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Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces

Fullname:International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces
Note:Bridging Science and Applications
Location:Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA
Dates:2001-Jan-14 to 2001-Jan-17
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-325-1 ACM Order Number 608201; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: IUI01
Papers:27
Pages:174
Links:Conference Home Page
An Architecture for More Realistic Conversational Systems BIBAKPDF 1-8
  James Allen; George Ferguson; Amanda Stent
In this paper, we describe an architecture for conversational systems that enables human-like performance along several important dimensions. First, interpretation is incremental, multi-level, and involves both general and task- and domain-specific knowledge. Second, generation is also incremental, proceeds in parallel with interpretation, and accounts for phenomena such as turn-taking, grounding and interruptions. Finally, the overall behavior of the system in the task at hand is determined by the (incremental) results of interpretation, the persistent goals and obligations of the system, and exogenous events of which it becomes aware. As a practical matter, the architecture supports a separation of responsibilities that enhances portability to new tasks and domains.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Natural language; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1): Natural language interfaces; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Voice I/O; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Natural Language Processing (I.2.7): Discourse; Design, Human Factors, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory; architectures for intelligent, conversational systems, cooperative, distributed, multimodal interfaces
Generating Virtual Camera Compositions BIBAKPDF 9-12
  William Bares; Byungwoo Kim
This paper describes work in progress to automatically generate camera shots featuring the composition techniques of expert photographers. This effort builds upon an automated camera planner that computes a shot satisfying a given set of constraints. In this prior work, users manually specify the set of constraints and the numeric parameters for each. A typical two subject shot can be described by eleven constraints involving sixty numeric parameters. This work aims to develop a high-level interface to automatically generate such constraint sets. Photographic composition techniques such as composition in depth can be realized by automatically constructing appropriate sets of camera constraints then submitting them to a constraint solver.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Methodology and Techniques (I.3.6): Interaction techniques; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; generation of constraints, photographic composition, visualization interfaces
An Integrated Environment for Knowledge Acquisition BIBAKPDF 13-20
  Jim Blythe; Jihie Kim; Surya Ramachandran; Yolanda Gil
This paper describes an integrated acquisition interface that includes several techniques previously developed to support users in various ways as they add new knowledge to an intelligent system. As a result of this integration, the individual techniques can take better advantage of the context in which they are invoked and provide stronger guidance to users. We describe the current implementation using examples from a travel planning domain, and demonstrate how users can add complex knowledge to the system.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Learning (I.2.6): Knowledge acquisition; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory
When Policies are Better than Plans: Decision-Theoretic Planning of Recommendation Sequences BIBAKPDF 21-24
  Thorsten Bohnenberger; Anthony Jameson
An intelligent user interface sometimes needs to present a sequence of related recommendations to a user, in spite of being uncertain in advance as to whether (and with what success) the user will follow each recommendation. There are potential advantages to the use of decision-theoretic planning methods which yield an optimal policy for the situation-dependent presentation of recommendations. This approach is discussed with reference to an example involving route instructions given by an airport assistance system.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Types of Systems (H.4.2): Decision support; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (I.2.8): Plan execution, formation, and generation; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1); Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; decision-theoretic planning, intelligent user interfaces, recommendations, route planning
A Hybrid Indoor Navigation System BIBAKPDF 25-32
  Andreas Butz; Jorg Baus; Antonio Kruger; Marco Lohse
We describe a hybrid building navigation system consisting of stationary information booths and a mobile communication infrastructure feeding small portable devices. The graphical presentations for both the booths and the mobile devices are generated from a common source and for the common task of way finding, but they use different techniques to convey possibly different subsets of the relevant information. The form of the presentations is depending on technical limitations of the output media, accuracy of location information, and cognitive restrictions of the user. We analyze what information needs to be conveyed, how limited resources influence the presentation of this information, and argue, that by generating all different presentations in a common framework, a consistent appearance across devices can be achieved and that the different device classes can complement each other in facilitating the navigation task.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4): Navigation; Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; hybrid user interfaces, navigation, resource adaptivity, user adaptivity
Implicit Interest Indicators BIBAKPDF 33-40
  Mark Claypool; Phong Le; Makoto Wased; David Brown
Recommender systems provide personalized suggestions about items that users will find interesting. Typically, recommender systems require a user interface that can "intelligently" determine the interest of a user and use this information to make suggestions. The common solution, "explicit ratings", where users tell the system what they think about a piece of information, is well-understood and fairly precise. However, having to stop to enter explicit ratings can alter normal patterns of browsing and reading. A more "intelligent" method is to use implicit ratings, where a rating is obtained by a method other than obtaining it directly from the user. These implicit interest indicators have obvious advantages, including removing the cost of the user rating, and that every user interaction with the system can contribute to an implicit rating.
   Current recommender systems mostly do not use implicit ratings, nor is the ability of implicit ratings to predict actual user interest well-understood. This research studies the correlation between various implicit ratings and the explicit rating for a single Web page. A Web browser was developed to record the user's actions (implicit ratings) and the explicit rating of a page. Actions included mouse clicks, mouse movement, scrolling and elapsed time. This browser was used by over 80 people that browsed more than 2500 Web pages.
   Using the data collected by the browser, the individual implicit ratings and some combinations of implicit ratings were analyzed and compared with the explicit rating. We found that the time spent on a page, the amount of scrolling on a page and the combination of time and scrolling had a strong correlation with explicit interest, while individual scrolling methods and mouse-clicks were ineffective in predicting explicit interest.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Distributed Artificial Intelligence (I.2.11); Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory
Providing Adaptive Support to the Understanding of Instructional Material BIBAKPDF 41-47
  Cristina Conati; Kurt VanLehn
We present an adaptive interface designed to provide tailored support for the understanding of written instructional material. The interface relies on a user model based on a Bayesian network, that assesses users' understanding as users read the instructional material and try to understand it by generating explanations to themselves. The user model's assessment is used by the interface to generate tailored scaffolding of further user's explanations that can improve the user's comprehension. After illustrating how the Bayesian user model assesses understanding from the user's explanations and from latency data on the user's attention, we discuss initial results on the effectiveness of the interface's adaptive interventions.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - General (I.2.0): Cognitive simulation; Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; Bayesian networks, adaptive tutoring, modeling attention, user modeling
XLibris: An Automated Library Research Assistant BIBAKPDF 49-52
  Andrew Crossen; Jay Budzik; Mason Warner; Larry Birnbaum; Kristian J. Hammond
While recent work has focused on providing tools and infrastructure for users to access electronic information over the Internet, the relationship between the physical world and information available online has been relatively unexplored. Information about a user's location, and the objects she interacts with, can be sufficient to recognize enough of the user's task to drive retrieval of online information relevant to the task at hand. The XLibris system automatically retrieves, aggregates, and delivers information about books to users as they are checked out of the library, using information about the books themselves and the user's task. XLibris locates books in the Dewey Decimal subject hierarchy to automatically search for the most relevant information about the book for the user, tailoring both the sources queried and the information returned based on the book's position in the hierarchy.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Library Automation (H.3.6); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Retrieval models; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; automated retrieval, information aggregation, metasearch, ubiquitous computing
Incorporating Tutorial Strategies Into an Intelligent Assistant BIBAKPDF 53-56
  Jim R. Davies; Abigail S. Gertner; Neal Lesh; Charles Rich; Candace L. Sidner; Jeff Rickel
Computer tutors and intelligent software assistants have traditionally been thought of as different kinds of systems. However tutors and assistants share many properties. We have incorporated tutorial strategies into an intelligent assistant based on the COLLAGEN architecture. We are working on an agent, named Triton, which teaches and helps users with the graphical user interface of an air travel planning system. We found that the collaborative model underlying COLLAGEN is an excellent foundation for both an assistant and a tutor, and that both modes of interaction can be implemented in the same system with different parameter settings.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1); Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; collaboration, discourse, intelligent assistants, intelligent tutoring systems, software agents
Example Based Generation of Custom Data Analysis Appliances BIBAKPDF 57-64
  Mark Derthick; Steven F. Roth
Custom interfaces, which we call appliances, allow users to efficiently carry out specialized tasks. Without one, a user is often required to perform repetitive mechanical steps using general purpose interfaces, which we call tools. Much research has attempted to enable non-programmers to create appliances for themselves.
   We present a system in which a user can choose an example of the task behavior to be automated from a visualization of his past operations. The example is transformed into a visual language, using two simple rules to generalize from the single example to a class of tasks. The user can then edit this representation directly, or continue to refine the example using selective undo and redo. The visual representation can be transformed into an esthetically pleasing appliance by deleting irrelevant components, and rearranging, resizing, and relabeling other components. Restricting the domain to data analysis tasks enables a well-matched visual query language to be used. Appliance interactions are automatically provided by the underlying interactive visualization system in which the appliance is embedded.
   An observational study suggests that this system represents a useful point on the ease-of-use vs. expressive power tradeoff appropriate for data analysis, and that the ability to choose and modify examples after the fact is helpful.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Graphical user interfaces (GUI); Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Methodology and Techniques (I.3.6): Languages; Information Systems -Database Management - Languages (H.2.3): Query languages; Algorithms, Design, Human Factors, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory; GUI builder, programming with examples, visual query language
What do Users Prefer?: A Personalized Intelligent User Interface for Searching Information -- An Empirical Study BIBAKPDF 65-68
  Dina Goren-Bar; Tsvi Kuflik; Tali Lavie
Searching the web for information becomes a tedious task. As a result of any query, the user gets large numbers of responses, most of them irrelevant. Existing search tools fail to cope with this information overload, mainly due to lack of personalization. Current developments emphasize better representation of user interests and dynamic adaptation based on relevance feedback, but personalization is much more then just that. The present study examines the impact of search tools adaptation to their users. A significant preference toward user-oriented search method over the conventional content-based method was found. The results clearly demonstrate the need for self-adapting personalized interfaces as mediators between users and information repositories of all kinds.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Information filtering; Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; adaptive user-interface, user modeling
Applying Model-Based Techniques to the Development of UIs for Mobile Computers BIBAKPDF 69-76
  Jacob Eisenstein; Jean Vanderdonckt; Angel Puerta
Mobile computing poses a series of unique challenges for user interface design and development: user interfaces must now accommodate the capabilities of various access devices and be suitable for different contexts of use, while preserving consistency and usability. We propose a set of techniques that will aid UI designers who are working in the domain of mobile computing. These techniques will allow designers to build UIs across several platforms, while respecting the unique constraints posed by each platform. In addition, these techniques will help designers to recognize and accommodate the unique contexts in which mobile computing occurs. Central to our approach is the development of a user-interface model that serves to isolate those features that are common to the various contexts of use, and to specify how the user-interface should adjust when the context changes. We claim that without some abstract description of the UI, it is likely that the design and the development of user-interfaces for mobile computing will be very time consuming, error-prone or even doomed to failure.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computer Systems Organization -Computer System Implementation - Microcomputers (C.5.3): Portable devices (e.g., laptops, personal digital assistants); Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; adaptive user-interface, mobile computing, plastic user-interface, platform constraints, task model, user-interface modeling
Towards a Computational Model of Sketching BIBAKPDF 77-83
  Kenneth D. Forbus; Ronald W. Ferguson; Jeffery M. Usher
Sketching is a powerful means of interpersonal communication. While many useful multimodal systems have been created, current systems are far from achieving human-like participation in sketching. A computational model of sketching would help characterize these differences and help us better understand how to overcome them. This paper is a first step towards such a model. We start with an example of a sketching system (nuSketch COA Creator) designed to aid military planners, to provide context and a source of examples. We then describe four dimensions of sketching, visual understanding, conceptual understanding, language understanding, and drawing,that can be used to characterize the competence of existing systems and identify open problems. The issues involved will be illustrated by examples from our experience with nuSketch. Three research challenges are posed, to serve as milestones towards a computational model of sketching that can explain and replicate human abilities in this area.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7); Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; intelligent front-ends to knowledge-based systems, multimodal interfaces, sketching
An Intelligent User Interface for Mixed-Initiative Multi-Source Travel Planning BIBAKPDF 85-86
  Martin Frank; Maria Muslea; Jean Oh; Steve Minton; Craig Knoblock
A mixed-initiative planner in our context is one in which either the human or the computer can spontaneously provide the content of the same input fields. A multi-source planner is one that accesses multiple external information sources in parallel, using separate threads. This type of highly dynamic user interface is desirable but presents a challenge in "keeping the user in control" because it can be confusing to understand which fields of the form currently "belong" to the user, which ones "belong" to the system, how these two interact, and when and how their ownership changes.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (I.2.8): Plan execution, formation, and generation; Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory
Modeling User Preferences via Theory Refinement BIBAKPDF 87-90
  Ben Geisler; Vu Ha; Peter Haddawy
We present an approach to elicitation of user preference models in which assumptions can be used to guide but not constrain the elicitation process. We show how to encode assumptions concerning preferential independence and monotonicity in a Knowledge-Based Artificial Neural Network. We quantify the degree to which user preferences violate a set of assumptions. We empirically compare the KBANN network with an unbiased ANN in terms of learning rate and accuracy for preferences consistent and inconsistent with the assumptions. We go on to demonstrate how the technique can be used to learn a fine-grained preference structure from simple binary classification data.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - General (I.2.0): Cognitive simulation; Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Types of Systems (H.4.2): Decision support; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Learning (I.2.6): Connectionism and neural nets; Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; decision theory, neural networks, personalization, user modeling
Community Search Assistant BIBAKPDF 91-96
  Natalie S. Glance
This paper describes a new software agent, the community search assistant, which recommends related searches to users of search engines. The community search assistant enables communities of users to search in a collaborative fashion. All queries submitted by the community are stored in the form of a graph. Links are made between queries that are found to be related. Users can peruse the network of related queries in an ordered way: following a path from a first cousin, to a second cousin to a third cousin, etc. to a set of search results. The first key idea behind the use of query graphs is that the determination of relatedness depends on the documents returned by the queries, not on the actual terms in the queries themselves. The second key idea is that the construction of the query graph transforms single user usage of information networks (e.g. search) into collaborative usage: all users can tap into the knowledge base of queries submitted by others.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Distributed Artificial Intelligence (I.2.11): Intelligent agents; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Search process; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Mathematics of Computing -Discrete Mathematics - General (G.2.0); Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; intelligent agent, recommender system, search
Adaptively Constructing the Query Interface for Meta-Search Engines BIBAKPDF 97-100
  Lieming Huang; Thiel Ulrich; Matthias Hemmje; Erich J. Neuhold
With the exponential growth of information on the Internet, current information integration systems have become more and more unsuitable for this "Internet age" due to the great diversity among sources. This paper presents a constraint-based query user interface model, which can be applied to the construction of dynamically generated adaptive user interfaces for meta-search engines.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Database Management - Systems (H.2.4): Query processing; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Search process; Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory
An Integrated Interface for Proactive, Experience-Based Design Support BIBAKPDF 101-108
  David B. Leake; Larry Birnbaum; Kristian Hammond; Cameron Marlow; Hao Yang
Many case-based reasoning systems have been developed to aid designers by providing them with libraries of prior design experiences. Traditionally, these systems are implemented as stand-alone "external memories" for the designer to query manually. This paper presents a contrasting approach that integrates proactive case retrieval into the designer's normal task processes, automatically tailoring information selection and presentation emphasis to fit changing designer needs and attention flow. The paper presents a set of principles for this integrated intelligent design support and describes their application in the Stamping Advisor, a system to support design feasibility analysis for sheet metal automotive parts. The Stamping Advisor interface proactively provides designers with relevant information to support feasibility analysis, automatically prepares their information products, and unobtrusively gathers the information needed to generate new cases to improve the quality of future support.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Retrieval models; Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; case-based reasoning, context, design, intelligent information systems, just-in-time retrieval, knowledge management
Towards Context-Based Search Engine Selection BIBAKPDF 109-112
  David B. Leake; Ryan Scherle
A well-known problem for web search is targeting search on information that satisfies users' information needs. User queries tend to be short, and hence often ambiguous, which can lead to inappropriate results from general-purpose search engines. This has led to a number of methods for narrowing queries by adding information. This paper presents an alternative approach that aims to improve query results by using knowledge of a user's current activities to select search engines relevant to their information needs, exploiting the proliferation of high-quality special-purpose search services. The paper introduces the PRISM source selection system and describes its approach. It then describes two initial experiments testing the system's methods.
Keywords: Information Systems -Database Management - Systems (H.2.4): Distributed databases; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Search process; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; distributed information systems, intelligent web search, just-in-time information access
Creating Tangible Interfaces by Augmenting Physical Objects with Multimodal Language BIBAKPDF 113-119
  David R. McGee; Philip R. Cohen
Rasa is a tangible augmented reality environment that digitally enhances the existing paper-based command and control capability in a military command post. By observing and understanding the users' speech, pen, and touch-based multimodal language, Rasa computationally augments the physical objects on a command post map, linking these items to digital representations of the same-for example, linking a paper map to the world and Post-it notes to military units. Herein, we give a thorough account of Rasa's underlying multiagent framework, and its recognition, understanding, and multimodal integration components. Moreover, we examine five properties of language-generativity, comprehensibility, compositionality, referentiality, and, at times, persistence-that render it suitable as an augmentation approach, contrasting these properties to those of other augmentation methods. It is these properties of language that allow users of Rasa to augment physical objects, transforming them into tangible interfaces.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities; Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): Virtual reality; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Human Factors, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory; augmented reality, human factors, invisible interfaces, mixed reality, multimodal interfaces, tangible interfaces
Inferring Calendar Event Attendance BIBAKPDF 121-128
  Elizabeth Mynatt; Joe Tullio
The digital personal calendar has long been established as an effective tool for supporting workgroup coordination. For the new class of ubiquitous computing applications, however, the calendar can also be seen as a sensor, providing both location and availability information to these applications. In most cases, however, the calendar represents a sequence of events that people could (or should) attend, not their actual daily activities. To assist in the accurate determination of user whereabouts and availability, we present Ambush, a calendar system extension that uses a Bayesian model to predict the likelihood of one's attendance at the events listed on his or her schedule. We also present several techniques for the visual display of these likelihoods in a manner intended to be quickly interpreted by users examining the calendar.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Office Automation (H.4.1): Groupware; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (I.2.8): Scheduling; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Deduction and Theorem Proving (I.2.3): Uncertainty, "fuzzy," and probabilistic reasoning; Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; bayesian networks, calendars, context-aware, groupware calendar systems, informal meeting scheduling, visualizing uncertainty
Heroes, Villains, Magicians, ...: Dramatis Personae in a Virtual Story Creation Environment BIBAKPDF 129-136
  Ana Paiva; Isabel Machado; Rui Prada
One difficulty in creating synthetic characters for interactive stories is that these characters must convey their role in the story in a believable way. However, the relation between believability, on one side, and the role a character plays in a drama, on the other, has not yet been fully addressed. In this paper we will present a view on how to develop believable synthetic characters whose behaviour is based on a set of predefined functions (Propp's functions) associated with the role they play in the story. To illustrate the approach, we will present a collaborative virtual environment, Teatrix, designed for children to build their own stories-fairy tales. In Teatrix, virtual actors play roles (such as villain, hero, magician, etc), which are functional for the development of the story. Such roles have pre-defined goals and plans, allowing the story to flow and climax situations to arise. Teatrixis already in use by children ages between 7 and 9, in the context of a Computer-Integrated Classroom scenario.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Distributed Artificial Intelligence (I.2.11): Intelligent agents; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; application-specific intelligent interfaces, intelligent agents and agent-based interaction
A Computational Model and Classification Framework for Social Navigation BIBAKPDF 137-144
  Mark O. Riedl
Social navigation is the process of making navigational decisions in real or virtual environments based on social and communicative interaction with others. A computational model for social navigation is presented as an extension to an existing framework for general navigation, reducing decision-making to the minimization of cognitive costs. Consideration for social navigation gives rise to a classification framework based on the synchronicity, directness, and social presence during social interaction, each of which has direct effect on the cognitive costs of navigational tasks. Finally, a new recommender system, TRAILGUIDE, is presented as a tool that facilitates social navigation by allowing authors to explicitly publish "trails" within and between World Wide Web pages.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4): Navigation; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; World Wide Web, embodied avatars, recommender systems, social navigation model, social presence
Intelligent Profiling by Example BIBAKPDF 145-151
  Sybil Shearin; Henry Lieberman
The Apt Decision agent learns user preferences in the domain of rental real estate by observing the user's critique of apartment features. Users provide a small number of criteria in the initial interaction, receive a display of sample apartments, and then react to any feature of any apartment independently, in any order. Users learn which features are important to them as they discover the details of specific apartments. The agent uses interactive learning techniques to build a profile of user preferences, which can then be saved and used in further retrievals. Because the user's actions in specifying preferences are also used by the agent to create a profile, the result is an agent that builds a profile without redundant or unnecessary effort on the user's part.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Distributed Artificial Intelligence (I.2.11): Intelligent agents; Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Types of Systems (H.4.2): Decision support; Computer Applications - Administrative Data Processing (J.1): Business; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Learning (I.2.6); Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; electronic profiles, infomediary, interactive learning, personalization, profiling, real estate, user preferences
Intelligent Visualization in a Planning Simulation BIBAKABSTRACT 153-159
  Robert St. Amant; Christopher G. Healey; Mark Riedl; Sarat Kocherlakota; David A. Pegram; Mika Torhola
This paper describes a set of visualization techniques for interactive planning in a physical force simulation called AFS. We have developed a 3D environment in which textures are overlaid on a simulated landscape to convey information about environmental properties, agent actions, and possible strategies. Scenes are presented, via automated camera planning, such that some simple agent goals can be induced visually with little effort. These two areas of visualization functionality in AFS exploit properties of human low-level and intermediate-level vision, respectively. This paper presents AFS, its visualization environment, and studies we have run to explore the relationship between AFS visualizations and the high-level planning process.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (I.2.8): Plan execution, formation, and generation; Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Applications (I.3.8); Computing Methodologies -Simulation and Modeling - Applications (I.6.3); Computing Methodologies -Simulation and Modeling - Model Validation and Analysis (I.6.4); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Graphical user interfaces (GUI); Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory
Interfaces for Understanding Multi-Agent Behavior BIBAKPDF 161-166
  Pedro Szekely; Craig Milo Rogers; Martin Frank
Synchronized punch-card displays are an interface technique to visualize tens of thousands of variables by encoding their values as color chips in a rectangular array. Our technique ties multiple such displays to a timeline of events enabling the punch-card displays to show animations of the behavior of complex systems. Punch-card displays not only make it easy to understand the high-level behavior of systems, but also enable users to quickly focus on individual variables and on fine-grained time intervals. This paper describes synchronized punch-card displays and shows how this technique is extremely powerful for understanding the behavior of complex multi-agent systems.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Distributed Artificial Intelligence (I.2.11): Multiagent systems; Algorithms, Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; agents, visualization
Mixed Initiative Interfaces for Learning Tasks: SMARTedit Talks Back BIBAKPDF 167-174
  Steven A. Wolfman; Tessa Lau; Pedro Domingos; Daniel S. Weld
Applications of machine learning can be viewed as teacher-student interactions in which the teacher provides training examples and the student learns a generalization of the training examples. One such application of great interest to the IUI community is adaptive user interfaces. In the traditional learning interface, the scope of teacher-student interactions consists solely of the teacher/user providing some number of training examples to the student/learner and testing the learned model on new examples. Active learning approaches go one step beyond the traditional interaction model and allow the student to propose new training examples that are then solved by the teacher. In this paper, we propose that interfaces for machine learning should even more closely resemble human teacher-student relationships. A teacher's time and attention are precious resources. An intelligent student must proactively contribute to the learning process, by reasoning about the quality of its knowledge, collaborating with the teacher, and suggesting new examples for her to solve. The paper describes a variety of rich interaction modes that enhance the learning process and presents a decision-theoretic framework, called DIAManD, for choosing the best interaction. We apply the framework to the SMARTedit programming by demonstration system and describe experimental validation and preliminary user feedback.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Learning (I.2.6); Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - Computer Uses in Education (K.3.1); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Types of Systems (H.4.2): Decision support; Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; machine learning applications, mixed initiative, programming by demonstration