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IJHCI Tables of Contents: 0102030405060708091011

International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 1

Editors:Gavriel Salvendy
Dates:1989
Volume:1
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Papers:12
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 1989 Volume 1 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 1989 Volume 1 Issue 2

IJHCI 1989 Volume 1 Issue 1

Editorial BIB 1-3
  Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy

Articles

Lost in Computer Space BIBA 5-21
  David Meister
This paper reviews the difficulties commonly experienced by non-professional computer users and the remedies proposed for these problems.
System Response Time and Method of Pay: Stress Effects in Computer-Based Tasks BIBA 23-39
  Lawrence M. Schleifer; Benjamin C., III Amick
The effects of computer system response time (slow vs. rapid) and method of pay (incentive vs. nonincentive) on mood disturbances and somatic discomfort were evaluated in a computer-based data entry task among 45 professional typists. Self-ratings of mood disturbances and somatic discomfort were taken at regular intervals over four consecutive workdays. Regardless of method of pay, slow response time generated higher ratings of frustration and impatience than did rapid response time. In addition, ratings of rush and tension were higher with incentive pay than without incentive pay, regardless of system response time. Mood disturbances and somatic discomfort increased linearly with the amount of time spent performing the data entry task over the course of the workday. This effect was independent of system response time or method of pay. However, scheduled rest and lunch breaks moderated these cumulative increases in mood disturbances and somatic discomfort. The results indicate that computer systems which incorporate features such as rapid response times reduce work stress, while the motivational advantages of computer-based incentive pay programs must be balanced against the stress effects of this method of pay.
An Experimental Evaluation of Three Touch Screen Strategies within a Hypertext Database BIBA 41-52
  Richard Potter; Mitchell Berman; Ben Shneiderman
High resolution touch screens and novel usage strategies have overcome earlier problems with parallax and inaccurate pointing. A study testing the utility of three touch screen strategies within the Hyperties hypertext environment was performed. This provided a replication and extension of an earlier touch screen strategy comparison that focused on small closely-spaced targets. The experiment compared three touch screen strategies in three experimental tasks that reflect hypertext usage. The results showed that a strategy that only uses the initial impact with the touch screen causes the user to miss the target more than other touch strategies. A statistically significant difference in errors was found. Our results should encourage system implementers and touch screen hardware designers to support "touch mouse" strategies that enable cursor dragging on the touch screen surface.
The Effects of Withholding Information about Implementation Details on the Design of a Human-Computer Interface BIBA 53-67
  Albert N. Badre; C. Ray Russell
System design tasks can be solved using instruction and data items at various levels of detail (levels of abstraction) ranging from binary code to application level instructions. The research presented here explores the effect of providing a designer with varying levels of detail about system implementation on the quality of a resulting human-interface design.
   First, a model of the relationship between knowledge of lower levels of abstraction and design quality is described. Next the results of an experiment (involving the design of a human-computer interface) which examines some aspects of this model are presented. Finally, the relevance and implication of the results are discussed.
A Study of Human Performance in Computer-Aided Architectural Design BIBA 69-107
  Donna L. Cuomo; Joseph Sharit
This paper describes the development and application of a cognitively-based performance methodology for assessing human performance on computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) tasks. Two CAAD tasks were employed that were hypothesized to be different in terms of the underlying cognitive processes required for these tasks to be performed. Methods of manipulating task complexity within each of these tasks were then developed. Six architectural graduate students were trained on a commercially available CAAD system. Each student performed the two experimental design tasks at one of three levels of complexity. The data collected included protocols, video recordings of the computer screen, and an interactive script (time-stamped record of every command input and the computers textual response). Performance measures and methods of analysis were developed which reflected the cognitive processes used by the human during design (including problem-solving techniques, planning times, heuristics employed, etc.) and the role of the computer as a design aid. The analysis techniques used included graphical techniques, Markov process analysis, protocol analysis, and error classification and analysis. The results of the study indicated that some measures more directly reflected human design activity while others more directly reflected the efficiency of interaction between the computer and the the human. The discussion of the results focuses primarily on the usefulness of the tasks employed including methods for manipulating task complexity, and the effectiveness of this system as well as CAAD systems in general for aiding human design processes.

A Personal Perspective

An Iconoclastic View Beyond the Desktop Metaphor BIB 109-113
  Nicholas Negroponte

IJHCI 1989 Volume 1 Issue 2

Articles

Luminance and Stimulus Purity of VDT Display Color in Terms of Readability BIBA 115-135
  Shin'ichi Fukuzumi; Yoshio Hayashi
A study was undertaken to investigate the relation among luminance, stimulus purity, and Visual Display Terminal (VDT) display color readability and to clarify the relation between readability and color impression. Four levels of stimulus purity for orange, five levels for green, and five for blue, and white and black were examined by a paired comparison method and a questionnaire regarding impression observed for the colors under two levels of illuminance and three levels of luminance. Questionnaire replies indicated that each color had an optimal stimulus purity, in terms of readability, which was from 0.2 to 0.5, independently from illuminance and luminance. Men's readability scores for higher stimulus purities than the optimal value, did notably decrease, while women's scores were severely lower than the optimal value. In cases of short dominant wavelength, readability was higher under low luminance than under other luminances. By applying the Semantic Differential method to answers to the questionnaire, "Conspicuous factor" and "Uncomfortable factor" were extracted, which were closely related to color readability.
What Do Users Really Want? BIBAK 137-147
  Jakob Nielsen
A group of users in Copenhagen were asked to evaluate how important a number of user interface characteristics were for them. The results show high importance of efficient daily use and of possibilities for exploratory learning while tutorial materials were of less importance. Users also were asked to evaluate four usability aspects of a number of popular programs. Results show that the quality pleasant to work with has the largest impact on evaluations of overall user-friendliness while users seem able to view usability independently from the number of features in an application.
Keywords: Subjective human factors, User survey, Definition of usability
Contribution of Display Size to Speech Intelligibility in Videophone Systems BIBA 149-159
  Olov Ostberg; Bjorn Lindstrom; Per-Olof Renhall
Widespread use of videophones has been limited due to cost factors and human factors. If demands for image size and quality were relaxed while preserving the communicational value added by visual data, low end videophones may become feasible. After a review of pertinent research, we describe an experiment indicating modest visual augmentation significantly aids speech intelligibility. The results suggest several directions for further research.
A Knowledge-Based Software Environment (KBSE) for Designing Concurrent Processes BIBA 161-185
  P. C.-Y. Sheu; S. Yoo
In this paper, we describe a knowledge-based software environment (KBSE) which supports concurrent programming based on the framework of object-oriented knowledge base. The object-oriented knowledge base framework combines an object data model with the logic programming paradigm. In KBSE, the user can describe a concurrent process with a set of (sequential) flowcharts and a set of coordination constraints and integrity constraints specified in a high level description language. The description is then synthesized into a Petri net representation. With the Petri net representation, existing analysis tools for Petri net can be fully utilized to assist the design and analysis of concurrent processes.
Monitoring Speech Recognizer Feedback During Data Entry from Short-Term Memory: A Working Memory Analysis BIBA 187-209
  Dylan M. Jones; Kevin Hapeshi
Subjects recalled items from short-term memory by speaking into a speech recognizer. Two experiments examined effects of the type of feedback provided by the device during this data entry task. Three types of feedback were compared, varying in: modality, either auditory or visual; timing, either concurrent or terminal, and specificity, either verbal or nonverbal. Recognizer performance was better with concurrent feedback than with terminal feedback and better with nonverbal feedback than with verbal feedback. In terms of the efficiency of memory (the number of errors and the rate of data throughput), performance was more impaired by concurrent verbal feedback than by nonverbal feedback. Two main functional features of feedback in automatic speech recognition were identified: (1) degree of similarity between the feedback and the phonologically-coded information held in short-term memory, which pointed to the dangers of spoken feedback and to a lesser extent the use of verbal visual feedback, and (2) the extent to which prompting is required to establish the timeliness of data input, a feature which is especially important with isolated-word speech recognition.