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ICIC Tables of Contents: 0709101214

Proceedings of the 2009 International Workshop on Intercultural Collaboration

Fullname:IWIC'09: 2nd International Workshop on Intercultural Collaboration
Editors:Susan Fussell; Pamela Hinds; Toru Ishida
Location:Palo Alto, California
Dates:2009-Feb-20 to 2009-Feb-21
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-60558-502-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ICIC09
Papers:57
Pages:330
Links:Conference Website
  1. Intercultural community-based organizing
  2. Translation & translation repair
  3. Working on intercultural teams
  4. Models of intercultural collaboration
  5. Systems to support intercultural activities
  6. Computer mediated technology for global collaboration
  7. Late breaking papers session 1
  8. Late breaking papers session 2
The social self and the social brain: a perspective of cultural neuroscience BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Shinobu Kitayama
Social and behavioral sciences have long conceived the human mind as an autonomous computational machine. However, recent developments in several fields of research including socio-cultural psychology, evolutionary psychology, and neuroscience among others have converged to suggest that the human mind -- with all neural mechanisms underlying it -- is biologically prepared and, yet, it is fully shaped by, and thus can only be completed by, each person's active participation in the symbolic world of culture. In my presentation, evidence for this thesis is reviewed to suggest that the human agency (the self) and the neuronal component processes constituting the self (the brain) are socio-culturally conditioned and, as such, they can show remarkable different characteristics depending on the socio-cultural environments in which they are engaged. This new, more expanded view of personhood offers important implications for intercultural collaboration.

Intercultural community-based organizing

Expanding a country's borders during war: the internet war diary BIBAFull-Text 3-12
  Gloria Mark; Bryan Semaan
Citizen journalism has changed the nature of how news is disseminated about local and global events. We conducted an ethnographic study of a particular kind of citizen journalism: the use of war diaries on the Internet. These diaries were targeted to an audience outside of the informants' countries and cultures. We found that people wrote war diaries to reach out to people who were in environments not in a war as a way of sensemaking, for impression management, and to be participants in the social production of news and opinions about the war. We discuss how the use of a "war diary" as a public narrative empowered our informants and how they contributed to the social interpretation of their culture during war. Through the Internet war diary, people can communicate news beyond the physical boundaries of their country providing benefits to producers of the information as well as the consumers.
Collaborative platform for multicultural herbal information creation BIBAFull-Text 13-22
  Verayuth Lertnattee; Kergrit Robkob; Virach Sornlertlamvanich
Traditional knowledge about herbal medicine can be contributed from several cultures. With conventional techniques, it is hard to find a way in which experts can build a self-sustainable community for exchanging their knowledge. To alleviate the problem of gathering intellectual herbal information based on different cultures, the Knowledge Unifying Initiator for Herbal Information (KUIHerb) is used as a platform for building a web community for collecting the intercultural herbal knowledge. KUIHerb provides a capability for the expression of information about images, local names, parts used, indications, methods for preparation, precautions including toxicity and additional information. In cases where multiple opinions are provided, the popular vote will select the most preferable term, used in the community. Herb identification, herbal vocabulary, a list of experts in herbal medicine and multicultural knowledge can be collected from this system.
The social and communication networks of a grassroots organization in Kibera, Kenya BIBAFull-Text 23-32
  Wojciech Gryc
Shining Hope for the Community (SHOFCO) is a community-based organization in Kibera, Kenya focused on improving the lives of youth in the slum through grassroots, bottom-up initiatives. It is a unique organization in that it was founded and grew from within the slum, without any initiation from external organizations or institutions. Since its founding, SHOFCO has obtained a great deal of support from urban groups in Kenya, as well as individual supporters and small organizations in Europe and North America. Following interviews and observations of SHOFCO, this paper provides an overview of the social and communication network structures that have shaped the organization and have led to its growth and success. It is argued that other organizations can increase the likelihood of their own success through use of similar communication structures as those of SHOFCO with its international supporters and other groups in Kibera, as well as mimicking SHOFCO's focus on network heterogeneity.

Translation & translation repair

Effects of undertaking translation repair using back translation BIBAFull-Text 33-40
  Mai Miyabe; Takashi Yoshino; Tomohiro Shigenobu
Translation repair plays an important role in intercultural communication that involves machine translation. It can be used to create messages that have very few translation mistakes. The accuracy of the results of translation repair when an original sentence is rewritten has not yet been evaluated. The improvement brought about by translation repair has to be demonstrated in order to apply translation repair to multilingual communication. Therefore, we have evaluated the translation repair of Japanese-English, Japanese-Chinese, and Japanese-Korean translations using back translation. We have used test sentences with a character count ranging from 15 to 32. On the basis of these evaluation experiments, we have estimated the accuracy and the cost of translation repair. (1) After nearly six rounds of translation repair work in three languages, the average translation accuracy of the sentences used in the experiment was improved (the meaning of the translated sentences was almost the same as that of the original sentences). In the experiment, 65% of the sentences were improved to the level of highly accurate. Moreover, 99% of the sentences were improved to the level of moderately accurate. 2) The cost of repairing a sentence depended on the number of translation-difficult words or phrases that were contained in the sentence. When the quality of a translation was low, finding the word or phrase to be modified was a difficult task. Thus, the cost corresponded to the quality of the translation.
The web as a platform to build machine translation resources BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Narjes Sharif Razavian; Stephan Vogel
In the last few years, the World Wide Web has changed tremendously. Now accessible to millions of users from hundreds of countries, it has started to show new online behaviors. Following the new patterns we now see many multilingual activities going on in large scales. In this paper, we provide an analysis on how this emerging usage patterns can affect the Machine Translation community. We identify the main motivations behind these activity patterns. Using examples we compare the traditional approaches to resource collection to new online-based approaches. We then present our experimental results of an online community designed to collect parallel corpora.
Japan, moving towards becoming a multi-cultural society, and the way of disseminating multilingual disaster information to non-Japanese speakers BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Kumi Sato; Kohei Okamoto; Masaru Miyao
Japan is moving towards becoming a multi-cultural society with the increasing number of foreign residents, with a background of the ageing Japanese population and low-birth rate. We discuss the present situation of the level and type of information provided to non-Japanese speakers, and then introduce the Multilingual Disaster Information System to translate a range of information on natural disasters quickly and accurately into multiple languages, which the authors of this paper have developed as members of the Multilingual Disaster Information System Consortium. We present details on how our proposed language service could service the foreign population in Japan.

Working on intercultural teams

Immigrant managers as boundary spanners on offshored software development projects: partners or bosses? BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Natalia Levina; Aimee A. Kane
A growing trend to source complex software development projects to lower-cost (offshore) locations has created a need for effective collaboration across cultural boundaries. One way of addressing this need in practice has been to nominate onshore immigrants to manage projects being sourced to the immigrant's country of origin. The assumption is that these managers will enable effective collaboration by drawing on their dual identity. We report findings of a qualitative study involving offshore software providers and onshore project managers (both immigrant and non-immigrant) investigating consequences of this practice. We then use social identity theory to explain our findings.
Who shouts louder?: exerting power across distance and culture BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  Niina Nurmi; Petra Bosch-Sijtsema; Anu Sivunen; Renate Fruchter
Despite the increasing attention to multi-cultural collaboration, power in global distributed teams is hardly discussed in research. We used a qualitative, interpretive research method to study four multi-cultural teams from three globally distributed companies in the electronics and software industry in Asia, US, and Europe. Geographic distance hindered remote leaders' power and achieving task compliance by creating competing lines of authority and diminishing visibility and awareness of team conditions. Cultural distance between leaders and team members challenged leaders in adapting leadership behavior according to cultural differences. Cultural awareness and language skills both in lingua franca and local language increased the power of remote leaders.
Leaders and followers in multi-cultural teams: their effects on team communication, team identity and team effectiveness BIBAFull-Text 81-88
  Alon Lisak; Miriam Erez
This study examines the role of leaders and followers in multicultural teams and their effects on team communication, team identity and team effectiveness. Participants were 308 MBA students from 7 countries working in 77 virtual MCTs of 4 members each, one of whom served as the leader. Their task was to prepare guidelines for an expatriate. In addition, participants filled out questionnaires assessing team communication, team identity, team effectiveness, transformational leadership and global identity. The results demonstrated that transformational leadership significantly enhanced team communication, identity and effectiveness only for followers with high levels of global identities, but not for ones with low levels of global identity, with team identity mediating the relationship with team effectiveness and team communication mediating the relationship with team identity.
Culture as kaleidoscope: navigating cultural tensions in global collaboration BIBAFull-Text 89-98
  Jennifer L. Gibbs
This study proposes the metaphor of culture as "kaleidoscope" as a lens for understanding the complex culture of global teams and explores cultural tensions characterizing intercultural collaboration in virtual work arrangements. Ethnographic data from a global software team are used to illustrate the framework. Framing cultural differences in terms of dynamic tensions offers a productive theoretical framework for understanding and fostering collaboration across diverse cultures, time, and space.
Developing intercultural competence through videogames BIBAFull-Text 99-100
  W. Lewis Johnson
Effective intercultural collaboration requires intercultural competence. Intercultural competence involves awareness of the differences between cultures, knowledge about the beliefs, values, and practices of other cultures, and the skill to apply that knowledge effortlessly and effectively in interpersonal interactions. Acquiring intercultural competence can involve intensive study of the target culture, as well as immersion in social milieu of the target culture. Anyone who interacts regularly with people of other cultures can benefit from intercultural competence, but not everyone has the time and motivation to engage in lengthy cultural study, or the opportunity to immerse oneself in the other culture for extended periods.
   The focus of this talk is on the role of learning technologies in promoting intercultural competence. We address the problem of intercultural competence by means of computer-based serious games designed to help learners quickly acquire job-related linguistic and cultural proficiency. Videogame technology is used to create virtual worlds populated by non-player characters that speak and understand the target language, and behave in accordance with the norms of the culture. Conversational artificial intelligence technology enables learners to engage in spoken conversations with the non-player characters. Learners must speak the target language, and behave in a culturally proficient manner, in order to succeed at the game. cultural knowledge and skills, and organize them into curricula that serve as the basis for the game-based courses. Curriculum design focuses on the situations that learners are likely to encounter when interacting with people from the target culture, and tasks that they are likely to want to perform. This context provides a Cultural Lens that focuses curriculum development on the locations, socio-political factors, perspectives, and cultural practices that are most relevant to those situations and tasks. This approach results in courses that enable people to quickly acquire the intercultural skills that are most relevant to their particular needs. In the process they gain enhanced cultural awareness, which can support learners and motivate them to broaden and deepen their knowledge of the target culture. Military personnel engaged in civil affairs and peacekeeping operations are making extensive use of Alelo courses prior to overseas deployments. They report that the linguistic and cultural competence that they gained from the courses had a significant impact on the effectiveness of their operations. For example, a US Marine unit recently reported that it completed a tour of duty in Iraq without a single combat casualty. It attributed its success to its enhanced ability to develop relationships and establish rapport with the local people. We are currently developing a variety of other courses aimed at linguistic and cultural competence. Encounters: Global Chinese is an integrated course in Chinese language and culture, being developed in collaboration with Yale University Press and Chinese International Publishing Group. Rez World, developed in collaboration with Thornton Media, is designed to promote language and culture restoration among Native American tribes. A Web-based course for Voice of America is intended to provide VOA listeners worldwide with an opportunity to develop spoken English communication skills and develop a better understanding of American culture.

Models of intercultural collaboration

Bridging the gap: discovering mental models in globally collaborative contexts BIBAFull-Text 101-110
  Pablo-Alejandro Quinones; Susan R. Fussell; Lucio Soibelman; Burcu Akinci
The engineering and construction sectors have experienced a large surge in global projects. A common complaint is that American engineers are not ready to work globally because of their insensitivity to cultural differences. In this paper, we report two case studies of undergraduate engineering students in the U.S. collaborating with fellow students in Brazil, Israel or Turkey. We used survey, interview and observational methods to understand how cultural differences affected the quality of team interaction. We focus specifically on how culturally based differences in mental models of the work process (e.g., team structure, task processes, social conventions, knowledge/expertise) can account for problems that arise during engineering collaborations. The results can be used to design training software and materials to better prepare engineering students to work in a global context.
Cultural variations in collaborative decision making: driven by beliefs or social norms? BIBAFull-Text 111-118
  Winston R. Sieck; Shane T. Mueller
We describe a study intended to determine whether cultural variations in collaborative decision making are due to differences in beliefs about ideal collaboration processes, or are a reflection of distinct social norms. The results of a web-based survey study that included respondents from India, S. Korea, Turkey, and the U.S. were obtained using a recent statistical technique, Cultural Mixture Modeling that treats culture as an outcome of the analysis based on patterns of consensus in belief. The findings suggested that beliefs about effective collaborative decision processes have spread fairly widely among business professionals, but that typical practice rarely matches the ideal in some countries. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
The effect of academic socializing strategies on intercultural collaboration: empirical evidence from European economics departments BIBAFull-Text 119-128
  Peter Schneider
We present an explorative analysis from qualitative and quantitative data of fourteen European economics departments for the years 2001 to 2003 and investigate how one component of a successful PhD education, which is socializing PhD students into the academic community, should be designed in order to support intercultural collaboration among PhD students.
   We employ Multi-Value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (MVQCA) to analyze the data. Our results reveal unique socializing strategies in economics departments that possess either high or low intercultural collaboration among PhD students. It turns out that high intercultural collaboration is characterized by two configurations of different socializing strategies. In the first configuration we find that a "high number of foreign PhD students" in a department sufficiently explains high intercultural collaboration as it is realized in American research universities. In the second configuration we find that a combination of "different backgrounds in academic disciplines" among PhD students with "active support for research visits" sufficiently explains high intercultural collaboration. Low intercultural collaboration is characterized by three single strategies: "Financing attendance at academic conferences or events about once per year", "no active support for research visits" and a "small number of foreign PhD students". Each condition is sufficient to explain the outcome.
   The results for high intercultural collaboration are not affected by any of five resource conditions we added as controls. Low intercultural collaboration though was partly co-explained by low amounts of extra time among faculty and low financial resources of the department. The results indicate that high intercultural collaboration is not only supported by a socializing strategy typical for American research universities but can also be achieved by different socializing strategies.

Systems to support intercultural activities

A webcam platform for facilitating intercultural group activities BIBAFull-Text 129-138
  Toshiyuki Takasaki; Yumiko Mori
When children use webcams to conduct intercultural collaboration, communication efficiency is strongly influenced by social issues such as language and cultural differences and technical issues such as network delay. Current intercultural video-based collaboration sessions rely heavily on human facilitators and non-electronic tools, but the concept of providing system-based facilitation has not been well explored. Our extensive field observations indicate that intercultural webcam communication must be supported by five layers of facilitation. The five layers are, from top to bottom, the intercultural layer, collaboration layer, communication layer, network layer, and standalone layer. Each layer has a different form of facilitation and all are directed towards decreasing communication stress. Based on our observations, we propose a webcam platform that separates social issues from technical issues. We extend the normal video and audio channels with two redundant social channels: pictograms and machine translation. Visualization of technical measures of system performance such as network delay is introduced to facilitate users' awareness of the separation of technical issues and social issues and thus reduce communication stress.
Wordnet-LMF: fleshing out a standardized format for wordnet interoperability BIBAFull-Text 139-146
  Claudia Soria; Monica Monachini; Piek Vossen
In this paper we present Wordnet-LMF, a dialect of ISO Lexical Markup Framework that instantiates LMF for representing wordnets. Wordnet-LMF was developed in the framework of the EU KYOTO project for the specific purpose of endowing a set of wordnets with a standardized interoperability format allowing the interchange of lexico-semantic information encoded in each of them. The aim of this format is twofold a) to give a preliminary assessment of LMF, by large-scale application to real lexical resources; b) to endow WordNet with a format representation that will allow easier integration among resources sharing the same structure (i.e other wordnets) and, more importantly, across resources with different theoretical and implementation approaches.
Sharing user dictionaries across multiple systems with UTX-S BIBAFull-Text 147-154
  Francis Bond; Seiji Okura; Yuji Yamamoto; Toshiki Murata; Kiyotaka Uchimoto; Michael Kato; Miwako Shimazu; Tsugiyoshi Suzuki
Careful tuning of user-created dictionaries is indispensable when using a machine translation system for computer aided translation. However, there is no widely used standard for user dictionaries in the Japanese/English machine translation market. To address this issue, AAMT (the Asia-Pacific Association for Machine Translation) has established a specification of sharable dictionaries (UTX-S: Universal Terminology eXchange -- Simple), which can be used across different machine translation systems, thus increasing the interoperability of language resources. UTX-S is simpler than existing specifications such as UPF and OLIF. It was explicitly designed to make it easy to (a) add new user dictionaries and (b) share existing user dictionaries. This facilitates rapid user dictionary production and avoids vendor tie in. In this study we describe the UTX-Simple (UTX-S) format, and show that it can be converted to the user dictionary formats for five commercial English-Japanese MT systems. We then present a case study where we (a) convert an on-line glossary to UTX-S, and (b) produce user dictionaries for five different systems, and then exchange them. The results show that the simplified format of UTX-S can be used to rapidly build dictionaries. Further, we confirm that customized user dictionaries are effective across systems, although with a slight loss in quality: on average, user dictionaries improved the translations for 44.8% of translations with the systems they were built for and 37.3% of translations for different systems. In ongoing work, AAMT is using UTX-S as the format in building up a user community for producing, sharing, and accumulating user dictionaries in a sustainable way.

Computer mediated technology for global collaboration

Technological intersubjectivity in computer supported intercultural collaboration BIBAFull-Text 155-164
  Ravi Kiran Vatrapu; Daniel D. Suthers
Technological intersubjectivity (TI) refers to a technology supported interactional relationship between two or more participants. The basic premise of this research project is that the structures and functions of technological intersubjectivity vary across cultures. To empirically evaluate this premise, an experimental study was conducted to investigate TI when participants from similar and different cultures appropriate affordances and relate to each other in a computer supported collaborative learning environment. Based on culture theory and empirical findings in cross-cultural psychology, several theoretical predictions were made about the cultural variation in the structures and functions of technological intersubjectivity during and after the experimental task of computer supported collaborative problem solving. Statistical results show a systemic variation in technological intersubjectivity along cultural dimensions. We discuss the findings and their implications for computer supported intercultural collaboration.
Human detection of cultural differences in pictogram interpretations BIBAFull-Text 165-174
  Heeryon Cho; Toru Ishida; Naomi Yamashita; Tomoko Koda; Toshiyuki Takasaki
Findings on how humans detect cultural differences in cross-cultural pictogram interpretations are reported. An open-answer web survey was conducted in the United States and Japan to collect U.S.-Japan pictogram interpretations. Thirty U.S.-Japan pictogram interpretations were used as stimuli for human cultural difference detection study. Three U.S. subjects and three Japanese subjects participated in the study to assess the degree of cultural differences in the thirty pictogram interpretations given in the questionnaire. Post-questionnaire interviews were conducted to elucidate the reasons behind the human cultural difference detection. The following factors were considered when humans detect cultural differences in cross-cultural pictogram interpretations: (i) similar or dissimilar interpretations in the two countries, (ii) percentage or ranking of the interpretations, (iii) conformity or variance of semantics within one country's interpretations, (iv) presence of proper nouns (e.g. country names), and (v) positive or negative connotation in the interpretations.
Collaborating across cultural and technological boundaries: team culture and information use in a map navigation task BIBAFull-Text 175-184
  E. Ilana Diamant; Susan R. Fussell; Fen-Ly Lo
The increased globalization of the workplace and the availability of collaboration technologies are making CMC a necessary aspect of teamwork [27]. Culturally diverse teams are becoming the norm in knowledge-intensive projects that involve making sense of incomplete, ambiguous, and complex information (e.g., software development, new product design, customer service). The ability of teams to perform such tasks effectively is often a function of the media they use to collaborate and the culturally conditioned expectations of team members. We conducted a laboratory study to examine how different collaboration media and cultural backgrounds influence the sense-making process of culturally mixed and homogenous dyads. American, Chinese, and intercultural American-Chinese pairs of participants collaborated on two map navigation tasks using one of three technologies: video, audio, or IM. As predicted, culture and media interacted to affect the content and pattern of participants' communication.
Global differences in attributes of email usage BIBAFull-Text 185-194
  John C. Tang; Tara Matthews; Julian Cerruti; Stephen Dill; Eric Wilcox; Jerald Schoudt; Hernan Badenes
Email usage data from users in a large enterprise were analyzed according to country and geographical regions to explore for differences. Data of 13,877 employees from 29 countries in a global technology company were analyzed. We found statistically significant differences in several attributes of email usage. Users in the U.S. tend to retain larger numbers of email messages while Latin American countries keep fewer messages. European countries tend to file more of their email into folders and Asian countries tend to do less so. These differences in filing behavior are not correlated with Hofstede's Uncertainty Avoidance Index. This research adds another dimension for studies of email usage which previously have not reported the geographical source of their data.

Late breaking papers session 1

The impact of multiple team memberships in leader: member exchange relationship (LMX) BIBAFull-Text 195-198
  Ivan Alfaro
Most of the research related to leadership and virtual teams has been developed under the assumption that members participate on one team at a time. However, scholars have recently noted that more organizations are having their employees working in multiple team environments, and most of this multiple team membership (MTM) is taking place in virtual teams. In this article, we present an analysis of how MTM might affect the creation and development of the Leader-Member Exchange relationship, LMX. To our understanding, this is the first attempt to explore the challenges that multiple team memberships carries in the creation and development on LMX relationships whether they are created in virtual or co-located teams.
Data mining the cross-cultural communication gap BIBAFull-Text 199-202
  Wendy Ark; Ben Shaw; Ana Lelescu; Susan Stucky
This paper describes an exploratory method for examining cross-cultural communication gaps within a team of IT professionals (working from US and India). An automated tool to analyze structured and unstructured text data, Business Insights Workbench (BIW), was applied to their (transcribed) weekly status meeting dataset. The analysis indicates that cohesiveness (the use of similar terms in the conversation) of the group is stronger within a location than between locations. It also illustrates the difference in speaker turns (the US is six times as much as India). Though this work is exploratory, these differences are potential indicators for communication gaps.
Mapping cultural friction in cross-border collaboration BIBAFull-Text 203-206
  Mariya Bobina
This paper reviews distinctive attempts to bridge the gap between economic modeling and cultural studies and focus on the advanced tools to measure cultural friction/distance between and among countries. We further suggest that empirical studies such as 62-nations' Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE), contribute to mapping cultural friction and permit predictions in cross-border economic collaboration. The paper displays examples of cultural mapping for the United States and for Russia.
Biculturals as natural bridges for intercultural communication and collaboration BIBAFull-Text 207-210
  Mary Yoko Brannen; Dominie Garcia; David C. Thomas
Biculturals -- people who have deeply internalized more than one cultural profile -- are a significant but underexplored result of globalization. This new demographic raises a number of questions for many fields that address intercultural collaboration and communication. Our research develops a theory about types of biculturals and explores the idea that these individuals possess high levels of intercultural skills and abilities that can contribute to myriad contexts.
Cultural intelligence as a strategic resource in multicultural teams BIBAFull-Text 211-214
  Lisbeth Clausen; Mette Zolner; Anne-Marie Søderberg; Verner Worm
ABSTRACT
   In this poster proposal we present the three-year project "Cultural intelligence as a strategic resource" that started on April first 2008. In collaboration with Danish Multinationals (MNCs) we investigate how to strengthen Danish executives' and employees' cultural encounters in China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Japan. In this poster proposal, we focus on the concept of cultural intelligence. We list a number of questions concerning its practical applications and discuss how this concept might help us unfold, in an empirical study, what makes collaboration and synergy work in diverse global organizations with multicultural teams (MCT).
Overcome ethnocentrism and increase intercultural collaboration by developing social intelligence BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Qingwen Dong; Christine M. Collaco
The study, based on a survey of 419 young adults, found that social intelligence can help reduce individuals' level of ethnocentrism. This finding suggests that increasing individuals' social intelligence could help promote mutual respect, active listening and might lead to intercultural collaboration success. Intercultural collaboration is expected to bring great benefits to people, groups and countries around the world while more challenges are expected to come along. This study takes a step to seek predicting variables to promote mutual respect and participation in intercultural collaboration. Limitations and suggestions for future research are provided.
Preparing for a global encounter: from internationalization en route towards globalization BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Liv Egholm Feldt; Michael Jakobsen
This short piece outlines some of the problems with the concept of cultural intelligence conceived of as a tool to grasp both the structural and individual angels of cross-cultural encounters in a business context. We sketch some possible research areas, which could lead to a reinterpretation of the interwoven proxies on which the concept is based. Our suggestions are all linked to experience as a central perspective. We see experience as a central component of both the understanding of and the research in how people deal with cultural border passing encounters.
Cross-border bridge-building BIBAFull-Text 223-224
  Jean-Marie Fèvre; Jan M. Ulijn
In this paper, we describe the experience of common Franco-German workshops to train modest but operational cross-border managers for project and disaster management. The mixed small groups produce models or simulate emergencies together. The participants learn by doing to think and behave differently in order to act better.
Collaboration in offshore software projects: practices and challenges BIBAFull-Text 225-228
  Gopakumar Gopalakrishnan; Sreekumar Pillai; Nidhi Dhanju
This paper presents the findings of a study that sought to explore key practices and challenges in offshore software project collaborations.
Culture-sensitive global strategies BIBAFull-Text 229-232
  Mikhail Grachev
This paper explores the role of culture in multinational firms' strategies and reviews academic contributions to analyzing cultural imperatives of global growth strategies with a focus on cultural friction in cross-border economic collaboration. It suggests that successful multinational companies are willing and able to turn cultural asymmetries into new opportunities and capitalize on cultural differences; and displays examples of culture-sensitive strategies in car manufacturing and air transportation.
How change management is influenced by differences in professional discourses?: a preliminary conceptualizing study on the adoption of an ICT tool for engineers BIBAFull-Text 233-236
  Thijs Homan; Jan Ulijn; Jos Pieterse
In this paper we describe a case study regarding a change processes in which service engineers and change agents are involved. We investigate what the specific aspects are that influences the change effort and result at the end in a technical environment. We think that three aspects are interfering and influencing the change effort. These are; context, discourse and personality. Finally we suggest further research from a sender -- a receiver -- and a combined sender -- receiver perspective.
Toward multilingual support of educational document sharing based on the language grid BIBAFull-Text 237-240
  Masahiro Hori; Chigusa Kita
Substantial amount of multilingual educational resources are already available online through Web sites. However, such educational resources are not necessarily used extensively regardless of immediate needs. The objective of this study is to propose a way of sharing educational documents so that existing assets can be fully usable in different languages. In this paper, we introduce a brief overview of a multilingual environment for sharing educational documents, which is being developed on top of Language Grid that is an extensible, open platform for online language services.
The comparison of responsibility attribution in Chinese and American cultures: using holistic thinking style as a cognitive framework BIBAFull-Text 241-244
  Yubo Hou; Huizhen Tang
By considering the effects of two salient factors, the actor's intention and the event consequence, we explored the differences between Chinese and Americans' attribution behavior. We then investigated the combined influence of thinking style and the other two cognitive variables using the holistic thinking style cognitive framework. Results indicate that Chinese people find actor's intention as an important criterion in responsibility judgment and punishment evaluation, whereas intention plays a more minor role in Americans' attribution. Additionally, those high in change thinking show the same mode of attribution behavior as Chinese subjects, and those low in change thinking display the same mode as American subjects. These results implicate that thinking styles could provide an efficient interpretation of cultural differences in responsibility attribution.
Development of cross-cultural communication tool for Japanese UN volunteers BIBAFull-Text 245-248
  Yoshiyasu Ikeda; Yasuhiko Kitamura
Kwansei Gakuin University has been sending United Nations volunteers to developing countries for helping to bridge the digital divide between industrialized and developing countries. However, the volunteers have problems communicating with local staff. Because the Internet environment in developing countries is poor, machine translation services do not work well. We are developing a cross-cultural communication tool, which runs offline, stores phrase examples in a database, and provides an interface to search and browse them.
Postcolonial interculturality BIBAFull-Text 249-252
  Lilly C. Irani; Paul Dourish
Understanding intercultural collaboration is a thorny problem in CSCW and organizational studies that grows ever more important as globalization increases intercultural interactions among individuals, groups, and technologies. We suggest that Postcolonial Studies may offer richer frameworks for analysis than taxonomic models of culture such as Hofstede's dimensions of difference. A postcolonial perspective sees culture as dynamic and always changing, stressing the importance of colonial histories, uneven economic relations, and local knowledge systems in framing and designing information technologies.
Phonetic decomposition for speech recognition of lesser-studied languages BIBAFull-Text 253-256
  Vijay John
This paper deals with voice transcription systems for lesser-studied languages. In particular, it deals with creating phonetic decompositions for words in these languages, an important step in creating a voice transcription system. The two languages cited here as examples of lesser-studied languages are the San Juan Quiahije variety of Chatino and Vlax Romani. For these languages, an English-based phonemic decomposition is inadequate, because lesser-studied languages are not written with the orthographic rules used for English. The phonemic decomposition proposed here is composed of two stages: separation of words into sounds and expansion of sounds into phonemes.
A framework for culturally adaptive policy management in ad hoc collaborative contexts BIBAFull-Text 257-260
  John Karat; Winston Sieck; Timothy J. Norman; Clare-Marie Karat; Carolyn Brodie; Louise Rasmussen; Katia Sycara
A three-phase fundamental research project is underway to determine the value of providing context-sensitive policy management technology, which is informed by algorithms based on cultural models and collaborative decision making, to partners in collaborative mission planning and execution. Three research teams are collaborating and leveraging their research frameworks and current results in policy lifecycle management, cultural analysis, and decision support in this effort. This paper describes the three technical areas, the potential value of their integration in a new perspective, a set of research questions, and the three-phase research approach of theoretical work, field interview research, and development of the system.
Cultural intelligence and collaborative work: intercultural competencies in global technology work teams BIBAFull-Text 261-264
  Christine Koh; Damien Joseph; Soon Ang
With the growth of offshoring and the global delivery model, IT professionals need to collaborate with clients, users, vendors and other IT employees in multiple locations. Yet, we know very little about the new and unique capabilities IT professionals need, to function effectively in such a global environment. This paper introduces the concept of cultural intelligence (CQ) and discusses its relevance to the global IT workforce. We propose that CQ is a critical individual capability for IT professionals working in global collaborative IT teams.

Late breaking papers session 2

9P planning: overcoming roadblocks to collaboration in intercultural community contexts BIBAFull-Text 265-268
  Marcella A. LaFever
Encouraging involvement in local, regional and national communities in order to develop a healthy democracy is a laudable goal for society. The present paper investigates positions of power and dominant ideologies as they relate to communication roadblocks that inhibit the representation of marginalized cultural groups in collaboration and decision-making processes in multi-cultural communities. In this research, interviews with professional planners working in intercultural community contexts were analyzed utilizing a framework of five actions identified by Paolo Freire that must be taken by the oppressor in order to enter into solidarity with the oppressed. From this analysis I describe a holistic planning model for overcoming communication barriers in order to increase social inclusion of marginalized cultural groups in collaborative efforts.
Development of machine translation system for Japanese children BIBAFull-Text 269-272
  Masafumi Matsuda; Yasuhiko Kitamura
A number of machine translation systems are available on the Internet. However, it is difficult for Japanese children to use these systems, because they have little knowledge about English and Kanji. We are developing a new machine translation system customized for Japanese children. The system provides a Hiragana software keyboard, converts a Hiragana input into Kanji one, and then translates it into English. A Hiragana sentence sometimes has more than one meaning, so we utilize images to settle the meaning.
Removing barriers to trust in distributed teams: understanding cultural differences and strengthening social ties BIBAFull-Text 273-276
  Suzanne P. Mikawa; Sharon K. Cunnington; Scott A. Gaskins
Geographically distributed software development teams face communication and collaboration challenges that otherwise do not occur when engineers are collocated. There has been extensive research on the topic of trust as it is imperative in a collaborative environment. This paper takes trust research to a new level by addressing two attributes of trust-building that distributed development teams encounter when working together. We describe how underlying differences in social and cultural norms affect a distributed development team's effectiveness. We present study data from interviews and observations with four software teams at Microsoft doing distributed development work that have team members located in Europe and the United States. Our study demonstrates that openly recognizing cultural differences and intentionally strengthening social ties among team members are criteria for building trust in distributed software teams and, if not addressed, will erode a distributed team's ability to communicate and effectively work together. We further articulate how social ties may influence collaboration in distributed teams. Finally, we provide examples of differences in social and cultural norms in distributed software teams and demonstrate how carefully cultivated personal relationships contribute to a distributed team's success and on-time performance.
Patterns in pictogram communication BIBAFull-Text 277-280
  Yumiko Mori; Toshiyuki Takasaki; Toru Ishida
Pictogram Communication can create an environment where children can develop "bonds" regardless of their differences in language, culture, and physical locations. This paper reveals the communication patterns as extracted from an extensive collection of pictogram messages. More than thirteen hundred messages are assigned to three communication patterns: syntactic description, artistic drawing, and story telling. We examined three patterns of messages by to whom messages were sent. In addition, we observed the development process of such patterns, strategies children seem to apply. Finally, we discuss the influence of cultures on patterns. We found that different mother tongues influence on how children construct messages, while some children reason the cultural differences to create robust messages for intercultural communication.
Utilizing 'Langrid input' for intercultural communication in senior high school in Japan BIBAFull-Text 281-284
  Yoshie Naya
The development of information communication technology (ICT) such as the Internet makes intercultural collaborative education possible.
   The 'Natural Disaster Youth Summit' (NDYS) is one of such project. In this project, students make research on the past natural disasters and search for the solution how to decrease the impact of them through collaboration. Therefore, discussion among students by e-mail or on the internet forum is required. Although there are many messages from students on the forum, we could not expect active utterance from Japanese students.
   We assume that the lack of confidence in writing English makes intercultural communication difficult for Japanese students. If this is the reason of less utterance from Japan, the use of 'Langrid Input', which is developed to support intercultural communication, may activate students' utterance. If the communication supporting device succeeds in reducing the difficulty of writing English, Japanese students will be able to write what they want to say in English and change their attitude positive toward intercultural communication.
   In this paper, whether the use of the multilingual translation system 'Langrid Input' succeeded in changing students' attitude and consciousness to intercultural communication will be examined.
Intercultural engagement in the Arabian Gulf region BIBAFull-Text 285-288
  Hamad Odhabi; Lynn Nicks-McCaleb
Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) represents a world-class metropolis with a high-tech infrastructure where the indigenous population represents less than 1/5th of the inhabitants. This paper presents an investigation into the use of Facebook in networking between students and faculty from the Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) in the UAE. This investigation was undertaken in order to gain a clearer understanding into the way in which intercultural communication occurs between students, faculty and staff. It attempts to identify key opportunities and issues that need to be addressed and the role of advanced technology in both enabling and framing the nature and form of these discourses.
Communicating across cultures: the interaction of cultural and language proficiency BIBAFull-Text 289-292
  Vesa Peltokorpi; Susan C. Schneider
Expatriate assignments requiring interactions across cultural and linguistic boundaries are challenging. Expatriate failures have been ascribed to a lack of cross-cultural competence (CC) and cultural intelligence (CQ). While CC and CQ frameworks indicate characteristics needed for successful intercultural interaction, they provide little information about language proficiency and its interactions with cultural competences. We present a framework for evaluating the influence of different levels of proficiency in language and culture as well as the consequences of the interaction of these types of proficiency.
Cultural intelligence: the art of leading cultural complexity BIBAFull-Text 293-296
  Elisabeth Plum
In this paper we present the concept Cultural Intelligence (CI), which is presented in the book 'CI Cultural Intelligence -- the art of leading cultural complexity' by Elisabeth Plum with Benedikte Achen, Inger Dræby and Iben Jensen, MU Press (UK) 2008. The book has been translated from the Danish book 'Kulturel Intelligens' Børsens Forlag 2007.
Language grid playground: light weight building blocks for intercultural collaboration BIBAFull-Text 297-300
  Satoshi Sakai; Masaki Gotou; Yohei Murakami; Satoshi Morimoto; Daisuke Morita; Masahiro Tanaka; Toru Ishida
Various types of multilingual collaboration tasks must be performed in the fields of education, medical care, and so on. Members in such fields need support customized for each field. Therefore, multilingual collaboration tools should allow customization to suit the tasks and circumstances. The tools provided by portal sites such as Google and Excite are not flexible enough to solve the problems in various fields because they fail to support customization. Therefore, we have developed the Language Grid Playground: an environment in which it is easy to make customized multilingual tools. The basic idea is to organize language services in a layered architecture and develop light weight building blocks that form collaboration tools by combining services. Our system, which is composed of components designed in this way, makes it easy to create tools customized for various intercultural collaboration fields. As a practical example, we develop a customized tool for the field of education in just 6 man-weeks. It confirms the efficiency of our approach for developing tools.
Cross-cultural collaboration Wiki: evolving knowledge about international teamwork BIBAFull-Text 301-304
  Nicole Schadewitz; Norhayati Zakaria
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to share and develop knowledge of cross-cultural collaboration. Observations of cross-cultural collaborations in Hong Kong/Korean, Hong Kong/Austrian and Hong Kong/Taiwanese teams were captured using design patterns. These findings were posted to a Wiki, allowing further evaluation of the design patterns in different collaboration contexts. This process is discussed in the light of author-centric and community-centric development of design patterns for cross-cultural collaboration.
First steps: social and technical implications establishing a mesh network within an inter-cultural community BIBAFull-Text 305-308
  Kai Schubert
This text is a basis for a poster describing the establishment of a mesh network of the inter-cultural computer clubs "come_IN". This idea of a mesh network that covers the whole neighborhood of a city results from experience within the project "come_IN" in Germany. In this work-shop we want to highlight the connection between social and technical intervention in practice. For discussion in the workshop we introduce our first detailed findings on development and usage of the mesh network.
Sorry to interrupt: Asian media preferences in cross-cultural collaborations BIBAFull-Text 309-312
  Leslie D. Setlock; Susan R. Fussell; Eun Ji; Michaela Culver
Laboratory studies of culture and computer-mediated communication have provided inconsistent results, in part due to differences in the tasks people were asked to do, the specific cultural backgrounds of participants, and the tools used for communication. We conducted an interview study in an effort to shed light on these inconsistent findings. The goal of the study was to understand when members of different cultures feel particular media (e.g., email, instant messaging, phone) are appropriate and to understand which medium they would chose for specific communication tasks. We discuss key themes from these interviews.
Cultural voice markers in speech-to-speech machine translation systems BIBAFull-Text 313-316
  Osamuyimen Stewart; Michael Picheny; David Lubensky; Bhuvana Ramabhadran
Current implementations of real-time speech-to-speech (S2S) translation systems for intercultural collaboration have mainly focused on the accuracy of the recognition and translated content. Typically, the translated utterance is presented to users through text-to-speech (TTS), without projecting cultural nuances in the tone of voice. This study investigates whether there are cross-cultural markers of variations in voice dynamics, and, if these have any impact on user satisfaction. Based on subjective user evaluations (Chinese and English), we conclude that there are salient cross-cultural voice markers relevant to the interaction of culture and system design; with noticeable impact on user satisfaction in TTS and S2S systems.
Cultural adaptation of conversational style in intercultural computer-mediated group brainstorming BIBAFull-Text 317-320
  Hao-Chuan Wang; Susan R. Fussell
The ubiquity of international and intercultural collaboration over computer-mediated communication (CMC) raises questions about how culture, group cultural composition and medium influence communication. We conducted a laboratory study investigating the influences of individual cultural background (American versus Chinese), group cultural composition (same- versus mixed-culture groups), and communication medium (text-only versus video-enabled chatrooms) on the process of group brainstorming conversations. The paper presents an analysis of cultural adaptation focusing on whether and how individuals adapt their conversational behaviors when encountering group members from another culture. Chinese participants increased their responsiveness when working with American partners (i.e., mixed-culture groups). We also examine patterns of cultural adaptation by time and communication medium to gain insights for future research.
A web-based multilingual parallel corpus collection system for the medical field BIBAFull-Text 321-324
  Takashi Yoshino; Taku Fukushima; Mai Miyabe; Aguri Shigeno
We have developed a Web-based multilingual parallel corpus collection system named TackPad for medical workers and foreign patients. The number of foreign visitors and residents in Japan is increasing. However, it is not sufficient to provide linguistic support via medical translators to people who do not understand Japanese. In particular, poor communication may lead to medical errors. Moreover, there are limitations to a medical translator's support. It is difficult to use machine translations in the medical field because of their inaccuracy. A system that uses parallel corpora with guaranteed accuracy appears to be useful. However, a huge amount of parallel corpora related to specialty fields and in several languages is required in the medical field. It would be difficult for a limited number of people to accumulate a sufficient amount of parallel corpora. Therefore, we have specially designed a support system named TackPad for the medical field; this system can accurately register parallel corpora and supply this data to other systems. TackPad adopts a Web 2.0 approach and can be used to tap people's capabilities for knowledge accumulation. The purpose of TackPad is to collect parallel corpora; other systems can use the corpus via the Internet. We have obtained various responses from the result of the trial experiment. The experiment has demonstrated the practicality of the system, for example, people of various age groups and from various occupations can actually use the system.
Do strangers trust in video-mediated communication? BIBAFull-Text 325-328
  Qiping Zhang; Weina Qu; Kan Zhang
Trust in computer-mediated communication is increasingly attracting researchers' attention yet unexplored extensively in social/organizational psychology. The objective of this study is to empirically examine the effect of media and task on people's trust perception. A total of 42 pairs of Chinese undergraduate participated in the study by performing either negotiation or brainstorming task through either video channel or Instant Messenger. Particularly this paper reported our discourse analysis. It revealed that when no prior personal relationship existed (strangers) in a virtual environment, video does not always increase people's trust perception. It helps only when the task involves conflicts.
Internet and doctor shopping behavior BIBAFull-Text 329-330
  Ook Lee; Mikyung Kim
In this paper, we investigated doctor shopping behavior in Korea in order to determine the influence of Internet.