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ISW Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415-115-2

Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis
Editors:James Noble
Location:Odense, Denmark
Dates:2006-Aug-21 to 2006-Aug-23
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-413-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: ISW06
Papers:27
Pages:144
Links:Symposium Home Page | Online Proceedings | Symposium Series Home Page
  1. Invited talks
  2. Panel
  3. Research papers
  4. Practitioner report
  5. Workshops
  6. 2006 Demos
  7. 2005 Demos

Invited talks

How and why Wikipedia works BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 1-2
  Angela Beesley
This talk discusses the inner workings of Wikipedia. Angela will address the roles, processes, and sociology that make up the project, with information on what happens behind the scenes and how the community builds and defends its encyclopedia on a daily basis. The talk will give some insight into why Wikipedia has worked so far and why we believe it will keep working in the future despite the many criticisms that can be made of it. It is hoped that this review inspires further Wikipedia research. For this, please also see our Wikipedia Research workshop on Wednesday, which is open to walk-ins.
How and why Wikipedia works: an interview with Angela Beesley, Elisabeth Bauer, and Kizu Naoko BIBAFull-TextPDFHTML 3-8
  Dirk Riehle
This article presents an interview with Angela Beesley, Elisabeth Bauer, and Kizu Naoko. All three are leading Wikipedia practitioners in the English, German, and Japanese Wikipedias and related projects. The interview focuses on how Wikipedia works and why these three practitioners believe it will keep working. The interview was conducted via email in preparation of WikiSym 2006, the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis, with the goal of furthering Wikipedia research [1]. Interviewer was Dirk Riehle, the chair of WikiSym 2006. An online version of the article provides simplified access to URLs [2].
Intimate information: organic hypertext structure and incremental formalization for everyone's everyday tasks BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 9-10
  Mark Bernstein
Much of our most important writing is written to ourselves and to our immediate circle of family, friends, and allies. This intimate or nobitic information includes not merely calendars and grocery lists, but also work for planning our future endeavors, as well as correspondence to our future selves and our progeny. Tinderbox is a tool for making, analyzing, and sharing notes -- offers a range of representational tools ranging from conventional links and WikiLinks to prototype inheritance and spatial hypertext. People exploit this complex tool set to help discover and express the structure of everyday ideas; of particular interest is the problem of creating structure for work that has not yet been written and that will evolve in unexpected directions. The history of constructive hypertext and the success of early wikis provides invaluable guidance for structuring nobitic writing tools.
The augmented Wiki BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 11-12
  Doug Engelbart; Eugene E. Kim
Wikis are based on simple, but powerful design principles that make them useful as dynamic knowledge repositories. Now that we have a better understanding of what these principles are and why and how they work, how can we improve them? Augment, the original hypertext system which was first developed in the 1960s and is still running today, offers some possibilities for how we can evolve Wikis. In this talk, we'll describe the HyperScope, a web-based application that adds some of Augment's addressing, viewing, and jumping capabilities to any type of document format. We'll then demonstrate how the HyperScope can be married to Wikis and how such a marriage could significantly boost the capabilities of Wikis as a dynamic knowledge repository.
Design principles of wiki: how can so little do so much? BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 13-14
  Ward Cunningham
This talk discusses the fundamental principles on which the first wiki was built, what we learnt from it, and how we believe future wikis are best set up.

Panel

Wiki uses in teaching and learning BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 15-16
  Sheizaf Rafaeli
Faculty from five universities will discuss their groups' respective teaching and learning wikis. The group assembled here represents several divergent approaches and projects to harnessing the collaborative and open-source nature of Wikis to the tasks of teaching, educating inquiry and training.
   We will discuss and compare Wiki projects that cover diverse methods and content fields. Projects include secondary, undergraduate, and graduate level courses. Systems we describe address groups varying in size from roughly a dozen to hundreds of students. We approach the ontology and pedagogy of Wiki-based educational materials drawing on cognitive and social constructivism, a theory of inquiry-based learning, and an interest in information markets and online sharing dynamics. Projects included in this panel have received financial support from a variety of granting agencies, including the Israeli Internet Association, U.S. National Science Foundation, the GVU Center at Georgia Institute of Technology, SHOHAM at The Open University of Israel, and InfoSoc at the University of Haifa.
   We created and now study widely different implementations of Wiki usage in education that reflect a variety of instructional approaches. In all of the projects we have completed at least one cycle of use, and can therefore report on outcomes that include user feedback, reactions and satisfaction; impact on learning; impact on grade; non-obtrusive measures of usage patterns; and external measures of quality of the content generated and preserved. Our findings address the issues of design considerations, multilingual and multicultural content, group dynamics, evaluation and quality control. We wish to use this panel to share lessons learned and discuss a variety of usage modes, in search of "best practice" models as well as share lessons learned that apply to future modifications and additions to the code.
The future of Wikis BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 17-18
  Eugene Eric Kim
This brainstorming session and panel discussion picks up where WikiSym 2005's panel on the Future of Wikis stopped. Throughout the workshop's Open Space sessions, we will delve into different aspects of the future of Wikis, culminating in this session's group discussions hosted by keynote speakers Ward Cunningham, Angela Beesley, and Mark Bernstein, Meatball Wiki editor Sunir Shah, and Eugene Eric Kim (Blue Oxen Associates). These hosts will then participate in a panel discussion reporting what they heard and sharing their own insights into the future of Wikis.

Research papers

Translation the Wiki way BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 19-32
  Alain Désilets; Lucas Gonzalez; Sébastien Paquet; Marta Stojanovic
This paper discusses the design and implementation of processes and tools to support the collaborative creation and maintenance of multilingual wiki content. A wiki is a website where a large number of participants are allowed to create and modify content using their Web browser. This simple concept has revolutionized collaborative authoring on the web, enabling among others, the creation of Wikipedia, the world's largest online encyclopedia. On many of the largest and highest profile wiki sites, content needs to be provided in more than one language. Yet, current wiki engines do not support the efficient creation and maintenance of such content. Consequently, most wiki sites deal with the issue of multilingualism by spawning a separate and independent site for each language. This approach leads to much wasted effort since the same content must be researched, tracked and written from scratch for every language. In this paper, we investigate what features could be implemented in wiki engines in order to deal more effectively with multilingual content. We look at how multilingual content is currently managed in more traditional industrial contexts, and show how this approach is not appropriate in a wiki world. We then describe the results of a User-Centered Design exercise performed to explore what a multilingual wiki engine should look like from the point of view of its various end users. We describe a partial implementation of those requirements in our own wiki engine (LizzyWiki), to deal with the special case of bilingual sites. We also discuss how this simple implementation could be extended to provide even more sophisticated features, and in particular, to support the general case of a site with more than two languages. Finally, even though the paper focuses primarily on multilingual content in a wiki context, we argue that translating in this "Wiki Way", may also be useful in some traditional industrial settings, as a way of dealing better with the fast and ever-changing nature of our modern internet world.
The Radeox Wiki render engine BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 33-36
  Matthias L. Jugel; Stephan J. Schmidt
The Radeox Wiki markup render engine is a basic component for the construction of a Wiki or any system that wishes to integrate basic Wiki functionality. With the availability of such a component the compatibility of different Wiki systems can be improved and the simplicity of the Wiki way is now ready for deployment in business applications. This paper explains how this component emerged from its host Wiki SnipSnap and how it enables software developers to integrate the Wiki way into their own implementations and other software.
Is there a space for the teacher in a WIKI? BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 37-46
  Andreas Lund; Ole Smørdal
In this paper we ask to what extent collective cognition can be supported and sustained in classroom practices. One major challenge for learning in technology-rich, collaborative environments is to develop design principles that balance learner exploration with a more goal directed effort. We argue that teachers play a key role in such efforts and that educational wiki designs need to allow such a role in order to support group knowing. First, from an activity theoretical perspective we discuss teaching in knowledge collectives as new type of educational activity. Next, we analyze functions and meta level affordances found in the MediaWiki application. This is followed by a presentation of an intervention study in which the MediaWiki was used by a class of Upper Secondary School learners in Norway. Findings are used to discuss design principles for wikis that support collective cognition and where there is a place for the teacher.
WikiTrails: augmenting Wiki structure for collaborative, interdisciplinary learning BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 47-58
  Silvan Reinhold
Wikis are currently in high demand in a large variety of fields, due to their simplicity and flexible nature. Documentation, reporting, project management, online glossaries and dictionaries, discussion groups, or information systems are just a few examples of possible Wiki applications. Their popularity has also begun drawing the attention of teachers and educators, who realize that Wikis facilitate collaborative finding, shaping, and sharing of knowledge, as well as communication, all of which are essential properties in an educational context. In order to leverage the possibilities that Wiki systems offer for didactic and interdisciplinary scenarios, this paper examines how Wiki functionality can be extended in order to better suit the requirements posed by such environments and their participants. A concept is suggested that allows building context and structure around the content and existing information organization, using trails, or paths, through the Wiki content. These can either be added manually, or inferred automatically by an integrated tracking mechanism that makes use of the implicit navigational information left behind by the users as they browse the Wiki. Finally, an actual implementation of the concept is presented and discussed, followed by an outlook on future developments and possible uses.
Foucault@Wiki: first steps towards a conceptual framework for the analysis of Wiki discourses BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 59-68
  Christian Pentzold; Sebastian Seidenglanz
In this paper, we examine the discursive situation of Wikipedia. The primary goal is to explore principle ways of analyzing and characterizing the various forms of communicative user interaction using Foucault's discourse theory. First, the communicative situation of Wikipedia is addressed and a list of possible forms of communication is compiled. Second, the current research on the linguistic features of Wikis, especially Wikipedia, is reviewed. Third, some key issues of Foucault's theory are explored: the notion of "discourse", the discursive formation, and the methods of archaeology and genealogy, respectively. Finally, first steps towards a qualitative discourse analysis of the English Wikipedia are elaborated. The paper argues, that Wikipedia can be understood as a discursive formation that regulates and structures the production of statements. Most of the discursive regularities named by Foucault are established in the collaborative writing processes of Wikipedia, too. Moreover, the editing processes can be described in Foucault's terms as discursive knowledge production.
SweetWiki: semantic web enabled technologies in Wiki BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 69-78
  Michel Buffa; Fabien Gandon
Wikis are social web sites enabling a potentially large number of participants to modify any page or create a new page using their web browser. As they grow, wikis may suffer from a number of problems (anarchical structure, aging navigation paths, etc.). We believe that semantic wikis can improve navigation and search. In SweetWiki we investigate the use of semantic web technologies to support and ease the lifecycle of the wiki. The very model of wikis was declaratively described: an OWL schema captures concepts such as wiki word, wiki page, forward and backward link, author, etc. This ontology is then exploited by an embedded semantic search engine (Corese). In addition, SweetWiki integrates a standard WYSIWYG editor (Kupu) that we extended to support semantic annotation following the "social tagging": when editing a page, the user can freely enter some keywords and an auto-completion mechanism proposes existing keywords by issuing queries to identify existing concepts with compatible labels. Thus tagging is both easy (keyword-like) and motivating (real time display of the number of related pages) and concepts are collected as in folksonomies. To maintain and reengineer the folksonomy, we reused a web-based editor available in the underlying semantic web server to edit semantic web ontologies and annotations. Unlike in other wikis, pages are stored directly in XHTML ready to be served and semantic annotations are embedded in the pages themselves using RDFa. If someone sends or copies a page, the annotations follow it, and if an application crawls the wiki site it can extract the metadata and reuse them. In this paper we motivate our approach and explain each one of these design choice.
Towards Wikis as semantic hypermedia BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 79-88
  Robert Tolksdorf; Elena Paslaru Bontas Simperl
Similarly to the Web Wikis have advanced from initially simple ad-hoc solutions to highly popular systems of widespread use. This evolution is reflected by the impressive number of Wiki engines available and by the numerous settings and disciplines they have found applicability to in the last decade. In conjunction to these rapid advances the question on the fundamental principles underlying the design and the architecture of Wiki technologies becomes inevitable for their systematic further development and their long-lasting success at public, private and corporate level. This paper aims at be part of this endeavor; building upon the natural relationship between Wikis and hypermedia, we examine to which extent the current state of the art in the field (complemented by results achieved in adjacent communities such as the World Wide Web and the Semantic Web) fulfills the requirements of modern hypermedia systems. As a conclusion of the study we outline further directions of research and development which are expected to contribute to the realization of this vision.
Constrained Wiki: an Oxymoron? BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 89-98
  Angelo Di Iorio; Stefano Zacchiroli
In this paper we propose a new wiki concept -- light constraints -- designed to encode community best practices and domain-specific requirements, and to assist in their application. While the idea of constraining user editing of wiki content seems to inherently contradict "The Wiki Way", it is well-known that communities of users involved in wiki sites have the habit of establishing best authoring practices. For domain-specific wiki systems which process wiki content, it is often useful to enforce some well-formedness conditions on specific page contents.
   This paper describes a general framework to think about the interaction of wiki system with constraints, and presents a generic architecture which can be easily incorporated into existing wiki systems to exploit the capabilities enabled by light constraints.
Corporate wiki users: results of a survey BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 99-104
  Ann Majchrzak; Christian Wagner; Dave Yates
A survey of 168 corporate wiki users was conducted. Findings indicate that corporate wikis appear to be sustainable. Users stated three main types of benefits from corporate wikis: enhanced reputation, work made easier, and helping the organization to improve its processes. These benefits were seen as more likely when the wiki was used for tasks requiring novel solutions and the information posted was from credible sources. Users acknowledged making a variety of contributions, which suggests that they could be categorized as "synthesizers" and "adders". Synthesizers" frequency of contribution was affected more by their impact on other wiki users, while adders" contribution frequency was affected more by being able to accomplish their immediate work.
PoliticWiki: exploring communal politics BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 105-118
  Kevin Makice
This paper describes the methodology and results of an attempt to use a wiki web site for political collaboration. Recruited through gateway contacts for online political organizations and publications, participants in the PoliticWiki project were asked to create a political platform from scratch. Foundation content was copied from 3rdParty.org to seed the wiki. Of the 78 surveys collected, eight members were responsible for 96% of all content changes. This study identifies obstacles to participation on a point-of-view wiki and explores its function as both a political forum and a vehicle for participatory design.

Practitioner report

Wikis of locality: insights from the open guides BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 119-126
  Mark Gaved; Tom Heath; Marc Eisenstadt
In this paper we describe an emerging form of wikis -- wikis of locality -- that support physical rather than virtual communities. We draw on our experience as administrators of the Open Guide to Milton Keynes, one of the Open Guides family of community developed local information guides built using wiki software, and present observations of the potential value and unique characteristics of wikis of locality from a practitioner's perspective. Preliminary findings from a current survey of other Open Guide administrators are presented to highlight types of usage, issues and potential areas for future research.

Workshops

Workshop on Wikipedia research BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 127-128
  Jakob Voss
In the first Workshop on Wikipedia Research an overview of current research in and around the free encyclopedia will be given, as well as some practical guidelines on methods how to get and analyze data, and to get in contact with the community. Together we want to talk about differences and commonalities of Wikipedia and other wikis, and hot topics in Wikipedia research.
Wiki markup standard workshop BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 129-130
  Christoph Sauer; Chuck Smith; Tomas Benz; A Prof. Dr.
In becoming wiki editors, non-technical users face many obstacles, one of the largest being that every wiki has its own unique syntax. A common wiki markup would facilitate not only learning and teaching wikis, but also developing advanced wiki editors and tools. The wiki markup standard should be intuitive and unlikely to interfere with existing text. Critics say users will not change, but if a wiki standard were developed, all wiki engines could take advantage of it. A wiki markup standard is critical to advancing wikis across the board.
How to use a Wiki in education: 'Wiki based effective constructive learning' BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 131-132
  Michele Notari
Learning effectiveness depends on a large range of parameters. Learners" activity has an important impact on long-term learning and comprehension of difficult concepts [1]. Collaboration is also an important parameter for learning efficiency. Collaboration does not work per se [2]; an appropriate Script is a capital factor for succeeding. We will describe our engagement in scripting advises based on the use of a Wiki. The creation of a hypertext is an integrative part of our collaborative script. A Wiki is a powerful tool for constructivist learning environments because it facilitates collaboration. The workshop aims to describe approaches to improve collaborative learning. We will give advice how to conduct a learning session with a Wiki and an appropriate script.
Wiki-based knowledge engineering: second workshop on semantic Wikis BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 133-134
  Max Völkel; Sebastian Schaffert; Elena Pasaru-Bontas; Sören Auer
Wikis are collaborative environments for authoring Web content. This workshop explores the role of semantic wikis in knowledge engineering. Semantic Wikis try to combine the strengths of semantic (machine processable, data integration, complex queries) and Wiki (easy to use and contribute, strongly interconnected, collaboration) technologies.

2006 Demos

SweetWiki: semantic web enabled technologies in Wiki BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 135-136
  Michel Buffa; Fabien Gandon
Wikis are social web sites enabling a potentially large number of participants to modify any page or create a new page using their web browser. As they grow, wikis may suffer from a number of problems (anarchical structure, aging navigation paths, etc.). We believe that semantic wikis can improve navigation and search. In SweetWiki we investigate the use of semantic web technologies to support and ease the lifecycle of the wiki. The very model of wikis was declaratively described: an OWL schema captures concepts such as wiki word, wiki page, forward and backward link, author, etc. This ontology is then exploited by an embedded semantic search engine (Corese). In addition, SweetWiki integrates a standard WYSIWYG editor (Kupu) that we extended to support semantic annotation following the "social tagging": when editing a page, the user can freely enter some keywords and an auto-completion mechanism proposes existing keywords by issuing queries to identify existing concepts with compatible labels. Thus tagging is both easy (keyword-like) and motivating (real time display of the number of related pages) and concepts are collected as in folksonomies. To maintain and reengineer the folksonomy, we reused a web-based editor available in the underlying semantic web server to edit semantic web ontologies and annotations. Unlike in other wikis, pages are stored directly in XHTML ready to be served and semantic annotations are embedded in the pages themselves using RDFa. If someone sends or copies a page, the annotations follow it, and if an application crawls the wiki site it can extract the metadata and reuse them. In this paper we motivate our approach and explain each one of these design choices.
Semantic Wikipedia BIBAFull-TextPDFWiki Page 137-138
  Heiko Haller; Markus Krötzsch; Max Völkel; Denny Vrandecic
Wikipedia is the world's largest collaboratively edited source of encyclopaedic knowledge. But its contents are barely machine-interpretable. Structural knowledge, e.g. about how concepts are interrelated, can neither be formally stated nor automatically processed. Also the wealth of numerical data is only available as plain text and thus can not be processed by its actual meaning.
   We provide an extension to be integrated in Wikipedia, that allows even casual users the typing of links between articles and the specification of typed data inside the articles. Wiki users profit from more specific ways of searching and browsing. Each page has an RDF export, that gives direct access to the formalised knowledge. This allows applications to use Wikipedia as a background knowledge base.

2005 Demos

WikiGateway: a toolbox for making software that reads and writes Wikis BIBKFull-TextPDF 139-140
  Bayle Shanks
Keywords: WebDAV, WikiClient, WikiGateway, WikiRPCInterface, atom, client-side wiki, interoperability, interwiki, middleware, wiki, wiki XMLRPC
SemWiki: a RESTful distributed Wiki architecture BIBAFull-TextPDF 141-142
  Max Völkel
Current Wiki engines are mostly monolithic applications which intermingle parser, user interface and data management backend. In this paper we show how these three components can be realised as lightweight, REST-style web services. We explain why this separation is useful and how the wiki community benefits from such an approach. Additionally, the presented wiki allows semantic statements and queries over the model.
OntoWiki: community-driven ontology engineering and ontology usage based on Wikis BIBAFull-TextPDF 143-144
  Martin Hepp; Daniel Bachlechner; Katharina Siorpaes
Ontologies are consensual representations of a domain of discourse and the backbone of the future Semantic Web. Currently, however, only a fraction of Web users can take part in the process of building ontologies. In this paper, we show that standard Wiki technology can be used as an ontology development platform, reducing entry barriers for the participation of users in the creation and maintenance of ontologies, and describe our first OntoWiki prototype.