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International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 37

Editors:B. R. Gaines; D. R. Hill
Dates:1992
Volume:37
Publisher:Academic Press
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Papers:41
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 1
  2. IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 2
  3. IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 3
  4. IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 4
  5. IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 5
  6. IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 6

IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 1

A Voice- and Touch-Driven Natural Language Editor and its Performance BIBA 1-21
  Alan W. Biermann; Linda Fineman; J. Francis Heidlage
The performance of a voice- and touch-driven natural language editor is described as subjects used it to do editing tasks. The system features the abilities to process imperative sentences with noun phrases that may include pronouns, quantifiers and references to dialogue focus. The system utilizes a commercial speaker-dependent connected-speech recognizer, and processes sentences spoken by human subjects at the rate of five to seven sentences per minute. Sentence recognition percentages for our expert speaker and for subjects, were 98 and around the mid 70s, respectively. Subjects had more difficulty learning to use connected speech than had been the case in earlier experiments with discrete speech.
Design of Interactive Systems -- A Formal Approach BIBA 23-46
  Varghese S. Jacob; James C. Moore; Andrew B. Whinston
Decision Support Systems (DSSs) are utilized to support a users decision process. One generally required characteristic of a DSS is that it be an interactive system. Generally the degree of interaction between the human and the system is such that one can view the information processing activity as being performed by the human-computer information processor. Although DSSs are fairly commonly used, there has been very little work done to develop a formal basis for the design of such systems which take into account the interactive nature of problem solving. In this paper we propose a formal model for analysing the human-machine information processor. The model takes into account cost of performing information-gathering actions, communication costs and time constraints. We illustrate the application of the model within the domain of categorization. A special case of the categorization problem called the "only-correct-guesses-count" problem is defined and analyzed within the context of the model.
Understanding Scene Descriptions by Integrating Different Sources of Knowledge BIBA 47-81
  Fausto Giunchiglia; Carlo Ferrari; Paolo Traverso; Emanuele Trucco
The aim of this work is to describe a system, called NALIG (Natural-Language-driven Image Generator), able to understand natural language descriptions of object spatial configurations and draw on a graphic screen one of the infinitely many scenes consistent with the input. NALIG can be used interactively and at any step a multi-layered contextual analysis of the input is performed to detect and eliminate possible inconsistencies due to previous default choices. The system is described in its functionalities, internal structure and interactions among its sub-parts.
Conceptual Data Modelling in Database Design: Similarities and Differences between Expert and Novice Designers BIBA 83-101
  Dinesh Batra; Joseph G. Davis
This paper explores the similarities and differences between experts and novices engaged in a conceptual data modelling task, a critical part of overall database design, using data gathered in the form of think-aloud protocols. It develops a three-level process model of the subjects' behavior and the differentiated application of this model by experts and novices. The study found that the experts focused on generating a holistic understanding of the problem before developing the conceptual model. They were able to categorize problem descriptions into standard abstractions. The novices tended to have more errors in their solutions largely due to their inability to integrate the various parts of the problem description and map them into appropriate knowledge structures. The study also found that the expert and novice behavior was similar in terms of modelling facets like entity, identifier, descriptor and binary relationship, somewhat different in modelling ternary relationship, but quite different in the modelling of unary relationship and category. These findings are discussed in relation to the results of previous expert-novice studies in other domains.
Applications and Extensions of OWA Aggregations BIBA 103-122
  Ronald R. Yager
We discuss the idea of ordered weighting averaging (OWA) operators. These operators provide a family of aggregation operators lying between the "and" and the "or". We introduce two possible semantics associated with the OWA operator, the first being a kind of generalized logical connective and the second being a new type of probabilistic expected value. We suggest some applications of these operators. Among the applications we discuss are those involving multicriteria decision making under uncertainty and search procedures in games. We provide for a formulation of OWA operators that can be used in environments in which the underlying scale is simply an ordinal one.
Characterization of Comparative Belief Structures BIBA 123-133
  S. K. M. Wong; Y. Y. Yao; P. Bollmann
Comparative belief is a generalization of comparative probability. An axiomatic characterization of beliefs plays an important role in the development of a complete theory of beliefs. This paper provides an axiomatic system for belief relations. It is shown that within this system there are belief functions which almost agree with comparative beliefs. A better understanding of comparative beliefs will also alleviate some of the difficulties in the acquisition and interpretation of belief numbers.

IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 2

Communicative Acts for Explanation Generation BIBA 135-172
  Mark T. Maybury
Knowledge-based systems that interact with humans often need to define their terminology, elucidate their behavior or support their recommendations or conclusions. In general, they need to explain themselves. Unfortunately, current computer systems, if they can explain themselves at all, often generate explanations that are unnatural, ill-connected or simply incoherent. They typically have only one method of explanation which does not allow them to recover from failed communication. At a minimum, this can irritate an end-user and potentially decrease their productivity. More dangerous, poorly conveyed information may result in misconceptions on the part of the user which can lead to bad decisions or invalid conclusions, which may have costly or even dangerous implications.
   To address this problem, we analyse human-produced explanations with the aim of transferring explanation expertise to machines. Guided by this analysis, we present a classification of explanatory utterances based on their content and communicative function. We then use these utterance classes and additional text analysis to construct a taxonomy of text types. This text taxonomy characterizes multisentence explanations according to the content they convey, the communicative acts they perform, and their intended effect on the addressee's knowledge, beliefs, goals and plans. We then argue that the act of explanation presentation is an action-based endeavor and introduce and define an integrated theory of communicative acts (rhetorical, illocutionary, and locutionary acts). To illustrate this theory we formalize several of these communicative acts as plan operators and then show their use by a hierarchical text planner (TEXPLAN -- Textual EXplanation PLANner) that composes natural language explanations. Finally, we classify a range of reactions readers may have to explanations and illustrate how a system can respond to these given a plan-based approach. Our research thus contributes (1) a domain-independent taxonomy of abstract explanatory utterances, (2) a taxonomy of multisentence explanations based on these utterance classes and (3) a classification of reactions readers may have to explanations as well as (4) an illustration of how these classifications can be applied computationally.
Individual Differences in the Performance and Use of an Expert System BIBA 173-190
  Richard P. Will
This field investigation studied the use of an expert system technology to gain some additional insight into specific behavioral implications for information system designers. Twenty-eight engineers in an oil and gas exploration and production company participated in this study by solving a well pressure buildup analysis problem. Half of the subjects utilized a well test interpretation expert system to assist them while the other subjects solved the problem manually. The groups were balanced across age, cognitive style and trait anxiety. Independent variables consisted of the expert system treatment, dogmatism and experience with performing the task. Impact measures consisted of decision confidence, decision quality, decision time, state anxiety and a system success indicator for those subjects utilizing the expert system.
   Although decision confidence was higher in the group utilizing the expert system, there was no corresponding increase in decision quality. Also, experts utilizing the expert system experienced an increase in state anxiety, and rated the expert system significantly worse than the novices did. This may imply that expert system technology may be more useful or appropriate to novices than experts.
The Role of Planning in Learning a New Programming Language BIBA 191-214
  Jean Scholtz; Susan Wiedenbeck
This paper reports on a protocol analysis of experienced programmers beginning to program in an unknown programming language. The data show that programmers have greatest difficulty with and spend by far the largest portion of their time engaged in planning activities. Many of the subjects produced working solutions to the problem they were given, using plans coming from their previous experience with other languages. Such plans failed to take good advantage of the features of the new language. From our data we present a model of planning in a new language which shows planning to be mostly a depth-first process which uses a top-down strategy of adopting plans which have proven successful in other languages, as well as a bottom-up strategy of searching for features in the new language which may suggest an appropriate plan.
Communication Knowledge for Knowledge Communication BIBA 215-239
  Yvonne Wærn; Sture Hagglund; Jonas Lowgren; Ivan Rankin; Tomas Sokolnicki; Anne Steinemann
Knowledge systems can be regarded as agents communicating between domain experts and end users. We emphasize the concept of "communication knowledge", distinct from the domain knowledge. Three aspects of communication knowledge are identified and research related to them presented. These are domain-related knowledge, discourse knowledge and mediating knowledge. This frame of reference is applied in the contexts of knowledge acquisition, user interface management in knowledge systems, text generation in expert critiquing systems and tutoring systems. We discuss the implications of the proposed framework in terms of implemented systems and finally suggest a future research agenda emanating from the analyses.
A User Enquiry Model for DSS Requirements Analysis: A Framework and Case Study BIBA 241-264
  Bay Arinze
The concept of Decision Support Systems (DSS) has been the focus of much discussion among information systems academicians and practitioners in recent years. One trend has been the increasing recognition of the term "DSS" as embodying not just a set of tools or technologies, but rather, signifying a change in the methodologies required in the semi-structured problem-solving domain. An important issue for DSS development is DSS requirements analysis, and several formalizations and methods have been proposed in various DSS design methodologies. This paper describes a method for performing DSS requirements analysis that is based on a model of user enquiries. This model may be used for a more focused investigation of user requirements, with the derived user enquiries subsequently translated into DSS specifications. It compares the method with those used by existing DSS methodologies, and illustrates its use via a case study involving the development and use of a Marketing DSS (MKDSS). The benefits of this enquiry-based approach are identified, and the intended contribution toward DSS methodology described.

IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 3

A Catalog of Errors BIBA 265-307
  Jane M. Fraser; Philip J. Smith; Jack W., Jr. Smith
This paper reviews various errors that have been described by comparing human behavior to the norms of probability, causal connection and logical deduction. For each error we review evidence on whether the error has been demonstrated to occur. For many errors, the occurrence of a bias has not been demonstrated; for others, a bias does occur, but arguments can be made that the bias is not always an error. Based on the conclusions of this review, we caution researchers and practitioners in referring to well known biases and errors.
Empirical Verification of Effectiveness for a Knowledge-Based System BIBA 309-334
  Ajay S. Vinze
In the last decade, information centers (ICs) have been proven to be a successful strategy for managing software resources of organizations. The initial success of ICs has increased user expectations and demand for the services offered but, because ICs are considered cost centers in most organizations, there is growing pressure for them to accomplish more with fewer resources. A knowledge-based system ICE, (Information Center Expert), has been developed to assist users with software selection. The study reported here focuses on the evaluation of ICE to determine users' perception of its effectiveness. This experimental evaluation of ICE was conducted at the University of Arizona's Center for the Management of Information (CMI), which operates as an Information Center supporting faculty and students in the College of Business. The use of student subjects in the experiment was deemed appropriate because they are, in fact, the end users of the CMI information center.
   The verification of the effectiveness of ICE was attempted by conducting a laboratory experiment to test the comparative advantages of using ICE or CMI consultants to obtain assistance with software selection. The experiment was designed as a 2 x 2 factorial. The independent variables were users (beginner or advanced) and type of consultation process (ICE or CMI consultant). The dependent variable was a measure of consultation effectiveness. Instruments for classifying users and measuring effectiveness of a consultation process were developed and validated.
Explanation and Artificial Neural Networks BIBA 335-355
  Joachim Diederich
Explanation is an important function in symbolic artificial intelligence (AI). For instance, explanation is used in machine learning, in case-based reasoning and, most important, the explanation of the results of a reasoning process to a user must be a component of any inference system. Experience with expert systems has shown that the ability to generate explanations is absolutely crucial for the user acceptance of AI systems. In contrast to symbolic systems, neural networks have no explicit, declarative knowledge representation and therefore have considerable difficulties in generating explanation structures. In neural networks, knowledge is encoded in numeric parameters (weights) and distributed all over the system.
   It is the intention of this paper to discuss the ability of neural networks to generate explanations. It will be shown that connectionist systems benefit from the explicit coding of relations and the use of highly structured networks in order to allow explanation and explanation components (ECs). Connectionist semantic networks (CSNs), i.e. connectionist systems with an explicit conceptual hierarchy, belong to a class of artificial neural networks which can be extended by an explanation component which gives meaningful responses to a limited class of "How" questions. An explanation component of this kind is described in detail.
Using Temporal Logic to Support the Specification and Prototyping of Interactive Control Systems BIBA 357-385
  C. W. Johnson; M. D. Harrison
Accidents at Flixborough, Seveso, Bhopal, Three Mile Island, Windscale and Chernobyl have led to increasing concern over the safety and reliability of control systems. Human factors specialists have responded to this concern and have proposed a number of techniques which support the operator of such applications. Unfortunately, this work has not been accompanied by the provision of adequate tools which might enable a designer to carry it beyond the "laboratory bench" and on to the "shop floor". The following paper exploits formal, mathematically based specification techniques to provide such a tool. Previous weaknesses of abstract specifications are identified and resolved. In particular, they have failed to capture the temporal properties which human factors specialists identify as crucial to the success or failure of interactive control systems. They also provide the non-formalist with an extremely poor impression of what it would be to like to interact with potential implementations. Temporal logic avoids these deficiencies. It can make explicit the sequential information which may be implicit within a design. Executable subsets of this formalization support prototyping and this provides a means of assessing the qualitative "look and feel" of potential implementations. A variety of presentation strategies, including structural decomposition and dialogue cycles, have been specified and incorporated directly into prototypes using temporal logic. Prelog, a tool for the Presentation and REndering of LOGic specifications, has been developed and its implementation is described.

European Association for Cognitive Ergonomics: Book Reviews

"Envisioning Information," by Edward Tufte BIB 387-393
  Alison Black
"Hypertext Concepts, Systems and Applications. Proceedings of the European Conference on Hypertext, INRIA, France, November 1990," edited by A. Rizk, N. Streitz, and J. Andre BIB 387-393
  M. Sharples
"Hypertext in Context," by C. McKnight, A. Dillon, and J. Richardson BIB 387-393
  Patricia Wright
"Psychology of Programming," edited by J.-M. Hoc, T. R. G. Green, R. Samurcay, and D. J. Gilmore BIB 387-393
  Jurgan Koenemann-Belliveau

IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 4

Introduction. Structure-Based Editors and Environments BIB 395-397
  Lisa Neal; Gerd Szwillus
Interacting with Structure-Oriented Editors BIBA 399-418
  Sten Minor
Why have structure-oriented editors failed to attract a wider audience? Despite their obviously good qualities, they have almost exclusively been used for education and for experimental purposes in universities and research labs. In this paper a number of common objections raised against structure-oriented editors are quoted and commented upon. Many objections concern the interaction of such editors. Therefore the aspect of interaction in structure-oriented editors is analysed in more detail. We pin down the differences between interacting with text and structure-oriented editors, thus obtaining a deeper understanding of how structure-oriented editors can be improved to suit both naive and expert users. An analysis based on Norman's model for user activities is presented both for text editing and structure-oriented editing of programming languages. The analysis illustrates the trade-offs between structure-oriented editing and text editing of programs. It is also used to suggest some improvements to structure-oriented editor interaction in order to minimize the mental and physical effort required. The interaction problems have earlier been dealt with in hybrid editors, which combine structure-oriented editing and text editing in one system. This approach is also commented upon and discussed. Conceptual models are presented and compared for text editors, structure-oriented editors and hybrid editors. An interaction model for structure-oriented editors based on direct manipulation is suggested. The model is examined in terms of semantic distance, articulatory distance, and engagement as suggested by Hutchins et al. It is also related to the analysis of user activities and the discussion of conceptual models. The direct manipulation model aims at obtaining a simple but powerful interaction model for "pure" structure-oriented editors that may he appreciated by different user categories. Finally, some objections against structure-oriented editors not concerning interaction issues are commented upon, and some directions for future research are outlined.
Conceptual Issues in Language-Based Editor Design BIBA 419-430
  Jim Welsh; Mark Toleman
User interface choices are vital to the success of language-based editors. This paper presents a case-study of some significant user interface choices made in the design of language-based editors for software development at the University of Queensland, and discusses the conceptual models on which the choices are based.
Coherent User Interfaces for Language-Based Editing Systems BIBA 431-466
  Michael L. Van De Vanter; Susan L. Graham; Robert A. Ballance
Many kinds of complex documents, including programs, are based on underlying formal languages. Language-based editing systems exploit knowledge of these languages to provide services beyond the scope of traditional text editors. To be effective, these services must use the power of language-based information to broaden the options available to the user, but without revealing complex linguistic and implementation models. Users understand complex documents in terms of many overlapping structures, only some of which are related to linguistic structure. Communications with the user concerning document structures must be based on models of document structure that are natural, convenient and coherent to the user. Pan is a language-based editing and browsing system designed to support development and maintenance of complex software documents. Pan's implementation combines several approaches: unrestricted text editing, language-based browsing and editing, description-driven language definition for incremental analysis and support for multiple languages per session. Pan uses a variety of mechanisms to help users understand and manipulate complex documents effectively, in terms of underlying language when necessary, but always in the framework of a coherent, user-oriented interface. This paper describes that interface, the mechanisms needed to support it, and the complex relationships between interface design and implementation techniques demanded by the goals of the system.
Design and Structure of a Semantics-Based Programming Environment BIBA 467-479
  R. Bahlke; G. Snelting
We present, from a user's point of view, an overview of the PSG system, a generator for semantics-based programming environments. The PSG system generates an interactive, language-specific environment from a complete formal language definition. Both the syntax, as well as the static and dynamic semantics of the language are specified in the definition. The definition is used to generate a context-sensitive hybrid editor and an interactive interpreter with debugging facilities. The paper describes the structure and the main features of PSG-generated environments, as well as the design decisions which led to the development of the PSG environment.
Diagram Editors = Graphs + Attributes + Graph Grammars BIBA 481-502
  Herbert Gottler
This paper reports on the latest developments in ongoing work which started in 1981 and is aimed at a general method which would help to reduce considerably the time necessary to develop a syntax-directed editor for any given diagram technique. In joint projects between the University of Erlangen-Nurnberg and software companies it has been shown that the ideas and the implemented tools can also be used for the design of CAD-systems. Several editors for diagram techniques in the field of software engineering have been implemented (e.g. SDL and SADT). In addition, 3-D-modelling packages for interior design and furnishing or lighting systems have been developed. The main idea behind the approach is to represent diagrams by (formal) graphs whose nodes are enriched with attributes. Then, any manipulation of a diagram (typically the insertion of an arrow, a box, text, coloring etc.) can be expressed in terms of the manipulation of its underlying attributed representation graph. The formal description of the manipulation is done by programmed attributed graph grammars. The main advantage of using graph grammars is the unified approach for the design of the data structures and the representation of the algorithms as graphs and graph productions, respectively. The results proved that graph grammars are a software-engineering method of their own.
Re-Structuring the Programmer's Task BIBA 503-527
  Rachel K. E. Bellamy; John M. Carroll
It is increasingly common for programming environments to provide a library of re-usable code components. Programmers build their programs by piecing together these components and, when necessary, specializing them or creating new components. Thus, finding and composing components become central programming tasks. In this paper, we analyse the Smalltalk/V environment with respect to these programming tasks and develop a redesign in which code components can be borrowed and manipulated under the task-oriented rubric of projects.
Automated Customization of Structure Editors BIBA 529-563
  Barbara Staudt Lerner
A common method of developing structure editors is by generating them using an environment generation tool, such as Gandalf or the Synthesizer Generator. One weakness of this approach is that the user interfaces to the generated structure editors tend to be difficult to customize to individual languages and users. Customization is typically left to the user with macros and mode settings. An alternative described in this paper is automated customization. To support automated customization, the system must determine what customizations to perform, when to perform them, and how to evaluate them without user intervention. This paper reports on mechanisms added to the Gandalf environment generation system to support automated customization, as well as results of experimentation with these mechanisms.
   The major results of experimentation are the following. Automated customization resulted in a 7% decrease in the number of commands required to complete a task, and up to 25% reduction in the number of errors encountered. In addition the evaluation mechanism performed well, correctly evaluating 95% of the automated actions.

IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 5

Interface Structures: Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Patterns Applicable to Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 565-593
  Siegfried Treu
Structural patterns are known to be important to human memory and cognition. They are essential to the knowledge representation of conceptual, logical and physical entities. At the same time, computer interfaces are implemented using a variety of logical and physical structures that have implications for human use. These two categories of structures, representing both sides of the human-computer partnership, are characterized and compared. Emphasis is on identifying a basic set of structures amenable both to the user's mind and to the computer-based application. The user is capable of conceiving and visualizing structures in each of several different representation "spaces" behind the interface surface. Careful structural mappings between these spaces and the user-visible interface are essential. To aid interface designers in these tasks, a formal definition of interface structure is proposed and an example specification is presented. Expected benefits and required research are discussed.
Stabilizing Student Knowledge in Open Structured CAI BIBA 595-612
  Yoneo Yano; Akihiro Kashihara; William McMichael
This paper describes STAR, a system for stabilizing student knowledge in a mixed initiative CAI application. The system characterizes knowledge as existing at three levels of stability: required, ambiguous or stable. The primary instructional objective of the system is to improve the stability level of student knowledge. The knowledge acquisition environment utilizes target domain knowledge and knowledge acquired from the student to generate a dynamic student model. The student model, in turn, guides the selection of appropriate instructional strategies. The operation of the system is demonstrated using an English vocabulary development activity.
A Protocol-Based Coding Scheme for the Analysis of Medical Reasoning BIBA 613-652
  Frank Hassebrock; Michael J. Prietula
One of the most common methods of codifying and interpreting human knowledge is through the use of verbal protocol analysis. Although the application of this methodology has increased in recent years, few detailed examples are readily available in the literature. This paper discusses the theoretical issues and methodological procedures pertaining to the analysis of verbal protocols collected from physicians engaged in medical problem solving. We first present a brief historical perspective on verbal protocol methodology. We then discuss how we have come to view the task of medical diagnosis both in general and in particular with respect to a specific specialty -- congenital heart disease. Next, we describe and provide examples of our methodology for coding verbal protocols of physicians into abstract, but meaningful objects which are elements of a theory of diagnostic reasoning. In particular, we demonstrate how the coding scheme can represent an important aspect of medical problem solving behavior called a line of reasoning. We conclude by proposing how such analysis is important to understanding the psychology of medical problem solving and how this type of analysis plays an important role in the development of medical artificial intelligence systems and educational efforts directed toward the development of expertise in medical problem solving.
Effects of Semantic Similarity, Omission Probability and Number of Alternatives in Computer Menu Search BIBA 653-677
  Byron J. Pierce; Stanley R. Parkinson; Norwood Sisson
An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of semantic relatedness, omission probability and number of alternatives on search strategy and response accuracy in computer menu selection. Search strategies were defined as either self-terminating, exhaustive, or redundant and a direct measure of search type was provided in a condition employing sequential presentation of menu alternatives. A simultaneous condition was included to test the generality of results obtained with sequential presentation. Regression analyses indicated that semantic relatedness, omission probability and number of alternatives were all significant predictors of search strategy and response accuracy. Mode of presentation, sequential or simultaneous, was not significant in any of the analyses.
Menu Search and Selection Processes: A Quantitative Performance Model BIBA 679-702
  Byron J. Pierce; Norwood Sisson; Stanley R. Parkinson
A criterion-based model is proposed that accounts for variations in search strategies and response accuracy in a computer menu search task. Factors considered by the model are (a) user-perceived relationships among target items sought and menu alternatives available for selection, (b) number of alternatives available for selection and (c) the probability of an omission situation where the target item is not subsumed under any of the alternatives available for selection. Results reported in Pierce, Parkinson and Sisson (1992) (Int. J. Man-Machine Studies, 37, 653-677) showed that all three factors significantly influenced menu search and response accuracy. A data-fitting exercise is described in which search strategy and response accuracy data were fitted to model prediction functions by estimating best fitting values for model criteria. It is shown that processes suggested by the model are consistent with the majority of the findings obtained from analyses of menu task performance data.
Note: Errata on Table 2 (p. 685) of this paper in V. 38, N. 6, pp. 1057-1058.

IJMMS 1992 Volume 37 Issue 6

Feedback Requirements for Automatic Speech Recognition in the Process Control Room BIBA 703-719
  C. Baber; D. M. Usher; R. B. Stammers; R. G. Taylor
Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) has great potential for use in control room systems; to date, there has been little research into the human factors issues this raises. For example, careful consideration needs to be given to the provision of adequate feedback to the user. We concentrate on the two main types of visual feedback: textual and symbolic. Two studies reported here show that little difference exists between them in user performance on a task requiring spoken control of a process. However, the results demonstrate a significant reduction in learning time when textual and symbolic feedback are combined. We defined the correction of device misrecognitions as a verbal decision task, for which Study 1 shows that textual feedback is most appropriate. However, Study 2 shows that textual feedback is more likely to be misunderstood than either symbols or a combination of text and symbols. A combination of both text and symbols is proposed as the most efficient form of feedback for the use of ASR in control room systems.
Eliciting Semantic Relations for Empirically Derived Networks BIBA 721-750
  Nancy J. Cooke
Knowledge elicitation is a critical, yet difficult, process in the development of knowledge-based systems. Pathfinder, a network scaling technique that elicits and represents knowledge in the form of graph structures, has been proposed as a means of overcoming some of the difficulties of other elicitation techniques. However, Pathfinder networks are limited in that their links represent associative, but not semantic, information about conceptual relations. This research addresses the problem of eliciting semantic relations in order to enrich the Pathfinder network representation and increase its potential as a knowledge-elicitation technique. In this paper the SCAN (Sorting, Clustering and Naming) methodology is described and illustrated using links in a network of 20 common concepts. SCAN is also applied to a network of programming concepts. Finally, the methodology is evaluated and compared to related methodologies. Results of these studies indicate that SCAN is a promising link-labelling methodology.
MCC -- Multiple Correlation Clustering BIBA 751-765
  J. R. Doyle
A clustering algorithm is described which is powerful, in that at each iterative step of the method global information is used to constrain the algorithm's convergence towards a solution. It is stable in the face of missing data in the input; it is efficient in that it will extract a small signal from a lot of noise; it is impervious to multicolinearity; it may be used in two-way clustering. Each of these claims is illustrated by its application to different data sets. Despite these advantages, the algorithm is easy to implement and understand: it is sufficient to know what a correlation coefficient is in order to understand the guts of the algorithm. Because the program repeatedly correlates correlation matrices it is called here Multiple Correlation Clustering, or MCC for short.
A Comparison of the Effects of Icons and Descriptors in a Videotex Menu Retrieval BIBA 767-777
  James N. MacGregor
The paper describes an experiment to test whether icons improve performance with computer menus because of (a) the additional information they provide, or (b) inherent pictorial properties. The experiment used three different versions of menu pages adapted from a national videotex system. In one version, the menus consisted of labels only, in the second, of the labels plus text descriptors, and in the third, of the labels plus icons. The results indicated that adding icons to videotex menus had the same effect as adding equivalent textual descriptors. Neither reduced response times, while both reduced errors by the same amount (40%). Furthermore, the effect of both icons and descriptors was entirely attributable to a reduction in a specific type of error. In the absence of either icons or descriptors subjects frequently failed to recognize any of the menu options as relevant, including the correct one, and wrongly selected a "none of the above" option. Adding descriptors and icons appeared to specify the contents of categories sufficiently to reduce this type of error.
   However, caution should be exercised in interpreting the results. The study used specific sets of icons and descriptors, and the results may not generalize to other sets of icons or descriptors. Similarly, the study used videotex information-retrieval menus and the results may not generalize to software command menus and other applications.
Menu Organization through Block Clustering BIBA 779-792
  Mark S. Shurtleff
Block Clustering is proposed as a method to derive the semantic relationships among entities that comprise application programs, operating system environments or programming environments. The procedure was derived from the literature on clustering in the biological sciences. The advantages of the procedure are that it relies on information obtained from design specifications, eliminating difficulties associated with designing through "expert" opinion, and allowing the procedure to be implemented early in the design of a system. Also the procedure works well with systems possessing a small or a large number of entities. Two cases studies of the Block Clustering method are presented for two different fourth generation programming languages. Specifically the 37 HyperTalk 1.5 properties were block clustered and found to have six menu topics. Also the 98 SuperTalk 1.5 properties were Block Clustered and found to have 11 menu topics. The results illustrate the utility of Block Clustering analysis for both small and large systems.
A Decision Theoretic Framework for Approximating Concepts BIBA 793-809
  Y. Y. Yao; S. K. M. Wong
This paper explores the implications of approximating a concept based on the Bayesian decision procedure, which provides a plausible unification of the fuzzy set and rough set approaches for approximating a concept. We show that if a given concept is approximated by one set, the same result given by the α-cut in the fuzzy set theory is obtained. On the other hand, if a given concept is approximated by two sets, we can derive both the algebraic and probabilistic rough set approximations. Moreover, based on the well known principle of maximum (minimum) entropy, we give a useful interpretation of fuzzy intersection and union. Our results enhance the understanding and broaden the applications of both fuzzy and rough sets.

European Association for Cognitive Ergonomics: Report

Panel Session at the HCI'92 Conference, York, UK: "HCI -- Where's the Practice" BIB 811-821
  Clive Warren

European Association for Cognitive Ergonomics: Book Review

Activity Theory: The New Direction for HCI? "Designing Interaction: Psychology at the Human-Computer Interface," edited by J. M. Carroll BIB 811-821
  Stephen W. Draper
Activity Theory: The New Direction for HCI? "Through the Interface: A Human Activity Approach to User Interface Design," by S. Bødker BIB 811-821
  Stephen W. Draper