be utilized to facilitate the representation of this information and communicate knowledge of the underlying design rationale and decision-making process. In this way methods of participatory design may be enhanced to enable a shared knowledge of design criteria to be made explicit for productive interaction and its evaluation.
Distributed cognitive walkthrough (DCW): a walkthrough-style usability evaluation method based on theories of distributed cognition BIBKFull-Text 283
  Joel U. Eden
Keywords: distributed cognition, interaction design, usability evaluation, walkthrough inspection method
Supporting creativity: investigating the role of computer-supported awareness in distributed collaboration BIBAFull-Text 284
  Umer Farooq
My dissertation research investigates the design and evaluation of activity awareness to support creativity in small groups working on a long-term, collaborative scientific activity in a distributed setting.
Towards expertise: the role of chunking in developing productive fluency in drawing (semester 1 summary) BIBAFull-Text 285
  Sona L. Hairabedian
"Chunking" -- the process by which the mind absorbs information -- has been a subject of study since the 1950s, when George A. Miller introduced the term. Research done since then by De Groot and Simon with master chess players and novices has shown evidence that experts chunk and retrieve learned information differently from novices. Other scholars, like D. N. Perkins, suggest that this difference may extend to other fields, like music and oral poetry. This paper explores the possible role of chunking in the process of gaining proficiency in drawing. It reports an observation study of a freshman drawing class through three months of learning, and shows 1.) How mental and physical skills were taught, according to the chunking principle, 2.) How evaluation skills were learned, and 3.) How a focus on complex skill learning sometimes drove a lower-level skill into unconscious competence -- a step toward a state I call "productive fluency", which itself seems a step towards expertise.
Effects of visualizing participant contribution in electronic brainstorming BIBKFull-Text 286
  Alex Ivanov
Keywords: creativity support systems, electronic brainstorming, information systems, interface design, social visualization
The bodily aspect in computer-supported creativity BIBAFull-Text 287
  Andre Knöerig
In opposition to being the fundamental condition for our existence, the human body has long been marginalized in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. It is now gaining consideration through the idea of embodiment. I want to support the embodied argument by pointing out the role of the body in creativity. A general framework and a criticism of interaction with today's Personal Computers delivers guidelines and starting points for a more conscious design of systems that seek to support creativity.
syngva: an object that raises questions of agency, relationship, and control BIBAFull-Text 288
  Nicholas A. Knouf
The division between subject and object, agent and non-agent, has consistently been dubious philosophically. Now we are increasingly faced with computational objects and relational artifacts that put into question cherished notions of human agency and intentionality. I describe one such object, syngva, a creature that develops through evolutionary processes idiosyncratic movements in response to non-speech vocalizations. syngva serves two parallel roles. For the user, syngva enables a form of non-linguistic expression, serving as a catalyst for novel vocal behaviors provoked by the motions of the object. For myself, syngva acts as a sociological probe, allowing me to study in-situ relationship formation, agency, and control in response to an "intelligent" creature. I describe an evaluation approach that draws heavily from actor-network theory (ANT), a methodology that in part places objects on the same ontological level as human agents. This re-centering of agency intimates a different way of looking at the person-object dyad that focuses on the interactions themselves without reference to pre-existing theories.
Cognitive artifacts: an art-science engagement BIBAFull-Text 289
  Derek Lomas
'Cognitive Artifacts' is a theoretical framework that may allow a common evaluation of the impact of the products of science and art. Describes need for transformations of science that engage emotional, aesthetic, social and spiritual cognitive processes. Artist describes current work investigating 'Social Architectures.'.
Eye-balls: computer vision in the circus BIBAFull-Text 290
  Joe Marshall
This proposal is for a discussion of the HCI and artistic performance issues presented by the use of interactive systems in live performances, with reference to a novel system designed to track a juggling performer and create audio visual accompaniments based on their movements.
Creativity in VR: constraint versus exploration BIBKFull-Text 291
  Lorna McKnight
Keywords: cognition, creativity, virtual reality
Talk2Me: engaging interactive installation environments BIBAFull-Text 292
  Ann Judith Morrison; Margot Brereton; Peta Mitchell
In this research I explore what elements there may be in common between tangible interactive-technology works that successfully engage their participants. An exploration of existing methods for obtaining useful evaluations for non-use and ambiguous environments forms a part of the discussion.
Augmenting artistic realities: opportunities for creative and artistic practice in augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 293
  Helen Papagiannis
The subject of my M.A. research investigates the potential for Augmented Reality (AR), an emerging technology, as a new form for artistic expression. This research will seek to identify what types of projects artists aspire to create using AR, how existing tools and software can be improved to better support creativity, and how greater access can be granted to artists to work directly with the technology, without the need of an intermediary such as a computer programmer.
MULTI: multiple user interactive template installation BIBAFull-Text 294
  Nancy Paterson
To develop a software tool which simulates the experience of synesthesia to produce concrete, documentable expressions of creativity. A constitutive relationship between synesthesia and creativity (Campen, 2002) and an operational relationship between synesthesia and multimedia (Cytowic, 1993) has been suggested and following these leads, we propose to mobilize synesthesia as the visualization technique we will target to investigate the collaborative development of creativity.
Design patterns: augmenting user intention in parametric design systems BIBKFull-Text 295
  Cheryl Zhenyu Qian
Keywords: design patterns, expertise, intentional stance, participant observation, user modeling
How can technology support musical creativity for people with dementia? BIBAFull-Text 296
  Philippa Riley
Dementia continues to be a growing problem, affecting the person with dementia and their family members. The main symptoms of the disease are memory impairment, cognitive dysfunction and executive functioning problems. Research has established provision of activities can improve quality of life for people with dementia. This research concentrates on musical creativity, investigating how technology could support creative music making for people with dementia.
   People with dementia experience difficulties with communication, short-term memory and learning new skills. These issues make it difficult to find activities that people with dementia can participate in. However, music is one activity enjoyed by people with mild dementia, and those in the advanced stages of dementia.
   Research has shown that people with dementia can be creative. However, when it comes to music, the researcher has found a lack of resources available for them to make their own music. Traditional musical instruments are too difficult to play, so simple percussion instruments are used for rhythm making. The aims of this research are to develop a novel tool to support creative music making for people with dementia, and from that, provide key insights into musical creativity in persons with dementia.
   It is important that the music created is pleasant for both player and listener. The researcher experimented with chord playing, as chords played in sequence will always sound harmonious. By using specific chord types, i.e. major or minor, passages of chords can also be used to portray emotions. Researchers have discussed how music can communicate emotion, and as people with dementia are prone to difficulties with communication, the tool could also be useful for self-expression.
   Small-scale prototypes have been developed to demonstrate how the tool works. An intuitive interface prompts users to select an emotion before beginning play. Users will interact with the tool using a touch screen, as this has already been shown to be usable by people with dementia. On touching the screen, chords will play portraying the emotion selected. Users control pitch by moving higher or lower on the screen, and dynamics, by moving left and right across the screen.
   Visual feedback is also provided, using appropriate colors and shapes to match the emotion selected.
   Basic melodies can be created by dragging a finger up and down the screen, with more complex pieces created by touching different parts of the screen. Investigations will establish if the tool can be used for music creation, whether it provides enjoyment and if it can actively engage people with dementia. It will also be interesting to establish if people with dementia can use it for self-expression.
Understanding and supporting the long-term creative work of virtual math teams BIBKFull-Text 297
  Johann W. Sarmiento
Keywords: case study, group cognition, group creativity, virtual teams
Modular robotics as tools for design BIBAFull-Text 298
  Eric Schweikardt
Design is fundamental. In various forms, it permeates engineering, management, architecture and the arts. Design aptitude separates the visionary from the technician. Although many skills, like math or technical writing, are straightforward to quantify and teach, the creativity and processes inherent in design are both more difficult to instill and more difficult to understand.
   Unconstrained design is almost impossible. Noted late graphic designer Paul Rand speaks to the benefits of a constrained system as something "without which fruitful and creative work is extremely difficult." [2] Papert addresses this with his concept of the Microworld, [1] a domain-specific constrained environment for experimentation and design education. Microworlds have been shown to be effective tools for design education in domains from creative art to mathematics.
   The advent of tiny microcontrollers and inexpensive rapid prototyping technologies has made it easier to create tangible Microworlds outside of the computer screen.
   My research focuses on the design of modular robotic systems that allow users to play and experiment freely in computational domains.
   roBlocks [3] (http://www.roblocks.org) is a computational construction kit that allows children as young as nine to design and build functional robots by snapping together magnetized plastic modules. roBlocks is a distributed system, with a microcontroller embedded in each 40mm cube. Assembling combinations of Sensor, Actuator and Operator blocks exposes young users to advanced ideas like feedback control, logic and kinematics before they learn to solder or program in C. Advanced users can reprogram the behavior of each module, exploring distributed control.
   StickyBricks is a mobile modular robotic system designed as a tangible tool to explore locomotion constraints. Each StickyBrick is a 30mm cube with two circumferential adhesive belts powered by a tiny geared DC motor. Users write simple Python instructions to control the movements of each module, exploring the integrity of various configurations and lattice structures.
   I developed the Egglet to enable musicians to add additional dimensions of expression to extant instruments of any type. Comprised of an 8cm plastic egg-shaped "brain" into which various sensors can be plugged, the Egglet is a wireless, battery-powered system that uses a microcontroller to synthesize input from a simple sensor network in order to control audio, video or MIDI data. Musicians with little technical knowledge snap together various sensors and use motion, light, and touch to control the parameters of audio effect.
   These three projects represent an effort to understand the design process -- on one hand, the design of modular robotic systems and on the other hand, designs within the constrained environments they create.
Creativity and categorisation BIBAFull-Text 299
  Ben Short
Preliminary findings suggest that the creativity of conceptual inventions based upon items taken from physical user interface kits, as assessed by independent judges, may be affected by the categorical level given to participants at the task outset. However this effect is only seen when judges assess the inventions using an ordering task rather than the commonly adopted originality/practicality model of creativity. Further research into the nature of this phenomenon and the effects of different judging paradigms is underway.
IdeaMurals: supporting ideation in public policy knowledge work BIBAFull-Text 300
  Jennifer Stoll
The creativity and innovation found in knowledge work such as public policy is often hidden. This "hidden-ness" is likely due to the predominantly textual representation of the work done in this domain. Unlike other areas that are more design-oriented, public policy knowledge work generally does not rely on, or produce, graphical artifacts which can showcase the innovation. In contrast, for domains such as engineering-design or the fine arts, the generation of such artifacts is inherently a part of the work itself. IdeaMurals attempts to explore how creativity and innovation can be supported for a domain that is largely ignored. It also seeks to explore how visual elements can be leveraged to support the ideating process of policy work. The organizing principle of IdeaMurals is to support ideation based on how ideas are constructed; and the construction of these ideas is framed as being analogous to the construction of art compositions.
Designing hybrid interaction through an understanding of the affordances of physical and digital technologies BIBAFull-Text 301
  Lucia Terrenghi
With my work I aim at informing the design of hybrid interaction paradigms for interactive surfaces that integrate aspects of the physical and digital worlds so that more conscious choices can be made about the extent to which the integration of specific aspects of physical interaction makes sense. I suggest that different contexts of interaction imply different ways of integrating aspects of physical manipulation and that the affordances of both physical and digital media need to be identified and systematically analyzed.
Systems for artistic creation: creativity and engagement BIBAFull-Text 302
  Karl D. D. Willis
This paper tracks the author's current research and art practice, focused on the production of systems for artistic creation and examining how such systems contribute to an engaging interactive experience.

Tutorials

Understanding and evaluating creativity BIBAFull-Text 303-304
  Linda Candy; Zafer Bilda
The aim of this tutorial is to provide the participants with an understanding of the significance of creativity for interaction design and to give guidance about the design and evaluation of systems with respect to their role in creativity support. Participants will also be provided with tools for analyzing and evaluating situations in which creative engagement and interaction may be taking place.
Computer art: creativity and computability BIBAFull-Text 305-306
  Frieder Nake
The tutorial addresses an important aspect of the "algorithmic revolution" that has taken place silently without many really becoming aware of it. That aspect is the gradual influx of information technology, computers, and algorithmic thinking into fine art. We take a choice of individual topics giving participants the chance to explore a landscape of computer art from first beginnings in the mid 1960s, and leading up to current developments. The treatment is by typical examples in a mixture of short presentations and group discussions. Principles of computer art are identified in a way that makes transfer possible to other areas of creative applications of computable processes.
Visualization and the art of metaphor BIBAFull-Text 307-308
  Jack Ox
This tutorial is designed for students in various disciplines (arts & sciences) that traditionally work in other media and would like to integrate visualization into their work to enhance communication of ideas and concepts. Attendees that are already using visualization methods in their work can benefit from this tutorial because they will be exposed to different methods as it provides an environment to improve communication skills and the opportunity to acquire visual literacy. This tutorial provides an examination of different kinds of visualization concepts, which will be exemplified by the work of different artists and scientists, both historical and current. In addition to the lecture component the course provides hands-on experience with a laboratory assignment. The tutorial is based on a the class co-created and taught by Jack Ox and Judith v. der Elst, Fall '06, at the ARTS Lab, University of New Mexico.

Panel

Bridging art and science with creativity support tools BIBFull-Text 309
  Ben Shneiderman; Rita Colwell; Sara Diamond; Paul Greenhalgh; William Wulf

Art exhibit

Speculative data and the creative imaginary: shared innovative visions between art and technology BIBAFull-Text 310-311
  Pamela Jennings
The exhibition Speculative Data and the Creative Imaginary: shared innovative visions between art and technology will bring together examples of best practices in creative digital media art and design that foster strong ties to current research trends in computer science and engineering. Exhibited works align with the 2007 ACM Creativity and Cognition conference themes: cultivating creative minds, sustaining creative communities and promoting creative engagement as they demonstrate innovative, novel, sometimes provocative and other times promising models for research in the design of interactive human centered applications, technology innovation, aesthetic expression, and social critique. [1] This is a timeless opportunity to connect the larger ACM Creativity and Cognition conference community of researchers and university faculty with a community of creative thinkers who share research interests across human centered computing, technology development, and scientific discoveries. The exhibition is hosted by the National Academy of Sciences Exhibitions and Cultural Programs and will be held at the National Academy of Sciences Rotunda Gallery, 2100 C Street NW, Washington D.C. from June 4th to August 24th, 2007.