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THCI Tables of Contents: 010203040506

AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction 4

Editors:Dennis Galletta; Ping Zhang
Publisher:Association for Information Systems
Standard No:ISSN 1944-3900
Links:Table of Contents
  1. THCI 2012-03 Volume 4 Issue 1
  2. THCI 2012-06 Volume 4 Issue 2
  3. THCI 2012-09 Volume 4 Issue 3
  4. THCI 2012-12 Volume 4 Issue 4

THCI 2012-03 Volume 4 Issue 1

Effects of Web Atmospheric Cues on Users' Emotional Responses in E-Commerce BIBAWeb Page 1-24
  Hong Sheng; Tanvi Joginapelly
The internet has become part of everyday life and revolutionized the shopping experience. Consumers' emotional responses play an important role in predicting and measuring behavioral intentions and satisfaction; therefore, it is imperative to study e-commerce from an affective perspective. This research adopted the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model to examine the effects of web atmospheric cues, mainly vividness and interactivity, on users' emotional responses in e-commerce, and the influence of users' emotional responses on their purchasing intentions.
   This research involved three stages: a pretest, an experimental study, and an online survey. First, recruited experts in human-computer interaction (HCI) evaluated 25 different e-commerce websites on interactivity and vividness. These ratings informed the selection of three websites to represent various levels of atmospheric cues: high interactivity and vividness, medium interactivity and vividness, and low interactivity and vividness. In the second stage, an experiment was conducted to collect the physiological responses of 20 participants, including galvanic skin response, heart rate variability, and pupil dilation, as they viewed each of the three e-commerce websites; participants' self-reported emotional responses were also recorded. Finally, an online survey collected data on the emotional responses and purchase intentions of 53 participants after viewing the three e-commerce websites. The results of the experimental study indicate that web atmospheric cues such as vividness and interactivity had significant positive effects on users' valence and arousal rates. Furthermore, users experiencing higher arousal and more positive valence rates reported higher intentions to purchase from the e-commerce website. Analysis of the physiological data showed that users' heart rate variability exhibited a trend similar to that of their self-reported valance rate, but no such trend was observed for self-reported arousal rates, galvanic skin response, or pupil dilation values.
   This paper not only extends the S-O-R paradigm in the e-commerce context and provides empirical evidence for the model, but also applies Russel's (1980) emotional model to understand the users' emotional responses to e-commerce websites. The physiological measures employed in this study are examples of new usability evaluation tools for determining complex affective measures in HCI.
The Role of Perceived System Quality as Educators' Motivation to Continue E-learning System Use BIBAWeb Page 25-43
  A. K. M. Najmul Islam
This study incorporates perceived system quality into the original expectation-confirmation based information system continuance model in order to investigate the role of perceived system quality in users' motivation to continue e-learning system use. Our proposed model was tested among university educators (n = 175) who use the popular open-source e-learning system, Moodle. The results reveal that perceived usefulness, confirmation of initial expectations, and perceived system quality significantly affected educators' satisfaction. In addition, perceived usefulness and satisfaction significantly affected continuance intention. Unexpectedly, no direct association between perceived system quality and continuance intention was found. The determinants of continuance intention explain around 64% of its total variance. The paper finishes with conclusions and implications for future research and practice.

THCI 2012-06 Volume 4 Issue 2

Introduction to the AIS THCI Special Issue on User Participation/Centeredness in New, Challenging IS Contexts BIBWeb Page 44-50
  Netta Iivari; Horst Treiblmaier; Dennis F. Galletta
Representation in Systems Development and Implementation: A Healthcare Enterprise System Implementation BIBAWeb Page 51-71
  Alain Ross; Barbara Marcolin; Mike W. Chiasson
Today's information systems are often large and complex, affecting many people within and beyond the organization. Participation in this context is increasingly challenging because of the complexity of involving all who might be affected by a new information system. As a result, systems of representation, in which individuals are chosen to represent others, are often put in place to manage the participation process.
   Research has considered particular challenges of "representative participation" (Mumford, 1983); however, there is little empirical research comprehensively examining these systems of representation. Who participates in these systems, how are they structured and how is this representative work undertaken? Most importantly, what are the impacts of these decisions on the representation systems that are built and on the participation that flows from them?
   The purpose of our research is to explore the structuring of systems of representation in IS development and implementation. Building on the work of Land and Hirschheim (1983) and Mumford (1983), and drawing on Habermas' deliberative democracy (1998), this research explores the system of representation employed in a large Electronic Health Record implementation as empirical evidence. Healthcare is a critical context for studying information systems implementation because of its uniqueness and complexity (Chiasson and Davidson, 2004; LeRouge et al., 2007), and therefore serves as an important environment for this research.
   Our contributions, drawn from this Electronic Health Record project, include an understanding of three fundamental tasks for developing systems of representation: defining the constituency, selecting representatives, and determining how the representation relationship will be carried out. We demonstrate that systems of representation can be classified by different meanings of "represent." These types -- "represent as spokesperson," "represent as example" and "represent as symbol" -- differ in the purpose of representation, in who is involved and in how representation is undertaken. Most importantly, these types of systems differ in their participatory potential. The findings highlight the opportunities and challenges inherent in the construction and implementation of systems of representation.
   The paper concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for practitioners and researchers, suggesting that representation should be more than simply appointing representatives, and offering mechanisms for participation and influence. We call on researchers to view these systems of representation in more fine-grained ways to better understand what their complexities mean for contemporary system development and implementation.
Users as Designers of Information Infrastructures and the Role of Generativity BIBAWeb Page 72-91
  Liv Karen Johannessen; Deede Gammon; Gunnar Ellingsen
The user role in the design of information systems is increasingly portrayed as active and complex, and the relationships between users and developers are portrayed as blurry. Information systems have become ubiquitous in most work processes, and users typically rely on several large scale information systems tightly integrated into other information systems, machines and work practices. In this paper we propose the notion of generativity as a framework to assess generative socio-technical characteristics of such systems, conceptualized as information infrastructures. Further, the paper will discuss the role these characteristics play in users' involvement by exploring the ways in which users can contribute as designers and thereby expand on the conceptual views of users and design processes of generative information infrastructures.
   Empirically, this paper presents the evolution of an information system for cooperation between general practice and hospital laboratories, where users in both settings participated in the design process. The system was designed using agile methods, and design and implementation were continuous and iterative co-existing processes. The case showed that a high degree of generativity in the system itself is a necessary condition for users to make changes. However, in an integrated and complex setting the flexibility of the existing and integrated systems will heavily influence the possibility to make changes. The paper also provides an in-depth illustration of how user and designer roles evolve together with circumstances and relationships. However, we argue that this type of evolvement requires dedicating a considerable amount of time and effort to achieve a climate in which such evolvement can take place. Finally, design is more than just the development of technology. It is also the development of work practices in which users' contributions are decisive. Designing work practices alongside the design of the technology has given rise to insights that feed directly into the design process. Acknowledging users' substantial contributions in design processes can aid in refining conceptualizations of users and developers along with bolstering efforts to facilitate appropriate user involvement.
Personas in Uniform: Police Officers as Users of Information Technology BIBAWeb Page 92-106
  Erik Borglund; Urban Nulden
This paper discusses information technology in the contemporary policing context and presents a research approach that aims to capture and describe a multifaceted account of police work. There is a need to further analyze the constitution of the uniformed user and the use environment in this domain. Data from extensive ethnographic fieldwork are analyzed. Personas and scenarios are used in this paper to illustrate the properties and conditions of police work. Evidence from the study suggests that personas and scenarios can make the daily work visible and support the emergent design of information systems in the dialogue between designers and users. The paper concludes that personas and their scenarios provide a richer description of the specifics of a context and a design space. A scenario is used to show characteristic properties and the emergence of work practice in relation to the design of information systems.
P2P Mapper: From User Experiences to Pattern-Based Design BIBAWeb Page 107-128
  Homa Javahery; Ahmed Seffah
User experience is an umbrella term referring to a collection of information that covers the user's behavior and interaction with a system. It is observed when the user is actively using a service or interacting with information, includes expectations and perceptions, and is influenced by user characteristics and application or service characteristics. User characteristics include knowledge, experience, personality and demographics. We propose a process and supporting software tool called Persona to Pattern (P2P) Mapper, which guides designers in modeling user experiences and identifying appropriate design patterns. The three-step process is: Persona Creation (a representative persona set is developed), Pattern Selection (behavioral patterns are identified resulting in an ordered list of design patterns for each persona), and Pattern Composition (patterns are used to create a conceptual design). The tool supports the first two steps of the process by providing various automation algorithms for user grouping and pattern selection combined with the benefit of rapid pattern and user information access. Persona and pattern formats are augmented with a set of discrete domain variables to facilitate automation and provide an alternative view on the information. Finally, the P2P Mapper is used in the redesign of two different Bioinformatics applications: a popular website and a visualization tool. The results of the studies demonstrate a significant improvement in the system usability of both applications.
User Participation in Software Design via Social Media: Experiences from a Case Study with Consumers BIBAWeb Page 129-152
  Pirjo Näkki; Kaisa Koskela-Huotari
User participation has proved to have many benefits in software development. The traditional methods for participation rely mainly on face-to-face meetings and are therefore not easily applicable to designing online services targeted at distributed consumers. Social media have become widely used among consumers and could thus offer many opportunities for involving users in software design. We present a case study in which a group of users participated for over six months in the process of designing a new online service via social media tools. The users played an active role in the development of the system, tailoring it to their own needs. Our results show that social media provide real possibilities for user involvement in software design and also shape some elements of the participation process. In social media, user contributions are mainly small and dispersed over time, but users can be involved almost continuously in the design process, thus enabling them to have a more active role in decision-making. Software development practices need to be modified so that small user contributions fit into the process.
Fostering Continuous User Participation by Embedding a Communication Support Tool in User Interfaces BIBAWeb Page 153-168
  Fahri Yetim; Sebastian Draxler; Gunnar Stevens; Volker Wulf
This paper critically reviews previous IS literature on user participation and argues that the literature is mainly empirically or normatively oriented and lacks design research on developing system prototypes in order to foster continuous user participation. It then contributes to the current research by introducing a system prototype, a communication tool that enables users to participate while using their application systems in their work contexts. The prototype provides different communication channels for supporting user-designer communications and knowledge sharing among users with respect to application usage. When integrated in the interface of an application system, the tool can help to adapt and redesign the application. The initial evaluation of the communication tool within the context of an application system indicates its usefulness and usability.

THCI 2012-09 Volume 4 Issue 3

Trends in Website Design BIBAWeb Page 169-189
  Gili Korman Golander; Noam Tractinsky; Ilanit Kabessa-Cohen
We suggest that diversity and changes in the visual design of web pages exhibit trend-like characteristics. We begin with a survey of the fashion and trends literature to clarify these terms and to relate them to the domain of web design. Based on freely available online archival data we assembled a website design trend library that includes 42 trends encompassing the period from the mid-1990s to the year 2010. The trends were classified into three general groups, from oldest to most recent: Faded, Past- Peak, and Current. A second study tested hypotheses that stemmed from the premise that web design trends exist. Data from 262 designers and non-designers indicate that designers are more accurate than non-designers in evaluating the up-to-dateness of web design trends, and that people tend to like trends that they perceive as up-to-date. We discuss research and practical implications of these findings for the design process of websites and for interactive systems in general, for the role of designers in this process, and for the education of IS students.
Faces and Viewing Behavior: An Exploratory Investigation BIBAWeb Page 190-211
  Soussan Djamasbi; Marisa Siegel; Tom S. Tullis
User experience is becoming increasingly important in gaining a competitive advantage in the marketplace. One way to improve user experience is by including images of faces. People are drawn to faces because paying attention to faces has played a significant role in human evolution. Hence, areas on a web page that typically receive less attention from users, such as the right side or below the fold, may benefit from the inclusion of images of faces. Although faces may be useful in attracting attention to particular places on a web page, they may also distract attention from key information. To test this possibility, we conducted two eye tracking studies in which images of faces were placed on areas of a web page that are shown to receive less attention. The results indicated that faces did not increase the number of people who viewed the areas where the faces were located, but that faces affected fixation patterns on these areas. Our results also showed that faces located above the fold of the web page negatively affected the performance of those who were completing tasks.

THCI 2012-12 Volume 4 Issue 4

Audience Gatekeeping in the Twitter Service: An Investigation of Tweets about the 2009 Gaza Conflict BIBAWeb Page 212-229
  K. Hazel Kwon; Onook Oh; Manish Agrawal; H. Raghav Rao
Twitter is a social news service in which information is selected and distributed by individual members of the tweet audience. While communication literature has studied traditional news media and the propagation of information, to our knowledge there have been no studies of the new social media and their impacts on the propagation of news during extreme event situations. This exploration attempts to build an understanding of how preexisting hyperlink structures on the Web and different types of information channels affect Twitter audiences' information selection. The study analyzes the concentration of user-selected information sources in Twitter about the 2009 Israel-Gaza conflict. There are three findings. First, a statistical test of a power-law structure revealed that, while a wide range of information was selected and redistributed by Twitter users, the aggregation of these selections over-represented a small number of prominent websites. Second, binomial regression analyses showed that Twitter user selections were not constituted randomly but were affected by the number of hyperlinks received and the types of information channels. Third, temporal analyses revealed that sources via social media channels were more prominently selected especially in the later stages of the news information lifespan.
Augmented Sustainability Reports: A Design Science Approach BIBAWeb Page 230-247
  Michael Freundlieb; Frank Teuteberg
Sustainability reports provide stakeholders with information about a company's efforts to balance its economic, ecological and social goals. Because of their influence on a company's image as well as on the customers' buying and shareholders' investment decisions, sustainability reports are an integral part of today's corporate online communication.
   Following a design science research approach, this paper describes the design, prototypical implementation and evaluation of augmented sustainability reports. In contrast to traditional PDF- or print media-based sustainability reports, augmented sustainability reports contain multimedia contextual information that is displayed depending on the user's gaze position. In our prototype the gaze position is simulated using mouse tracking. The comparative evaluation of the prototype was conducted via a quantitative questionnaire based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). Additionally, qualitative feedback was gathered during the course of the evaluation. Traditional and augmented sustainability reports were compared on the basis of the questionnaire results which reveal room for improvement of the prototype as well as possible starting points for future research.
   Overall, the evaluation results indicate that our test users had a strong preference for the augmented sustainability report compared to the PDF-based report even though both alternatives had identical content.