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Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces

Fullname:International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces
Note:Bridging Science and Applications
Editors:Mark Maybury
Location:Redondo Beach, CA
Dates:1999-Jan-05 to 1999-Jan-08
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-098-8 ACM Order Number 608990; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: IUI99
Papers:47
Pages:202
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Tutorials
  2. Plenary Address
  3. Information Retrieval Agents
  4. Panels
  5. Collaborative Filtering and Collaborative Interfaces
  6. Reactive and Adaptive Interfaces
  7. Panels
  8. Plenary Address
  9. Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces
  10. Visual and Plan-Based Interfaces
  11. Programmable/Instructable Interfaces
  12. Model-Based Interfaces
  13. Plenary Address
  14. Posters/Demonstrations

Tutorials

Intelligent User Interfaces: An Introduction BIBAKPDF 3-4
  Mark Maybury
Intelligent user interfaces promise to improve the interaction for all. Drawing upon material from the recently completed Readings in Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI) (Maybury and Wahlster, 1998), this tutorial will define terms, outline the history, describe key subfields, and exemplify and demonstrate intelligent user interfaces in action.
Keywords: Intelligent user interfaces, Intelligent multimedia interpretation and generation, User and discourse modelling, Agent-based interfaces, Model-based interfaces
Designing and Evaluating Intelligent User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 5-6
  Kristina Höök
Intelligent user interfaces have been proposed as a means to overcome some of the problems that direct-manipulation interfaces cannot handle, such as: information overflow problems; providing help on how to use complex systems; or real-time cognitive overload problems. Intelligent user interfaces are also being proposed as a means to make systems individualised or personalised, thereby increasing the systems flexibility and appeal.
   But in order for intelligent user interface to gain ground and be of real use to their users, more attention has to be given to usability issues. In this tutorial we shall discuss methods for design and evaluation of intelligent user interfaces from a usability perspective.
Keywords: Intelligent user interfaces, Usability, Design methods, Evaluation
Intelligent Interface Agents BIBPDF 7
  Henry Lieberman

Plenary Address

Agent-Based Multimedia Interaction for Virtual Web Pages BIBPDF 11
  Wolfgang Wahlster

Information Retrieval Agents

Collapsible User Interfaces for Information Retrieval Agents BIBAKPDF 15-22
  Martin Frank; Pedro Szekely
This paper presents an architecture for information retrieval agents in which each agent declaratively describes its domain, input, output, and user interface. A mediating piece of software can then assemble software agents for a given information retrieval task, and produce a single, unified user interface for that task from the individual agents' descriptions.
Keywords: Software agents, Information retrieval, Model-based user interfaces, Graphical user interfaces, Human-computer interaction
Multi-Agent Learning Approach to WWW Information Retrieval using Neural Network BIBAKPDF 23-30
  Yong S. Choi; Suk I. Yoo
In this paper, we propose a multi-agent learning approach to information retrieval on the World Wide Web where each agent collaboratively learns its environment from user's relevance feedback using a neural network mechanism. Our approach makes it possible to discover information sources that will give the desired information, and retrieve that information efficiently and effectively. First, we present a framework for our multi-agent learning approach and introduce a training procedure for capturing knowledge about user's interests and preferences in the information retrieval domain. Secondly, we mathematically analyze the performance of our approach. Finally, to show the utility of our approach, we present the experimental results of our approach and compare them to those obtained.
Keywords: Agent, Learning, Information retrieval, World Wide Web, Relevance feedback, Neural network, Search service
IBOTS: Agent Control Through the User Interface BIBAKPDF 31-37
  Luke S. Zettlemoyer; Robert St. Amant; Martin S. Dulberg
This paper describes an ibot, a specialized software agent that exists in the environment of the user interface. Such an agent interacts with applications through the same medium as a human user. Its sensors process screen contents and mouse/keyboard events to monitor the user's actions and the responses of the environment, while its effecters can generate such events for its own contributions to the interaction. We describe the architecture of our agent and * its algorithms for image processing, event management, and state representation. We illustrate the use of the agent with a small feasibility study in the area of software logging; results are promising for future progress.
Keywords: Agents, Intelligent assistants, User interface
Butterfly: A Conversation-Finding Agent for Internet Relay Chat BIBAKPDF 39-41
  Neil W. Van Dyke; Henry Lieberman; Pattie Maes
The Internet enables groups of people throughout the world to interact to discuss issues, get assistance, learn, and socialize. However, when there are thousands of loosely defined groups in which a user could potentially participate, the problem becomes finding the groups of most interest. In this paper we focus on the domain of Internet Relay Chat real-time text messaging, and describe a "social butterfly" agent called Butterfly that samples available conversational groups and recommends ones of interest. We discuss Butterfly's motivation, usage, real-world design constraints, implementation, and results. Finally, we introduce work in progress on a multi-agent approach that has grown out of our experience with Butterfly.
Keywords: Agents, Internet, Conversation, Information filtering

Panels

Bridging Science and Applications BIBAKPDF 45-46
  Jude Shavlik; Lawrence Birnbaum; William Swartout; Eric Horvitz; Barbara Hayes-Roth
The members of this panel will discuss their experiences and lessons learned transferring research on intelligent user interfaces to the "marketplace." They will also discuss the influence applications-oriented work should have on defining basic research issues. Panelists are from leading industrial and academic institutions. They will address questions such as the following:
  • 1. Which basic research issues in intelligent user interfaces are most relevant
        to their work?
  • 2. Which intelligent-interfaces technique proved most useful in their projects?
  • 3. Which intelligent-interfaces technique least met what was expected of it
        when their projects began?
  • 4. What "major breakthrough" in intelligent-interfaces research would have the
        largest impact on their current and future projects?
  • 5. Which basic research topic appears to be most over emphasized, in terms of
        its expected practical impact?
  • 6. Which basic research topic appears to be most under emphasized, in terms of
        its expected practical impact?
  • 7. How important is it that users are aware of the "true" level of intelligence
        of their interfaces? Did users expect
  • too much or too little of the intelligent interfaces,
        especially compared to their expectations for traditional
        interfaces?
  • 8. In hindsight, how should they have restructured their initial expectations
        about the role of automated intelligence
  • in the development of advanced user interfaces?
    Keywords: Technology transfer, Intelligent interfaces, Commercialization
  • Collaborative Filtering and Collaborative Interfaces

    Documentation Know-How Sharing by Automatic Process Tracking BIBAKPDF 49-56
      Kenji Satoh; Akitoshi Okumura
    Some groupware products support office jobs by providing cooperative functions such as workflow management. However, they cannot support documentation jobs because the jobs need individual creativity which is difficult to share. This paper proposes a 'Know-how Sharing Agent' which allows individual creativity used for documentation jobs to be shared. The Know-how Sharing Agent supports document creation by preparing the most exemplary document and its documentation operations. The documentation operations were also saved by the agent automatically when the document was created. This type of agent thus promotes documentation activities by sharing the know-how needed for documentation.
    Keywords: Know-how, Documentation support, Document sharing, Citation
    Collecting User Access Patterns for Building User Profiles and Collaborative Filtering BIBAKPDF 57-64
      Ahmad M. Ahmad Wasfi
    The paper proposes a new learning mechanism to extract user preferences transparently for a World Wide Web recommender system. The general idea is that we use the entropy of the page being accessed to determine its interestingness based on its occurrence probability following a sequence of pages accessed by the user. The probability distribution of the pages is obtained by collecting the access patterns of users navigating on the Web. A finite context-model is used to represent the usage information. Based on our proposed model, we have developed an autonomous agent, named ProfBuilder, that works as an online recommender system for a Web site. ProfBuilder uses the usage information as a base for content-based and collaborative filtering.
    Keywords: Autonomous agent, Classical information theory, Finite context-model, Content-based filtering, Collaborative filtering
    Let's Browse: A Collaborative Web Browsing Agent BIBAKPDF 65-68
      Henry Lieberman; Neil W. Van Dyke; Adriana S. Vivacqua
    Web browsing, like most of today's desktop applications, is usually a solitary activity. Other forms of media, such as watching television, are often done by groups of people, such as families or friends. What would it be like to do collaborative Web browsing? Could the computer provide assistance to group browsing by trying to help find mutual interests among the participants? Let's Browse is an experiment in building an agent to assist a group of people in browsing, by suggesting new material likely to be of common interest. It is built as an extension to the single-user Web browsing agent Letizia. Let's Browse features automatic detection of the presence of users, automated "channel surfing" browsing, and dynamic display of the user profiles and explanation of recommendations.
    Keywords: Browsing, Collaboration, Agents, User profiles

    Reactive and Adaptive Interfaces

    Generating Mixed-Initiative Hypertexts: A Reactive Approach BIBAKPDF 71-78
      Berardina De Carolis
    Interaction with an adaptive hypertext can be seen as a form of "goal-oriented" dialogue, where the user asks for information through a set of predefined queries and the system answers ensuring that the global communicative goal of the information process is achieved through a sequence of dialogue sections (hypermedia nodes). The system establishes what to say to the user at every turn of the dialogue based on the user model settings and on the interaction history. Planning on demand the information content of a hypertext node that responds to a particular link selection in a particular context requires a "reactive" approach; this differs from common hypertext planning in that it applies local adjustment criteria to an overall plan and, in mixed-initiative situations, tries to tit together the system's and the user's points of view.
    Keywords: Dynamic hypertext generation, Mixed-initiative interaction, Automated presentation of information
    Making Systems Sensitive to the User's Time and Working Memory Constraints BIBAKPDF 79-86
      Anthony Jameson; Ralph Schafer; Thomas Weis; Andre Berthold; Thomas Weyrath
    Recent advances in user modeling technology have brought within reach the goal of having systems adapt to temporary limitations of the user's available time and working memory capacity. We first summarize empirical research by ourselves and others that sheds light on the causes and consequences of these (continually changing) resource limitations. We then present a decision-theoretic approach that allows a system to assess a user's resource limitations and to adapt its behavior accordingly. This approach is illustrated with reference to the performance of the prototype assistance system READY.
    Keywords: Adaptive systems, User modeling, Bayesian networks, Time pressure, Working memory, Natural language
    Adapting to User Preferences in Crisis Response BIBAKPDF 87-90
      Wayne Iba; Melinda Gervasio
    The domain of crisis planning and scheduling taxes human response managers due to high levels of urgency and uncertainty. Such applications require assistant technologies (in contrast to automation technologies) and provide special challenges for interface design. We present INCA, the INteractive Crisis Assistant, that helps users develop effective crisis response plans and schedules in a timely manner. INCA also adapts to the individual users by anticipating their preferred responses to a given crisis and their intended repairs to a candidate response. We evaluate our system in HAZMAT, a synthetic domain involving hazardous material incidents. The results show that INCA provides effective support for the timely generation of effective responses and tailors itself to individual users.
    Keywords: Adaptive interfaces, Collaborative scheduling, User modeling

    Panels

    IUI and Agents for the New Millennium BIBAKPDF 93-94
      Henry Lieberman; Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Yolanda Gil; Ted Selker
    Advocates of intelligent user interfaces are used to fighting an uphill battle against more conventional approaches. Skeptics have been reluctant to accept intelligent tutoring systems, adaptive user interfaces, machine learning, predictive user models, anthropomorphic interaction, etc. as part of everyday interfaces because they have been suspicious of the feasibility of such techniques and fearful of the risk of possible mistakes.
       The good news is that we seem to be making progress in gaining acceptance. Past IUI conferences abound with examples of intelligent interface experiments that clearly demonstrate their feasibility. Limited examples of intelligent interfaces are actually starting to make their ways into commercial products. There is considerable evidence that opposition is softening.
       However, we're not out of the woods yet. Many of the early examples of commercial IUI and agent software are positioned as "add-ons" to the more familiar direct-manipulation interfaces, rather than playing a central role. We haven't yet reached the point where a new application is simply assumed, as a matter of course, to require all the representation, reasoning and learning features that IUI attendees advocate.
       But suppose we do? Suppose intelligence becomes such an integral part of the interface in the 21st century that we couldn't imagine applications without it? How will our software environment and the software industry change as a result?
       Will knowledge bases, inference engines, and learning algorithms become as much a part of the operating system as windows and menus? Will the idea of an "application", as a standalone, shrink-wrapped single-purpose interface, disappear? Once the interface is intelligent, is there any point to having present-day concepts like "files" or "directories"?
       Will all interfaces become personalized to the extent that there won't be any more "generic" interfaces that remain the same across millions of users? Will all information sources be interactive and customized, obsoleting paper books and linear movies? Will that lead to a loss of shared context among users? How will different intelligent user interfaces interoperate and co-operate? What, if anything, will be the next step beyond IUIs and agents?
       The panel will ask participants to speculate on how the widespread acceptance of intelligent user interfaces that we expect for the next millennium will transform our computing environments.
    Keywords: Agents, Intelligent interfaces, Personalization

    Plenary Address

    Collaborative, Spoken-Language Interface Agents BIBAPDF 97
      Candace L. Sidner; Daniel M. Coffman
    First, the day of the GUI is drawing to a close. Second, many visionaries have argued that the new user interface will be a direct and delegate interface. But that's wrong.
       The coming interface is one in which the user collaborates with the computer. The computer understands what the user is doing, can take part in those activities and is able to respond conversationally to the user's activities. This requires an interface that not only understands the user's individual utterances but also can participate in a conversation. Because conversations are fundamentally about the purposes for which people participate in the conversation, this new interface will also require that the machine understand and model purposes behind conversation.
       During this talk we will demonstrate new interfaces, some with speech, that participate with users in collaborations about doing email. We will use these demonstrations to illustrate how conversation and tasks can play a role in user interfaces. We will also demonstrate instances where spoken conversational interaction is more efficient than GUI interaction.

    Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces

    Mixing Scripted Interaction with Task-Oriented Language Processing in a Conversational Interface BIBAKPDF 101-103
      Gene Ball
    Natural conversational interaction with computers will require systems that can successfully process unconstrained spoken input. Within the domain of its competency, such a system must be able to process an utterance in a "deep" fashion, extracting the detailed information necessary to carry out a useful task. When users stray outside the supported domain, the system must still be able to respond to a "broad" range of plausible inputs to maintain basic conversational competency. This paper reports on an effort to combine simple pattern matching techniques which can provide broad coverage with deep processing based on robust natural language template matching.
    Keywords: Conversational interfaces, Dialogue, Scripting, Speech recognition
    A Robust Selection System using Real-Time Multi-Modal User-Agent Interactions BIBAKPDF 105-108
      Katsumi Tanaka
    This paper presents a real-time object selection system which can deal with gaze and speech inputs that include uncertainty. Although much research has focused on integration of multi-modal information, most of it assumes that each input is accurately symbolized in advance. In addition, real-time interaction with the user is an important and desirable feature which most systems have overlooked. Unlike those systems, our system is intended to satisfy these two requirements. In our system, target objects are modeled by agents which react to user's action in real-time. The agent's reactions are based on integration of multi-modal inputs. We use gaze input which enables real-time detection of focus-of-attention but has low accuracy, whereas speech input has high accuracy but non-real-time feature. Highly accurate selection with robustness is achieved by complementary effect through probabilistic integration of these two modalities. Our first experiment shows that it is possible to select target object successfully in most cases, even if either of the modalities includes great uncertainty.
    Keywords: Multi-modal interface, Uncertainty, Real-time interaction, Gaze, Speech, Agent model
    User Acceptance of an Intelligent User Interface: A Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate Example BIBAKPDF 109-116
      Christopher A. Miller; Matthew D. Hannen
    The U.S. Army's Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate (RPA) program is developing an advanced, intelligent "associate" system for flight demonstration in a future attack/scout helicopter. A significant RPA component is the intelligent user interface known as the Cockpit Information Manager (CIM). This paper describes the high level architecture of the CIM, with emphasis on its pilot-perceptible behaviors: Crew Intent Estimation, Page Selection, Symbol Selection/Declutter, Intelligent Window Location, Automated Pan and Zoom, and Task Allocation. We then present the subjective results of recent full mission simulation studies using the CIM to illustrate pilots' attitudes toward these behaviors and their perceived effectiveness.
    Keywords: Cockpit information management, Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate, Associate Systems, Page selection, Symbol selection/declutter, Automated task allocation, Pan & zoom, Window location, Intent estimation

    Visual and Plan-Based Interfaces

    Intelligent Multi-Shot Visualization Interfaces for Dynamic 3D Worlds BIBAKPDF 119-126
      William H. Bares; James C. Lester
    In next-generation virtual 3D simulation, training, and entertainment environments, intelligent visualization interfaces must respond to user-specified viewing requests so users can follow salient points of the action and monitor the relative locations of objects. Users should be able to indicate which object(s) to view, how each should be viewed, cinematic style and pace, and how to respond when a single satisfactory view is not possible. When constraints fail, weak constraints can be relaxed or multi-shot solutions can be displayed in sequence or as composite shots with simultaneous viewports. To address these issues, we have developed CONSTRAINTCAM, a real-time camera visualization interface for dynamic 3D worlds. It has been studied in an interactive testbed in which users can issue viewing goals to monitor multiple autonomous characters navigating through a virtual cityscape. CONSTRAINTCAM's real-time performance in this testbed is encouraging.
    Keywords: Intelligent 3D visualization, Adaptive and customizable user interfaces
    Integrating Organizational Memory and Performance Support BIBAKPDF 127-134
      Christopher Johnson; Larry Birnbaum; Ray Bareiss; Tom Hinrichs
    We describe an approach to building integrated performance support systems by using model-based task tracking to link performance support tools to video-based organizational memory systems, enabling contextually appropriate help and advice as well as proactive critiquing.
    Keywords: Intelligent performance support, Task models, Organizational memory, Hypermedia
    Planning and User Interface Affordances BIBAKPDF 135-142
      Robert St. Amant
    This paper takes a first step toward formalizing the concept of affordance in user interfaces. Using a simple example of an AI planning domain, we show how different types of affordance can be described in terms of the costs associated with plan execution. We identify a number of similarities between executing plans and interacting with a graphical user interface, and argue that affordances for planning environments apply equally well to user interface environments. We support our argument with examples of common user interface mechanisms, described in affordance terms.
    Keywords: Planning, Affordances

    Programmable/Instructable Interfaces

    Programming by Demonstration: An Inductive Learning Formulation BIBAKPDF 145-152
      Tessa A. Lau; Daniel S. Weld
    Although Programming by Demonstration (PBD) has the potential to improve the productivity of unsophisticated users, previous PBD systems have used brittle, heuristic, domain-specific approaches to execution-trace generalization. In this paper we define two application-independent methods for performing generalization that are based on well-understood machine learning technology. TGENVS uses version-space generalization, and TGENFOIL is based on the FOIL inductive logic programming algorithm. We analyze each method both theoretically and empirically, arguing that TGENVS has lower sample complexity, but TGENFOIL can learn a much more interesting class of programs.
    Keywords: Programming by demonstration, Machine learning, Inductive logic programming, Version spaces
    InfoBeams -- Configuration of Personalized Information Assistants BIBAKPDF 153-156
      Mathias Bauer; Dietmar Dengler
    With the enormous amount of data contained in the WWW, one of the crucial tasks a user has to face is the identification and aggregation of relevant pieces of information to satisfy her current information needs. This paper presents an approach to the system-supported configuration of individualized information services. The programming-by-demonstration approach pursued by the InfoBeans releases the user from learning a programming language or dealing with technical subtleties. The first version of this system will be released this fall.
    Keywords: Information assistants, Wrapper induction, Programming by demonstration, Information integration
    An Instructable, Adaptive Interface for Discovering and Monitoring Information on the World-Wide Web BIBAKPDF 157-160
      Jude Shavlik; Susan Calcari; Tina Eliassi-Rad; Jack Solock
    We are creating a customizable, intelligent interface to the World-Wide Web that assists a user in locating specific, current, and relevant information. The Wisconsin Adaptive Web Assistant (WAWA) is capable of accepting instructions regarding what type of information that users are seeking and how to go about looking for it. WAWA compiles these instructions into neural networks, which means that the system's behavior can be modified via training examples. Users can create these training examples by rating pages retrieved by WAWA, but more importantly the system uses techniques from reinforcement learning to internally create its own examples (users can also later provide additional instructions). WAWA uses these neural networks to guide its autonomous navigation of the Web, thereby producing an interface to the Web that users periodically instruct and which in the background searches the Web for relevant information, including periodically revisiting pages that change regularly.
    Keywords: Intelligent Web interfaces, Instructable software agents, Machine learning, Neural networks, Information retrieval

    Model-Based Interfaces

    Developing Adaptable Hypermedia BIBAKPDF 163-170
      Fabio Paterno; Cristiano Mancini
    In this paper we discuss the design and implementation of hypermedia able to adapt to different types of usage. Our work is based on a method whose main elements are: a strong user involvement, the identification of different types of users, and the application of task models to support the design and development of hypermedia. Different task models are associated with different types of users. We show examples of the approach proposed taken from a case study where museum information is considered.
    Keywords: Task models, Model-based design, Hypermedia, Adaptable user interfaces, Museum applications
    Towards a General Computational Framework for Model-Based Interface Development Systems BIBAKPDF 171-178
      Angel Puerta; Jacob Eisenstein
    Model-based interface development systems have not been able to progress beyond producing narrowly focused interface designs of restricted applicability. We identify a level-of-abstraction mismatch in interface models, which we call the mapping problem, as the cause of the limitations in the usefulness of model-based systems. We propose a general computational framework for solving the mapping problem in model-based systems. We show an implementation of the framework within the MOBI-D (Model-Based Interface Designer) interface development environment. The MOBI-D approach to solving the mapping problem enables for the first time with model-based technology the design of a wide variety of types of user interfaces.
    Keywords: Model-based interface development, Interface models, Knowledge-based user interface design, User interface development tools

    Plenary Address

    Anticipating User's Needs: Redeeming Big Brother in the Information Age BIBPDF 181-182
      Kristian J. Hammond

    Posters/Demonstrations

    ConCall: Edited and Adaptive Information Filtering BIBPDF 185
      Annika Wærn; Mark Tierney; Asa Rudsstrom; Jarmo Laaksolahti
    Adaptive Support: The Intelligent Tour Guide BIBAKPDF 186
      Marc Rossel
    This paper presents the Intelligent Tour Guide realized in an Adaptive Multimedia Presentation System which is called AMPreS [1]. It supports an individual learning process by establishing user-tailored guided tours in real-time. Furthermore, different kinds of tours are developed to meet different users' needs.
    Keywords: Adaptive navigation support, User models, Guided tours
    Evaluating Adaptive Navigation Support BIBAKPDF 187
      Kristina Höök; Martin Svensson
    "Lost in hyperspace" is a feeling that is familiar to almost anyone using a computer. After a few actions, we do not know where we are, how we got there, or what our original goal was. Adaptive navigation systems has been proposed as a means to aid users in finding their way through information spaces. Several systems have been designed that adapts the navigation to users' knowledge (e.g 11), to users' preferences and goals (9), to users' tasks (8), or to users' spatial ability (1,6). The hope is that if user characteristics are considered the cognitive workload can be reduced, or users' learning may be improved, etc., but will they?
    Keywords: Adaptive, Navigation, Evaluation, Hypermedia
    STARzoom -- An Interactive Visual Database Interface BIBAKPDF 188
      Per Bruno; Viktor Ehrenberg; Lars Erik Holmquist
    STARzoom is a visualisation of a semantic hierarchical database utilising the hypemym structure from WordNet. It is also the search tool for that same database with which the user interacts in trying to visually chisel out a search query.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, WordNet, Hypernyms, Semantic clustering, Visual information seeking
    Visual Querying and Explanation of Recommendations from Collaborative Filtering Systems BIBAPDF 189
      Junichi Tatemura
    Collaborative filtering is a technique that makes use of knowledge from other users to find useful information by computing similarity of the users based on their rating patterns [2]. Although this technique can deal with a user's subjective "taste" for data such as movies and music, one of its problems is that a user's taste is diverse and changing; the filter might fit only a portion of the user's taste or fail to satisfy her or his temporary needs. We claim that the system should explain how filtered items match the user's taste and give users control so that they can explore the information space to find what they want. We have developed a visual interface of a collaborative filtering system that supports querying and explanation of recommendations.
    Stack Search -- A Graphical Search Model BIBAKPDF 190
      Ted Skolnick
    Most text-searching user interfaces (UIs) are made of standard UI components arranged in text-based forms. This approach to searching has some shortcomings. Text based UIs can be difficult to understand, seem unpredictable or lack the control needed to find information quickly. Stack Search is a graphical search tool created at The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition that provides a different model of searching. It gives feedback that allows users to see the affects of their actions as well as the control needed to precisely isolate information.
    Keywords: Search, Boolean, Stack, Paper, News, Graphical, Model, Keyword, Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition (WSJIE)
    Opportunistic Exploration of Large Consumer Product Spaces BIBAKPDF 191
      Doug Bryan; Anatole Gershman
    We have identified a user behavior called opportunistic exploration that is significantly different than both browsing and searching. A novel visual metaphor for opportunistic exploration, an aquarium, is presented. In an aquarium users may explore a corpus at any level of granularity. The aquarium automatically controls granularity based on the history of operations performed by a user. We will demonstrate the metaphor on a collection of 12,000 consumer products.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, Visual navigation, Visual metaphor, Browsing, Searching
    A Software Agent for Performance Improvement of Existing Information Retrieval Systems BIBAKPDF 192
      Bernard J. Jansen
    This paper describes a software agent developed specifically for integration with existing information retrieval interfaces and search engines. The software agent assists the user with query reformulation. The agent assistance is based on characteristics of the user population, user actions during the search process, information from retrieved documents, and historical information from past queries. With minor modification, the software agent can be integrated with a variety of interfaces and search engines.
    Keywords: Software agents, Information retrieval, Adaptive interfaces, Interface agents, Software integration
    Multilingual "Worldtrek" for Authoring and Comprehension BIBAKPDF 193
      Marie-Luce Picard; Eric Boudaillier
    WORLDTREK offers an interactive graphical visualization of multilingual terminologies within authoring systems and comprehension assistance tools. It will be customized for browsing of dependencies in data-mining applications.
    Keywords: Graph, Semantic networks, tcl/tk, Hypertextual navigation
    WordView: Understanding Words in Context BIBAKPDF 194
      Lorraine Normore; Mark Bendig; Carol Jean Godby
    WordView is a tool that shows how words are used in naturally occurring phrases to support the intelligent parsing of such phrases. It embodies an easy to understand graphic summary and a user-controllable inspection facility.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, Information visualization, Natural language processing, Compound nominals
    PESCE: A Visual Generator for Software Understanding BIBAKPDF 195
      Rogelio Adobbati; W. Lewis Johnson; Stacy Marsella
    We present a short overview of PESCE, a system that addresses the problem of automatically generating consistent visual explanations of software.
    Keywords: Software visualization, Knowledge-based user interfaces, Presentation generation
    Visual Presentation Agents for 3D Environments BIBAKPDF 196
      Volker Paelke
    We describe a platform independent system that provides reusable visual presentation techniques for use in highly interactive 3D environments like 3D interfaces.
    Keywords: Visual presentation techniques, 3D user interfaces, Interactive 3D animation, Agents, 3D illustrations
    A High-Level "Tasking" Interface for Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles BIBPDF 197
      Christopher A. Miller; Michael Pelican; Robert Goldman
    Mobile Communication and Interaction in Context BIBAPDF 198
      Jo Herstad; Do Van Thanh; Jan Arild Audestad
    Current mobile communication solutions leave out information about the context in which the communication takes place. Context is, however, a key factor for the success of interpersonal communication. The contextual communication system described in this paper enhances existing mobile multimedia communication systems by introducing a feedback loop to convey contextual information. This information can be used either by the communication system or the addressee to select the most appropriate communication media, or to adjust and optimize the interaction mechanisms. Our claim is that to make useful, functional and powerful new tools for supporting human-human communication and interaction at a distance, the context has to be considered in the design of communication and information solutions.
    A Contextual Analysis of Referring Gestures BIBPDF 199
      Frederic Wolff; Laurent Romary
    The Optimization Assistant -- Helping Engineers Explore Designs through Collaboration BIBAKPDF 200
      Ted Long
    In this paper, we discuss an intelligent assistant that was placed into Engineous Software's iSIGHT product. It helps mechanical engineers design optimization plans for discovering optimal product designs. It was determined that an intelligent assistant was a better solution than providing data filters or a wizard.
    Keywords: Intelligent assistant, Advisor, Collaboration
    StoryMat: A Play Space with Narrative Memories BIBAKPDF 201
      Kimiko Ryokai; Justine Cassell
    In this paper, we present the design and the prototype of a work-in-progress, StoryMat: a soft intelligent play mat that records and recalls children's storytelling activities.
    Keywords: Storytelling, Recording and recalling stories, Soft interface
    Programming Constraint System by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 202
      Takashi Hattori
    The executable constraint system aims to maintain the integrity of structures that users create during an edit session. When the users modify a part of the structures, other parts are modified accordingly, based on instructions given by the users. The instructions are presented by demonstration, and form a constraint that is satisfied when the current state is its fixed point. The users can dynamically control a set of executable constraints to be satisfied.
    Keywords: Constraints, Programming by demonstration, End user programming