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psychnology Tables of Contents: 010203040506070809101112

Psychnology 3

Editors:Luciano Gamberini; Giuseppe Riva; Anna Spagnolli
Dates:2005
Volume:3
Standard No:ISSN 1720-7525
Papers:19
Links:www.psychnology.org | Table of Contents
  1. psychnology 2005 Volume 3 Issue 1
  2. psychnology 2005 Volume 3 Issue 2
  3. psychnology 2005 Volume 3 Issue 3

psychnology 2005 Volume 3 Issue 1

Space, Place & Technology: Presence in Mediated Experiences

Editorial Preface BIBPDF 3-5
 
A Place for Presence. Understanding the Human Involvement in Mediated Interactive Environments BIBAKPDF 6-15
  Anna Spagnolli; Luciano Gamberini
The focus of this paper is the connection between presence and place and the strong belief that it can illuminate unexplored aspects of the human experience in virtual and mixed environments. Action is identified as the crucial catalyst for that connection, organizing the material and symbolic resources that constitute a place and setting the terms of the agent's presence. Based on recent contributions from ethnography, cultural psychology and human geography, the perspective of a Presence-in-Place offers many advantages, including the adoption of several investigative methodologies beyond self-reports, the connections with the larger normative and cultural order and a unified approach to any hybrid environment, whether it be Virtual, Real or Mixed.
Keywords: place, action, presence, hybrid environments
Presence and Embodiment in Mobile Phone Communication BIBAKPDF 16-34
  Ruth M. Rettie
This paper explores the temporal and spatial characteristics of mobile phone communication, comparing the experience of presence in phone calls and in virtual reality environments. It is argued that in phone communication interactional affordances create an experience of presence and a degree of embodiment. The theoretical framework adopted combines Goffman's frame analysis with Gibson's affordance theory and a situated cognition perspective. The concept of presence is clarified by an analysis of embodiment. The traditional view of embodiment is criticised as assuming a Cartesian mind/body dualism. An alternative view of embodiment is developed which challenges the dichotomies of virtual and physical embodiment, and of virtual and physical environments.
Keywords: presence, embodiment, situativity, mobile phone, virtual environment
Responsive Environments, Place and Presence BIBAKPDF 35-73
  Rod McCall; Shaleph O'Neill; Fiona Carroll; David Benyon; Michael Smyth
This paper examines the effect that changing arena (i.e. an immersive CAVE or head mounted display) and adding an augmented barrier has on the sense of place and presence in two photo-realistic virtual environments. Twenty eight subjects (17 male, 11 female) mainly undergraduate students or staff took part. The paper summarises two experiments that used a range of data capture methods including the place probe, semantic differentials, distance estimates and the MEC Questionnaire. The results indicate that in non-interactive photo-realistic environments the choice of arena has an impact on the perceived ability to undertake actions, and hence sense of place and presence; with the CAVE providing a lower sense of spatial presence for certain aspects than the HMD.
Keywords: presence, place, CAVE, HMD
Spacing the Boundary: An Exploration of Perforated Virtual Spaces BIBAKPDFvideo 1video 2 74-89
  Petra Gemeinboeck; Roland Blach
This paper discusses the performative boundary between real and virtual spaces, as it constitutes itself based on the conditions, abilities, and potentials of Virtual Reality (VR). In addressing specific issues of the users' embodiment, the authors argue that one of the greatest challenges of VR is its capability to connect the virtual and the real; a potential that is considered as fundamentally spatial. The premises and conditions of the production of such an interfacing space are explored in relation to its underlying generative dynamic processes, the superimposition of real and virtual places, and their inhabitation. Joining the fields of interactive art and computer science, the authors' discussion unfolds based on two of their collaborative works: the CAVE environment Uzume (2002) and the tele-immersive installation Ma?a-Veil of Illusion (2004).
Keywords: embodiment, inhabitation, interactive art, spacing, tele-immersion, Virtual Reality
The Third Pole of the Sense of Presence: Comparing Virtual and Imagery Spaces BIBAKPDF 90-100
  Rosa M. Banos; Cristina Botella; Belen Guerriero; Victor Liano; Mariano Alcaniz; Beatriz Rey
As Biocca pointed out, the "two poles model" of presence has only considered the virtual and pyshical spaces, but not the imaginary spaces. This work is aimed at comparing the sense of presence between virtual and imaginary environments. 100 participants were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions (imagined versus virtual spaces) and the subjective sense of presence was measured in three moments (beginning, middle, and end). Results indicate that the participants in "imagery" spaces indicated a decrease of their sense of presence, whereas the opposite occurs in participants in "virtual" spaces. Imagination seems not to be a long-lasting procedure to elicit presence. However, VR helps users to stay there as time goes by. That is, it provides a "physical" context in which the self can be placed.
Keywords: presence, virtual reality, imagination, mental space

Other contents

A Preliminary Study on the Use of an Adaptive Display for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders BIBAKPDFvideo 101-112
  Beatriz Rey; Javier Montesa; Mariano Alcaniz; Rosa Banos; Cristina Botella
A preliminary study on the use of an adaptive display for treating emotional disorders is presented. The purpose of this study is twofold: to obtain a virtual environment that adapts to the emotional states of the user at each moment and to analyze the possibility of using it for the treatment of emotional disorders. Until now, different types of adaptive displays have been developed and studied, some of which try to react to affect states of the user (Reynolds et al., 2004). The novelty of our system lies in the use of the adaptive display for the treatment of emotional disorders.
Keywords: adaptive displays, virtual space, transformation of virtual environments, emotional disorders

psychnology 2005 Volume 3 Issue 2

Space, Place & Technology: Presence in Mediated Experiences

Editorial Preface BIBPDF 116-117
 
A Review of How Space Affords Socio-Cognitive Processes during Collaboration BIBAKPDF 118-148
  Nicolas Nova
This paper reviews the literature about social and cognitive functions of spatial features used when collaborating in both physical and virtual settings. Those concepts come from various fields like social, cognitive as well as environmental psychology or CSCW (Computer Supported Collaborative Work). We briefly summarize the social and cognitive affordances of spatial features like distance, proxemics, co-presence, visibility or activity in the context of physical and virtual space. This review aims at grounding in an explicit framework the way human beings use space to support social interactions. This review can be used as a starting point to design efficient applications that take spatial context into account.
Keywords: HCI, CSCW, collaboration, spatial features, space affordances
Presence, Place and the Virtual Spectacle BIBAKPDF 149-161
  Shalep O'Neill
This article examines the concept of virtual learning community as a hybrid learning place. It is argued that a hybrid place experience could provide a conceptual vantage point to better understand the origins of virtual learning communities in higher education context. With some empirical observations it is demonstrated what may constitute students' experiences of hybridity during a web-based university course. It suggested that the research on learning places should include not only virtual but also physical environments, with individually-focused ways. Finally, the role and the challenges of educational design in optimising resources for virtual learning communities to develop are discussed.
Keywords: hybrid place, virtual learning community, higher education, educational design, collaborative learning, computer-supported collaborative learning
Learning Together "There"-Hybrid "Place" as a Conceptual Vantage Point for Understanding Virtual Learning Communities in Higher Education Context BIBAKPDF 162-180
  Johanna Poysa; Joost Lowyck; Paivi Hakkinen
This article examines the concept of virtual learning community as a hybrid learning place. It is argued that a hybrid place experience could provide a conceptual vantage point to better understand the origins of virtual learning communities in higher education context. With some empirical observations it is demonstrated what may constitute students' experiences of hybridity during a web-based university course. It suggested that the research on learning places should include not only virtual but also physical environments, with individually-focused ways. Finally, the role and the challenges of educational design in optimising resources for virtual learning communities to develop are discussed.
Keywords: hybrid place, virtual learning community, higher education, educational design, collaborative learning, computer-supported collaborative learning
Presence and Mediated Spaces: A Review BIBAKPDF 181-199
  Lucia A. Reno
The aim of this work is to present a review of presence in mediated spaces, namely those spaces experienced through the use of technologies. First, a distinction will be proposed between studies focused either on physical or human space, single or multiple inhabitation. Then, the way in which spatial issues are connected to presence will be described. Finally, some controversies on the nature of Mediated Space (MS) will be briefly mentioned, and how they are connected to the research areas previously identified.
Keywords: mediated space, human space, physical space, spatial presence, place

Other Contents

Some Reflections on Learning and E-learning BIBAKPDF 200-222
  Cristina Zucchermaglio; Francesca Alby
Educational technologies' designers always refer to a model, more or less explicit, of the teaching/learning process. Even when not explicit there is always an idea about how people learn behind the design of an e-learning product as there is for every other formal or informal context of learning (school, training classes, working places, etc.). At the same time there is an implicit model of the role of technology: computers can be seen essentially as a 'cognitive tool' which allows one access to a series of information and contents to isolated users or as a 'social tool' which allows one to communicate, share and negotiate competent practices, identities and meanings. In this paper we outline an analysis of the most widespread educational technologies by investigating the nature of such 'theories' that are 'behind' their design and that supports - more or less - learning social practices. Finally, we outline some principles to follow for the design of effective educational technologies following a social and situated learning theory.
Keywords: learning, e-learning, technology, virtual communities

psychnology 2005 Volume 3 Issue 3

The Digital Divide

Editorial Preface BIBPDF 226-227
 
Virtual enclaves or global networks? The role of Information and Communication Technologies in development cooperation BIBAKPDF 228-242
  Iginio Gagliardone
This article investigates the evolution of the struggle for bridging the digital divide in developing countries. Taking into account tendencies that have been registered in disciplines other than development, such as urban sociology and social psychology, the author demonstrates how a frequent over-estimation of the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has influenced the previsions about their impacts and led to results and phenomena different from the expected ones. ICTs have been perceived more as a black box that can produce the same effects everywhere, independent from pre-existing cultural and socio-economic contexts, than as an open artifact, capable of integrating local needs in their functioning mechanism and being adapted according to different conditions of use. Nevertheless 10 years have passed since the first pioneers launched their projects for reducing the digital gap and new approaches have emerged since then. ICTs are more and more at the heart of the strategies developed by international organizations for providing a better future to new generations and a new consciousness has emerged as a result of the many errors. The article describes some of the new approaches in the fight against the digital divide, explaining how they have a better chance to success and bring digital equity.
Keywords: Digital divide, development cooperation, Africa, ICTs for development
Gender differences of the Internet-related Stereotypes in Russia BIBAKPDF 243-264
  Olga V. Mitina; Alexander E. Voiskounsky
Gender stereotypes of Russians toward the Internet were investigated, using multiple identification methodology. The questionnaire (45 items) catalogued various types of Internet-related behaviors. The following characters were evaluated: Typical Russian, Ideal Person, Internet User (all - female and male), and Myself. Respondents (N = 95, 47/48 males/females, mean age 22.9, s.d. 2.8) indicated the degree of likelihood that the characters conduct behavior of each type. Eight scales of the Internet use were selected: (1) profession and business, (2) education of children, (3) entertainment, (4) realization of personal goals, (5) compensatory, (6) cognition, (7) advanced work, (8) communication. Confirmatory factor analysis and nonlinear multiple regression were used to handle data. Results show that men's and women's self-stereotypes and gender stereotypes are close, especially on the self-reported upper levels of competence in the Internet use.
Keywords: gender divide, Internet use, Russia, gender, stereotypes, multiple identification
Internet usage and gender digital divide in a Romanian students' sample BIBAKPDF 265-291
  Ioana Codoban
Little data is available about East-European countries on Internet adoption and gender digital divide issues. Romania is a good case study given its past communist history and current developments, as well as Internet penetration. Students are the focus of the present research as they might provide the basis for further evolution trends. The results of a 275-subject research questionnaire indicate a complex situation as regards Internet adoption and usage: the digital divide is present as regards knowledge, ability and experience. Based on the data, other indicators and demographic information are evaluated and discussed. Gender differences seem limited for general access, but are significant for aspects such as time spent on-line/per week and knowledge (p<0,01). An overall impression of the positive impact of Internet in various aspects of daily life is characteristic of the sample. Similarities and divergences with studies from different realities are discussed, indicating the qualitative differences of the divide.
Keywords: Internet adoption, Gender digital divide, Romanian students, East-European countries, Research questionnaire, Divide indicators

Other Contents

The Impact of Telepresence on Cultural Transmission through Bishoujo Games BIBAKPDF 292-311
  Matthew T. Jones
Japanese bishoujo videogames take on the characteristics of highly detailed "choose your own adventure" novels. The current case study seeks to present a series of "classic" bishoujo videogames and explain how they function to orient the Western player to the culture of modern Japan through the phenomenon of telepresence. Aspects of telepresence that include transportation and immersion are considered toward the end of offering the player a degree of access to some aspects of modern Japanese culture. It is suggested that, by experiencing a sense of telepresence through inhabiting a Japanese avatar, the non-Japanese player has the potential to obtain a heightened level of competence in negotiating Japanese culture.
Keywords: Telepresence, Cultural Transmission, Videogames, Bishoujo
The effect of the Emotion-related Channel in 3D Virtual Communication Environments BIBAKPDF 312-327
  Mikio Kamada; Mioko Ambe; Katsushige Hata; Eiju Yamada; Yuichi Fujimura
An emotion-related channel was combined with electronic chat in a 3D virtual communication environment. Users can convey specific feelings by manipulating the facial expressions and gestures of their 3D characters (avatars). To examine the effects of the emotion-related channel, an experiment was carried out in two elementary schools with fifty-five student participants. It was found that the children were able to communicate more freely and effectively than by simple electronic chat sessions. In addition, the emotion-related channel also served to stimulate textual dialogue between partners. Our findings indicate that text-based media communication environments could be greatly enhanced with an emotion-related channel.
Keywords: communication, emotion, avatar, gesture, facial expression, electronic chat