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UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2013: 7th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Applications and Services for Quality of Life

Fullname:UAHCI 2013: 7th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Applications and Services for Quality of Life
Note:Volume 8 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis; Margherita Antona
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8011
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39194-1 hcibib: UAHCI13-3; ISBN: 978-3-642-39193-4 (print), 978-3-642-39194-1 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2013-07-21 Volume 3
    1. Universal Access to Smart Environments and Ambient Assisted Living
    2. Universal Access to Learning and Education
    3. Universal Access to Text, Books, eBooks and Digital Libraries
    4. Health, Well-Being, Rehabilitation and Medical Applications
    5. Access to Mobile Interaction

UAHCI 2013-07-21 Volume 3

Universal Access to Smart Environments and Ambient Assisted Living

Design for Adapted Devices: An Evaluation Tool of Smart Things for Seniors BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Javier Barcenilla; Charles Tijus; Djamel Aissaoui; Eric Brangier
In addition to usual Information and Communication Technology (ICT) devices, things such as clothes and homes are becoming smart and can be used for specific aging needs. However, because there is a diversity of senior impairments, one must diagnose needs, expectations or skills of seniors in order to provide the best adapted functions and usages. This study is about how to choose the best care method for seniors by providing a diagnosis based on a tool called "Design for Adapted Devices" (DAD). DAD tries to develop adaptable systems based on the comprehensive diagnosis of human deficits and needs of future users, taking into account the aspects of the individual's activity. DAD takes into account several dimensions of user diversity like skills and abilities (motor, cognitive skills, etc.) and measures deficits that modulate users' performances (social support, experience, etc.). Applied to seniors, DAD gives prospective data to define future smart things.
Keywords: Universal design; senior needs; smart things; impairments diagnosis
Shaping an Integrating Kitchen Space with Gesture-Based Control System BIBAKFull-Text 12-21
  Agata Bonenberg
This article provides a summary of research into the integrating kitchen design: a kitchen designed for simultaneous use by people with mobility problems, including wheelchair bound persons as well as able-bodied people. By introducing mobile gesture controlled modules into kitchen furniture it is possible to dynamically adjust furniture for use in seating or standing positions. An important aspect of research problem is such location of elements which would optimize the simultaneous use of kitchen by two persons: able-bodied and disabled.
Keywords: Integrating kitchen; gesture control system; accessibility; degree of integration; spatial conflict; disabilities
Universal Access: A Concept to Be Adapted to Technological Development and Societal Change BIBAKFull-Text 22-29
  Laura Burzagli; Pier Luigi Emiliani
Society is undergoing a transition toward an information society, due to the very fast development of ICT technology. This transition is creating a new complex social environment that requires new ways of looking at universal accessibility and methodologies to guarantee it. After an analysis of the present situation and possible developments, the main conclusion of the paper is that not only the information society (equipment and services) must be designed for all, but also that it must be designed by all. This means that users must be integrated not only in the phase of requirement analysis, but as actors in designing and implementing solutions.
Keywords: Universal design; Design for All; Ambient intelligence
Collective Intelligence for Einclusion BIBAKFull-Text 30-37
  Laura Burzagli; Pier Luigi Emiliani
Collective intelligence is a concept under development that could have an important impact on eInclusion, adding a social component to the actions in favour of disadvantaged people. Even if some interesting applications of the concept have been presented, their description so far mainly deals with the technical aspects of their implementation. The main message of the paper, based on preliminary work in the laboratory and experiments in the field under preparation as an activity in the AAL (Ambiente Assisted Living) project FOOD, is that a careful analysis of the features of the problem to be addressed and of the community potentially active in the support cooperative network can lead to a more efficient set up and running of applications based on the collective intelligent concept.
Keywords: Universal design; Collective intelligence; Ambient Intelligence
Ambient Assistive Technology Considered Harmful BIBAKFull-Text 38-47
  Yngve Dahl; Babak Farshchian; Anders Kofod-Petersen; Silje Bøthun; Kristine Holbø; Jarl Kåre Reitan
Ambient assistive technology (AAT) is envisioned as a powerful tool for facing the growing demands the demographic change toward an aging society puts on care. While AAT is often expected to increase the quality of life of older people, this paper holds that relevant interventions often embody values that can contradict such visions, and in some cases even be harmful to care receivers. We argue that the strong focus AAT puts on illness and risk management reflects a medical model of care, which often disregards the psychosocial challenges that impairments and disabilities associated with old age can rise. We suggest that design of AAT could benefit from using the social model of care as design inspiration and value foundation. Such an approach puts focus on the person rather than the illness. The paper ends by providing a short description of work in which the social model of care is adopted as a basis for design of AAT.
Keywords: Ambient assistive technology; Disability; Elderly care; Ethics; Human values; User-centered design; Value sensitive design
Home Robots, Learn by Themselves BIBAKFull-Text 48-53
  Osamu Hasegawa; Daiki Kimura
To build an intelligent robot, we must develop an autonomous mental development system that incrementally and speedily learns from humans, its environments, and electronic data. This paper presents an ultra-fast, multimodal, and online incremental transfer learning method using the STAR-SOINN. We conducted two experiments to evaluate our method. The results suggest that recognition accuracy is higher than the system that simply adds modalities. The proposed method can work very quickly (approximately 1.5 [s] to learn one object, and 30 [ms] for a single estimation). We implemented this method on an actual robot that could estimate attributes of "unknown" objects by transferring attribute information of known objects. We believe this method can become a base technology for future robots.
   SOINN is an unsupervised online-learning method capable of incremental learning. By approximating the distribution of input data and the number of classes, a self-organized network is formed. SOINN offers the following advantages: network formation is not required to be predetermined beforehand, high robustness to noise, and reduced computational cost. In the near future, a SOINN device will accompany an individual from birth; this will allow the agent to share personal histories with its owner. In this occasion, a person's SOINN will know "everything" about its owner, lending assistance at any time and place throughout one's lifetime. Besides having a personal SOINN, an individual can install this self-enhanced agent into human-made products - making use of learned preferences to make the system more efficient. If deemed non-confidential, an individual's SOINN could also autonomously communicate another SOINN to share information.
Keywords: SOINN (Self-organizing Incremental Neural Network); Home robots; Machine learning
The Future of Universal Access? Merging Computing, Design and Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 54-63
  Simeon Keates; David Bradley; Andrew Sapeluk
Technology is advancing at a fast pace while the shape and nature of computers continues to evolve, with tablets and smartphones illustrating the move away from the traditional notion of a laptop or desktop computer. Similarly, networking and sensing technologies are also developing rapidly and innovatively. All of these technologies have the potential to enfranchise users with severe functional impairments to be better able to control and interact with other people and their surroundings. However, this is only possible if those designing the novel systems based upon these new technologies consider such users' needs explicitly. This paper examines how these technological advances can be employed to support these users in the near future. The paper further discusses issues such as the need for security as systems evolve from control of specific environments to a potential model for interaction in any location.
Keywords: Universal access; mechatronics; accessibility; environmental control systems; alternative and augmentative communication (AAC); tablets
WorkSense: An Interactive Space Design for Future Workplace BIBAKFull-Text 64-69
  Hsuan-Cheng Lin; Taysheng Jeng
Technological advances have initiated obvious changes in types of work so that the traditional cube office layout cannot meet current users' needs. This paper aims to develop an experimental platform for the workplace which is centered on satisfying users' demands. Living lab studies are examined in order to evaluate the uses of the place, with different interactive installations of furniture in the space, and a back-end BIM platform, to present a humane smart workplace of the future.
Keywords: interactive design; living space; smart space; future workplace
Building Up Virtual Environments Using Gestures BIBAKFull-Text 70-78
  Alexander Marinc; Carsten Stocklöw; Andreas Braun
When realizing human-machine-interaction in smart environments it is required to create a virtual representation of the environment that encompasses not only location of the different devices supported but may also contain meta-information such as technical and logical communication layers or a description of supported functionalities, e.g. by using semantics. Creating this representation typically requires technical knowledge and manipulation of object representation files. Therefor it is a major challenge to enable this set-up for regular users, by providing an easy way to establish the virtual environment and the respective position and orientation of integrated devices. In this work we present a novel user-centered approach to create these physical parameters in the virtual representation. Based on intuitive gestural interaction we are able to define the boundaries of appliances and select their capabilities. We have evaluated this method with various users, in order to investigate if such a gestural modification of virtual representations provides an easy way for regular users to create their own smart environment.
Keywords: Smart Environments; 3D modeling; distributed computing
Gathering the Users' Needs in the Development of Assistive Technology: A Blind Navigation System Use Case BIBAKFull-Text 79-88
  Hugo Paredes; Hugo Fernandes; Paulo Martins; João Barroso
Assistive technology enables people to achieve independence in the accomplishment of their daily tasks and enhance their quality of life. However, the development os assistive technology does not always follow user needs and expectations, comprising their usability and effectiveness. This paper discusses the design and evaluation strategies for assistive technologies applied to a blind navigation system case study. The research carried out focused on the gathering of user requirements for ensuring enhanced autonomy of blind people in their daily life. The picked requirements were used in an architecture that unifies the benefits of a redundant blind navigation system with a set of services that are provided by daily used information and communication technologies. The system combines guidance, navigation and information gathering, extending traditional aids with realtime knowledge of the surrounding environment to provide an enhanced assistive tool for autonomy of the blinds. Moreover, the developed solution fills the gap of existing solutions that require the users to carry a wide range of devices and, mostly, do not include mechanisms to ensure the autonomy of users in the event of system failure.
Keywords: usability evaluation; interviews; blindness; assistive technology; navigation; autonomy
Ambient Assisted Living Development in East Slovakia BIBAKFull-Text 89-96
  Dušan Šimšik; Alena Galajdová; Daniel Siman; Daniela Onofrejová
Authors describe preliminary results and some new plans in the development project of the new social service in Kosice city in East Slovakia. On 20 users group of Kosice citizens it is shown how applied research has been translated into practical innovation of regional social service based on ICT technology. Results were obtained in frame of the International European project MonAMI -- Mainstreaming on Ambient Intelligence, supported by the 6-th framework program of the European Commission. It shows how ambient technology platform MonAMI and related ICT services were adapted into society in a city and rural area too in Slovakia. MonAMI is European project focusing on ambient assisted living concept to increase autonomy, enhance ICT services for monitoring purposes for carers and support safety of vulnerable people living alone. Current plans for further development and implementation in praxis in cooperation with the SME are described.
Keywords: seniors; ambient assistive living; sensor networks; open architecture; tele-health
Resource Management for Multimodal and Multilingual Adaptation of User Interfaces in Ambient Assisted Living Environments BIBAKFull-Text 97-106
  Carsten Stocklöw; Andrej Grguric; Tim Dutz; Tjark Vandommele; Arjan Kuijper
Providing multimodal user interfaces in Ambient Assisted Living scenarios is a challenging task due to large variety of modalities and languages that can be used as well as impairments and preferences of end users. Creating an application that can cope with this multitude of presentation possibilities is highly complex. However, by separating the application from the presentation layer and representing the dialog in an abstract form, it is possible to perform adaptations according to the output parameters. In this work, we present the concept for a Resource Server for multimodal and distributed systems which is capable of storing different kinds of resources and associated metadata, and adapting abstract dialogs. We propose the introduction of a presentation identifier as placeholder for a set of concrete resources, a two-stage mapping between identifiers, and a selection algorithm to cope with the problem of multiple matching resources.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; User Interaction; Resource Server
An Integration Framework for Motion and Visually Impaired Virtual Humans in Interactive Immersive Environments BIBAKFull-Text 107-115
  Frank Sulzmann; Roland Blach; Manfred Dangelmaier
A flexible framework has been created to test products taking into account different impairments. This system offers new opportunities to check products and design products as accessible as possible. The modular approach allows the integration of further models and analysis tools.
Keywords: framework; service orientated software architecture; modular approach; digital human model; virtual human; visual impairment; immersive environment; virtual reality
BioCyberUrban parQ: An Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing System for Environmental Integration BIBAKFull-Text 116-124
  Suzete Venturelli; Francisco de Paula Barretto; André Bassani de Freitas
The goal of BioCyberUrban parQ project is to connect the living things, objects and environment in order to enable their cybernetic communication/coexistence in Sarah Kubitschek Park (Brasilia's city park). Art and society context aim the processes of physical, intellectual and moral users consciousness development, along with all living beings in the City Park. Therefore we seek for a better ecosystem coexistence, integration and communication through the crowd-collected data as the foundation of this cyber community.
Keywords: cyber objects; computer art; art and technology; pervasive computing

Universal Access to Learning and Education

Approaches to E-Learning BIBAKFull-Text 127-132
  Susanne Akrawi Hartvig; Eva Petersson Brooks
E-learning has made its entrance into educational institutions. Compared to traditional learning methods, e-learning has the benefit of enabling educational institutions to attract more students. E-learning not only opens up for an increased enrollment, it also gives students who would otherwise not be able to take the education to now get the possibility to do so. This paper introduces Axel Honneth's theory on the need for recognition as a framework to understand the role and function of interaction in relation to e-learning. The paper argues that an increased focus on the dialectic relationship between recognition and learning will enable an optimization of the learning conditions and the interactive affordances targeting students under e-learning programs. The paper concludes that the engagement and motivation to learn are not only influenced by but depending on recognition.
Keywords: e-learning; interaction; dialectic relationship; recognition
Deaf Students and Comic Hypermedia: Proposal of Accessible Learning Object BIBAKFull-Text 133-142
  Raul Inácio Busarello; Vania Ribas Ulbricht; Patricia Bieging; Vilma Villarouco
This article presents the perceptions of deaf users that had participated in an experiment about the use of comics as hypermedia learning object of descriptive geometry. The methodology used was exploratory research, applied based on qualitative method. From that the prototype was created and subsequently tested with the sample of the public. This article presents: an approach to the profile of the public searched; the structure of the prototype created; and the results of applying through perspective of deaf students. As a result it was observed that: the comic's structure and adapted to the hypermedia presentations facilitate the content's assimilation by the deaf student. The participants had been adapting quickly to form navigation proposed in learning object. Moreover, the media creates an emotional appeal to the audience, which contributes to their learning.
Keywords: deaf; comics; hypermedia; accessible; learning object
Developing Story Performing System for Children BIBAKFull-Text 143-152
  Chien-Hsu Chen; Shao-Yu Wang; Yi-Chai Nina Lee
Storytelling activity is an effective method to enhance children's presentation ability, logical thinking and imagination in elementary education. In this paper, researchers observed elementary school children in the course of Performing Art and discovered the difficulty for them to operate the puppets. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to take advantages from both technology and storytelling activities to solve this kind of problems. A real-time chromakey technique system which is able to composites the actors and the scenes in real-time is conducted for children to create plays intuitively as well as record their performance for sharing, therefore reduce the frustration and increase the motivation of children in creating stories.
Keywords: storytelling; elementary education; performing system; collaboration
Introducing an Information System for Successful Support of Selective Attention in Online Courses BIBAFull-Text 153-162
  Martin Ebner; Josef Wachtler; Andreas Holzinger
Human learning processes are strongly depending on attention of each single learner. Due to this fact any measurement helping to increase students' attention is from high importance. Till now there are some developments called Audience-Response-Systems only available for face-to-face education even for masses. In this publication we introduce a web-based information system which is also usable for online-systems. Students' attention will be conserved based on different interaction forms during the live stream of a lecture. The evaluation pointed out that the system helps to enlarge the attention of each single participant.
Development of the Hearing Communication System in an Individual and the Classroom BIBAKFull-Text 163-171
  Manabu Ishihara; Shin-nosukei Suzuki; Jun Shirataki
Sign language interpretation and PC captioning are used as means of assisting hearing impaired people to get information. A noise in classroom is bigger than expected, so it became a problem for hearing impairments who need concentrate listen. And children and students can't listen teachers speech is easy to imagine which become a factor of interfere. In classrooms, speech is infrequently transmitted to a child without interference from background noise. Background noise refers to any undesired auditory stimuli that interferes with what a child wants, or needs, to hear and understand. Therefore, a product are sold which use FM wireless transmission. We have developed a supporting system of nursing care for the hearing disabled people, using a tablet PC. This proposed system devices a system which the LAN invented in the school. And it also use speech transmission on wireless LAN then they consider to use a smartphone and mobile games device. In the system, we choose a interface of GUI which is a few operation for beginner. Results of monosyllabic intelligibility test calculate 86% average. We can judge the system is utility.
Keywords: Wi-Hi; LAN; hearing impaired people; tablet PC; intelligibility
Design and Development of Accessible Educational and Teaching Material for Deaf Students in Greece BIBAKFull-Text 172-178
  Vassilis Kourbetis
The project of the Institute of Educational Policy: "Design and Development of Accessible Educational & Instructional Material for Students with Disabilities" in part aims at developing accessible educational material with Greek Sign Language (GSL) as the main access mode. Material for GSL teaching as a first language to Deaf children is also under development. Part of the project is the development of best practices and standards to be followed in the process of designing, developing and documenting GSL material. The study and the project results, as well as the proper use of the material will be the main focus of an in-service training course for professionals working with deaf children.
Keywords: Deaf children; Greek Sign Language; accessible educational material
Universal Design and Accessibility Standards in Online Learning Objects BIBAKFull-Text 179-186
  Cláudia Mara Scudelari de Macedo; Vania Ribas Ulbricht
This article notes that the media used in distance learning mode can create barriers to access such content for people who have some form of disabilities. Introduces the principles of universal design, aggregates the standards, guidelines and recommendations for creating accessible web content, developing a set of guidelines for creating accessible learning objects, aiming to support content-developing teachers in creating learning objects accessible to people with disabilities.
Keywords: Distance Education; Learning Objects; accessibility
Effective Usage of Stereoscopic Visualization for the Learning of a Motional Mechanism BIBAKFull-Text 187-194
  Shu Matsuura
3D stereoscopic display is expected to be an advantageous interface of the learning materials to facilitate viewer's spatial recognition. To reduce the visual fatigue in viewing rotational motions, and to make use of the effect of stereoscopic display, an intermittent exposure method was considered and compared with continuous exposure method. Further, the effect of one-second exposure supplemented with the projected rotational motion was examined. It was suggested that even such a short-time exposure was effective for improving spatial recognition, reducing the visual fatigue remarkably.
Keywords: 3D stereoscopic display; rotational motion; spatial perception
Educational Inclusiveness through Ludic Engagement and Digital Creativity BIBAKFull-Text 195-202
  Rachel McCrindle
This paper describes an approach to teaching and learning that combines elements of ludic engagement, gamification and digital creativity in order to make the learning of a serious subject a fun, interactive and inclusive experience for students regardless of their gender, age, culture, experience or any disabilities that they may have. This approach has been successfully used to teach software engineering to first year students but could in principle be transferred to any subject or discipline.
Keywords: Ludic engagement; games; digital creativity; group work; soft skills; subject knowledge
Can Accessible Digital Formats Improve Reading Skills, Habits and Educational Level for Dyslectic Youngsters? BIBAKFull-Text 203-212
  Simon Moe; Michael Wright
Dyslexic children face significant barriers when reading printed text. It has been well documented that subsequent lower reading frequency impacts the ability to read, vocabulary and the desire to go to school, causing a negative spiral. Finally, poor reading skills contribute to a significantly lower level of education than for the rest of the population. In 2010 Nota conducted a national study of dyslexic children's reading frequency, the use of hybrid audio and welfare. 500 children were interviewed in a telephone survey for half an hour. Further interviews were also conducted with 200 randomly selected children. The study supports a positive correlation between dyslexic children's access to and use of accessible digital formats and their reading habits, satisfaction with school and ambitions for further education.
Keywords: Audiobooks; Dyslexia; Print Disabilities; Daisy
Using Mediated Communication to Teach Vocational Concepts to Deaf Users BIBAKFull-Text 213-222
  Ingrid Teixeira Monteiro; Aline da Silva Alves; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza
This paper presents an in-depth study on how a small group of deaf users reacted while learning abstract vocational concepts in the domain of librarianship, using mediated interaction supported by WNH, a Web Navigation Helper. WNH's purpose is to allow helpers to create mediation dialogs to enable or facilitate helpees' online interaction with Web pages. In our study, deaf employees at a Brazilian library were taught a lesson especially designed for WNH by a deaf librarian who is fluent in Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS) and Portuguese. Among the results we were able to see the huge gaps between what a library is for our deaf participants and what it is for non-deaf library professionals and customers. We could also appreciate the role of technologies like WNH in preparing deaf users to interact with Web systems in professional settings.
Keywords: Mediated communication; deaf learners; vocational education
The Effects of Projector Arrangement on Children Physical Activity BIBAKFull-Text 223-230
  Loan Ngo; Fong-Gong Wu
In kindergarten education, effective teaching is defined to be successful when children are learning while playing. As a combination of indoor and outdoor activities, the purpose of kindergarten education is to develop children physically, psychologically and socially. However, there are always some limitations from the surrounding environment that prevent kindergarten education from achieving its purposes. This study considers the effect of changing infrastructure inside the classroom on children's learning through physical activities, in particular, the effect of projector arrangement inside classrooms on kindergarten children's physical activities. This study is conducted in three different environments: "outdoor environment," "one-projector environment," and "two-projector environment" with the aim to learn about the effect of each environment on children's learning process through physical activities. The results point to a confident relationship between children's physical development and in class physical activities through interacting with projector images.
Keywords: Accessibility of Smart Environments; physical activities; children; projector
Addressing Learning Disabilities in Ambient Intelligence Educational Environments BIBAKFull-Text 231-240
  Stavroula Ntoa; Margherita Antona; George Margetis; Constantine Stephanidis
Learning disabilities (LD) affect not only an individual's academic skills, but also many aspects of life for a large population percentage. As a result, understanding individuals with learning disabilities and addressing their needs is an active topic of research, although it has been studied for several years. On the other hand, Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is an emerging field of research. AmI environments are claimed to be among other things sensitive, caring and adaptive to their inhabitants. In the context of education, AmI can adopt a student-centric approach and support the education activities that are taking place adapting to the individual learner's needs. This paper proposes an approach for AmI educational environments to assist in identifying, monitoring, and providing adapted instruction to students with LDs.
Keywords: learning disabilities; ambient intelligence; smart classroom
Ludic Engagement Designs: Creating Spaces for Playful Learning BIBAKFull-Text 241-249
  Eva Petersson Brooks
The learning within and the design of a learning (or therapeutic) situation constitutes a situated activity with inherent actions and interventions. The participant profile influences the facilitator's decisions on how to set up the attributes of the environment relative to the desired learning process and the expected outcome of that process. This paper presents a model which was developed relative to the development, use and evaluation of interactive spaces for playful learning. However, the model has a more generic value as it has been used in learning situations where other forms of resources and/or methods have been used. Thus, the general results upon which the present model is created, indicate that a playful learning tool may be construed by an open-ended design, in the sense that its (im)material affordances should in a flexible way support inclusion of different forms of emergent interaction and forms of play.
Keywords: playful learning; design; semiotic interplay; facilitation
Supporting Accessibility in Higher Education Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 250-255
  Arsénio Reis; João Barroso; Ramiro Gonçalves
Higher education institutions (HEI) and students are highly dependent of information systems, implemented as web applications. Students must be able to access this applications, thought accessible web interfaces, in order to perform their academic activities. This paper presents an overview of a typical set of web applications used by students and the main concerns regarding accessibility compliance. The analysis was conducted using the systems at the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro.
Keywords: Higher education institutions; Accessibility; W3C; Moodle; DSpace
Social Media as Online Mentoring Tools for STEM Students With and Without Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 256-265
  Robert L. Todd
Considerable attention has been given to the need for educating a diverse workforce in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Public and regulatory institutions have stressed the importance of efforts to recruit and retain students chronically underrepresented in STEM fields. Individuals with disabilities are among the most marginalized of these groups and face significant barriers to accessing higher education STEM programs. This paper will discuss affordances for e-mentoring of students in STEM education, with a focus on universal design for online learning and inclusion of all students, especially those with functional limitations due to disability. Preliminary data from ongoing research will be reviewed and discussed.
Keywords: e-mentoring; STEM; disability; social media; virtual worlds
Pupils' Satisfaction in Using Netbook BIBAKFull-Text 266-271
  Fong-Gong Wu; Chii-Zen Yu; Chiu-Min Yen
E-learning is promoted in elementary school, and netbook is one of the equipment in e-learning. This study adopted questionnaire survey to discuss the pupils' satisfaction towards the usage of netbook. The data were analyzed by SPSS for descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results are as follows: The order of the satisfaction degree of the pupils toward netbooks is portability, design, applications, e-learning, online search, keyboard, and screen. Except for screen, all other aspects are satisfactory. Regarding the influence of learning background and user experience on satisfaction, the degree of satisfaction of students who started to use computers early is lower, and that of students who had more experiences in using computers is also lower. The order of the influence degree of variate is gender, computer learning background, and computer using experience.
Keywords: Netbook; Satisfaction; Learning background; User experience
Effectiveness of Learning Chinese Character Using Tablet Technology BIBAKFull-Text 272-280
  Chao-Yang Yang; Ting-Yi Chiu-Huang; Yu-Ting Wu
Bad handwriting often results in bad academic performance and discourages students from learning. Tablet technology has given character learning a new form such as writing by fingertip and various selection of background color. Without holding a pen, it is less stress and more intuitive for character-learning children. With certain background color, child seems pay more attention on writing. In this research, we piloted an evaluation to which we investigated whether learning by the tablet features is better than traditional paper-and-pencil learning. A third-year elementary student who is in the age of first learning Chinese characters was employed to this study. Different background color, stroke thickness and writing methods were tested. The results show that no significance between but aesthetics. There are steady stroke, slanted character, ratio and distance. And these aesthetics appear in specific colors strokes and background, thick and thin strokes or by finger and stylus writing.
Keywords: handwriting; tablet; color; stroke; background

Universal Access to Text, Books, eBooks and Digital Libraries

AcceSciTech: A Global Approach to Make Scientific and Technical Literature Accessible BIBAKFull-Text 283-290
  Alex Bernier; Dominique Burger
In this paper, we introduce AcceSciTech, a research and development project which addresses the challenges faced in providing access to scientific and technical literature for the visually impaired and, more broadly, for those who are not able to read conventional print. Based on XML formats, this project aims to develop a coherent set of tools to produce, edit, deliver and to render complex documents accessible to impaired people.
Keywords: accessible publishing; Braille; DAISY; ebooks; EPUB; PEF; print-disabled persons; scientific documents; workflow; XML
Exploration of Picture E-Book Design for App Web BIBAKFull-Text 291-296
  Cheih-Ying Chen; Hung-Chieh Chang
The objective of this study is to investigate the interactive relationship between picture e-book design and children with the interface of APP web for mobile devices. In order to achieve the objective, the focus of this study is in applying APP technology to picture e-book. Also, APP web interfaces based on both smartphone and tablet via picture book are designed in the study. Furthermore, this study discusses children interface satisfaction in reading the e-book. It shows that both the interactive process and the result differ in smartphone and in tablet. It seems to be the best way for children to read the picture e-book if they can easily touch the buttons on the screen of a tablet.
Keywords: Picture e-book; APP web design; smartphone; tablet
Read-Aid -- An Assistive Reading Tool for Children with Dyslexia BIBAKFull-Text 297-304
  Suvarna Rekha; Sai Gollapudi; Harini Sampath; Bipin Indurkhya
We developed a software application, Read-Aid to help improve reading pattern in children with Dyslexia with visual processing problems. We hypothesized that after a dyslexic child's interaction with our application, there will be an improvement in their reading speed and comprehension. We compared our results with existing masked-reading intervention approach. A between-group study was conducted with 15 children. Results were significant (p=0.026) suggesting that our Read-Aid tool has potential as an assistive technology application.
Keywords: Non-linear reading; Assistive technology; Learning disabilities
Comparison of the Effectiveness of Different Accessibility Plugins Based on Important Accessibility Criteria BIBAKFull-Text 305-310
  Alireza Darvishy; Hans-Peter Hutter
This paper compares two new freely available software plugins for MS PowerPoint and Word documents that we have developed at the ZHAW with similar tools with respect to important accessibility criteria. Our plugins [1, 2, 3] allow the analysis of accessibility issues and consequently the generation of fully accessible PDF documents. The document authors using these plugins require no specific accessibility knowledge. The plugins are based on a flexible software architecture concept [1] that allows the automatic generation of fully accessible PDF documents originating from various authoring tools, such as Adobe InDesign [5], Word or PowerPoint [6, 7]. Other available plugins, on the other hand, need accessibility knowledge in order to use them properly and effectively.
Keywords: Document accessibility; automatic generation of accessible PDF; screen reader; visual impairment; accessibility; tagged PDF; software architecture; PowerPoint and Word documents; PDF accessibility ISO standard
Nonvisual Presentation and Navigation within the Structure of Digital Text-Documents on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 311-320
  Martin Lukas Dorigo; Bettina Harriehausen-Mühlbauer; Ingo Stengel; Paul S. Haskell-Dowland
This paper introduces a novel concept for an assistive technology in support of blind and visually impaired persons for nonvisual presentation and navigation within the structure of digital text-documents on mobile devices (smart phones, internet tablets, etc.) which enables them to get a fast overview over the structure of an entire document. The advantages compared to state of the art screen readers are that it enables them to identifying the type, position, length and context of each logical structure element, the current cursor position within the document as well as to accessing any structure element at any time in an arbitrary order. For the nonvisual presentation of the document structure elements auditory icons, tones and vibration feedback are used. Navigation and cursor routing is provided by performing gestures on the touch screen. There is no expensive special hardware required.
Keywords: Assistive technology; nonvisual; presentation; navigation; cursor routing; mobile devices; smart phone; internet tablet; auditory icon; tone; vibration feedback; touch screen; gestures; logical structure; overview; skimming and scanning; document accessibility; blind; visual impairment
Usability of Web Search Interfaces for Blind Users -- A Review of Digital Academic Library User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 321-330
  Tapio Haanperä; Marko Nieminen
In this paper we report our findings on the usability of four digital academic library databases when used by blind individuals using a screen reader. Our interaction level analysis shows that despite improvements in accessibility guidelines and technologies web search interfaces still lack good usability for screen reader users. Accessibility issues appear to have been addressed from the angle of technical readability instead of usability or user experience. As a result of the analysis we present design suggestions for making a web search interface more usable for screen reader users: 1) Highlighting search results (e.g. using headings), 2) No unnecessary elements before search results, 3) Search edit field and button in the beginning, 4) Descriptive labeling of search elements, 5) Abstract right after the search result title.
Keywords: accessibility; usability; screen readers; web search; user interface
Design and Developing Methodology for 8-dot Braille Code Systems BIBAKFull-Text 331-340
  Hernisa Kacorri; Georgios Kouroupetroglou
Braille code, employing six embossed dots evenly arranged in rectangular letter spaces or cells, constitutes the dominant touch reading or typing system for the blind. Limited to 63 possible dot combinations per cell, there are a number of application examples, such as mathematics and sciences, and assistive technologies, such as braille displays, in which the 6-dot cell braille is extended to 8-dot. This work proposes a language-independent methodology for the systematic development of an 8-dot braille code. Moreover, a set of design principles is introduced that focuses on: achieving an abbreviated representation of the supported symbols, retaining connectivity with the 6-dot representation, preserving similarity on the transition rules applied in other languages, removing ambiguities, and considering future extensions. The proposed methodology was successfully applied in the development of an 8-dot literary Greek braille code that covers both the modern and the ancient Greek orthography, including diphthongs, digits, and punctuation marks.
Keywords: document accessibility; braille; 8-dot braille; assistive technologies
Effects of Environmental Illuminance on the Readability of E-Books BIBAKFull-Text 341-347
  Tatsuya Koizuka; Takehito Kojima; Shunta Sano; Nobuhiro Ishio; Masaru Miyao
We carried out experiments to evaluate the readability of e-books using different display systems. We used two types of e-paper (Amazon KindleDX and 300dpiEPD), one type of backlit LCD (new iPad), and ordinary paper text. In the experiments, we conducted subjective evaluations and measured viewing distance. This study found a dependency between readability and illuminance of each device.
Keywords: Evaluation of Accessibility; Usability; User Experience; E-books; E-paper; KindleDX; iPad; Readability; Illuminance
Verification of the Minimum Illuminance for Comfortable Reading of an E-Paper BIBAKFull-Text 348-355
  Takehito Kojima; Shunta Sano; Nobuhiro Ishio; Tatsuya Koizuka; Masaru Miyao
Various e-paper devices also have been released (e.g. Amazon's Kindle DX™), and their features include paper-like display and low power consumption. In our previous studies, in high light conditions, readability of the backlight LCD dropped significantly, because of the glare of the surrounding background. On the other hand, the readability of the electronic paper is increased, it was easy to read than backlit LCD. The e-paper that have low contrast ratio, evaluation of readability was low. In low light, the evaluation of the readability of the backlit LCD was high. The aim of this experiment was to verify the minimum illumination for comfortable reading with e-paper in low illumination (300 or less lx).
Keywords: e-paper; backlight LCD; minimum illumination; readability evaluation
Aging Effects on the Readability of Characters on E-Book Terminals BIBAKFull-Text 356-363
  Ranson Paul Lege; Satoshi Hasegawa; Akira Hasegawa; Takehito Kojima; Masaru Miyao
In recent years, e-book terminals are spreading rapidly. In the current aging society, there is an increasing need for elderly people to use information devices such as e-book. The readability of characters on e-book displays is important especially for elderly people. Few studies have measured subjectively the visibility of characters on e-book displays. In this study we examined the relationship between the readability of characters on e-book terminals compared with the characters printed on paper. The readability of characters on the displays of e-books deteriorates remarkably as the characters become smaller, especially when the user is an elderly person. Thus, makers of mobile text characters should consider aging so that e-book terminals are readable to all age groups.
Keywords: Readability; Visibility; iPad; Character; Aging Effects
Improving Communication of Visual Signals by Text-to-Speech Software BIBAFull-Text 364-371
  Robert F., Jr. Lorch; Julie Lemarié
Printed signals are well-documented aids to reading and memory for expository text. Despite their usefulness, many TTS applications fail to adequately communicate signaling. A theoretical framework called "SARA" provides an analysis of printed signals that identifies what specific information should be rendered in order to preserve the signaling function. Further, SARA identifies two important criteria -- the availability criterion and the accessibility criterion -- that should help guide the evaluation of alternative auditory renderings of signals.
Online Digital Libraries at Universities: An Inclusive Proposal BIBAKFull-Text 372-381
  Amanda Meincke Melo; Joseane Giacomelli da Silva
Information accessibility at online digital libraries is an essential requirement so people can use them independently. These are very common systems at Universities for sharing academic knowledge and for supporting learning. However, information accessibility to people with disabilities is not properly taken into account when designing and maintaining end-user interfaces and content. This paper is part of a broader research that aims at contributing to the implementation of an accessible online digital library system at UNIPAMPA, Brazil, as well as at promoting the universal access on other online digital library systems. Based on the literature review and a case study in Human-Computer Interaction, this research proposes a set of accessibility guidelines to design and maintain online digital libraries. These guidelines should be part of inclusive educational settings.
Keywords: accessible online digital libraries; information accessibility; universal design; inclusive design; inclusive education; online learning; Brazil
Access to Books: Human Rights, Copyright and Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 382-388
  Abigail P. Rekas
This paper will explore the tension between the right to read (ensuring intellectual property does not create an unreasonable barrier to access) and the protection afforded to literary works by copyright, particularly how copyright policy can limit access to content. Using statutory analysis of international copyright law and human rights law, it will look at the way Human Rights treaties have addressed intellectual property in the past, and will compare them to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This will be followed by a discussion the proposed World Intellectual Property Organization Treaty on Limitations and Exceptions for Visually Impaired Persons/Persons with Print Disabilities and how this proposed treaty will increase access to content for persons with disabilities. The conclusion of this analysis is that copyright policy must evolve in order to keep up with technology to enable equal access to content for persons with disabilities.
Keywords: WIPO; Accessibility; Copyright; Exceptions; Limitations; UNCRPD; Human Rights; Visually Impaired; Print Disabled; Disability; Dyslexic; Access to Knowledge; Access to Content
Providing an Accessible Track Changes Feature for Persons Who Are Blind BIBAKFull-Text 389-398
  John G. Schoeberlein; Yuanqiong Wang
Collaborative writing applications are widely utilized in the work place to co-author documents and to exchange ideas. Unfortunately, persons who are blind have difficulty in identifying the changes and their related context, which prevents them from actively participating in collaborative writing. In order to expand on the knowledge gained from previous research, additional usability studies were carried out with participants who are blind utilizing Microsoft Word with the focus on track change and comment features. Based on results from all the previous usability studies, a Microsoft Word Add-In was proposed to solve the issues identified. This paper briefly presents the results of the usability studies, the prototype design of the Microsoft Word Add-In and a pilot review of the Microsoft Word Add-In for making the track change and comment features accessible and usable.
Keywords: Collaborative writing; accessibility; usability; blind
Improving the Accessibility of Digital Documents for Blind Users: Contributions of the Textual Architecture Model BIBAKFull-Text 399-407
  Laurent Sorin; Mustapha Mojahid; Nathalie Aussenac-Gilles; Julie Lemarié
This paper presents a framework which aims at describing text formatting, based on a model coming from the field of logic and linguistics, the Textual Architecture Model [23]. The goal is to improve documents accessibility for blind users. The project will later focus on evaluating the efficiency of different navigation and content presentation strategies, based on this framework.
Keywords: blind people; documents accessibility; visual signals; text structure
Adopting Open Protocols to Increase the Impact on Digital Repositories BIBAKFull-Text 408-416
  Ligia Eliana Setenareski; Marcos Sfair Sunye; Walter Shima
Recently the discussion of technological standards became important due to the profusion of new technologies arising from the development of microelectronics, computing, telecommunications, etc. Sometimes, one standard can be adopted or not, depending on the way the competition unfolds. As it is well known, it is not necessarily the best standard which becomes dominant, neither are the consumers who choose it, but the standard from the firm that used the most efficient market strategies. Sometimes a standard takes a long time to become dominant or will not be established because the competition process forces the manufacturers to permanent innovation. Considering the development of digital libraries, the development of diffusion and preservation systems has followed another course, not based on competition, but through the exploration of the symbiosis between Free and Open Source Software (FOSS), Open Archiving Initiative (OAI), and following the Google dominance. From this initiative, the cost of interoperability among digital libraries has greatly diminished. The NSDL (National Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Education Digital Library) defines three levels of cooperation needed to achieve interoperability. The technical level is related to the capacity of each digital library for sharing their metadata and enabling a unified search. The level of correlated content allows distinct repositories to describe their contents uniformly. The organizational level allows the sharing of management and governance of the repositories. This case study describes the open protocols adopted by UFPR in the construction of its digital repository. The digital library's files on logs are used to analyse the increase in the accessibility and visibility of scientific production in this institution.
Keywords: Digital Library; Accessibility; First Mover; FOSS; Open Archiving; OAI-PMH; network externality; technological patterns; lock-in

Health, Well-Being, Rehabilitation and Medical Applications

A Pilot Study: Integrating an Emergency Department with Indiana's Prescription Drug Monitoring Program BIBAKFull-Text 419-425
  Hamed Abedtash; John T. Finnell
Rapid increase in abuse and overdose of controlled substances was the main driving force of implementing Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP). We aimed to describe how the integrated Indiana's PDMP (INSPECT) data into an electronic health record (EHR) can improve clinical workflow within an emergency department (ED). After integration, upon patient arrival into the ED, a PDMP report containing history of dispensed schedule II-V medications is retrieved and stored in the patient's medical record. The evaluation of the new system among physicians showed high satisfaction of having access to the patients' medication history through the existing EHR. We show that the PDMP data was easily accessible and more informative in the new integrated system. The PDMP report alters the pattern of prescribing narcotic medications to patients. In conclusion, enhancing workflow through PDMP reports integration with the patients' EHR is valued by the clinicians and reduces the number of narcotic prescriptions.
Keywords: Opioid abuse; Prescription drug monitoring program; PDMP; Doctor shopping; EHR; Electronic health records; Effectiveness evaluation
Can Ubiquitous Devices Utilising Reminiscence Therapy Be Used to Promote Well-Being in Dementia Patients? An Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 426-435
  Claire Ancient; Alice Good; Clare Wilson; Tineke Fitch
This exploratory study aimed to assess whether ubiquitous devices could be used to facilitate person-centred reminiscence therapy. In order to test this approach to delivering a reminiscence therapy intervention, a tablet application was designed (using participatory design) and tested by the carers of people with dementia. The study showed that there is the potential to utilise the recent advances in mobile technology to facilitate reminiscence therapy. However, it did not provide conclusive proof that the device would be effective in its delivery of reminiscence therapy, but further research will aim to explore this.
Keywords: Dementia; Reminiscence Therapy; Ubiquitous Devices
Human Computer Confluence in Rehabilitation: Digital Media Plasticity and Human Performance Plasticity BIBAKFull-Text 436-445
  Anthony Lewis Brooks
Digital media plasticity evocative to embodied interaction is presented as a utilitarian tool when mixed and matched to target human performance potentials specific to nuance of development for those with impairment. A distinct intervention strategy trains via alternative channeling of external stimuli that bypasses desensitized/dysfunctional sensory pathways to close the afferent/efferent loop. Designing method and apparatus to optimize participant motivation is core of the emergent model. Accessible play, fun, and creativity are central as user experiences, rather than traditional therapeutic approaches promoting mindsets and activities commonly considered enduring, mundane and boring. The concept focuses on sensor-based interfaces mapped to control tailored-content that acts as direct and immediate feedbacks mirroring input. These flexible, adaptive, and 'plastic' options offer facilitators new tool-kits for individualized interventions to supplement traditional approaches and strategies. Conclusions point to how required informal/non-formal training of such plastic approaches requires formal accreditation to realize potentials and adoptions.
Keywords: Digital Media & Human Performance Plasticity; Alternative channeling; HCI; Games; Creativity; Brain Plasticity; Afferent-efferent Neural Loop Closure
Universal Conceptual Design Solution for Built-in Orthopaedic Rocker-Bar Device BIBAKFull-Text 446-452
  Robert C. C. Chen
Gout is an acute inflammatory joint disorder (Arthritis) caused by deposition of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals around joints, tendons, and other tissues. According to data from the Survey [1] of Taiwanese Epidemiology in 1999, residents have a 0.4% chance of developing gout disease with a rise of about 7.5% every year in Taiwan. In the UK, Gout affects about 1 in 200 adults. Men are more commonly affected than women and first attack of gout typically develops in middle age and there is a family history of gout in about 1 in 5 cases. In spite of being unacceptable in style, rocker-bar is always an effective treatment, this research is, therefore, focused on a universal design concept and fitting assessment in relation to the design of orthopaedic rocker-bar with new universal hidden built-in construction, which provides the best way to improve the appearance, comfort and strength, it is suitable not only for gout disorders, but also for those patients with standing, walking or shoe-fitting corrective requirements.
Keywords: Universal concept; Orthopaedics; Rocker-bar
User Acceptance of a Community-Based Healthcare Information System Preserving User Privacy BIBAKFull-Text 453-462
  Chien-Lung Hsu; Ming-Ren Lee
Community-based healthcare information systems (HIS) are developed to cope with the demand for home healthcare. However, the issue of privacy protection in HIS adoption has not been given sufficient attention. This study is to propose a privacy-enhanced framework and to investigate the role of privacy protection in HIS adoption. Our research model extends the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology by considering perceived security and information security literacy. Our experimental HIS is implemented according to our proposed privacy-enhanced framework which integrates healthcare applications and privacy protection mechanisms. The former includes health management, physiological monitoring, healthcare education, and healthcare consulting modules. The latter contains secure transmission, privacy protection and access control modules. Analyses indicate that user adoption of HIS is directly affected by social influence, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and perceived security. Perceived security has a mediating effect between information security literacy and user adoption.
Keywords: privacy protection; healthcare information system; UTAUT; perceived security; information security literacy
Application of Human Error Identification (HEI) Techniques to Cognitive Rehabilitation in Stroke Patients with Limb Apraxia BIBAKFull-Text 463-471
  Charmayne M. L. Hughes; Chris Baber; Marta Bienkiewicz; Joachim Hermsdörfer
The aim of this study was to consider the potential uses of human error identification (HEI) techniques in the development of a Personal Healthcare System (PHS) capable of delivering cognitive rehabilitation of activities of daily living (ADL) for stroke patients with limb apraxia (i.e., CogWatch). HEI techniques were able to predict a number of apraxic errors, as well as the associated consequences. The results of the present study indicate that HEI analysis is a useful tool in the design of cognitive systems that seek to reduce or eliminate errors in apraxic populations. The results will be implemented in the CogWatch system and will be used to develop error reduction strategies that prevent errors from occurring, and to provide post-error feedback to help the user correct their actions.
Keywords: Human error identification; apraxia; activities of daily living
Facilitators and Barriers to Patients' Engagements with Personal Health Records: Systematic Review BIBAKFull-Text 472-481
  Abdulrahman Jabour; Josette F. Jones
The purpose of this paper is to identify the facilitators and barriers to patents' engagement with Personal Health Records (PHR). We performed systematic review searching Pub Med, IEEE, and Google Scholar for studies published between January, 2001 to September, 2012. Among the 508 articles identified, 14 articles included in the result. We extracted the key study characteristics and categorized facilitators and barriers using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). In total, there were 10 barriers, and 6 facilitators identified. The 6 facilitators were related to both perceived usefulness and ease of use, where the barriers were mostly related to ease of use. Recruited participants were mostly older patients with chronic diseases. The result of this review indicates that patients in general recognize the value of PHR but they appear to have technical difficulties.
Keywords: Systematic review; Personal Health Records PHR; Patients' engagement; Facilitators and Barriers; PHR Design
Complexity Analysis of a Transfer Center BIBAFull-Text 482-489
  Josette F. Jones; Michelle Lenox; Tami Raute; Shelly Maersch; Cortney Gundlach; Mark Pfaff
Patient throughput and the reduction of wait times for care are critical to improve patient outcomes in life-threatening emergencies. The concept of patient throughput underpins many wait time improvement techniques currently being implemented by healthcare providers across the industry as well as at Indiana University (IU) Health. Without the ability to implement effective patient throughput process improvement solutions, healthcare providers will struggle to reduce wait times and meet strategic goals of improved patient outcomes.
   IU Health launched its first patient transfer program between intensive care units. A level 1 vascular emergency program in August 2009; the initiative was soon complemented by other patients transfer programs. The success of the program showed a significant drop in median emergency department-to-operating room time, reductions in time spent at referring hospitals and in transit. Despite the successes, the program is left with increasing demand (volume & acuity) and a need for interactive care pathway or delivery of care solutions to streamline the patient throughput and to adequately measure impacts on patient outcomes and capacity management.
   The paper will present a preliminary analysis of (1) observations of current workflows and their complexity, and (2) based on the observations suggest patient throughput simulation in order to identify bottlenecks and test potential solutions and protocols before actually implementing them in practice.
Analysis of User-Generated Multimedia Data on Medication Management and Consumption Behavior Using Data Mining Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 490-499
  Chaiwoo Lee; Lisa A. D'Ambrosio; Richard Myrick; Joseph F. Coughlin; Olivier L. de Weck
Technology-enabled tools have been suggested as a solution to assist older adults in the management and consumption of medications. However, existing systems and studies are often limited by incomplete understanding of the potential users' behaviors. This study uses a web-based survey and photo submission system to collect and analyze user profiles and behavioral characteristics. Various data mining techniques, including association rules, clustering and classification, are used on quantified data to find important behavioral patterns, group users with similar characteristics, and discern factors related to risky medication management behaviors. This paper presents the process and results of analysis, including a detailed description of coding scheme and model development. Practical and methodological implications are also discussed.
Keywords: Medication compliance; assistive technology; user observation; survey research; design for aging population
Motion Sensing Technology on Rehabilitation for Children with Physical Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 500-507
  Chien-Yu Lin; Ming-Chi Lin; Shu-Hua Chen
This research is focus on application of hand-eye coordination of motion sensing for children with developmental disabilities. Based on the base technology of interactive technology, thereby bringing the children the experience of the interactive technology application. There are 2 demonstrations on this research. The equipments are actually applied on children with developmental disabilities, the research focus on using low-cost equipment, then the relative activities will be easy follow for children. In this research, the devices relied upon user-friendly design, reducing the working load. The projector will be presented other children to participate and share interactive content, extended deep Tablet PC application. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether training via interactive effect enhances the motivation of CP children. These findings suggest that training of sense of hand-eye coordination could help to increase the motivation of training for children with different needs.
Keywords: intuition; hand-eye coordination; high tension; resource class; children; disabilities; cerebral palsy
A Surgery Planning System by Visualizing 3D Profile of the Knee during Motion for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction BIBAKFull-Text 508-515
  Kouki Nagamune; Yuichiro Nishizawa; Daisuke Araki; Koji Nishimoto; Yuichi Hoshino; Ryosuke Kuroda; Masahiro Kurosaka
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the surgeries to recover the knee function. The ACL reconstruction attach the grafts which is harvested from other parts to the femur and tibia. The grafts connects the femur and tibia by passing through the bone tunnels. One of the techniques makes the bone tunnel of the femur and tibia in one line at a proper knee flexion angle. If the angle is improper, the bone tunnel is made at high risk of infection. So, it is important to visualize the virtual bone tunnels at various knee angle as a planning system. This paper proposes a new method to visualize 3D profile of the knee and the virtual bone tunnels during motion with 3D scanner and 3D electromagnetic sensors.
Keywords: surgery planning system; visualization; orthopaedics
Data Reduction for Continuum of Care: An Exploratory Study Using the Predicate-Argument Structure to Pre-process Radiology Sentences for Measurement of Semantic Similarity BIBAKFull-Text 516-525
  Eric Newsom; Josette F. Jones
In the clinical setting, continuum of care depends on integrated information services to assure a smooth progression for patient centered care, and these integrated information services must understand past events and personal circumstances to make care relevant. Clinicians face a problem that the amount of information produced in disparate electronic clinical notes is increasing to levels incapable of being processed by humans. Clinicians need a function in information services that can reduce the free text data to a message useful at time of care. Information extraction (IE) is a sub-field of natural language processing with the goal of data reduction of unstructured free text. Pertinent to IE is an annotated corpus that frames how IE methods should create a logical expression necessary for processing meaning of text. This study explores and reports on the requirements to using the predicate-argument statement (PAS) as the framework. A convenient sample from a prior study with ten synsets of 100 unique sentences from radiology reports deemed by domain experts to mean the same thing will be the text from which PAS structures are formed. Through content analysis of pattern recognition, findings show PAS is a feasible framework to structure sentences for semantic similarity measurement.
Keywords: Information Extraction; Predicate-Argument Structure; Semantic Similarity
Ontological Model for CDSS in Knee Injury Management BIBAFull-Text 526-535
  Kanitha Phalakornkule; Josette F. Jones; John T. Finnell
Due to the increased adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) and its integrated clinical decision support (CDS) tools, health information technology (HIT) is a key influence in Medicine. The main challenges in healthcare are to integrate the information across care units and to increase the quality of continuity of patient care. There are three types of knowledge sources in medicine: (1) Evidence Based Practice (EBP), (2) Practice Based Evidence, and (3) Medical Textbooks. Information in these sources is presented and organized in different formats. Ontology may allow us to integrate knowledge discovered from two separate data sources without platform restrictions. The knowledge can be reusable and sharable without the need of technology. Further, this paper also combines the strengths from both EBP and PBE on knee treatment. The hybrid knowledge model will derived from real practices while integrating existing external knowledge discovered and reported in published literatures.
Content Analysis of Specialist Interviews in the Development of the Music Therapy Activity System BIBAKFull-Text 536-543
  Kevin C. Tseng; Chieh-Yun Liu
The study aims to define the needs and specification of a music therapy system based on music therapy programs designed for elderly dementia patients. The mobile music therapy system proposed from this study will allow music therapy to no longer be restricted by location, time, and instrument needs, while at the same time preserving the emphasis of music therapy on personalization, wide choice, and options of both active and passive activities. In order to evaluate whether the designed activities meet the needs of dementia patient and their caregivers, the present study utilized a semi-structured interview format to collect perspectives from three different music therapists on the system; the vocabulary content of the responses were then subjected to linguistic analysis to determine the suitability of the system structure for user needs. The results demonstrated that music therapists approved of the system functions and confirmed its suitability for its target populations.
Keywords: content analysis; dementia; elderly; music therapy; system
Supporting the Continuum of Care for Combat Wounded Patients: Adaptive Interfaces for Personal Health Records BIBAKFull-Text 544-552
  Harry D., IV Tunnell; Aeshvarya Verma
In this paper, we describe a concept for an adaptive interface for a military Personal Health Record (PHR). PHRs are electronic records used by people to manage their personal healthcare information. In the Military Healthcare System, combat wounded patients encounter a range of challenges due to the unique nature of the military environment and the severity of their wartime injuries. These factors affect how people interact with a computer interface. In many instances, combat wounded patients eventually have assistance from family members, professional caregivers, and others. This forms a disparate end-user population. Because the pool of potential users includes people with a wide range of cognitive and physical capabilities, an adaptive interface that considers attributes of health can improve user experiences.
Keywords: Adaptive interfaces; ability-based design; Personal Health Record (PHR); combat wounded; military informatics
Design Guidelines for an Integrated PHR System: An Approach for UI Designers to Break Down Individual-Level Barriers to PHR Adoption BIBAKFull-Text 553-562
  Shu-Wen Tzeng; Yuan Zhou
The significance of the quality of healthcare information has been recognized in the health care field. How will health information reach people, including patients, health care providers, employers, and etc.? How can information flow seamlessly among systems in a secure environment? In the case of individuals, how can one access, manage and share his/her health information with authorized health providers? To answer those questions, PHR (Personal Health records) plays a crucial role here. User interface design is essential for improving the usability of interactive systems like PHRs. In this study, two PHR applications are examined; rules will be applied to a PHR system design prototype to demonstrate how constructing and integrating of intuitive graphic design is carried out, and how to make PHRs more user-friendly by incorporating users' daily activities into personal health decision making and medical care.
Keywords: Integrated PHR System; User Interface; Design Guidelines
Evaluation of User Interface of Computer Application Developed for Screening Pediatric Asthma BIBAKFull-Text 563-570
  Maryam Zolnoori; Josette F. Jones; Mostafa Moin; Hassan Heidarnejad; Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi; Masoud Hosseini
Asthma is a chronic disease which has a negative effect on the quality of life of (1.4% to 27.4%) people around the world. Unfortunately in many countries, because of limited access to pulmonary physicians, and laboratory tests, asthma is usually under diagnosed especially at the first stages of this disease. The purpose of this study is to report a patient-centered computer application for diagnosing pediatric asthma. Techniques of semantic networks, production rules, fuzzy logic, and decision trees have been applied for representing evidence-based research knowledge. User-Interface of this system is evaluated by nurse practitioners. Result of this evaluation reinforces that this system meets requirements of user interaction satisfaction.
Keywords: Asthma; diagnosis; decision tree; semantic network; fuzzy logic; user interface evaluation

Access to Mobile Interaction

Engaging Students with Intellectual Disabilities through Games Based Learning and Related Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 573-582
  David Brown; Penny Standen; Maria Saridaki; Nick Shopland; Elina Roinioti; Lindsay Evett; Simon Grantham; Pauline Smith
Studies within our research group have shown that Digital Games Based Learning (DGBL) can have a positive effect on some of the core development needs of people with intellectual disabilities and associated sensory impairments. Of current interest is the expansion of DGBL activities on mobile platforms. The RECALL Project describes the development and evaluation of a novel route learning system for people with disabilities using location based services (on the Android OS). Research has shown that route guidance systems suppress cognitive map development, and for a target audience described as having 'poor spatial skills', systems that develop route learning rather than guidance are required. Two studies are reported here. The first demonstrates that there were less navigational errors made, and less help required, in the more independent usage of the system, than in the earlier training stages. The second focusses on more qualitative evaluation of soft skills and personal development via the use of the system, and of the gamified version of the software. It looks specifically at how a playful approach can aid the understanding of map based representations.
Keywords: route learning; mobile; digital games based learning; disability
Multimedia Information Delivery on Mobile Cultural Applications BIBAKFull-Text 583-592
  Heloisa Candello
In this paper we describe a user evaluation that aims to understand the use of multimodal features in mobile cultural guides. The object of the study was a mobile guide prototype that delivers cultural heritage information about sculptures in the city of Brighton -- UK. The study was taken in situ with 32 participants from diverse nationalities. Participants followed a short sculpture tour using a touch-screen mobile phone to access the application. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and qualitative methods. Relevant findings were identified, such as: the presence of the volume controls on the screen, multitask functions and visibility of hyperlinks. The length and quantity of information accessed by users was proportional to their familiarity with the content, language skills and time available. Pictures assisted in learning about subject history and way finding. Additionally, audio served the purpose when participants want to see the details of the sculpture or light conditions were not proper to visualize the screen. Video was suitable for before or after the tour. Those results served the base to formulated design recommendations for developing audiovisual cultural heritage guides.
Keywords: user interface design; mobile HCI; mobile cultural guides
Creativity, Mobile Multimedia Systems, Human and Social Factors in Software: Communicability Excellence for All BIBAKFull-Text 593-602
  Francisco V. Cipolla Ficarra; Alejandra Quiroga; Valeria M. Ficarra
We present a first set of results and trends in the formal and factual sciences aimed at reaching excellence of communicability for all in the second decade of the new millennium. Through a set of heuristic evaluation techniques and strategies for the analysis of communicability we present the first causes facing the presence and absence of creativity in the south of Europe, with regard to the contents for the mobile multimedia systems such as the PC tablets and the multimedia phones. Finally, a special case of human and social factors related to the web attacks is presented to foster local and international business in the multimedia publishing sector.
Keywords: Creativity; Communicability; Multimedia; Education; Human Factors; Evaluation
Development of Smart Device-Based Thermostatic Control System Appling on Cooling Vests BIBAKFull-Text 603-610
  Jing-Jing Fang; Tai-Hong Kuo; Cheng-Ying Wu
This paper presents a smart device-based thermostatic control system for cooling vest application. The whole system consists of three parts: a pump-based circulating cooling system, a temperature sensing module, and an Android-based application software. The smart device uses Bluetooth technology to receive temperature sensor datum from the vest. The thermostatic control App determines whether to turn the pump motor on or off in order to transmit the motor signal to the vest. One smart device can control and record multiple cooling or heating vests at the same time in order to easily manipulate and save resources. A simple experiment was designed and implemented to verify the effect of thermostatic control to the vests. The results showed that this system helps to enhance the duration of the cooling or heating system and provides high efficiency and flexibility. The future work will focus on biomedical signal monitoring and web-based remote control.
Keywords: Smart device; cooling/heating vests; thermostatic control; Bluetooth
Dead-Until-Touched: How Digital Icons Can Transform the Way We Interact with Information BIBAKFull-Text 611-619
  Isabel Cristina G. Fróes
This paper challenges the way we currently use and interact with information through digital icons and static metaphors. The latest computer and mobile devices' graphical user interfaces need to be reevaluated in order to support the paradigm shift from static and local to mobile and cloud-based interactions. Furthermore this paper questions the lingering of static icons used in computers, mobile and tablet interfaces. The paper also presents concrete suggestions on how expanding the functionality of digital icons can better afford how users interact with information.
Keywords: GUI; UI; Icons; Metaphors; Interaction Design
AwareCover: Interactive Cover of the Smartphone for Awareness Sharing BIBAKFull-Text 620-625
  Ayumi Fukuchi; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio
Although there are many systems that support communication by sharing activities of people in separate locations, these systems still have problems to be used in daily environment. Smart phones are promising platform to solve these problems since many people always carry them. Therefore, we focus on the cover for the smart phones, and propose a cover-type system called AwareCover that supports users to share remote awareness by attaching the sensors/actuators in a cover of a smart phone. We also implement PadPet as a prototype based on this concept.
Keywords: Smartphone cover; tablet cover; awareness sharing; tangible
Mobile Technology and E-Inclusion BIBAKFull-Text 626-635
  John Isaacs; Santiago Martinez; Ken Scott-Brown; Allan Milne; Aled Evans; Daniel Gilmour
This paper will describe work funded by the European Union (Intereg NSR) iAge project which attempts to address the issues surrounding accessibility to mobile devices and services. The project takes the approach of combining three approaches directed at allowing greater inclusion in mobile technologies for our increasingly aging population. Focus groups sessions are used to ascertain the real problems the older generation has with mobile devices. An iterative design process is then used to create assistive applications which not only assist the user but give them a purpose to interact with the technology. Workshops are then used to provide developers and service providers with an interactive experience of how the elderly feel when using mobile technology. Finally the paper describes how the combination of these approaches will create a transnational framework of best practice for future developers.
Keywords: E-inclusion; Mobile HCI; Assisted Living
How Unfamiliar Words in Smartphone Manuals Affect Senior Citizens BIBAKFull-Text 636-642
  Tatsuya Ishihara; Masatomo Kobayashi; Hironobu Takagi; Chieko Asakawa
Elderly people are motivated to continue working, but may have difficulties working in full-time jobs and need flexible working styles to compensate for their declining physical abilities. ICT can help support flexible working styles by enhancing communication between people in distant places. Smartphones offer various features for communication and information gathering, thus creating more opportunities to work. However, smartphone adoption has been slow for the elderly. One of the reasons is that elderly people have lower familiarity with computer terminology and therefore find the manuals difficult to understand. In this study, we investigated factors that make smartphone manuals hard to understand. We first asked elderly people about their familiarity with words found in smartphone manuals. Our second survey asked about sentences extracted from the smartphone manuals. By analyzing these results, we found that the comprehension was highly correlated with their familiarity with the specialized vocabulary.
Keywords: Word familiarity; text readability; ageing; smartphone
The Relationship between Touchscreen Sizes of Smartphones and Hand Dimensions BIBAKFull-Text 643-650
  Yu-Cheng Lin
With the development of communication technology, mobile phone seems to become an important personnel device that everyone must have. As the introduction of 3rd-generation mobile telecommunication, the technology of touch screen was started to be applied on the mobile phones. A smartphone is a mobile phone built on a mobile operating system with advanced computing capability. Many functionality and application like digital cameras, GPS and web-browser, were combined on the smartphone to form a multi-use device. Most of modern smartphones include high-resolution touchscreens for display and control. As the development of smartphone, the size of touchscreen becomes larger and larger. However, the question is that a larger screen is convenient to every user? The aim of this study is to realize the relationship between touchscreen sizes of smartphones and user's relative hand dimensions based on the operation time, operation error rate and subjective thumb fatigue. Sixty subjects, including 30 males and 30 females were invited to attend the experiment. The experiment design includes 3 touchscreen sizes. The hand length and palm width were both divided into three categories respectively. The analyzed results indicates that the relationships between touchscreen size and category of hand length and between touchscreen size and category of palm width are both positive from the views of error rate and the subjective fatigue. Therefore, larger touchscreen size is more appropriate to larger hand and palm. Furthermore, longer operation time is needed for people who have small hand and palm because they spend more time to move their thumb and handle the smartphone stably.
Keywords: touchscreen; anthropometry; hand dimension; smartphone
Tilt-Based Support for Multimodal Text Entry on Touchscreen Smartphones: Using Pitch and Roll BIBAKFull-Text 651-660
  Sandi Ljubic; Mihael Kukec; Vlado Glavinic
In this paper we propose a multimodal text entry method for touchscreen smartphones, where standard Tap modality can be used in combination with Pitch and Roll movements that change the orientation of the mobile device. Data from the built-in orientation sensors are used as a basis for commands that support character layout changing. Tilting the device in the appropriate direction will cause visual enlargement of the corresponding half of the current keyboard layout, thus enabling easier character selection, and solely sensor-based text entry. The prototype implementation of the proposed interaction method is analyzed and evaluated via usability testing experiments, with special focus on efficiency of text entry. As the proposed method is also applicable on touchscreen tablets, the form factor of mobile devices is reviewed with respect to text entry performance both of supported interaction modalities (tilt-only and tilt-and-tap) and of possible device orientations (portrait and landscape).
Keywords: text entry; multimodal interaction; accessibility; mobile device sensors; touchscreens
Audio Transportation System for Blind People BIBAKFull-Text 661-670
  Jaime Sánchez; Márcia de Borba Campos
The purpose of this study was to design, develop and evaluate audio-based software to assist people who are blind in public bus transportation. The audio-based software for mobile devices Audiotransantiago was designed in order to provide information regarding authorized bus stops for the entire bus service in the city of Santiago de Chile (known as Transantiago). The study was designed to allow users who are blind to build up a mental map that is adjusted to their surroundings while traveling on the bus system. It was found that the use of the software improved information processing skills, tempo-spatial orientation and orientation and mobility skills (O&M), as users were able to navigate from one place to another without having to obtain information prior to their trip.
Keywords: People with visual disabilities; Audio-based interfaces; Orientation and Mobility; environmental perception and cognition
Towards Mobile Embodied 3D Avatar as Telepresence Vehicle BIBAKFull-Text 671-680
  Yutaka Tokuda; Atsushi Hiyama; Takahiro Miura; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
In this paper, we present mobile embodied 3D avatar to shift a rich experience of avatar from a virtual world to our real life with a new style of telepresence. Conventional telepresence research have focused on the exact re-creation of face-to-face communication at a fixed position in a specialized room, so there have been much less research on a life-sized mobile telepresence system despite many off-the-shelf mobile telepresence robots available. We propose various scalable holographic displays to visualize a life-sized avatar in an actual life. In addition, we introduce architecture to control embodied avatar according to user's intention by extending popular architecture for a multimodal virtual human, namely SAIBA. Our primitive prototype system was tested with 5 simple avatar animations to embody with a wheeled platform robot and a life-sized transparent holographic display and proved realistic avatar's movement complying user's intention and the situation at the remote location of avatar.
Keywords: interaction techniques; avatar; telepresence; telework; mobility; transparent display; platforms and metaphors; multimodal interaction; SAIBA
One-Handed Gesture Design for Browsing on Touch Phone BIBAKFull-Text 681-690
  Fong-Gong Wu; Jo-Yu Kuo
The goal of this research is to understand how dual-surface touch gesture helps user interact mobile phone with one hand from user experience perspective. Hence, we proposed a set of gestures and some design recommendations for enhancing the browsing usability. Finally we emulated the information seeking task on mobile phone. The results showed that, compare to traditional graphic user interface, browsing gestures eased the thumb fatigue, reduced the error rate and task completed time.
Keywords: one-handed interaction; dual-surface touch gesture; web browsing; touch phone