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UAHCI 2014: 8th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Design and Development Methods for Universal Access

Fullname:UAHCI 2014: 8th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Design and Development Methods for Universal Access
Note:Volume 4 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis; Margherita Antona
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8513
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07437-5 hcibib: UAHCI14-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-07436-8 (print), 978-3-319-07437-5 (online)
Papers:51
Pages:557
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2014-06-22 Volume 1
    1. Design for All Methods, Techniques, and Tools
    2. Development Methods and Tools for Universal Access
    3. User Models, Adaptation and Personalisation
    4. Natural, Multimodal and Multisensory Interaction
    5. Brain-Computer Interfaces

UAHCI 2014-06-22 Volume 1

Design for All Methods, Techniques, and Tools

Empathic and Ethical Design of Technology BIBAKFull-Text 3-10
  Rachel Batchelor; Ania Bobrowicz
A generation which relies on constant communication and digital information has a different view point and language use to older generation for whom modes of communication are less constant. How do we convey intangible qualities such as empathy, creativity and ethics to a young technologically literate generation who are comfortable with its use, but who may lack understanding of life experiences of other users? We examine themes emerging from the findings of a study into the ways older people (60+) use technology. The questions guiding our enquiry are as follows: How could learning about social history of technology help bridge the gap between generations and lead to a more empathic design? Can the teaching of empathy and ethical understandings assist this process?
Keywords: Empathy; design; ethics; technology
Structured Knowledge: A Basic Aspect for Efficient User Applications BIBAKFull-Text 11-18
  Laura Burzagli; Pier Luigi Emiliani
Designing a user ICT application in the Ambient Intelligence (AmI) Information Society requires an accurate study of the knowledge relevant to all the domains of interest for the application, in order to favour a holistic approach to the well-being of all users in their living environment instead of accessibility to the available interfaces. In the framework of a new approach for the design of user applications in the Information Society, a number of examples are provided, which highlight basic elements of the knowledge relevant and its structure.
Keywords: knowledge; ontology; expert system
Designer Requirements for Visual Capability Loss Simulator Tools: Differences between Design Disciplines BIBAKFull-Text 19-30
  Katie Cornish; Joy Goodman-Deane; P. John Clarkson
There is a low uptake of inclusive design tools in industry, partly due to a poor fit between design tools and the thought and work processes of designers. Simulating visual capability losses is a technique with great potential in helping designers improve inclusivity and accessibility. However, we need to understand the needs of designers from different disciplines to improve the fit of these tools and their uptake in industry.
   This study aims to determine designers' needs for vision loss simulators, and how this varies between disciplines. Interviews were carried out with 15 designers from five disciplines. The results suggest that one tool is not suitable for all. The graphic and web designers interviewed required a tool to aid communication with clients, however, the industrial and engineering designers required two tools, depending on the stage of the design process. To increase their uptake, simulator tools should be used in education.
Keywords: Design Tools; Inclusive Design; Simulation; Vision Impairment; Design Discipline
Inclusive Design and Anthropological Methods to Create Technological Support for Societal Inclusion BIBAKFull-Text 31-42
  Anita H. M. Cremers; Yvonne J. F. M. Jansen; Mark A. Neerincx; Dylan Schouten; Alex Kayal
Large groups in society lack the necessary skills to be sufficiently self-reliant and are in need of personal assistance. They include ageing people, people with low literacy skills, non-natives, but also children. They could all be supported by information and communication technology (ICT), but only if this technology is designed to fit their (cognitive) abilities. Inclusive design theory and methods have already been developed to support participatory design, but they should benefit more from insights of qualitative research and analysis methods developed in the field of anthropology. This allows identifying and interpreting theory-based patterns in generic user needs and human values. We present two case studies of how these methods have been applied to develop ICT for self-reliance of various target groups. By incorporating pattern descriptions in the 'situated Cognitive Engineering' framework, this knowledge becomes available for future ICT design and development processes, for other target groups and application areas.
Keywords: ICT; self-reliance; grounded theory; focus group; interview; observation; cultural probe; situated Cognitive Engineering
A Simple Procedure for Using Vision Impairment Simulators to Assess the Visual Clarity of Product Features BIBAKFull-Text 43-53
  Joy Goodman-Deane; Sam Waller; Katie Cornish; P. John Clarkson
Capability loss simulators give designers a brief experience of some of the functional effects of capability loss, thus helping them to understand capability loss better. Wearable simulators, such as vision simulator glasses, can also be worn while using products and prototypes to help identify usability problems. However, this process can be confusing. This paper presents a simple procedure for using vision impairment simulators to assess the visual clarity of product features. The procedure provides clear results that are linked to the numbers of people in the population affected by the issues identified. It was tested with eight accessibility specialists and product developers. Results indicate that they can use this method effectively, and find it useful.
Keywords: Vision loss; Simulation; Inclusive design; Product assessment
The Role of Simulation in Designing for Universal Access BIBAKFull-Text 54-63
  Simeon Keates; Peter Olaf Looms
It is known that the adoption of user-centred design processes can lead to more universally accessible products and services. However, the most frequently cited approach to user-centred design, i.e. participatory design, can be both problematic and expensive to implement., particularly over the difficulty of finding and recruiting suitable participants. Simulation aids offer a potentially cost-effective replacement or complement to participatory design. This paper examines a number of the issues associated with the use of simulation aids when designing for Universal Access. It concludes that simulation aids can play an effective role, but need to be used with due consideration over what insights they provide.
Keywords: User-centred design; universal access; simulation; impairments
'In My Shoes' Interaction Sandbox for a Quest of Accessible Design: Teaching Sighted Students Accessible Design for Blind People BIBAKFull-Text 64-74
  Cosima Rughinis; Razvan Rughinis
This paper examines current practices in motivating students to design accessible technologies, and proposes an additional method to promote a long-term, steadfast commitment to accessibility. We examine recent reports of teaching accessibility for blind users to sighted students, and we find three types of motivational devices: 1) a 'web of arguments' as to morality, legality, and usefulness, 2) empathy, and 3) framing accessibility through mainstreaming. We observe that the challenge of interactional malaise between sighted and blind people is often neglected, and we propose an 'Interaction Sandbox' to overcome it. We also put forward an additional way of framing accessible design, in order to position it as a work of autonomy, mastery, and purpose: the 'Quest' metaphor. Accessible design is thus introduced as the pursuit of a daring goal against widespread adversity, through mastery, in the company of powerful characters. The Quest is set in motion by bringing students to appreciate the technical wizardry of accessible design, its aesthetics, and the heroism of blind people as skilled navigators of a dangerous world.
Keywords: Accessibility; blindness; student motivation; interactional malaise; Quest
Supporting the Design of AAL through a SW Integration Framework: The D4All Project BIBAKFull-Text 75-84
  Marco Sacco; Enrico G. Caldarola; Gianfranco Modoni; Walter Terkaj
Contemporary design is characterized by the paradigm shift from a one-size-fits-all, oriented to the standard man, to an holistic and inclusive one-size-fits-one, that takes into account the full range of human diversity. Following the new paradigm, the "Design for All" Italian research project aims at realizing an effective demonstrator of a framework that promotes a design of an AAL oriented to the real individual, considering everybody in his peculiarities. On the one hand, the framework handles the knowledge about the home environment, also through innovative approaches aimed at modeling specific scenarios representing the relevant states of the individuals (situation and context awareness). On the other hand, it allows various software tools supporting the entire home's life cycle to exchange the knowledge in a smart manner. Mainly focused on interoperability aspects, the paper describes the motivations behind the "Design for All" project concepts, together with the goals and the first findings. Finally, it presents a demonstration scenario that aims at testing and validating the framework.
Keywords: Design For All; Ambient Assisted Living; Interoperability; Semantic Data Model
Empathy Building through Co-design BIBAKFull-Text 85-91
  Shu Yuan; Hua Dong
As a user-designer face-to-face design approach, co-design needs the two sides standing at each other's perspectives for problem solving. In co-design, the key point is building empathy between designers and users. This paper went through the literature about "design empathy". A practical co-design workshop was organized which proved the effectiveness of design probes for empathy building. Other findings include the three modes of designers' participation in co-design.
Keywords: Design empathy; co-design; participatory design

Development Methods and Tools for Universal Access

Ergonomic Aspects of Software Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 95-103
  Andrzej Borucki
The practice of applying rigid software development rules has killed creativity as processes and tools take precedence over technical solutions and client satisfaction. A key role in developing software is played by the intellectual resources of project teams, i.e. their knowledge. The knowledge used to produce software may be either open or hidden. In order to manage software development effectively, advantage needs to be taken of the knowledge held by each design team member. Two distinctive knowledge management strategies are available for managing software development. These are the knowledge codification strategy and the knowledge personalization strategy. The knowledge codification strategy requires the use of expensive technology to apply CASE tools. Based on two decades of experience in managing IT projects, we have grown somewhat critical of the use of CASE tools. Our experience in managing IT projects shows that a strategy of knowledge personalization in software development helps improve designer knowledge in a given business field and boosts their productivity.
Keywords: Project Management; Software Engineering; Requirement Engineering
Tests with Blind Programmers Using AWMo: An Accessible Web Modeling Tool BIBAKFull-Text 104-113
  Filipe Del Nero Grillo; Renata Pontin de Mattos Fortes
With the increase of public utility services being offered by many organizations, such as companies and government institutions, over the Internet and on other electronic medium, the concern related to the access blind and visually impaired citizens is raised. But still, some types of data remain intrinsically unaccessible such as software models, that are generally represented by visually rich diagrams which are inaccessible to screen readers. The goal of this paper is to categorize and evaluate the navigation strategies of blind users using a web application that allows access to UML class diagrams by using a specialized textual language. The investigation was done by analyzing videos with screen capture that were collected as part of a case study conducted with two blind programmers to evaluate the AWMo efficacy in enabling access to visual diagrams for blind and visually impaired software developers. We identified three navigation strategies adopted by the users during the study and the results of the analysis suggest that the navigation in long texts may become a burden on users memories, despite their strategies to improve their speed, non sequential text navigation methods must be further investigated.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; Case Study; Navigation; Modeling; UML
Choice-Based Authentication: A Usable-Security Approach BIBAFull-Text 114-124
  Yasser M. Hausawi; William H. Allen; Gisela Susanne Bahr
Authentication is an important security component of almost any software application. It serves as the application's security front door by controlling access with the goal of protecting the confidentiality and integrity of the system. However, with the large variety of software applications that an end user interacts with daily, authentication is becoming a usability issue that has the potential to weaken a system's overall security. The increasing complexity of dealing with a variety of authentication mechanisms often causes end users to develop negative security behaviours, such as writing down passwords. Moreover, some of the currently available authentication mechanisms, such as alphanumeric passwords, raise universal access issues due to both the issue of remembering a complex sequence of characters and the difficulty some individuals may have in entering that exact sequence on a keyboard or mobile device. This article proposes an authentication approach that seeks to address these usability, universal access, and security issues.
3D Facial Biometric Database -- Search and Reconstruction of Objects Based on PCA Modes BIBAKFull-Text 125-136
  Michal Rychlik; Witold Stankiewicz; Marek Morzynski
This article presents application of modal analysis for the computation of biometric data base (3D faces) and extraction of three dimensional geometrical features. Traditional anthropometric database contains information only about some characteristic points recorded as linear or angular dimensions. The current face recognition systems are also based on the two-dimensional information. To increase level of security the methods need to operate on three-dimensional data. In the article authors present of 3D modal analysis, for decomposition, extraction features and individual coding of analyzed objects sets. Authors apply empirical modal analysis PCA (Principal Component Analysis) for 3D data of human faces. Additionally for face recognition, the comparison of reconstruction with different number of modes are presented and discussed.
Keywords: 3D geometry reconstruction; data registration; low-dimensional model; modal analysis; Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Improved Model-Driven Engineering of User-Interfaces with Generative Macros BIBAKFull-Text 137-148
  Anthony Savidis; Yannis Valsamakis; Yannis Lilis
Model-driven engineering entails various modeling, abstraction and specialization levels for user-interface development. We focus on model-driven tools generating user-interface code, either entire or partial, providing a tangible basis for programmers to introduce custom refinements and extensions. The latter introduces two maintenance issues: (i) once the generated code is modified the source-to-model extraction path, if supported, is broken; and (ii) if the model is updated, code regeneration overwrites custom changes. To address these issues we proposed an alternative path: (i) instead of directly generating code, the model driven tool generates source fragments in the form of abstract syntax trees (ASTs) as XML files; (ii) the application deploys compile-time metaprogramming to manipulate, generate and insert code on-demand from such ASTs, using calls similar to macro invocations. The latter leads to improved separation of concerns: (a) the application programmer controls when and where interface source is generated and integrated in the application source; and (b) interface regeneration overwrites no source code as it only produces ASTs that are manipulated (input) via generator macros.
Keywords: Model-Driven Development; Model-Based User-Interfaces; Code Generation; Compile-Time Metaprogramming
Nested Compositing Window Managers BIBAKFull-Text 149-160
  Anthony Savidis; Andreas Maragudakis
Compositing is currently the prevalent rendering paradigm for window managers. It applies off-screen drawing of managed windows with final image composition by the window manager itself. In this context, a compositing system is presented, enabling the concurrent presence of multiple window managers, being arbitrarily nested while facilitating switch managers on-the-fly. Two distinct managers are implemented, 2d desktop and custom 3d book, that can be freely combined into nested hierarchies. To allow such nesting two extensions are introduced. Firstly, the compositing process is turned to a rendering pipeline with window managers directly in-the-loop, with an imaging model combining diverse geometries. Secondly, to facilitate focus control in such geometric spaces, a cascaded pointing translation process is implemented, enabling geometric mapping of pointing events across nested window managers. The entire compositing system is implemented in a custom widget toolkit named sprint (in C++ with OpengGL and shaders) that is publicly available.
Keywords: Development methods; Interaction techniques; platforms and metaphors; Window managers; Toolkits
Automatic Detection of Features (Markers) on a Three-Dimensional Model of a Human Face BIBAKFull-Text 161-170
  Witold Stankiewicz; Michal Rychlik
The post-processing and correlation analysis (like Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) requires the same topology for all objects in the database. Thus, in the case of 3D scanned data, registration is required. One of possible choices is elastic registration based on the known positions of certain markers (features) on the surface of each scanned object.
   The present paper targets the method of automatic detection of such markers on the scanned human faces and the elastic deformation resulting in the same topology of the triangular meshes after the registration. Resulting data might be analyzed using methods like POD.
Keywords: data registration; 3D scanning; POD; PCA
Gamification in the Development of Accessible Software BIBAKFull-Text 171-180
  Andreas Stiegler; Gottfried Zimmermann
This paper describes a theoretical framework covering game design, game mechanics and game engines, linking examples from actual commercial games with a gamification application. The goal of the framework is to develop an online platform for software developers to aid them in designing accessible applications, finding help on the topic etc. A software stack will be derived taking a typical game development project as an example. We will further identify process requirements for implementing crucial game design rules, like immediate feedback. Finally, an outlook on the final project will be given and possible evaluation metrics will be described.
Keywords: Gamification; Game Development; Serious Games

User Models, Adaptation and Personalisation

A Tool to Support the Collection of User Preferences and Device Characteristics to Enable UI Adaptability in Web 2.0 Applications BIBAFull-Text 183-190
  Philip Ackermann; Carlos A. Velasco; Evangelos Vlachogiannis
We present in this paper a tool that supports the collection of user preferences within the set of components developed in the i2web project to enable UI adaptability of web 2.0 applications. The tool (called Model Management System, MMS) is based upon a semantic web modelling framework to describe user preferences and device capabilities, combined with state-of-the-art models of web applications. This work builds upon previous efforts of the authors [1] leveraged with the use of the semantic framework Composite Capability/Preference Profiles (CC/PP [2]). The MMS gathers information on user preferences and supports user and application providers in discovering the characteristics of the device utilized by the user when accessing the application.
Personalizing Interfaces Using an Inclusive Design Approach BIBAKFull-Text 191-202
  Dana Ayotte; Joanna Vass; Jess Mitchell; Jutta Treviranus
The Web is ubiquitous and yet many potential users are unable to access it at all or to access it in a way that works well for them. As more daily activities become tied to digital systems it becomes imperative that we design these systems for everyone to use. Personalized interfaces have the potential to help marginalized digital users overcome barriers to access and participation in an increasingly digital world. Interfaces that meet users where they are, adapt to their unique preferences, and empower them to participate are a necessity for many to "get in the digital door."
   By using the rich tools and techniques afforded by the web, combined with the inherent mutability of the digital, we can design tools that allow users to customize their digital interaction. Below are details of an inclusive design approach to create preference management tools that allow portable interface personalization.
Keywords: Inclusive design; digital accessibility; user interface design; personalization; preference management tools; user needs and preferences
Using a Common Semantic Structure to Provide Comparable Contextual Models of Users and Technology BIBAKFull-Text 203-214
  Matthew Bell; Colin Machin; Roger Stone
The accessibility solution that is appropriate for an individual in a given situation may be provided through variations in the choice of device, assistive technologies (AT) and adaptations used. Profiles can be created to represent users and technology, however, owing to trade-offs between profile specificity and transportability, there is currently no universally accepted method for creating profiles for holistic interaction.
   This paper describes an approach which represents both user and technology in symmetrical (hierarchical) recursive profiles, using a vocabulary that moves from device-specific to device-agnostic capabilities. Through the use of semantic relationships, capabilities can be attributed -- and accessibility comparisons made -- at varying (appropriate) levels of granularity, using contextually comparable data.
   Where accessibility problems are identified, they are described in terms of the gap between the capabilities of the user and technology, inherently providing a functional description of the support required. Speculative augmentation can then be used to evaluate different solutions in order to maximise accessibility for the individual.
Keywords: Evaluation of Accessibility; Usability; and User Experience; User and Context Modelling and Monitoring; Semantics
Exploiting Inclusive User Model for an Electronic Agriculture System BIBAFull-Text 215-223
  Pradipta Biswas; Jaya Umadikar; Patrick M. Langdon; Arti Kashyap; Suma Prashant
User model can be defined as a machine-readable representation of user characteristics of a system. We have developed a user model that considers users with physical, age-related or contextual impairment and can be used to personalize electronic interfaces to facilitate human machine interaction. This paper presents a case study of exploiting this Inclusive User Model to personalize an electronic agriculture application. The e-agriculture system aims to help farmers in reporting crop diseases electronically and getting help from experts. We have integrated the user model with this application so that it can be used by users with a wide range of perceptual, cognitive and motor impairment. Once users signed up to the user modeling system, their profile is carried with them regardless of the type of device they are using. The paper presents brief detail of both the user model and the e-Agriculture system along with description of a user study conducted on the system.
Accessibility through Preferences: Context-Aware Recommender of Settings BIBAKFull-Text 224-235
  Andrés Iglesias-Pérez; Claudia Loitsch; Nikolaos Kaklanis; Konstantinos Votis; Andreas Stiegler; Konstantinos Kalogirou; Guillem Serra-Autonell; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Gerhard Weber
A proposal for merging context-awareness and user preferences in the same software system is provided. Several modules from the on-going CLOUD4All project (European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) are enhanced with Context Awareness, including the Semantic Matching Framework, the RuleBased Matchmaker (with new rules) and the Statistical Matchmaker (with new features to be used as predictors). Some other components are created exclusively to deal with context features, as the Context Aware Server (to add context from motes) and the Minimatchmaker (to save computation and network resources for well-known situations).
Keywords: e-Inclusion; Personalization; Context-awareness for universal access
A Semantic Framework for Assistive Technologies Description to Strengthen UI Adaptation BIBAKFull-Text 236-245
  Nikolaos Kaklanis; Konstantinos Votis; Konstantinos Giannoutakis; Dimitrios Tzovaras
The present paper presents the Semantic Framework for Content and Solutions, an ontological framework that enables the classification of various assistive technologies (both software and hardware) according to well-known accessibility standards, such as the ISO 9999 standard, and also the description of all the supported adjustments/settings and their alignment with similar settings of other technologies. This semantic framework is a key component of the whole Cloud4all/GPII infrastructure and strengthens the UI adaptation process as it enhances the inference capabilities of the Rule-based Matchmaker, another component of the Cloud4all/GPII infrastructure that tries to match user needs with the corresponding configurations of different assistive technologies using rules.
Keywords: Semantic alignment; ontology; assistive technologies; application classification
Tailored versus Prioritized Configuration towards Accessibility -- A Study on Weighted Preferences BIBAKFull-Text 246-257
  Claudia Loitsch; Eleni Chalkia; Evangelos Bekiaris; Gerhard Weber
We present the results of a user study on human factors towards personalization and accessibility which was conducted with 97 participants (cognitive impaired, dyslexic, low digital literacy, visual impaired and elderly). Amongst others, the presented results gave insights on user weightings of requirements as well as on difficulties in customizing accessibility features of ICT products.
Keywords: User Experience; User Preferences; Personalization; User Interface Adaptation for universal access; Accessibility
Improving the Accessibility of Public Digital Terminals through Personalisation: Comparison of Direct and Indirect Interaction Modes BIBAKFull-Text 258-269
  R. Ignacio Madrid; Kathrin Schrader; Manuel Ortega-Moral
The APSIS4all project has developed and evaluated two different approaches to improve the accessibility of Public Digital Terminals (PDTs). The first one implements the approach called 'direct interaction', by using an online tool to collect users' needs and preferences and use them to provide personalised PDT interfaces. The second one implements the approach called 'indirect interaction', by using a smartphone make the operations and receive and 2D code to finalise the service in the PDT. This paper analyses and compares the results of the trials with both approaches, focusing on the impact of accessible and personalised services in the user experience of different user groups.
Keywords: Accessibility; Personalisation; User Experience; Public Digital Terminals; Automated Teller Machines; Ticket Vending Machines
Future Challenges of User Modelling for Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 270-278
  Yehya Mohamad; Christos Kouroupetroglou; Pierre T. Kirisci
User models are abstract representations of user properties including their needs, preferences, knowledge, as well as physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics. These characteristics are usually represented by variables. User models are instantiated by the declaration of these variables for a particular user or group of users. Such instances of user models are called user profiles. A user profile captures the kind of information about an individual user that is considered by an adaptive system to adapt to aspects of a certain situation and preferences of different users.
   Complimentarily the process of user modelling can be applied to enhance the accessibility of user interfaces by generating or adapting them according to the particular user needs and preferences represented in the user profiles. In spite of the different approaches in this area, further research and development is necessary, particularly in addressing the need for standards to support the interoperability and portability of user models across implementations. More specifically, one of the main challenges of user modelling is the lack of a common approach for integrating user profiles that support different user models within individual implementations, and for migrating profiles from one implementation to another. This can be attributed to the broad variety of user profiles and the incompatibilities that can occur among them. For example, differences in user profiles can occur due to differences in scope of the modelling, source of information for the modelling, time sensitivity and update methods of the model (static vs. dynamic model). In this paper a thorough review of the latest developments in the area of user modelling for accessibility is presented. Further, in the core of the paper future potentials and challenges that this technology has to face in order to gain significant traction and adoption from wider audiences is analyzed.
Keywords: user model; user profile; adaptivity; simulation; context awareness; interoperability
Personalized Multimodal Geo-visualization through Inclusive User Modelling BIBAKFull-Text 279-287
  Sanat Sarangi; Pradipta Biswas; Patrick M. Langdon; Subrat Kar
This paper presents a geo-visualization system that can be personalized based on range of abilities of users and contexts of use. The personalization features uses the Inclusive User Model which simulates interaction and uses those to adapt interfaces based on perceptual, cognitive and motor abilities of users. For example, the proposed visualization system will automatically adjust font size and colour contrast based on perceptual capability of users. It also adjusts spacing between interactive screen elements based on motor abilities of users and context of use. A preliminary user study confirmed that the personalization feature can enhance the usability experience of users.
Keywords: Personalization
Simulation-Based Accessibility Evaluation of Graphical User Interfaces Using Virtual User Models BIBAKFull-Text 288-298
  Athanasios Tsakiris; Ioannis Paliokas; Dimitrios Tzovaras
Accessibility assessment for ICT software products and human-machine interfaces is rapidly gaining increasing significance within the research and development (R&D) cycle of new products, as the population of aging users increases. Through VERITAS automatic simulation framework, we evaluated both Virtual User Models (VUMs) and the simulation framework and its results by conducting a series of pilot tests that involved elderly users using user interfaces in Infotainment and Games. The followed methodology and simulation results are presented with respect to the scores of actual users performing the same tasks as VUMs. Finally, the comparison between the actual user's and virtual models performance is used for VUM optimization.
Keywords: Virtual User Models; Accessibility Assessment; Infotainment
Towards Deep Adaptivity -- A Framework for the Development of Fully Context-Sensitive User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 299-310
  Gottfried Zimmermann; Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Christophe Strobbe
Adaptive systems can change various adaptation aspects at runtime, based on an actual context of use (the user, the platform, and the environment). For adaptable systems, the user controls the adaptation aspects. Both adaptivity and adaptability are pre-requisites for context-sensitive user interfaces that accommodate the needs and preferences of persons with disabilities. In this paper, we provide an overview of the various adaptation aspects and describe a general framework consisting of six steps for the process of user interface adaptation. Based on the framework, we describe our vision of combining the GPII and URC technologies to achieve fully context-sensitive user interfaces.
Keywords: Adaptive user interface; adaptable user interface; user interface adaptation; user interface adaptation aspect; context-sensitive user interface; abstract user interface; Universal Remote Console (URC); Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII); Cloud4all

Natural, Multimodal and Multisensory Interaction

Multi-modal Target Prediction BIBAKFull-Text 313-324
  Pradipta Biswas; Patrick M. Langdon
Users with severe motor impairment often depends on alternative input devices like eye-gaze or head movement trackers to access computers. However these devices are not as fast as computer mouse and often turn difficult to use. We have proposed a Neural-network based model that can predict pointing target by analyzing pointing trajectory. We have validated the model for standard computer mouse, eye-gaze and head movement trackers. The model is used to develop an adaptation system that can statistically significantly reduce pointing times.
Keywords: Multi-modal; Target prediction
A Skirt for Well Aged Ladies with Cognitive Loss BIBAKFull-Text 325-336
  Alma Leora Culén; Sisse Finken
In this paper, we consider design of skirts for well-aged ladies with cognitive loss. In line with recent trends, a graduate student project, which we supervised, focused on monitoring solutions for those suffering from dementia. The result of the project was a skirt. We found ourselves intrigued by the proposed solution and started unpacking, using a phenomenological approach, the meaning of the skirt, when losing cognition. Our conclusion is that skirts for dement ladies should never be viewed as unimportant, or as the new interfaces for assistive technology. Rather, they may be viewed as an opportunity for design to support body, mind and emotions of the person whose cognition is weakening. Aesthetically appealing garments, which improve self-image, designed for ease of dressing, engaging hands, may provide comfort. From the ethical standpoint, embedding skirts or other garments with technology, should be consented to prior to loosing the ability to reason well.
Keywords: interfaces; elderly; dementia; ethics; body
Recommendations for Gesture-Based Residential Interactive Systems Inspired by Diversity BIBAKFull-Text 337-345
  Ana Carla de Carvalho Correia; Leonardo Cunha de Miranda; Heiko Hornung; Juvane Nunes Marciano
Gestural interaction is becoming an important mode of interaction with residential systems, be it with or without using physical artifacts such as remote controls or cell phones. When constructing respective gestural vocabularies social implications need to be considered. The importance of the residential environment to users and the heterogeneity of user profiles make the theme diversity an important concern in the development of these applications. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to describe the recommendations for diversity that support the inclusive design of residential interactive systems based on gestures.
Keywords: accessibility; usability; domotics; gesture-based interaction; smart home; home automation
MuBiks: Tangible Music Player for Visually Challenged BIBAKFull-Text 346-356
  Apurva Gupta; Aditi Padhi; Keyur Sorathia; Surbhit Varma; Bhasker Sharma
MuBiks is a novel tangible music player, designed for visually challenged to create and manipulate music playlists. Users can manipulate musical controls to play, pause and increase-decrease volume through rotating different sections of MuBiks. We followed a user-centered-design approach to understand user behavior towards existing human-machine interactions. Contextual inquiry in the form of semi-structured interviews among teachers and students were conducted across three blind schools in Assam and Madhya Pradesh in India. A series of tasks was given to users to understand patterns of existing communication through texture and size identification. Heavy dependence on memory and secondary help, easy recognition of texture, shape, size and sound and extensive use of hands were observed during the study. Identified insights were referred and accommodated to design proposed music player.
Keywords: Tangible User Interface; Music player; Visually challenged; User-centered design
A CPML-Signwriting Interpreter: A New form to Generate the Graphical Symbols of Signwriting BIBAKFull-Text 357-368
  Carlos E. A. Iatskiu; Laura Sánchez García; Diego Roberto Antunes; André Luiz Pires Guedes
The Brazilian Sign Language is the natural language used by deaf people in Brazil to communicate between themselves and with the society, as well as it is part of culture and tradition. Despite this importance, the record of Libras is still one difficulty, because many existing tools do not support their needs for plain appropriation. This paper presents, through SignWriting, a new way to generate graphical symbols correspondents do Libras Signs in order to make possible the Libras recording for the members of the deaf communities...
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Deaf Culture; Social Inclusion; Computational Tools for Citizenship; SignWriting; Computational Phonological Model
A Universal Assistive Technology with Multimodal Input and Multimedia Output Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 369-378
  Alexey Karpov; Andrey Ronzhin
In this paper, we present a universal assistive technology with multimodal input and multimedia output interfaces. The conceptual model and the software-hardware architecture with levels and components of the universal assistive technology are described. The architecture includes five main interconnected levels: computer hardware, system software, application software of digital signal processing, application software of human-computer interfaces, software of assistive information technologies. The universal assistive technology proposes several multimodal systems and interfaces to the people with disabilities: audio-visual Russian speech recognition system (AVSR), "Talking head" synthesis system (text-to-audiovisual speech), "Signing avatar" synthesis system (sign language visual synthesis), ICANDO multimodal system (hands-free PC control system), and the control system of an assistive smart space.
Keywords: Assistive Technology; Multimodal User Interfaces; Multimedia; Universal Access; Audio-Visual Speech; Assistive Applications
Multi-sensor Technology and Fuzzy Logic for Dancer's Motion Analysis and Performance Evaluation within a 3D Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 379-390
  Alexandros Kitsikidis; Kosmas Dimitropoulos; Erdal Yilmaz; Stella Douka; Nikos Grammalidis
In this paper, we describe a novel methodology for dance learning and evaluation using multi-sensor and 3D gaming technology. The learners are captured during dancing, while an avatar visualizes their motion using fused input from multiple sensors. Motion analysis and fuzzy-logic are employed for the evaluation of the learners' performance against the performance of an expert. Specifically, a two level Fuzzy Inference System is proposed which uses as input low level skeletal data and high level motion recognition probabilities for the evaluation of dancer's performance. Tests with real dancers, both learners and experts, dancing Tsamiko, a very popular traditional Greek dance, are presented showing the potential of the proposed method.
Keywords: Kinect; fuzzy inference system; dance performance evaluation; Unity
A Detecting Sensor as Interface for Children with Severe Physical Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 391-397
  Chien-Yu Lin
Children with cerebral palsy and physical disabilities could not control the standard device, thus the purpose of this study was to redesign the interactive effect for children with physical disabilities. This study extended Makey Makey and scratch software to evaluate the possibility of operate interactive game with a high resistance switching system, whether two children (one is cerebral palsy, the other is severely physical disabilities) would be able to participant actively by using open source software. This study was following single-subject research using ABAB designs in which A indicated the baseline and B indicated intervention. The data showed that two children with different physical disabilities significantly increased their scores on normal game. From the study, they could execute better performance during the intervention phases.
Keywords: physical disabilities; cerebral palsy; conductive substance; interface; intuition
Depth-To-Audio Sensory Substitution for Increasing the Accessibility of Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 398-406
  Shachar Maidenbaum; Daniel Robert Chebat; Shelly Levy-Tzedek; Amir Amedi
As most computerized information is visual, it is not directly accessible to the blind and visually impaired. This challenge is especially great when discussing graphical virtual environments. This is especially unfortunate as such environments hold great potential for the blind community for uses such as social interaction, online education and especially for safe mobility training from the safety and comfort of their home. While several previous attempts have increased the accessibility of these environments current tools are still far from making them properly accessible. We suggest the use of Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs) as another step in increasing the accessibility of such environments by offering the user more raw "visual" information about the scene via other senses. Specifically, we explore here the use of a minimal-SSD based upon the EyeCane, which uses point depth distance information of a single pixel, for tasks such as virtual shape recognition and virtual navigation. We show both success and the fast learned use of this transformation by our users in these tasks, demonstrating the potential for this approach and end with a call for its addition to accessibility toolboxes.
Seeing through the Kinect: A Survey on Heuristics for Building Natural User Interfaces Environments BIBAKFull-Text 407-418
  Vanessa Regina Margareth Lima Maike; Laurindo de Sousa Britto Neto; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas; Siome Klein Goldenstein
The idea of interacting with technologies through touch-less and body-based interfaces has caused great excitement amongst users, but for the designers it has created various new challenges. Usability encompasses part of these challenges, and there have been attempts at creating heuristics for NUIs design. However, most of these heuristics consider using a device such as Kinect for the recognition of gestures, not people or objects. Therefore, in this paper we investigate the subject by presenting a systematic literature review aimed at finding heuristics for the design and evaluation of NUIs. Our analysis focuses on the scenario of helping people with visual disabilities in their daily activities. By looking at the state of the art, we intend to verify how many and which heuristics fit in this context.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; HCI; Accessibility; Assistive Technologies
Affective Haptics for Enhancing Access to Social Interactions for Individuals Who are Blind BIBAKFull-Text 419-429
  Troy McDaniel; Shantanu Bala; Jacob Rosenthal; Ramin Tadayon; Arash Tadayon; Sethuraman Panchanathan
Non-verbal cues used during social interactions, such as facial expressions, are largely inaccessible to individuals who are blind. This work explores the use of affective haptics for communicating emotions displayed during social interactions. We introduce a novel haptic device, called the Haptic Face Display (HFD), consisting of a two-dimensional array of vibration motors capable of displaying rich spatiotemporal vibrotactile patterns presented through passive or active interaction styles. This work investigates users' emotional responses to vibrotactile patterns using a passive interaction style in which the display is embedded on the back of an ergonomic chair. Such a technology could enhance social interactions for individuals who are blind in which emotions of interaction partners, once recognized by a frontend system such as computer vision algorithms, are conveyed through the HFD. We present the results of an experiment exploring the relationship between vibrotactile pattern design and elicited emotional response. Results indicate that pattern shape, duration, among other dimensions, influence emotional response, which is an important consideration when designing technologies for affective haptics.
Keywords: Affective haptics; emotions; vibrotactile stimulation; interpersonal interaction; assistive technology
Haptic Visualization of Real-World Environmental Data for Individuals with Visual Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 430-439
  Chung Hyuk Park; Ayanna M. Howard
In this paper, we present a haptic visualization system that transforms visual perception of depth into a 3D tangible experience. This haptic interface is used to enable a user with visual impairments to explore a remote environment through touch feedback. Experiments with participants with/without visual impairments are constructed, and results are presented that show efficiency of the system as well as discuss responses from user interaction. Furthermore, a viable solution is described that utilizes the presented methodology of transforming image-based data into haptic representation for assisting in STEM education for students with visual impairments.
Keywords: Haptic exploration; haptic assistance for remote perception; haptic assistance for visual information transfer
A Speech-To-Text System's Acceptance Evaluation: Would Deaf Individuals Adopt This Technology in Their Lives? BIBAKFull-Text 440-449
  Soraia Silva Prietch; Napoliana Silva de Souza; Lucia Villela Leite Filgueiras
The problem observed was the difficulty of people who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) to know what is being said or informed in an environment, especially at schools, when sign language interpreter is absent. Thus, the main goal was to investigate which variables most influence on the acceptance of a Speech-To-Text system with regard to the different profiles of people who are D/HH. For the purpose mentioned, we conducted a pilot study in two distinct field researches, in which 11 D/HH volunteers participated. During this study, we used two models as inspiration, TAM and UTAUT, for data collection, which was concerned with: written communication, educational barriers, technology use, habit of using captions and subtitles, emotions, technology acceptance, social influence, empowerment and privacy. In the case of emotions, we used Emotion-LIBRAS, an instrument for people who are D/HH to identify positive, negative or mixed emotions towards technology.
Keywords: People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH); Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR); Technology acceptance; Mobile app; Emotions
A Computer Vision Based Web Application for Tracking Soccer Players BIBAKFull-Text 450-462
  João Rodrigues; Pedro J. S. Cardoso; Tiago Vilas; Bruno Silva; Pedro Rodrigues; Antonio Belguinha; Carlos Gomes
Soccer is a sport where everyone that is involved with it make all the efforts aiming for excellence. Not only the players need to show their skills on the pitch but also the coach, and the remaining staff, need to have their own tools so that they can perform at higher levels. Footdata is a project to build a new web application product for soccer (football), which integrates two fundamental components of this sport's world: the social and the professional. While the former is an enhanced social platform for soccer professionals and fans, the later can be considered as a Soccer Resource Planning, featuring a system for acquisition and processing information to meet all the soccer management needs. In this paper we focus only in a specific module of the professional component. We will describe the section of the web application that allows to analyse movements and tactics of the players using images directly taken from the pitch or from videos, we will show that it is possible to draw players and ball movements in a web application and detect if those movements occur during a game.
Keywords: Applications; interfaces; soccer; web technologies; information system; computer vision
The Haptic Feedback Design of Augmented Reality Virtual Keyboard on the Air BIBAKFull-Text 463-472
  Ho-Chih Yu; Fong-Gong Wu
With the promoting of the computing capacity system, the augmented reality (AR) technology has been gradually used in daily life application. And augmented reality on the hardware device can become smaller which is allowing user easy to carry. However, the location of virtual model in the AR technology on the reality just has air, which means people cannot touch the model actually. Therefore, augmented reality device still does not have ubiquitous haptic feedback equipment to give the user good haptic perception and operation experiment like other portable device such as mobile phone or tablet today. This study try to design the haptic feedback device for augmented reality virtual keyboard on the air, we use focus group to find the innovation idea of haptic feedback for augmented reality, and we create a simple and normal structure to achieve the goal without any high technology equipment. We hope this study cans give the reference for future study of augment reality haptic feedback and also influence the operate posture and interface of augmented reality device.
Keywords: haptic cognitive; focus group; ergonomics; human-computer interaction; Human-center Design

Brain-Computer Interfaces

BNCI Horizon 2020 -- Towards a Roadmap for Brain/Neural Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 475-486
  Clemens Brunner; Benjamin Blankertz; Febo Cincotti; Andrea Kübler; Donatella Mattia; Felip Miralles; Anton Nijholt; Begonya Otal; Patric Salomon; Gernot R. Müller-Putz
In this paper, we present BNCI Horizon 2020, an EU Coordination and Support Action (CSA) that will provide a roadmap for brain-computer interaction research for the next years, starting in 2013, and aiming at research efforts until 2020 and beyond. The project is a successor of the earlier EU-funded Future BNCI CSA that started in 2010 and produced a roadmap for a shorter time period. We present how we, a consortium of the main European BCI research groups as well as companies and end user representatives, expect to tackle the problem of designing a roadmap for BCI research. In this paper, we define the field with its recent developments, in particular by considering publications and EU-funded research projects, and we discuss how we plan to involve research groups, companies, and user groups in our effort to pave the way for useful and fruitful EU-funded BCI research for the next ten years.
Keywords: Brain-computer interfaces; Horizon 2020; roadmap; Future BNCI; mental state monitoring; BCI publications; EU projects; BCI Society; user-centred design; ethical guidelines
Braincontrol Basic Communicator: A Brain-Computer Interface Based Communicator for People with Severe Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 487-494
  Pasquale Fedele; Chiara Fedele; Jarrod Fath
The "BrainControl Basic Communicator" (BrainControl BC) is an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) system based on Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology. The system has been designed for patients with severe disabilities due to pathologies such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis, ischemic or traumatic injuries.
   The first prototype of the BrainControl BC was completed in mid 2012 and has been completed in the mid 2013. From 2012, 20 locked-in patients have been trained with success and in the last few months 12 of these patients are continuously using the system, as it represents the only possibility to communicate.
   BrainControl BC is part of the BrainControl project, aiming to develop a BCI platform that allows people suffering from sever disabilities to overcome physical and communicative impairments. In particular, BrainControl can help patients suffering from diseases that paralyze the whole body or parts of the body, but who retain their intellectual abilities.
   Future versions of BrainControl, which are currently under development, will include advanced communication and functionalities, home automation, the control of a wheelchair and robotics.
Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI); Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC); Assistive Technologies; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Eureka: Realizing That an Application is Responding to Your Brainwaves BIBAKFull-Text 495-502
  Jonathan Giron; Doron Friedman
We have conducted an experiment in which subjects controlled a brain-computer interface (BCI) without being aware that their brainwaves were responsible for events in the scenario. Ten subjects went through a stage of model training in steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI, followed by three trials of an immersive experience where stars moved as a response to SSVEP classification. Only then the subjects were explained that they were using a BCI, and this was followed by an additional trial of immersive free choice BCI and a final validation stage. Three out of the ten subjects realized that they controlled the interface, and these subjects had better accuracy than the rest of the subjects and reported a higher sense of agency in a post study questionnaire.
Keywords: brain computer interface; steady state visually evoked potentials; electroencephalogram; agency
Cognitive Brain Signal Processing: Healthy vs Alzheimer's Disease Patients BIBAKFull-Text 503-514
  Vasiliki Kosmidou; Anthoula Tsolaki; Chrysa Papadaniil; Magdalini Tsolaki; Leontios Hadjileontiadis; Ioannis Kompatsiaris
Processing the brain functionality during certain perceptual stimuli or activities is beneficial to better understanding the lost abilities of a mind of a patient with cognitive impairment. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been widely used as a tool for brain mapping. In this paper, we discuss the experimental setup and methods of the Cognitive Brain signal Processing (CBP) project towards this direction. High spatial resolution EEG (256 channels) is acquired, while the subject perform a series of cognitive tests with known expected response. Four tests from the CANTAB© Battery evaluating visual memory, spatial working memory and attention, a Sudoku puzzle and tasks with external visual and audio stimuli i.e., emotional (Ekman images) and audio event-related potentials (ERP) comprise the experimental protocol. Three groups of subjects are recruited, i.e., 30 healthy young adults 25-40 years old, 30 healthy adults of 65 years and older, and 30 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) aged 65 years and older. In the CBP project, the 2D vector field tomography (VFT) will be extended to the 3D space to create a novel tool to solve the inverse EEG problem towards source reconstruction and therefore brain mapping. The 3D VFT will be applied to the acquired data in order to facilitate the extraction of the cognitive states and the identification of dysfunctioning areas. The external stimuli will be correlated with the performance of the participants to verify which elements can be assistive and improve their performance. The results can be used to design intelligent assistive environments and help the communication of patients with AD in everyday life.
Keywords: brain mapping; Alzheimer's disease; EEG; 3D-vector field tomography
A BCI Platform Supporting AAL Applications BIBAKFull-Text 515-526
  Niccolò Mora; Valentina Bianchi; Ilaria De Munari; Paolo Ciampolini
Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology can provide users lacking voluntary muscle control with an augmentative communication channel, based on the interpretation of her/his brain activity. Such technologies, combined with AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) systems, can potentially have a great impact on daily living, extending the scope of the ageing at home paradigm also to individuals affected by severe motor impairments, for whom interacting with the environment is troublesome. In this paper, a low cost BCI development platform is presented; it consists of a customized EEG acquisition unit and a Matlab-based signal processing environment. An application example using SSVEP paradigm is discussed.
Keywords: Brain Computer Interface (BCI); Ambient Assisted Living (AAL); Daily Living
A BCI-Based Tool for Detection of Awareness and for Communication with Non-responsive Patients BIBAFull-Text 527-535
  Rupert Ortner; Arnau Espinosa; Javi Rodriguez; Steven Laureys; Zulay R. Lugo; Christoph Guger; Günter Edlinger
Imagine being able to think, hear, and feel -- but not move or communicate. Over 40% of patients diagnosed as vegetative are reclassified as (at least) minimally conscious when assessed by expert teams. This publication presents a device that uses BCI (Brain-Computer Interface) technology for quick and easy assessment of patients suffering a disorder of consciousness, and even provides basic communication with some of them. A BCI detects changes in brain activity induced by the user's mental activity. The EEG is used to measure brain signals, which are automatically analyzed and classified on a standard laptop. As long as patients have enough cognitive functions to understand spoken messages, they can be trained to use different mental strategies to provide simple YES/NO answers to questions. The system combines three different BCI approaches within one tool: auditory P300, tactile P300, and motor imagery. These approaches work with patients who cannot see, and (in some cases) also cannot hear.
EEG-enabled Affective Human-Computer Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 536-547
  Olga Sourina; Yisi Liu
Nowadays, the human computer interfaces can be designed to be adaptive and emotion-enabled. The recognized emotions of the user can help make the user's experience more complete, more engaging, less stressful or more stressful depending on the target of the applications. Such affective human-computer interfaces are getting more attention from researchers and engineers. EEG signals are used to recognize emotions of the user in real time. We describe a real-time emotion recognition algorithm that is used to personalize different applications according to the user's current emotions. The algorithm is subject-dependent and needs a training session before running the application. Two EEG-enabled games and one adaptive advertisement based on the algorithm are designed and implemented. One game is the "Bar" game where a difficulty level of the game is adapted based on the player's score and emotions. Another game is the "Girl Twins" one where the player's emotions are monitored in real time, and an emotional companion is implemented as the girl twins avatars whose behaviour changes according to the user's emotions. An adaptive advertising movie is designed and implemented as well. Here, the real-time emotion recognition algorithm is used to adjust the scenes of the advertisement based on the current emotion recognized.
Keywords: EEG; adaptive interfaces; emotion recognition; BCI; affective computing