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ISW Tables of Contents: 0506070809101112131415-115-2

Proceedings of the 2015 International Symposium on Open Collaboration

Fullname:Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Open Collaboration
Editors:Dirk Riehle
Location:San Francisco, California
Dates:2015-Aug-19 to 2015-Aug-21
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3666-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ISW15
Links:Conference Website | Online Proceedings
  1. ISW 2015-08-19 Volume 1
    1. Free/libre/open source software research track
    2. IT-driven open innovation research track
    3. Open data research track
    4. Wikipedia research track
    5. Wikis and open collaboration research track

ISW 2015-08-19 Volume 1

Free/libre/open source software research track

A multiple case study of small free software businesses as social entrepreneurships BIBAFull-Text 1
  Ann Barcomb
Free/libre and open source software are frequently described as a single community or movement. The difference between free software and open source ideology may influence founders, resulting in different types of companies being created. Specifically, the relationship between free/libre software ideology and social entrepreneurships is investigated. This paper presents seven case studies of businesses, five of which were founded by people who identify with the free/libre software movement. The result is a theory that small businesses founded by free/libre software advocates have three characteristics of social entrepreneurships. First, social benefit is prioritized over wealth creation. Second, the business's social mission is not incidental but is furthered through its for-profit activities, rather than supported by the company's profits. Third, the company's success is defined in part by the success of its social mission. Free/libre software entrepreneurs who recognize their activities as social entrepreneurships can benefit from the existing literature on the unique challenges faced by socially-oriented businesses.
An investigation of migrating from proprietary RTOS to embedded Linux BIBAFull-Text 2
  Oscar Muchow; David Ustarbowski; Imed Hammouda
Embedded systems and the open source operating system Linux have been going hand in hand for a long time now. Companies using Linux for their embedded products are praising it for being time and cost efficient when it comes to performance and maintainability. Another solution for embedded systems is a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS). The goal of this paper is to investigate whether a traditional proprietary RTOS can be substituted with embedded Linux, and if this kind of migration can lead to reduced licensing costs and increased general quality of the system. We used a qualitative research method for this case-study. The investigation was conducted with interviews as the main source of information. The result of this study is an empirical model we named 'Embedded Linux Adoption Model'. We concluded that in many cases a proprietary RTOS can be substituted with embedded Linux without affecting the critical needs of the system. The study also showed that many embedded system developers are very receptive to open source solutions and could think of contributing to the community.
Utilization and development contribution of open source software in Japanese IT companies: an exploratory study of the effect on business growth (2nd report based on 2014 survey) BIBAFull-Text 3
  Terutaka Tansho; Tetsuo Noda
The usage of Open Source Software (OSS) has been extended in a wide range of business fields not only IT industries. Behind this current situation, there are tremendous inputs by the volunteer engineers in the development communities. In this series of studies, we have conducted questionnaire survey to Japanese IT companies in 2012 and 2013, and then analyzed the relation between OSS utilization and development contribution, and how these affect the business growth. Our study revealed that Japanese IT companies are rather free riders of OSS, the volume of development contributions are far less than that of utilization. From our previous studies, it was anticipated that some OSS-related factors were affecting the business growth; however, clear evidence has not been found. In autumn 2014, we conducted the questionnaire survey for the third time and this paper presents the survey results as the second report of the continued research. We constructed the simplified Logistic Model to investigate the influential factors on business growth. However, no clear evidence was found as the same as the previous study. In summary, we conclude that there are some form of relationships between OSS utilization and development contribution, but these are not the determinant factors on the business growth in the Japanese IT companies at present.
On the openness of digital platforms/ecosystems BIBAFull-Text 4
  Jose Teixeira
A plenitude of technology is neither developed in-house nor simply outsourced in dyadic relationships. Instead, we are in a new age where technologies are developed by a networked community of actors and organizations, which base their relations dynamically to each other on a common interest. Such dynamic and networked complexity of technology development is often theoretical explored around the concept of platform, and more recently by employing the concept of ecosystem in an analogy to natural ecosystems. Following the success of open-source software, academics have long been examining openness in digital platforms/ecosystems; however most contributions take the perspective of a single stakeholder from the many that constitute a digital platform/ecosystem. Predominantly, they take the sole perspective of platform providers, those bundling hardware and software or more rarely, the perspective of third-party software developers developing valuable software 'apps' that add value to the overall platform. In this conceptual article, we grasp openness more holistically, both by acknowledging that openness means different things to different people and involve all stakeholders within the platforms/ecosystems. Towards the development of a theory of openness within digital settings, we propose six novel aspects of openness for enabling a greater understanding of the open-source software movement with a digital platforms/ecosystems perspective. Moreover, we invite scholars to reconsider the more predominating product-dominant logic in open-source software research to a more holistic logic embracing platforms and ecosystem thinking.
Software patents: a replication study BIBAFull-Text 5
  Germán Poo-Caamaño; Daniel M. German
Previous research has documented the legal and economic aspects of software patents. To study the evolution in the granting of software patents we reproduced and extended part of the empirical study on software patents conducted by Bessen and Hunt. The original study established a criteria to identify software patents, and provided a look at the evolution of patents granted until 2002. We present a simple approach to retrieve patents from the full text database provided by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), which is freely accessible. We also present the evolution of software patents since the original study, and which we also present separated by major technological firms. Our research shows a continuous increase in the number of software patents granted higher, both in number of patents granted (in absolute numbers) and in proportion of overall patents (in relative terms). The relevance of studying the evolution of software patents relies in the challenges to find prior-art, either for practitioners looking for patenting as well as for examiners evaluating granting a new patent.
The FLOSS history in Japan: an ethnographic approach BIBAFull-Text 6
  Jun Iio; Masayuki Hatta; Ko Kazaana
This paper reports an overview of the Internet history project which especially focuses on Free / Libre / Open-Source Software (FLOSS) history. The project adopts an ethnographical approach and it aims to compose a chronicle on the growth of FLOSS history in Japan. An outcome of the project is expected to be not only a record but a compass for younger generations. The project has already started and conducted several interviews. In this paper, an interim report of our analysis based on the interviews is presented.

IT-driven open innovation research track

Measuring the crowd: a preliminary taxonomy of crowdsourcing metrics BIBAFull-Text 7
  Eoin Cullina; Kieran Conboy; Lorraine Morgan
Crowdsourcing initiatives benefit from tapping into diversity. A vast plethora of disparate individuals, organizations, frameworks and skillsets can all play a role in sourcing solutions to a challenge. Nevertheless, while crowdsourcing has become a pervasive phenomenon, there is a paucity of research that addresses how the crowdsourcing process is measured. Whereas research has advanced various taxonomies of crowdsourcing none to date have specifically addressed the issue of measuring either specific stages of the crowdsourcing process or the process as a whole. As a first step towards achieving this goal, this research-in-progress paper examines crowdsourcing at the operational level with a view towards (i) identifying the parts of the process (ii) identifying what can be measured and (iii) categorising operational metrics to facilitate deployment in practice. The taxonomy advanced is overarching in nature and can be deployed across disciplines. Furthermore, the preliminary taxonomy presented will offer practitioners a comprehensive list of metrics that will enable them to facilitate comparison across various crowdsourcing initiatives.
Open innovation for innovation tools: the case of co-design platforms BIBAFull-Text 8
  Albrecht Fritzsche; Angela Roth; Kathrin Möslein
This paper explores the dynamics of openness and enclosure of innovation activities with IT artifacts on the example of co-design platforms. While modern information and communication technologies offer many new possibilities for innovation, they also subject innovation to the underlying technical structures, which can misdirect the activities on the platform. In order to avoid this, we propose an open innovation approach for open innovation solutions. We perform an empirical study on two co-design platforms which become subjects of innovation themselves in an open laboratory in the downtown area of a European city. Visitors to the laboratory are allowed to engage in innovate activities regarding the co-design platforms in whatever way they want. The results show that they do not only address technical improvements of the platforms, but also look into new directions to make the platforms more relevant or to replace them by other ways of innovating in the given contexts.
Toward understanding new feature request systems as participation architectures for supporting open innovation BIBAFull-Text 9
  Michelle W. Purcell
Most research regarding innovation in open source software communities pertains to identifying supporting conditions for promoting code contribution as a way to innovate the software. Instead, this paper seeks to identify social and technological affordances of new feature request systems and their potential to support open innovation through integration of peripheral community members' ideas for advancing the software. Initial findings from the first of a planned study of multiple open source software communities are presented to identify attributes of effective participation architectures.

Open data research track

Public domain rank: identifying notable individuals with the wisdom of the crowd BIBAFull-Text 10
  Allen B. Riddell
Identifying literary, scientific, and technical works of enduring interest is challenging. Few are able to name significant works across more than a handful of domains or languages. This paper introduces an automatic method for identifying authors of notable works throughout history. Notability is defined using the record of which works volunteers have made available in public domain digital editions. A significant benefit of this bottom-up approach is that it also provides a novel and reproducible index of notability for all individuals with Wikipedia pages. This method promises to supplement the work of cultural organizations and institutions seeking to publicize the availability of notable works and prioritize works for preservation and digitization.
Open access to working notes in the humanities BIBAFull-Text 11
  Michael K. Buckland; Patrick Golden; Ryan B. Shaw
A web-based tool for making and sharing research designed for authors, curators, and editors in the humanities is described, editorsnotes.org. Notes are a varied genre not limited to annotations. The data for the tool is modeled as three kinds of records: Notes created; Documents cited; and Topics, headings for names and subjects. Structured records are needed for interoperability and sharing. Open access, sustainability issues, and how working notes can complement other infrastructure are discussed in a status report.

Wikipedia research track

Tool-mediated coordination of virtual teams in complex systems BIBAFull-Text 12
  Michael Gilbert; Mark Zachry
Support for coordination in online spaces, specifically in peer production systems, has frequently been an after-thought. In the absence of such support, the users of such systems must work to find an emergent order that drives shared project goals and leads to equitable processes. In short, they must rely on the "wisdom of the crowds." As our study demonstrates, however, the reality is that often the system tools available for coordination, evaluation, and work articulation are not suitable to the task at hand. Our study, first, takes a theoretical approach to understanding how tool-mediated coordination functions within peer production systems. Secondly, we enumerate the methods available to identify automated and semi-automated tools that function within such systems by quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing trace interactions and their utility in Wikipedia over a year-long period. Finally, we identify potential vacuums where new design interventions have the greatest potential for enhancing peer-production systems.
The rise and fall of an online project: is bureaucracy killing efficiency in open knowledge production? BIBAFull-Text 13
  Nicolas Jullien; Kevin Crowston; Felipe Ortega
We evaluate the efficiency of an online knowledge production project and identify factors that affect efficiency. To assess efficiency, we used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) modelling methodology. We apply DEA to data from more than 30 Wikipedia language projects over three years. We show that the main Wikipedia projects were indeed less efficient that smaller ones, an effect that can be attributed in part to decreasing returns to scale.
#Wikipedia on Twitter: analyzing tweets about Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 14
  Eva Zangerle; Georg Schmidhammer; Günther Specht
Wikipedia has long become a standard source of information on the web and as such is widely referenced on the web and in social media. This paper analyzes the usage of Wikipedia on Twitter by looking into languages used on both platforms, content features of posted articles and recent edits of those articles. The analysis is based on a set of four million tweets and links these tweets to Wikipedia articles and their features to identify interesting relations. We find that within English and Japanese tweets containing a link to Wikipedia, 97% of the links lead to the English resp. Japanese Wikipedia, whereas for other languages 20% of the tweets contain a link to a Wikipedia of a different language. Our results also indicate that the number of tweets about a certain topic is not correlated to the number of recent edits on the particular page at the time of sending the tweet.
Page protection: another missing dimension of Wikipedia research BIBAFull-Text 15
  Benjamin Mako Hill; Aaron Shaw
Page protection is a feature of wiki software that allows administrators to restrict contributions to particular pages. For example, pages are frequently protected so that they can only be edited by administrators. Page protection affects tens of thousands of pages in English Wikipedia and renders many of Wikipedia's most visible pages uneditable by the vast majority of visitors. That said, page protection has attracted very little attention and is rarely taken into account by researchers. This note describes page protection and illustrates why it plays an important role in shaping user behavior on wikis. We also present a new longitudinal dataset of page protection events for English Wikipedia, the software used to produce it, and results from tests that support both the validity of the dataset and the impact of page protection on patterns of editing.
Wikipedia in the world of global gender inequality indices: what the biography gender gap is measuring BIBAFull-Text 16
  Max Klein
While Wikipedia's editor gender gap is important but difficult to measure, its biographical gender gap can more readily be measured. We correlate a Wikipedia-derived gender inequality indicator (WIGI), with four widespread gender inequality indices in use today (GDI, GEI, GGGI, and SIGI). Analysing their methodologies and correlations to Wikipedia, we find evidence that Wikipedia's bias in biographical coverage is related to the gender bias in positions of social power.
Contribution, social networking, and the request for adminship process in Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 17
  Romain Picot-Clémente; Cécile Bothorel; Nicolas Jullien
Epistemic communities are said to be project-oriented communities of experts, evaluated on their contribution in terms of knowledge, where the main criterion for promotion is knowledge production [3]. However, [5], for Wikipedia, [7], for open source, have argued that taking responsibility is an additional step from being a regular contributor, and social interactions with peers may be an additional requirement for being promoted [6].
The evolution of knowledge creation online: Wikipedia and knowledge processes BIBAFull-Text 18
  Ruqin Ren
Using the evolutionary theory framework of the variation, retention, selection process, this paper explains the self-organized knowledge production behaviors online, with Wikipedia as an example. Evolution is presented as a trial-and-error process that produces a progressive accumulation of knowledge. The underlying theoretical assumption is that even though online communities feature very different characteristics than traditional organizations, the basic processes of trial-and-error learning in evolutionary theory still apply to the new forms of organizations. Based on the theory of self-organization system and evolution theory, the processes of variation and selection are explained in depth with examples observed on Wikipedia. The study presents a nested hierarchy of vicarious selectors that plays an important role in online knowledge creation.

Wikis and open collaboration research track

The Vienna history Wiki: a collaborative knowledge platform for the city of Vienna BIBAFull-Text 19
  Bernhard Krabina
The Vienna City Archive and the Vienna City Library have joined forces with several other institutions in Vienna, Austria to create the "Wien Geschichte Wiki" (Vienna History Wiki), a knowledge platform for the history of Vienna with more than 34,000 articles and 120,000 visits per month. The wiki is powered by Semantic MediaWiki and serves not only as an online encyclopedia, based on a digitized printed publication for everybody to use and contribute to, but also as a central knowledge base for several administrative departments of the city administration. In a peer-review process, wiki edits are checked before they become visible. The paper highlights the unique aspects of the Vienna History Wiki related to content creation, governance structures and technology choices. A usage log analysis and an online survey have been carried out to gain first insights after six months of operation.
Peer-production system or collaborative ontology engineering effort: what is Wikidata? BIBAFull-Text 20
  Claudia Müller-Birn; Benjamin Karran; Janette Lehmann; Markus Luczak-Rösch
Wikidata promises to reduce factual inconsistencies across all Wikipedia language versions. It will enable dynamic data reuse and complex fact queries within the world's largest knowledge database. Studies of the existing participation patterns that emerge in Wikidata are only just beginning. What delineates most of the contributions in the system has not yet been investigated. Is it an inheritance from the Wikipedia peer-production system or the proximity of tasks in Wikidata that have been studied in collaborative ontology engineering? As a first step to answering this question, we performed a cluster analysis of participants' content editing activities. This allowed us to blend our results with typical roles found in peer-production and collaborative ontology engineering projects. Our results suggest very specialised contributions from a majority of users. Only a minority, which is the most active group, participate all over the project. These users are particularly responsible for developing the conceptual knowledge of Wikidata. We show the alignment of existing algorithmic participation patterns with these human patterns of participation. In summary, our results suggest that Wikidata rather supports peer-production activities caused by its current focus on data collection. We hope that our study informs future analyses and developments and, as a result, allows us to build better tools to support contributors in peer-production-based ontology engineering.
Participants' motivation factors and profile in crowdsourced law reform BIBAFull-Text 21
  Tanja Aitamurto; Hélène Landemore
This paper examines participants' motivation factors and identity in crowdsourced policy-making, in which citizens collaboratively participate in online ideation and knowledge creation for policy reforms. Drawing on data from a crowdsourced law reform in Finland, this paper examines the drivers of the participants and their demographic profile. The findings show that the participants typically are male, educated, full-time working professionals with a strong interest in the off-road traffic issue. The motivations to contribute to crowdsourced policy-making are a mix of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic drivers include the desire to do what is one's "civic duty," that is, to participate constructively in a political process, and the desire to deliberate with peers and learn from them. Extrinsic motivations include the desire to have an impact on an issue of importance to participants. The drivers are, in part, similar to those that drive participation in traditional democratic processes like voting, and to those that motivate other volunteer-based large-scale online collaborations, like Wikipedia creation.
Use of GitHub as a platform for open collaboration on text documents BIBAFull-Text 22
  Justin Longo; Tanya M. Kelley
Recently, researchers are paying attention to the use of the software development and code-hosting web service GitHub for other collaborative purposes, including a class of activity referred to as document, text, or prose collaboration. These alternative uses of GitHub as a platform for sharing non-code artifacts represent an important modification in the practice of open collaboration. We survey cases where GitHub has been used to facilitate collaboration on non-code outputs, identify its strengths and weaknesses when used in this mode, and propose conditions for successful collaborations on co-created text documents.
Toward efficient source code sharing on the web BIBAFull-Text 23
  Hiroaki Fukuda
The Web is one of the useful references for developers to find pieces of code that represent what they need nowadays. In addition, we can find websites that contain not only source code but also detailed explanations of the code. In these websites, explanations are usually located above/-below code, thereby users, who refer to these explanations, sometimes need to scroll a (browser) window to understand pieces of code reading the corresponding explanations. As a consequence, users have to temporarily memorize code and/or the corresponding expositions, wasting extra time. On the other hand, it is common to use wiki to edit a set of code and corresponding explanations. In most wiki systems, they prepare only one window to edit code and its explanations, therefore editors usually need to scroll the window to complete editing, also consuming extra time.
   This paper proposes a special wiki system for reading and editing source code referring its explanations, called CodeWiki that provides multiple windows for editors to edit code and explanations. Besides, CodeWiki enables readers to click a link which will lead them to a window that contains corresponding explanations. As a consequence, readers and editors do not need to scroll a window, meaning that CodeWiki can prevent readers/editors from wasting extra time. We propose a prototype implementation of CodeWiki and show its usage.