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IJHCI Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213

International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 3

Editors:Gavriel Salvendy
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 1991 Volume 3 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 1991 Volume 3 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 1991 Volume 3 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 1991 Volume 3 Issue 4

IJHCI 1991 Volume 3 Issue 1

A Study of Handwriting and Its Implications for Cognitive Considerations in Human-Computer Interactions BIBA 1-30
  Karl U. Smith; Thomas J. Smith
This study deals with the phenomenon of cognitive performance relative to handwriting behavior, and the human factors involved in the design of handwriting characters (letters, numbers, and words). Experimental methods of electronic motion analysis were used to study the human factors related to specialization of movements, writing tasks, and individual characteristics of handwriting activity. These three parameters of handwriting performance are assumed, for the purpose of this research, to constitute also the primary parameters of cognitive performance in both handwriting and keyboard operations with computers.
   Analyzing the behavioral parameters of cognition in handwriting constitutes a "natural" human factors investigation of thinking and communication, inasmuch as designs of handwriting characters and tasks (letters, numbers, words, and phrases) have been human factored over some 5,000 years in relation to the tools, materials, and functions of writing. As the most recently evolved special tool for writing, the computer can be studied in relation to the human factors in design of the behavioral parameters of handwriting.
   The experimental research measured the nature of specialization and variability of cognitive performance in handwriting in relation to: (a) component movements in writing; (b) writing tasks (letter, numbers, specific words); and (c) individual legibility in writing performance. An electronic handwriting analyzer was used to measure the temporal specialization of the different parameters of writing, and a rating procedure was used to assess spatiotemporal specialization of individual legibility in writing. A historical survey of the major studies of this century dealing with cognitive learning complements the results of the experimental study in showing that the main source of variability and specialization of cognitive performance during learning is related to the makeup or human factors design of cognitive tasks. The main implication is that cognitive performance, as manifest in learning generally as well as in human-computer interactions in particular, is mediated behaviorally through feedback-controlled motorsensory interactions, and not primarily by hidden brain processes.
The Impact of Knowledge Representation on Cognitive-Oriented Task Performance BIBA 31-47
  Richard J. Koubek; Daniel N. Mountjoy
This research examines the impact of training style and operator individual differences on the task representation developed, automatized task performance, and controlled task performance. Results indicate that performance on relatively straightforward repetitive tasks usually associated with automatization is influenced by training style and the mental task representation held by operators. Also, domain representation is a significant determinant of performance on complex cognitive-oriented tasks requiring controlled processes. Therefore, the task representation is identified as a high-level performance determinant for both simple and complex task performance. No effect for training style or individual differences was found. It is concluded that training programs for systems requiring human-computer interaction must account for this factor in order to facilitate the learning process and enhance task performance.
What Users Say About Software Usability BIBA 49-78
  Richard Holcomb; Alan L. Tharp
This paper advances an amalgamated model of software usability derived from much of the vast research on the subject. The model organizes that research into seven basic usability principles, their underlying attributes, and associated relative weights. This model of software usability for human-computer interaction has two primary goals: (a) to allow software designers to make quantitative decisions about which usability attributes should be included in a design, and (b) to provide a usability metric by which software designs can be consistently rated and compared.
   Because ultimately it is the users of software systems who decide how easy its user interface is to manipulate, 988 users were asked to evaluate the model's effectiveness. They were requested to rank the importance of each attribute in the model. Word processing was chosen as the specific interface type. To ensure some similarity in the respondents' backgrounds, questionnaires were sent to users of a leading word processor. The 332 responses were analyzed to provide insights into what makes software usable and to provide a basis for adjusting the model. (Although many results of the study support our intuitions about what should be included in a user interface, for some reason, the developers of most software products do not seem to be heeding the obvious wisdom.)
   The paper also discusses the effect of user experience, presents extensions, and gives a summary of the findings that should be useful to those designing user interfaces and those selecting them.
Information Technology Transfer: Problems Facing African Developing Nations BIBA 79-93
  Alphonse Toussea-Oulai; Shoji Ura
The development of informatics has given an important stimulus to almost all the human activity sectors in this last quarter of the century, namely in fields like engineering, research, organization management, etc. This is indubitable for the most developed countries. However this is not yet true for the developing countries, and especially for the African countries, although many cases of information technology transfers have been tried since the first days of computing.
   From experiences acquired through working with teams associated with information system transfer and management in Cote d'Ivoire, this research aims to summarize the problems that restrain the mastery and the development of the information technology in the Third World, especially in African countries. The secondary effects of the transferred information technology on the society are also analyzed.
Analysis and Classification of Operators' Demands for System Improvements BIBA 95-111
  Kanji Kato; Katsuhiko Ogawa; Yukio Tokunaga
To uncover human-system mismatches in system operation, a methodology is proposed for the analysis and classification of operators' opinions about operation problems and their demands for system improvements. Previous methodologies had several limitations for dealing with human-related accident reports, that is, human error data. To be able to process operators' opinions, a clustering method, "the modified affinity diagram," is used to analyze opinions. Clustered opinions are classified into eight categories based on Rasmussen's qualitative model of human behavior. The proposed methodology has several advantages because it uses the operators' opinions as data -- data that can be collected at any time even in the absence of reported accidents. These data are intended to include information related to human-system mismatch situations. The methodology prevents unconscious or deliberate bias from influencing data collection. An application of the methodology to the analysis of network systems is presented. The proposed methodology is useful to clarify the subjective human-system mismatch areas in terms of human behavior in system operation.

Book Review

"An Introduction to Human Computer Interaction," by Paul Booth BIB 113-114
  Richard J. Koubek

IJHCI 1991 Volume 3 Issue 2

Task Orientation and User-Oriented Dialog Design BIBA 117-144
  Eberhard Ulich; Matthias Rauterberg; Thomas Moll; Thomas Greutmann; Oliver Strohm
Work psychologists have introduced a concept, in which dialog design is a part of task design. A set of criteria of user-oriented dialog design is presented here. These criteria are consistently integrated into a control concept. Empirical investigations on some of these criteria are then described. In an experiment to prove the criterion transparency, a desktop interface (high transparency) and a conventional menu selection interface (low transparency) were compared. The main result is the clear superiority of the user interface with direct manipulation over the conventional user interface with menu selection. Support is another of the criteria of user-oriented dialog design that was empirically investigated. The advantages of goal-and task-oriented help messages are also described here. To make the criterion flexibility and the criterion user-definability practicable, the implementation of a dialog handler for user-tailorable systems is introduced. The criterion participation was investigated in field studies. It will be shown that in projects with active participation the costs were exceeded to a lesser degree than in projects with passive participation and to a much lesser degree than in projects without participation.
Voice as Interface: An Overview BIBA 145-170
  Philip Tucker; Dylan M. Jones
Speech, as a medium for communicating with computers, has several potential advantages, and its introduction may have far-reaching implications for the evolution of information technology. Yet, despite the availability of speech I/O devices over the past few years, their introduction into day-to-day use has been relatively slow. A human factors perspective helps to explain the predominance of the visual/manual interface, and the reasons for its preference over speech. This view reflects fundamental differences between the two modes of communication. However, human factors also suggest that much can be done to improve the usability of speech systems. Broad guidelines for the use of speech-output devices are detailed, and include criteria for the assignment of output either to the visual or auditory channel. The human factors of synthetic speech are discussed, in terms of enhancing both its intelligibility and its acceptability to users. Performance measures of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology must account for the sensitivity of such devices to extraneous factors. A description of contemporary ASR technology serves as a basis for the explanation of this sensitivity, and of the limited performance of such devices. Guidelines for the implementation of ASR technology are described that address both user behavior and the interaction of the device with its environment. Modality effects upon user behavior in a man-machine dialogue are described.
Measurements of Computer Attitudes: A Review BIBA 171-197
  Mary J. LaLomia; Joseph B. Sidowski
The objective of this article is to present a review and discussion of scales and questionnaires developed to assess attitudes towards computers. Each review includes descriptions of the scale, scale development procedures, and reliability and validity testing. Also, general problems associated with the reliability and validity testing of the scales are presented along with an assessment of future directions of computer attitude research.
What Do Novices Learn During Program Comprehension? BIBA 199-222
  Cynthia L. Corritore; Susan Wiedenbeck
Comprehension of computer programs involves identifying important program parts and inferring relationships between them. The ability to comprehend a computer program is a skill that begins its development in the novice programmer and reaches maturity in the expert programmer. This research examined the beginning of this process, that of comprehension of computer programs by novice programmers. The mental representations of the program text that novice form, which indicate the comprehension strategies being used, were examined. In the first study, 80 novice programmers were tested on their comprehension of short program segments. The results suggested that novices form detailed, concrete mental representations of the program text, supporting work that has previously been done with novice comprehension. Their mental representations were primarily procedural in nature, with little or no modeling using real-world referents. In a second study, the upper and lower quartile comprehenders from Study 1 were tested on their comprehension of a longer program. Results supported the conclusions from study 1 in that the novices tended towards detailed representations of the program text with little real-world reference. However, the comprehension strategies used by high comprehenders differed substantially from those used by low comprehenders. Results indicated that the more advanced novices were using more abstract concepts in their representations, although their abstractions were detailed in nature.

A Personal Perspective

Information Society and Information Technology BIB 223-237
  Koji Kobayashi

Book Review

"Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (2nd Edition)," by James D. Foley, Andries van Dam, Steven K. Feiner, & John Hughes BIB 239-240
  Jennie J. Gallimore
"Expert Systems: Human Issues," edited by Dianne Berry & Anna Hart BIB 241-242
  Jay A. Horn

IJHCI 1991 Volume 3 Issue 3

An Evaluation of VDT Operations through the Two-Dimensional Analysis of Fixation Points BIBA 245-252
  Shin Saito; Susumu Saito; Takao Ohkubo
The aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of various kinds of VDT operations by using an analysis of eye movements and examining the distribution of gaze fixation points. Eyes movements were detected by the "corneal reflection technique" and analyzed in terms of (a) tracing eye movements, (b) forming a matrix of fixation frequency, (c) describing the fixation area, and (d) adjusting the fixation vector. Five VDT operators involved in the development of computer software were selected as the subjects, with an average age of 24.8 years. Eye movements of the subjects were intermittently recorded throughout an 8-hr working day. It was confirmed that an analysis of eye movements can be a meaningful way to characterize certain ergonomic aspects of VDT operations.
Cooperative Document Retrieval Making User's Ill-Defined Query Evolve BIBA 253-266
  Hirohiko Mori; Yousuke Kinoe; Kazuhiko Seto; Yoshio Hayashi
Current document retrieval systems assume that a user can represent his/her query using natural language or keywords. The user without much knowledge about the subject being searched for often cannot even phrase the query properly. In this article we propose an interactive document retrieval system to overcome this human-computer interface difficulty. Our system modifies its responses according to the user's evolving mental state. The system makes inferences about the users' subject knowledge based on their response to information it presents. This also allows the users' requests to be more quickly focused and effective. The system proposed in this article is implemented by using the neural network technique, and the user's query is represented by the activation pattern over the neural network.
An Image Technology Expert System and Its Application to Design Consultation BIBA 267-279
  Mitsuo Nagamachi
Our concern is to construct an expert system that is able to deal with human image or feeling and to translate them into representations of real design elements. The Image Technology Expert System (ITES) consists of a system controller, a knowledge base, a working memory, a graphic module, and three databases. One of these databases, the Image Technology database, maintains an ergonomic knowledge concerning human image. The system is able to display a picture on a CRT fitting the human image which is decided by an inference engine of the expert system.
Reconsidering Engineering Efficiency from the Viewpoint of the Disabled: The Final Report of the Research and Development Group on Handicapped Ergonomics (R&DGHE) BIBA 281-293
  Kazuo Tsuchiya
This article presents a new point of view for human-computer interaction for both ergonomics and more general engineering applications. The debut of personal computers has benefited scientific researchers greatly, but software design has not been able to keep up with hardware improvements, making the use of computers sometimes difficult. This is especially true for the handicapped, who find that computers have not impacted their quality of life as strongly as they have for the general population. This is described in terms of engineering efficiency and corporate enterprise. A countermeasure for rehabilitation of the handicapped is also discussed. A proposal that is intended to equalize quality of life across all people is presented, Heartware.
Ergonomic Study of Automatic Teller Machine Operability BIBA 295-309
  Kazutoshi Hatta; Yuji Iiyama
In recent years, the most favorable interaction between information systems and people has drawn deep interest. An experimental study was conducted on the adaptation of computer-based communication to people at the automatic teller machines (ATMs) that are used by the general public. Forty-two subjects (24 young people, 6 housewives, and 12 elderly people) operated an automatic teller machine in the experiments.
Basic Study of the VRT (Visual Reaction Test): The Effects of Illumination and Luminance BIBA 311-316
  Kazuo Saito; Toshiyuki Hosokawa
The effects of illumination intensity and luminance of a CRT, part of a VRT apparatus, on VRT values were examined. Subjects were 11 males. The VRT values, a CFF value, near point of convergence for fatigue measurement, and pupil diameter of both eyes for dark adaptation were measured.
  • 1. The pupil diameter significantly decreased as the illumination intensity
  • 2. There were no significant differences in CFF value and near point of
  • 3. VRT values changed significantly with the luminance of the CRT, but did not
        show significant changes with regard to illumination intensity.
  • 4. It was found that VRT values are not affected by the illumination intensity
        of a room when the CRT luminance is held constant.
  • Book Review

    "Computer-Aided Ergonomics," edited by W. Karwowski, A. M. Genaidy, & S. S. Asfout BIB 317-318
      Gary L. Macomber

    IJHCI 1991 Volume 3 Issue 4


    Job Stress and Human-Computer Interaction BIB iii-iv
      Steven L. Sauter


    The Potential Contribution of Information Technology to the Mental Ill Health, Job Dissatisfaction, and Alcohol Intake of Money Market Dealers: An Exploratory Study BIBA 321-338
      Howard Kahn; Cary L. Cooper
    This study explored the potential contribution to the outcomes of mental ill health (specifically, free-floating and somatic anxiety, and depression), job dissatisfaction, and alcohol intake, of the information technology systems used by dealers (i.e., traders in currency, gilts, swaps, bonds, etc.) working in the City of London. Some 225 dealers completed questionnaires providing data on the independent variables of job-related stressors, stress-coping methods, coronary-prone (Type A) behavior, locus of control, personality, and demographic and biographic factors, and on the dependent variables of free-floating and somatic anxiety, depression, job satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. The job-related stressors included six items associated with the computer systems that are basic to the work of dealers. Factor analysis of the job-related stressors produced a technology-related factor. Multivariate analyses showed that this factor was a negative predictor only of free-floating anxiety. It was concluded that the stress attributable to the information technology systems used by dealers appeared to have little effect upon the stress outcomes examined. Limitations of the study and proposals for future research were included.
    Well-Being and Computer-Mediated Work of Various Occupational Groups in Banking and Insurance BIBA 339-361
      Kari Lindstrom
    The association of VDT use, job demands, and job characteristics with the well-being of banking and insurance employees was studied in a group of 1,124 employees. Special attention was devoted to the differences among 4 occupational subgroups: customer service employees, office employees, ADP experts, and managers and supervisors. The data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Questions on subjective symptoms, job demands, and job characteristics were factor analyzed separately for various content areas, and sum scales were formed. The occupational subgroups differed quite clearly according to job demands and characteristics. Customer service employees and office employees had, in general, less control over their work situation than managers and supervisors.
       The characteristics of VDT use and the job explained 10-30% of the variance of the subjective symptoms. Difficulty of the tasks was one of the main predictors for all symptoms. Unspecific somatic symptoms were directly related mostly to the amount of VDT work and various problems involved in it, especially among office employees without customer contacts. Psychic symptoms and fatigue, and lack of competence were related clearly to unsatisfactory mastery of VDT applications for groups other than ADP experts. It was concluded that the qualification level of one's occupation determines which job characteristics and VDT work characteristics were critical to well-being.
    Working Conditions and Mental Strain of Automation Personnel BIBA 363-373
      Frank Andries; Catrien C. J. H. Bijleveld; Frank D. Pot
    In 1989 a questionnaire was administered to approximately 3,000 persons employed in the automation sector in the Netherlands. The aim of this enquiry was to make an inventory of possible stressful aspects in the career and working conditions of automation personnel. Using multiple correspondence analysis, risk factors and occupations at risk were identified. It appears that middle-management occupations are at risk concerning stress; occupations in lower management and teachering seem to be at risk concerning career prospects.
    Experimental Comparison of CAD Systems by Stressor Variables BIBA 375-405
      Johannes Springer; Thomas Langner; Holger Luczak; Wolfgang Beitz
    The report is based on a study of various CAD systems used in eight different departments of mechanical engineering. The study aims at comparing the applications of CAD systems by different stressor variables (design task, design/operation characteristics of the CAD system, environmental variables) and their effect on the strain of the designer measured by the psychophysiological and psychophysical data. In both single and multiple experiments, continuous measurements of psychophysiological parameters (strain measurements) can be correlated to different stress situations in the various phases of the design process and/or operation of the CAD system. As a result, different strain reactions are registered depending on the type of CAD system used and on the respective design phases.