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International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 31

Editors:B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Dates:1989
Volume:31
Publisher:Academic Press
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Papers:33
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 1
  2. IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 2
  3. IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 3
  4. IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 4
  5. IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 5
  6. IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 6

IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 1

The ECO Program Construction System: Ways of Increasing its Representational Power and Their Effects on the User Interface BIBA 1-26
  Dave Robertson; Alan Bundy; Mike Uschold; Robert Muetzelfeldt
There is a growing interest in programs which help users with little experience of computing to construct simulation models. Much recent development work on such systems has utilized comparatively simple mathematical methods (such as System Dynamics) to facilitate the development of a friendly user interface. The problem with these simple modelling languages is that they assume that users have preconceived ideas of the simulation models which they want to build. In the ECO project, which involved the construction and testing of programs to help ecologists build simulation models, it became clear that users could not always adapt their ideas to fit into these mathematical frameworks. They required a more expressive input language in which to describe their modelling problems, rather than being forced directly to specify the programs which solved those problems. However, we found that as the input language became more sophisticated the complexity of the user interface became disproportionally larger. We attempt to clarify the reasons for this phenomenon by comparing the various systems which we built to try to solve this problem. This comparison is facilitated by the use of a sorted logic as a lingua franca for the various formalisms used in each system. Our analysis centres around a small number of key characteristics which we use to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of various dialogue techniques.
Presenting Abstract versus Concrete Information in Expert Systems: What is the Impact on User Performance? BIBA 27-45
  Donna M. Lamberti; Sandra L. Newsome
Conceptual differences between experts and novices in problem representation (abstract vs concrete) provided a criterion for evaluating performance on an expert system used for diagnostic problem-solving. In a field study, employee skill level (high vs low), system usage (use of system vs no usage), and question type (requiring abstract vs concrete information organization) were studied with respect to employee performance (speed and accuracy). The findings showed that high-skill employees answered abstract as well as concrete questions faster and more accurately than did low-skill employees. Also, high-skill employees performed significantly faster on questions requiring abstract information organization than concrete information organization. In contrast, low-skill employees performed significantly faster and more accurately on questions requiring concrete information organization as compared to abstract information organization. The data also showed that problem solution time for low-skill employees decreased a greater amount than for the high-skill employees, using the system as compared to not using it. The findings suggest that high and low-skill employees organized their conceptual knowledge about the problem differently. The presentation of information in a manner that is conducive to employees' conceptual representations of a problem is discussed along with directions for future research.
Experimental Comparison of Design/Documentation Formats for Expert Systems BIBA 47-60
  Kathleen M. Swigger; Robert P. Brazile
This study examines the effectiveness of using a design methodology to modify an expert system. In this study, professional programmers were asked to make one of two different types of modifications to an existing expert system. Along with standard documentation (e.g., listings, program specifications, etc.) programmers were provided with either no design/documentation format or one of two different design/documentation formats. The measures collected were time to modify the program and number of errors. Results indicate that the subjects who used a design/documentation format took less time to modify their expert systems than subjects who did not have a documentation format. Furthermore, results suggest that programmers who used an Entity-Relationship design format were able to complete the modification task in less time. These differences are discussed with respect to their impact on software engineering practices for expert systems.
Relating Human Knowledge of Tasks to the Requirements of Plan Libraries BIBA 61-97
  Dirk E. Mahling; W. Bruce Croft
This article explores the fundamental issues of plan knowledge acquisition from domain experts. The general question is: Are humans with their knowledge of a domain and its procedures able to provide a planner with the necessary information for automatic planning? To answer this question we first review the requirements of the plan library of a situation calculus based planner. Then we review existing frameworks for the representation of human activity knowledge and investigate to what extent these frameworks address the requirements. A major factor in evaluating the frameworks is the psychological reality the framework has to the individual. From this review and interviews we conducted in a pilot study, we construct a framework for task recall. In this framework, the representation of a recallable activity is called an act. An act consists of a goal, a pre-situation, an operations-list and a post-situation. Acts can be decomposed and put into sequences. In experiments with the framework, we find support for all our hypotheses except the one dealing with effects. Further investigation of this issue is discussed.
Verbal versus Pictorial Representations of Objects in a Human-Computer Interface BIBA 99-120
  Stephen J. Guastello; Mary Traut; Gene Korienek
Computer systems often use icons to represent objects of interest within the system. In this study we tested four hypotheses concerning the relative effectiveness of icon construction: (1) Pictorial icons would be rated as more meaningful than verbal icons for concrete objects. (2) Ratings of meaningfulness would be dependent upon qualities of icons such as long versus short abbreviations, and industry standard versus enhanced pictogram. (3) Ratings would be dependent upon experience with the content domains. (4) Icons composed of both verbal and pictorial elements would be rated as more meaningful than icons composed of verbal or pictorial elements only. Hypotheses were developed from literature on text formatting, command names, human memory functionality, population stereotypes, and brain lateralization. Two experiments were conducted. The first involved icons for objects found in a building automation system (BAS) environment which were rated by 187 system operators. The second experiment involved icons from BAS, engineering, computer systems and finance environments as rated by 139 undergraduates with varying experience in those content domains. Results overall showed that: (1) Mixed modality icons were rated as distinctively more meaningful than alternatives. (2) ratings were occasionally bolstered by population stereotypes acquired through experience. (3) Long abbreviations are preferable to short ones. (4) It is possible to construct pictograms that are more meaningful than industry standards, and (5) verbal icons are sometimes preferred over pictorial icons when mixed modes are not available.

IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 2

A Graphical Thesaurus-Based Information Retrieval System BIBA 121-147
  Charles F. McMath; Robert S. Tamaru; Roy Rada
Information retrieval systems often rely on thesauri or semantic nets in indexing documents and in helping users search for documents. Reasoning with these thesauri resembles traversing a graph. Several algorithms for matching documents to queries based on the distances between nodes on the graph (terms in the thesaurus) are compared to the evaluations of people. The "broader-than" relationships of both a medical and a computer science thesaurus when coupled with a simple average path length algorithm are able to simulate the decisions of people regarding the conceptual similarity of documents and queries. A graphical presentation of a thesaurus is connected to a multi-window document retrieval system and its ease of use is compared to a more traditional thesaurus-based information retrieval system. While substantial evidence exists that the graphics and multiple windows can be useful, our experiments have shown, as have many other human-computer interface experiments, that a multitude of factors come into play in determining the value of a particular interface.
Selecting Knowledge Acquisition Tools and Strategies Based on Application Characteristics BIBA 149-160
  Catherine M. Kitto; John H. Boose
One of the most troublesome and time-consuming activities in constructing a knowledge-based system is the elicitation and modelling of knowledge from the human expert about the problem domain. A major obstacle is that little guidance is available to the domain expert or knowledge engineer to help with (1) classifying the application task and identifying a problem-solving method, and (2) given the application task characteristics, selecting knowledge acquisition tools and strategies to be applied in creating and refining the knowledge base.
   Our objective is to provide automated assistance to a knowledge engineer or domain expert in analysing the problem domain, classifying the problem tasks and sub-tasks, identifying problem-solving methods, proposing knowledge acquisition tools, and suggesting the use of specific strategies for knowledge acquisition provided in selected tools. We describe such an implementation in the Dialog Manager subsystem of the AQUINAS knowledge acquisition workbench. The Dialog Manager provides advice to potential AQUINAS users as well as continuing guidance to users who select AQUINAS for knowledge base development.
XTRA: A Natural-Language Access System to Expert Systems BIBA 161-195
  Jurgen Allgayer; Karin Harbusch; Alfred Kobsa; Carola Reddig; Norbert Reithinger; Dagmar Schmauks
The XTRA access system to expert systems is presented which is aimed at rendering the interaction with expert systems easier for inexperienced users. XTRA communicates with the user in a natural language (German), extracts data relevant to the expert system from his/her natural-language input, answers user queries as to terminology and provides user-accommodated natural-language verbalizations of results and explanations provided by the expert system. A number of novel artificial intelligence techniques have been employed in the development of the system, including the combination of natural-language user input and user gestures on the terminal screen, referent identification with the aid of four different knowledge sources, simultaneous communication of the access system with the user and the expert system, fusion of two complementary knowledge bases into a single one, and the design of a natural-language generation component which allows for a controlled interaction between the "what-to-say" and the "how-to-say" parts to yield a more natural output. XTRA is being developed independently of any specific expert system. In its first application the access to an expert system in the income tax domain is being realized.
Extensions to the CART Algorithm BIBA 197-217
  Stuart L. Crawford
The CART concept induction algorithm recursively partitions the measurement space, displaying the resulting partitions as decision trees. Care, however, must be taken not to overfit the trees to the data, and CART employs cross-validation (cv) as the means by which an appropriately sized tree is selected. Although unbiased, cv estimates exhibit high variance, a troublesome characteristic, particularly for small learning sets. This paper describes Monte Carlo experiments which illustrate the effectiveness of the .632 bootstrap as an alternative technique for tree selection and error estimation. In addition, a new incremental learning extension to CART is described.
The Influence of Programmers' Cognitive Complexity on Program Comprehension and Modification BIBA 219-236
  Omar E. M. Khalil; Jon D. Clark
This investigation is concerned with the determination of the influence of programmers' cognitive complexity -- differentiation and integration -- on comprehension and modification of programs of different levels of complexity. In order to evaluate the research hypotheses, data were collected from ninety-three graduate and undergraduate students in a classroom setting. Three instruments were used to collect the data: (1) a background questionnaire, (2) a Role Construct Repertory (REP) Test, and (3) program comprehension and modification exercises. The findings of the study indicated that the high integration subjects performed significantly better than the low integration subjects in modifying the relatively complex program. Also, the high differentiation subjects performed slightly better than the low differentiation subjects in comprehending the relatively complex program. In general, these findings support the applicability of the cognitive complexity theory to explain individual differences in performing program modification tasks.

IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 3

Measuring the Effectiveness of Personal Database Structures BIBA 237-256
  Darrell R. Raymond; Alberto J. Canas; Frank Wm. Tompa; Frank R. Safayeni
The increasing proliferation of electronic billboards, hypertexts, and other informal electronic databases necessitates effective tools for personal data structuring. An experiment was conducted to investigate subjective processes involved during structuring an online database. Ten subjects organized two hundred proverbs into hierarchical structures over four sessions and used their structures to solve queries. Structuring and retrieval activity in the online environment was markedly poorer than in a previous manual experiment. In both experiments retrieval performance was correlated to the level of distinction employed in the construction of categories.
The Effects of Relational and Entity-Relationship Data Models on Query Performance of End Users BIBA 257-267
  W. J. Kenny Jih; David A. Bradbard; Charles A. Snyder; Nancy G. A. Thompson
In database systems the end user interacts with the database at the external schema level. At this level the user sees only the logical structure of the database that is relevant to his/her work. Both the relational and the entity-relationship model have proponents arguing that one data model is superior to the other when used in the end user environment. However, a literature review indicated that these arguments have not been based on empirical results from a systematic inquiry. The study reported here examined this issue through a controlled experiment using query writing as the task. Our basic assumptions was that if one data model was superior to the other, then the superiority of the model would be reflected in the user's query writing performance. In addition, this superiority would be demonstrated on both simple and complex tasks. Query writing performance was measured by three variables: number of syntax errors, number of semantic errors, and amount of time to complete queries. The results indicated that subjects using the relational model made fewer syntax errors, but required more time to complete a query. No significant differences in the number of semantic errors were found between the two data models. Based on these results, neither the relational nor the entity-relational data model was clearly superior when used as the interface between a database system and the end user. As expected, the more complex tasks caused more syntax and semantic errors, and required more time to complete.
An Attempt to Incorporate Expertise about Users into an Intelligent Interface for Unix BIBA 269-292
  Jennifer Jerrams-Smith
Knowledge acquisition about novice users of Unix was undertaken in order to provide an improved interface to an existing interactive system. This included a behavioural study involving observations of a large group of novice users of Unix, and analysis of logs of their keyboard input and of verbal protocols. The requisite expertise for the analysis was provided by tutors who were expert users of Unix. Their expertise involved two domains, the first of which was Unix. The second type of expertise, gained from their experience of tutoring, involved the tutors' understanding of the meaning of the behaviour of novices who were learning how to use Unix.
   The tutors' expertise was used to define categories into which user errors could be classified. The term error has here an extended meaning: it covers commands, which though valid, make inefficient use of the system or do not produce the desired result. The tutors provided the knowledge which allowed the detection of the category to which each error belonged. This information was encapsulated within the interface in the form of production rules within the knowledge base of a KBS. It is these production rules which provide the user modelling component of the interface.
   The resultant interface, a Smart User-System Interface (SUSI), provides a first attempt at a supportive environment in which novices can easily learn to use the Unix operating system efficiently. If offers advice when it detects an error but is otherwise transparent. The results of testing are reported and these indicate the usefulness of the SUSI interface. Further work is now in progress to use the ideas it embodies in other interactive systems.
Comparison of Student Performance in Arithmetic Exercises: TOAM vs Paper-and-Pencil Testing BIBA 293-313
  Luis Osin; Pearla Nesher
The increasing usage of Computer-Assisted Instruction systems in schools raises several methodological questions. Among them: Are the evaluation results obtained within the computer system comparable with those obtained with classical paper-and-pencil testing? Is the computer usage favoring certain pupil populations? How much emphasis must be placed in teaching not only the curriculum contents but also the media usage? An experiment was conducted to analyse the difference in performance of elementary school pupils when working either with paper-and-pencil or with a computer terminal. This paper presents the conception of the experiment, its design, the results obtained, and their analysis.
Programmer Variations in Software Debugging Approaches BIBA 315-322
  Doris L. Carver
As software costs continue to increase, the need to enhance programmer productivity increases. It is widely accepted that individual differences impact software development productivity. Due to the high percent of software development effort spent on testing and maintenance, an investigation of techniques used by programmer to change code can help identify methods that are effective and thus contribute to productivity improvement. In this study, we investigate program change rates as a potential productivity factor. The level of change activity both early and late in the debugging process and the quantity of changes made between test executions are among the factors investigated. We compute a programmer change profile based on these factors. The profiles are compared relative to the ratio of program changes to lines of code. Lower change rates early in the debugging process and lower change per execution rates were found for the programmers with the lower ratios of program changes to lines of code.
Pictorial Dialogue Methods BIBA 323-347
  P. G. Barker; K. A. Manji
Human-computer communication provides the basic mechanisms by which computer users are able to express their requirements and influence the mode of operation of sophisticated information processing machines. In the past, textual dialogue has been the primary mode of facilitating such communicative encounters. Increasingly, pictorial dialogue methods are being employed in order to overcome some of the limitations and inefficiencies of textual exchange. This paper describes and discusses some of our work relating to the use of pictorial dialogue methods to support: (1) end-user interaction with electronic books; (2) mixed-mode consultations with expert systems; and (3) multi-media instruction through the use of computer assisted learning techniques.
Some Effects of Cognitive Style on Learning UNIX BIBA 349-365
  Lynne Coventry
Previous studies have highlighted the existence of differences in the cognitive style adopted by different individuals. One dimension of cognitive style has the extremes, "Field-Dependency" and "Field-Independency". These styles affect the way a person structures and processes information which may in turn have a profound effect on the way a person learns to use a computer system. This study investigated the effects of these styles on learning to use the UNIX operating system. Subjects were required to work through a number of tasks using UNIX and to ask for help when it was required. The results indicated that field-dependent subjects were less likely to know the command and more likely to ask for help without making any attempt at the task than field-independent subjects, whereas the latter were more likely to attempt the task and make errors than ask for help. These results indicate a need for a help system which can provide appropriate types of help for these two different styles of learning.

IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 4

Data Analysis and Learning: An Experimental Study of Data Modeling Tools BIBA 367-391
  Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa; Jefry J. Machesky
The purpose of the current study was to seek insight into the ease of learning logical data modeling among novices. The two tools examined in the three learning experiments were the Logical Data Structure (LDS), which is based on the entity-relationship concept, and the Relational Data Model (RDM). For a series of trials, naive analysts were asked to generate data models using one of the tools. Feedback regarding the correct model was provided after each trial. The results suggest that when given structured tasks, novices are able to learn rather quickly how to produce small, good quality models using either of the tools. Comparatively, the LDS tool promoted significantly more top-down directed analysis and resulted in more accurate data models than the RDM tool. The significant differences are explained in terms of the visual appearance of the notation associated with the tools. The results have implications for data modeling training and for the development of data modeling tools.
Specification Influences in Program Design BIBA 393-404
  J. I. A. Siddiqi; B. Ratcliff
A general model of the problem decomposition process in program design is advanced. The model, which is elaborated in the context of a structured approach to program development, incorporates a goal generation stage that is subject to influences derived from programming problem specifications. It is hypothesised that the reasoning involved in goal generation is partly a function of two different kinds of availability effect associated with salient characteristics of such specifications. Two experiments are reported upon in which subjects undertook various program design tasks. The results of the experiments are interpreted in terms of the availability effect hypothesis. In addition, comments are made about the relevance of the subject populations used, the adequacy of the model, and the implications for specification construction arising from the interpretation of the experimental results.
Specifying Accent Marks in French Text for Teletext and Speech Synthesis BIBA 405-414
  Douglas O'Shaughnessy
A system to insert accent marks in unaccented French text is described. It has applications to teletext, speech synthesis, and orthographic pedagogy. The placement of French accents is governed both by syntax and by orthographic patterns of letter sequences. This paper concentrates on exploiting regularities in letter contexts to specify accent placement. The structure of the rule system is given, as well as some examples of how the system operates. Testing used a 50,000 word dictionary and a 31,750 word text. A comparison of this method with a simple look-up approach is made, from the point of view of accuracy and computer memory and computation.
Modelling Uncertainty in Expert Systems BIBA 415-476
  Richard Buxton
The aim of this paper is to analyse a wide variety of alternative approaches to the modelling of uncertainty, and to discuss their relevance to the handling of uncertain inference in Expert Systems. Some of the approaches that I shall examine have been developed specifically for the use in expert systems, while others have arisen from more theoretical work on the notions of support and belief. Particular emphasis will be placed on an analysis and comparison of the underlying measures of uncertainty; this analysis will lead to a discussion of the role in expert systems, of the concepts of support, refutation, belief and possibility. The criticism of current approaches to the modelling of uncertainty will be used as a basis for formulating some requirements for the processing of evidence in an expert system.
Toward Empirically Derived Methodologies and Tools for Human-Computer Interface Development BIB 477-494
  H. Rex Hartson; Deborah Hix

IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 5

Integration Issues in Knowledge Support Systems BIBA 495-515
  Brian R. Gaines
Tools and techniques for knowledge acquisition for knowledge based systems need to be integrated with the overall system and not treated as separate components. The variety of sources of knowledge, representations and applications within the system, and user roles, makes such integration complex. The complexity raises many issues not generally thought of as part of knowledge acquisition yet fundamentally significant in extending and integrating acquisition tools. This paper gives an analysis of the structure of knowledge-based systems as it relates to the integration of acquisition. It is intended to form a "requirements specification" for knowledge based systems integrating acquisition with other aspects of their operation. The analysis results in a number of design principles derived systematically from consideration of the distinctions involved. The design principles are derived through an approach applicable to any knowledge structure as symmetric pairs, one relating to differentiation and the other to integration.
Coping with Human Errors through System Design: Implications for Ecological Interface Design BIBA 517-534
  Jens Rasmussen; Kim J. Vicente
Research during recent years has revealed that human errors are not stochastic events which can be removed through improved training programs or optimal interface design. Rather, errors tend to reflect either systematic interference between various models, rules, and schemata, or the effects of the adaptive mechanisms involved in learning. In terms of design implications, these findings suggest that reliable human-system interaction will be achieved by designing interfaces which tend to minimize the potential for control interference and support recovery from errors. In other words, the focus should be on control of the effects of errors rather than on the elimination of errors per se. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework for interface design that attempts to satisfy these objectives. The goal of our framework, called ecological interface design, is to develop a meaningful representation of the process which is not just optimised for one particular level of cognitive control, but that supports all three levels simultaneously. The paper discusses the necessary requirements for a mapping between the process and the combined action/observation surface, and analyses of the resulting influence on both the interferences causing error and on the opportunity for error recovery left to the operator.
The Flexibility of Case Grammar Representations: A Porting Procedure for Natural Language Interfaces BIBA 535-556
  Stephanie W. Haas; Douglas P. Metzler
While case grammars have frequently been used to implement natural language interfaces to various sorts of systems, there has been little agreement over what precisely the different cases ought to be, or exactly where the semantic boundaries between different cases ought to be drawn. As a result, the domain specific decisions taken in the implementation of a case based natural language interface can result in a system which is very difficult to modify to meet the demands of a different application domain. This paper describes an approach to analysing the case grammar structures used for particular domains and utilizing these analyses to facilitate the porting of case based natural language interfaces from existing domains to new ones. The analysis is based on the assumption that there is not a single correct set of cases that is applicable across all of language and world knowledge, but rather that a set of basic cases is transformed somewhat by the semantic requirements encountered in any particular domain. A type hierarchy of cases is developed consisting of three levels of generality. The lowest, most specific, level of the hierarchy consists of a domain specific mapping of the general cases dictated by the semantic requirements of the domain. The analysis procedure consists of explicating the mappings for the two domains and comparing them in order to discover the necessary shifts in representation required to capture the shifts in domain semantics.
A Cognitive Study of the Decision-Making Process in a Business Context: Implications for Design of Expert Systems BIBA 557-572
  G. Premkumar
Problem-solving in the business domain differs considerably from the traditional domains such as physics, cryptarithmetic etc. that are normally used in psychological experiments. The use of qualitative data, personal judgment, and experiential learning results in considerable ambiguity in the problem representation and solution strategy. A cognitive study of the decision-making process in the business domain was conducted and the results indicated that there were differences between subjects in problem representation and solution strategies. The reasons for these differences were analysed and the implications of these findings on the design of expert system were evaluated.
Idea Analysis: A New Approach in Using Scientific Literature BIBA 573-585
  M. H. Malogolowkin; J. A. Ortega; S. E. Siegel; R. S. Horowitz; G. D. Hammond; J. M. Weiner
This paper describes a method for identifying the knowledge used by experts in the design of clinical trials. The ideas presented in numerical displays are identified in the medical literature dealing with clinical investigations of the disease. These ideas are extracted, computerized, retrieved, and compared with those in the clinical trial protocol prepared by the experts. The agreements and differences between the two sets of ideas provide insights into the cognitive behavior of experts as they design the therapeutic trial. By tracing the ideas involved, it is possible to estimate the "creation trail" used by the experts.
   An example is given using the work of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Committee (IRS). That committee has been the primary contributor of information dealing with the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma in children. The IRS-III protocol was used in this analysis, because that protocol was adopted by the leading pediatric oncology clinical trial groups in North America and Europe.
   The Idea Analysis method was found to be useful in identifying most of the ideas used in constructing the IRS-III protocol. Those features which were not direct extensions of the data-supported ideas previously published in the literature could be identified and put into perspective. In most instances, the logic and precursors of the innovative ingredients could be identified.
On the Representation of Commonsense Knowledge by Possibilistic Reasoning BIBA 587-610
  Ronald R. Yager
We discuss the operation of possibility qualification in the framework of the theory of approximate reasoning. This modal-like operator is then used to represent "typical" or default knowledge in a theory of nonmonotonic reasoning. We investigate the representational power of this approach by looking at a number of prototypical problems from the nonmonotonic reasoning literature.

IJMMS 1989 Volume 31 Issue 6

Graphical Knowledge Programming with KNAPS BIBA 611-641
  Newton S. Lee
This paper introduces KNAPS, a graphical expert system tool for domain experts to program problem-solving strategies, to incrementally test and debug the encoded knowledge, and to generate C programs for maximum efficiency and delivery on small computers. KNAPS provides domain experts who are not trained in computer science the capability to add, update, test, and debug knowledge graphically. The graphical approach forces an explicit representation of knowledge that is highly understandable, easily modifiable, and visually tractable. Moreover, KNAPS has the ability to generate C programs directly from the graphically represented knowledge. The graphs-to-C translation process is 100% automated. In essence, KNAPS offers a practical solution to alleviate the expertise transfer bottleneck in knowledge engineering, to eliminate programming errors resulted from hand-coding knowledge, and to facilitate the deployment of laboratory prototypes into real-world computing environments. KNAPS was developed using KEE and Common Lisp on a Symbolics 3650 workstation.
A Taxonomy of Independent Variables Affecting Human Performance BIBA 643-671
  Valerie J. Gawron; Colin G. Drury; Sara J. Czaja; Dawn M. Wilkins
As part of an ongoing program to develop a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) system for human factors engineers, a Human Performance Expert System, Human, was designed. The system contains a taxonomy of independent variables which affect human performance. This taxonomy was developed in a three-step process: (1) review existing taxonomies; (2) add independent variables used in Human; and (3) remove redundancy and ambiguity. This process and the resultant taxonomy are described in this paper.
An Editor for the Conceptual Models of Interactive Knowledge-Acquisition Tools BIBA 673-698
  Mark A. Musen
Computer-Based tools can help system builders to create knowledge bases for expert systems. An important class of such knowledge-acquisition tools comprises programs that contain detailed models of families of application tasks. Users enter knowledge about particular applications into these tools in terms of the predefined task models that the tools incorporate. For example, the OPAL knowledge-acquisition program uses a model of the task administering cancer therapy to provide a framework that allows cancer specialists to enter the knowledge that defines individual cancer-treatment plans. This paper describes PROTEGE, an interactive program that assists knowledge engineers in the construction of tasks models, and that automatically generates custom-tailored knowledge-acquisition tools based on those models. Domain experts independently use the graphical tools that PROTEGE generates to enter the knowledge that defines individual applications. The methodology separates the problems of creating models of application tasks from the entry of content knowledge, expediting the development of expert systems when multiple knowledge bases are required for related tasks.
An On-Line Assistance System for the Simulation Model Development Environment BIBA 699-716
  Valerie L. Frankel; Osman Balci
The Assistance Manager, one of the tools of the Simulation Model Development Environment (SMDE), is required to provide effective and efficient transfer of assistance information to an SMDE user. This paper describes a prototype of the SMDE Assistance Manager. Objectives are set forth and a design is established and implemented on a SUN 3/160C workstation. The prototype is evaluated with respect to the design objectives and is shown to provide a highly flexible interface between the user and the database of assistance information. Results indicate that the prototype Assistance Manager incorporates the characteristics considered desirable in on-line assistance systems and serves as a basis for future enhancement and development.
Perception of Computer Dialogue Personality: An Exploratory Study BIBA 717-728
  John Cook; Gavriel Salvendy
This study presents an exploratory investigation into the perception of computer dialogue personality. Sixty-one subjects participated in a between subjects experimental design of computerized car ordering stimulus programs modeled to exhibit personality types: extravert-stable, extravert-unstable, introvert-stable, and introvert-unstable. Factor analysis of the perceived presence of twelve personality traits in the computer dialogue indicated subjects perceive computer dialogue personality in much the same manner as they characterize human personality. Perception of computer dialogue extraversion differences were more salient than neuroticism differences, but were not found to influence user satisfaction or performance. The study establishes an empirical groundwork for future development of computer dialogue personality methodologies.