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IJHCI Tables of Contents: 010203040506070809101112

International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 2

Editors:Gavriel Salvendy
Dates:1990
Volume:2
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Papers:23
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 1990 Volume 2 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 1990 Volume 2 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 1990 Volume 2 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 1990 Volume 2 Issue 4

IJHCI 1990 Volume 2 Issue 1

Articles

Integrating Social and Cognitive Factors in Design of Human-Computer Interactive Communication BIBA 1-27
  Ray E. Eberts; Ann Majchrzak; Pamela Payne; Gavriel Salvendy
The effects of two social variables, job enrichment and individual/group efforts, on the cognitive processing of a text-editing task, are examined experimentally. By analyzing the keystrokes and the pauses between keystrokes, methods are developed to examine cognitive performance on the task by investigating the hierarchical structure of the cognitive goals, by classifying the cognitive strategies used by the subjects in the task, and by determining a measure of the cognitive efficiency of the goal structure. Differences occurred in cognitive performance based upon job enrichment. Individuals in an unenriched job environment showed no evidence of understanding the cognitive strategies of the other group member in the two-member group so that cognitive performance did not improve with group experience, dissimilarity of cognitive strategies within a group did not affect the time to perform the task in a group, and the overall group strategy was dependent only on the strategy of the typist in the text-editing task. On the other hand, in an enriched job environment, the individual group members apparently communicated cognitive strategy information to the other group member because cognitive efficiency increased with experience in the group, dissimilarity or dispersion of cognitive strategies of individual group members caused the pause times between keystrokes to be increased, the more cognitive strategies in which the group members were exposed the more cognitively efficient was the group strategy, and job satisfaction was dependent upon the similarity of the two group members' cognitive strategies. These results were discussed in terms of the impact of human-human interaction on specifying the conditions of human-computer interaction tasks.
Acceptable Muscle Load on the Neck and Shoulder Regions Assessed in Relation to the Incidence of Musculoskeletal Sick Leave: Implications for Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 29-39
  Arne Aaras
A threshold level for acceptable load on the musculoskeletal system of the neck and shoulder regions was explored by studying comparable groups of female workers with different development of musculoskeletal sick leave in these areas. The load on the neck and shoulder was assessed by recording electromyography (EMG) from m. trapezius (descending part). The quantitative analysis of the trapezius load was carried out by calculating the number and total duration of periods below 5% MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction), 8% MVC, and 10% MVC. To relate acceptable musculoskeletal load to health criteria such as acceptable limits for development of musculoskeletal illness in a group of workers, the incidence of musculoskeletal illness for the comparable groups was also compared with a control group of female workers without a continuous work load. Two groups of workers had a development of musculoskeletal sick leave, which was approximately the same as the incidence of such illness for the control group. The trapezius load for these groups was below 5% MVC for about 40% of the working time. By comparing the group of workers with different development of musculoskeletal sick leave, the trapezius load differed only for load levels below 5% MVC; increasing duration of load levels below 5% MVC was associated with lower incidence of musculoskeletal sick leave. The results indicated that trapezius load below 5% MVC was important to reduce the incidence of load-related musculoskeletal illness.
The Design Strategies of Chinese Information Display in Supervisory Control Systems BIBA 41-50
  Sheue-Ling Hwang; Min-Yang Wang; Chih-Chin Her; Dung-Ming Wu; Cheng-Dow Hwang
A queueing theory was employed to model Chinese information processing in a supervisory system. The objective of this study was to verify the learning effect on the change of system design limit developed from a previous study. The main factors in the design of information display were information category and the number of conditions per category. The dependent variables were response time, waiting time, utilization, and number of errors. In this experiment, a number of information categories was a repeated measure. The results indicated that learning effects could overcome the original design limit point.
Learning Second and Subsequent Programming Languages: A Problem of Transfer BIBA 51-72
  Jean Scholtz; Susan Wiedenbeck
Learning second and subsequent programming languages is easier than learning a first programming language because many concepts and constructs are shared. However, it is still a hard task. In this protocol analysis of moderately experienced programmers transferring to a new programming language, we classified episodes by whether they involved the syntactic, semantic, or planning level of programming knowledge. We discovered that most episodes involve planning and that in solving a given subproblem there are typically many cycles of language-independent tactical planning followed by language dependent implementation planning. On the other hand, programmers have relatively minor problems with the syntax and semantics of a new language. Our subjects' protocols and their final programs revealed that the plans they develop are strongly influenced by their knowledge of what would be convenient and appropriate in other languages they know. This prevents them from taking full advantage of the capabilities of the new language.

A Personal Perspective

Future Directions for Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 73-90
  Ben Shneiderman
This article offers a set of goals for user interface development, followed by scenarios of future developments. The applications include home control, hypermedia, office automation, digital photography, collaborative meetings/classrooms, public access, professional workstations, and medical record keeping. Also, predictions are made for some of the underlying technologies such as User Interface Management Systems, remote control, flexible search, display devices, and touchscreens.

IJHCI 1990 Volume 2 Issue 2

Articles

Ecological Interfaces: A Technological Imperative in High-Tech Systems? BIBA 93-110
  Jens Rasmussen; Kim J. Vicente
The topic of the present article is the design of ecological interfaces for advanced technological systems. Ecological interfaces are characteristic by representing the interior functional structures and states of a system in the human-machine interface in a way that matches the immediate task and the cognitive characteristics of the user. It is argued that the present trend in technological development towards large, complex and rapidly changing socio-technical systems makes these kinds of interfaces important for system reliability and safety.
Evaluation of a Compact CAD Course in Laboratory Experiments BIBA 111-135
  Wolfgang Beitz; Thomas Langner; Holger Luczak; Thomas Muller; Johannes Springer
With the increasing deployment of CAD, the necessity of instructing employees in the use of such systems grows; short training periods are desirable. The authors developed a compact course of 40-hour's duration in which 32 individuals (engineering students) were instructed on a 2-dimensional CAD system; a subsequent investigation of the achievements of the course was made with the use of laboratory experiments. In qualitative and quantitative respects the performance achieved using CAD during a drawing task was lower than that attained by the same individuals at the drawing board. A compact course of the described extent can only be the basis for self-instruction. Interrelations between the quality of the results and the method of work exist. With regard to the performance, the variance among individuals was distinctly higher at the CAD terminal than at the drawing board. A prediction concerning the achievements of the course drawn from the performance at the drawing board, especially when based on quantitative achievements, is problematic.
Use and Non-Use of VDTs -- Organization of Terminal Work: Research Findings from Swedish Cross-Site Studies in the Field of Office Automation BIBA 137-151
  Gunnela Westlander
In occupational health research, the impact of Visual Display Terminal (VDT) use has frequently been analyzed on the basis of the amount of work involved. There are difficulties in comparing studies because of the variety of time dimensions chosen (frequency of use, total amount per day or week, length of working periods). Also, much earlier research has sought out the time dimension with the greatest predictive power in terms of health consequences. As a single time dimension does not indicate or represent the "real situation" of the worker, the author proposes a complex assessment method based on all three time dimensions. The method was tried out in a questionnaire study of 269 office workers from a total of 8 workplaces. Through cross-site analyses it was possible to identify the pattern of division of VDT work and compare the workplaces in terms of their VDT work organizations. Clear differences between workplaces were revealed by the multivariate measure. The next step was to explore how subjective evaluation was related to actual time spent. Fewer satisfied people were found in the more intensive VDT jobs. However, individual differences were clearer. A relativity measure ("acceptable" working periods in relation to "actual" working periods) appeared to be a more reliable indicator. When "time spent" subcategories were related to psychosocial experience of terminal work, only a weak relationship was detected. It is among those VDT users who have the most intensive VDT work that we find those very few persons who obtain strong psychosocial rewards specifically from VDT tasks. It is concluded that the multivariate assessment of VDT work used in organizational analysis has greater validity as a measure of the individual worker's amount of VDT work. The most striking feature that emerged was the extent of individual differences in psychological reactions to amount of VDT work.
Potentially Important Factors in the Success of Microcomputers in Small and Medium-Sized Colombian Firms: An Exploratory Study BIBA 153-172
  Mary C. McEniry
Few studies have been reported in the developing world that examine the use of microcomputers among small and medium-sized industrial firms. This article presents the results of an 18-month study that was conducted among small and medium-sized manufacturing firms in Colombia. The purpose of the study was to identify potentially important factors in the successful use of microcomputers in the administrative area of these firms. Working with a group of Colombian experts, data were collected in 31 Colombian firms that were using microcomputers. An initial exploratory analysis using stepwise regression was performed on data using 13 success factors. The results identified top management attitude, support, and top management expectations as potentially important factors associated with the success of microcomputers. The results suggest that even in a developing world setting dependent on technical expertise, managerial factors are more important in the success of computers than are technical factors. Given the potential importance of microcomputers to industrial growth in the developing world and the impact of these economies in the industrialized world, the need for a confirmatory study on a larger sample of firms is called for.

A Personal Perspective

Public Uses of Information Systems: Principles for Design and Application BIB 173-181
  Lewis M. Branscomb

IJHCI 1990 Volume 2 Issue 3

Articles

Dominant Wavelength and Stimulus Purity for VDT Display Color in Terms of Readability BIBA 185-201
  Shin'ichi Fukuzumi; Yoshio Hayashi
This study was conducted to clarify complex relationships between VDT (Visual Display Terminal) display color subjective readability and dominant wavelength, and between the subjective readability and stimulus purity. In this study, readability was defined to be such that a human could read sentences on a VDT screen. Twelve men and eight women, who were all Japanese and had normal color vision, participated in three experiments. During all the experiments, the vertical illuminances on the screen were 700 Lux and 300 Lux. Contrasts were 3.1:1 and 4.2:1 under 700 Lux and 300 Lux, respectively. In the first experiment, 25 kinds of screen were used, there were 23 different colors and white shown on a black background screen (negative screen), and black shown on a white background screen (positive screen). The colors had six dominant wavelengths, ranging from 460nm to 606 nm, whose stimulus purities involved three, four, or five levels for each wavelength. In the second experiment, three levels of stimulus purity for two dominant wavelength, 480 nm and 520 nm, were added to the first experiment's colors. A total of 31 different colors were examined by a paired comparisons method. In the third experiment, subjects were required to complete a questionnaire about the impression of the colors.
   The major result of the subjective evaluation was the identification of a most easily readable stimulus purity for each dominant wavelength, independently from different illuminance values. A difference between men and women was noted. Women's scores regarding higher stimulus purities than the optimal values were severely lower, while men's did not decrease notably. Middle dominant wavelengths, ranging from 503 nm to 566 nm, had similar evaluation values under the two illuminances. By applying a factor analysis to the questionnaire, a 'Conspicuous factor' that mainly relates to conspicuousness and strength, and an 'Uncomfortable factor' that mainly relates to tiredness and irritation, were extracted. VDT display color was found to be evaluated by these two factors.
Organizing Human Factors Knowledge for the Evaluation and Design of Interfaces BIBA 203-229
  D. L. Scapin
This paper presents research conducted in the area of human factors knowledge collection and organization. Providing that a large amount of human factors engineering data is available now concerning user interface aspects, this research started from the following question: Can this knowledge be transferred to user interface designers, and by which means can this be done? An important part of human factors knowledge is included in recommendations and guidelines. It is the problems with that type of knowledge that this paper focuses on. A first attempt to tackle some of these problems is made by offering a generic model for deciphering recommendations into rules. This model stresses the importance of attributes such as human factors criteria, classes of premises, and conclusions, as well as interface objects. Definitions of criteria for organizing recommendations are offered, and a few examples of rule-based reasoning are provided. The remaining problems with a rule approach are then discussed according to two dimensions: intrinsic problems and usage problems. In addition, it appears that an approach based on literature recommendations is not sufficient. Other areas that need further work are described, particularly concerning task and interface modelling, and human factors expertise modelling. The paper concludes on the limits and benefits of such an approach.
Measurements of Computer Satisfaction, Literacy, and Aptitudes: A Review BIBA 231-253
  Mary J. LaLomia; Joseph B. Sidowski
This paper presents a review and discussion of scales and questionnaires developed to assess various user satisfaction attitudes towards computers and computer literacy, skills, and aptitudes. The scales are grouped into two general areas: user satisfaction with computer systems, and computer literacy and aptitude. The reviews include descriptions of each scale, scale development procedures, and reliability and validity testing. Also included are presentations of the research questions examined through the use of particular scales. A summary discussion compares reliability and validity testing on the various scales within each of the two areas of computer assessment. Finally, general problems associated with the reliability and validity testing of the reviewed computer assessment scales are discussed along with an assessment of future directions of computer satisfaction, literacy, aptitude, and skills research.
The Effect of Screen Complexity on User Preference and Performance BIBA 255-265
  Richard Coll; John Carl, III Wingertsman
This article presents a two-experiment series that strongly supports the hypothesis that user preference for interactive screens and performance using interactive is related to screen complexity. The relationship follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with too little or too much complexity depressing preference and performance. The implication for interactive systems designers is that while a clear screen is a necessary condition for user satisfaction, it is not a sufficient one; the appropriate level of screen complexity must also be considered.
An Adaptive Document Retrieval System Using a Neural Network BIBA 267-280
  Hirohiko Mori; Cheng Long Chung; Yousuke Kinoe; Yoshio Hayashi
Current document retrieval systems based on keyword retrieval have many problems with regard to human-computer interaction. This paper focuses on three of them: (a) Not only the inputed keywords but also their relations have much important information as a representation of his query, though the system ignores the relations and uses them as indices of documents. (b) As a word can be understood in various ways by different people, one query can represent as various sets of keywords. (c) A user who does not have enough knowledge about his target field may fail to represent his query as a set of the keywords. A document retrieval system that overcomes these drawbacks is presented. The system has three major characteristics corresponding to the above problems: (a) It can extract the feature between keywords by representing the user's query as an activation pattern over a neural network, and retrieve documents by considering the relation between the inputted keywords. (b) It can be adapted to each user, and specify each user's query. (c) It is cooperative: Through a dialogue with a computer, a user can receive information that may help to make his query more specific, and the system can thereby improve the retrieved results.
   A user, even if he has little knowledge about his target, starts the retrieval process by inputting keywords that occur to him. Then, through a dialogue between the system, which presents the information, and the user, who evaluates this information, the system adapts to the user, and his query becomes more apparent. Finally, the system presents documents and keywords appropriate for each user's query.

Book Reviews

"Information Technology: Agent of Change," by Murray Laver BIB 281-282
  David C. Gibson
"Cambridge Series on Human Computer Interaction 1: Cognitive Ergonomics and Human-Computer Interaction," edited by John Long and Andy Whitefield BIB 283-284
  Chaya Garg-Janardan

IJHCI 1990 Volume 2 Issue 4

Articles

A Framework for Development of Fuzzy GOMS Model for Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 287-305
  Waldemar Karwowski; Eric Kosiba; Salah Benabdallah; Gavriel Salvendy
The objective of this study was to examine usefulness of fuzzy methodologies in the analysis and design of human-computer interaction. A framework for generalization of the Goals-Operators-Methods-Selection Rules (GOMS) model, and its fuzzy version was proposed. An experimental verification of the fuzzy GOMS model was also provided. A total of six subjects participated in two laboratory experiments. These experiments were performed in order to validate the proposed fuzzy GOMS model for the text editing task described in information processing terms. The subjects were not familiar with the text files to be edited, and the task was performed from the subject's own office and desk. All subjects were familiar with and regularly used the VI screen editor. The experiments consisted of the following steps: (1) the subject performed a familiar text editing task using a screen editor (VI); (2) the methods by which the subject achieved his goals (word location) as well as selection rules were elicited; (3) several compatibility functions for fuzzy terms used by the subject were derived; and (4) once all the rules, methods, and corresponding membership functions have been elicited, the theory of possibility was used to model the expert's rule selection process. For this purpose, each of the potential rules was assigned a possibility measure equal to the membership value(s) derived during the elicitation phase of experiment. Finally, the selected methods were compared to nonfuzzy predictions and actual experimental data. It was shown that overall, across all subjects and trials of the main editing task, the fuzzy-based GOMS model predicted significantly more of the subject responses, than did the non-fuzzy GOMS model.
Identifying and Interpreting Design Errors BIBA 307-332
  Paul A. Booth
The central aim of this paper is to address the question of how best to consider the errors that occur during interaction. A distinction is drawn between human errors and user-system errors, where the first is an error within one cognitive system and the other an error between two cognitive systems. A further distinction is then made between different types of user-system error: mapping mismatches, and incongruity mismatches. Following this, a classification scheme (an Evaluative Classification of Mismatch, or ECM) for analyzing user-system errors is defined, and a study into its usability is reported. The study was conducted at Hewlett Packard's Office Product Division, at Pinewood, Wokingham, UK, and involved trailing the scheme with a design team. The result of the study suggest that the ECM scheme is usable, with 98.5% of problems being classified, and designers reporting positive views on the scheme. Moreover, there was a high level of agreement between the different members of the design team as to the classification of each problem.
Hypertext Functionality: A Theoretical Framework BIBA 333-357
  Usha Rao; Murray Turoff
This article presents a theoretical framework useful for understanding the functionality of Hypertext systems in terms of their ability to satisfy cognitive requirements for expressing concepts and their relationships. This theoretical framework is derived from a re-interpretation of Guilford's theory of the Structure of Intellect.
Using Protocol Analyses and Drawings to Study Mental Model Construction During Hypertext Navigation BIBA 359-377
  Susan H. Gray
This study used protocol analyses and user drawings of their models of the system to investigate the 'getting lost' problem in hypertext navigation. The "getting lost" problem is viewed as occurring when routine expectations of naive users, concerning appropriate linear sequences, are violated. Several ways in which users persistently attempt to work within a linear model, despite its inapplicability, are examined. The transition to more hierarchical user models is described.

Book Reviews

"Theories and Technologies of the Knowledge Society," edited by Niels Ole Finnemann BIB 379
  Leslie Whitaker
"The X Window System: Programming and Applications with Xt, OSF/Motif Edition," by D. A. Young BIB 380-381
  Jack Posey