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ICIC Tables of Contents: 0709101214

Proceedings of the 2014 CABS International Conference on Collaboration Across Boundaries

Fullname:CABS'14: Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Conference on Collaboration Across Boundaries: Culture, Distance & Technology
Editors:Naomi Yamashita; Vanessa Evers; Susan R. Fussell; Carolyn Rosé; Mary Beth Watson-Manheim
Location:Kyoto, Japan
Dates:2014-Aug-20 to 2014-Aug-22
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2557-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ICIC14
Papers:24
Pages:141
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynote 1 (opening keynote)
  2. Session 1: culture in international context
  3. Panel
  4. Session 2: intercultural small group collaboration
  5. Keynote 2
  6. Session 3: communicating in multi-lingual contexts
  7. Poster session (late breaking paper session)
  8. Session 4: cultural contexts for interaction
  9. Keynote 3 (closing keynote)

Keynote 1 (opening keynote)

Language, culture and boundary-spanning: pushing the frontiers of research on global learning and innovation BIBAFull-Text 1
  Mary Yoko Brannen
Building an integrated global strategy for ongoing growth and renewal across markets which are geographically remote and have differing native languages and cultures is undoubtedly harder than classical scholars of business strategy have cared to understand or admit. While our cumulative knowledge of the role of organizational learning in internationalization is considerable, it has generally been seen as knowledge transmitted from the home-organizational base to subsidiaries abroad. As such, current theories take little account of the capacity of the organizations to reverse the one-way vector of learning emanating from headquarters in order to learn endogenously, as it were, from knowledge resources available at the periphery and throughout its global reach. A major reason why theory has not advanced further in documenting and thus realizing the mechanisms by which firms can learn from their global footprint is that the methodologies used have been ineffective as they tend to take a "bird's eye" view of phenomena when what is needed is an 'up-close' and contextually-grounded approach. In this keynote speech, Professor Mary-Yoko Brannen will discuss new avenues for research methods that facilitate the understanding of complex, micro level contextually embedded phenomena where research settings are rife with multilevel cultural interactions. Integrating current research on the multifaceted nature of language used in global organizations and the boundary-spanning skillsets that bi- and multi-cultural individuals bring to today's workforce, Professor Brannen will discuss new methods for researchers as well as practitioners to positively influence global learning and innovation outcomes.
   Mary Yoko Brannen is the Jarislowsky East Asia (Japan) Chair at the Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives (CAPI) and Professor of International Business at the Peter B. Gustavson School of Business at the University of Victoria in British Columbia and serves as Deputy Editor of the Journal of International Business. She received her M.B.A. with emphasis in International Business and Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior with a minor in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and a B.A. from the University of California at Berkeley. She has taught at the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan, the Lucas Graduate School of Business at San Jose State University, the Haas Business School at the University of California at Berkeley, Smith College, and Stanford University in the United States; Keio Business School in Tokyo, Japan, and Fudan University in Shanghai, China. Professor Brannen's expertise in cross-cultural management is evident in her research, consulting, teaching, and personal background. Born and raised in Japan, having studied in France and Spain, and having worked as a cross-cultural consultant for over 25 years to various Fortune 100 companies, she brings a multi-faceted, deep knowledge of today's complex cultural business environment. Her consulting specialty is in helping multinational firms realize their global strategic initiatives by aligning, integrating and deploying critical organizational resources. Professor Brannen's current research projects include research on knowledge sharing across distance and differentiated contexts, directing a global think tank focusing on biculturals and people of mixed cultural origins as the new workplace demographic, and developing strategic ethnography as a method by which global companies can realize sustainable competitive advantage.

Session 1: culture in international context

Accelerating cultural capital: reproducing silicon valley culture in global ecosystems BIBAFull-Text 3
  Julia Katherine Haines
A combination of infrastructure developments, accessible platforms and easy to use tools have dramatically lowered the barriers to entry for technology startups in recent years. Alongside this, seed accelerators, which provide the soft infrastructure and training to foster high-tech startups have spread rapidly worldwide. But little is known about how accelerators are impacting the global tech startup landscape. Through fieldwork at an accelerator in Singapore, we investigate the expansion of this Silicon Valley model of innovation, the cultural values inherent in its practices, and how it is transformed and implemented in other contexts. Drawing on Bourdieu's theory of cultural capital, we frame accelerators as sites of complex cultural interaction, reproduction, and tension. Accelerators both explicitly and implicitly propagate cultural values from Silicon Valley. We highlight the complexities this presents for founders of different backgrounds as well as the value and recognition it gives them in the startup community.
Trust in client-vendor relations: an empirical study of collaboration across national and organizational boundaries BIBAFull-Text 5-14
  Thomas Tøth
In an ever more globalized world we are faced with the challenges of collaborating across geographical distance. This article examines how trust is established in an offshore outsourcing engagement of IT operations between a leading Danish media company and an Indian IT-service provider. The findings presented in this paper are a subset of a larger ethnographic research project including more than four hundred hours of participant observation and twenty-nine semi-structured interviews. Thus, the article contributes with a empirical investigation of collaboration across national and organizational boundaries within the field of IT offshore outsourcing. The article concludes that trust is primarily established when the teams are meeting face-to-face and in order to establish trust at a distance they are dependent on technology being readily available and on engaging in active trust building, by imitating the way they communicate face-to-face, when collaborating virtually.
Avocados crossing borders: the missing common information infrastructure for international trade BIBAFull-Text 15-24
  Thomas Jensen; Niels Bjørn-Andersen; Ravi Vatrapu
This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European Union. The methodology of the paper is a revelatory case study of a particular trade lane from Kenya to The Netherlands. Drawing on Activity Theory Framework and theories on Information Infrastructures, we provide an analysis of the complex inter-organizational systems and infrastructures involved in the selected case of international trade, identify critical issues in information flows, and propose ideas for design principles for a new information infrastructures for international trade. Our analysis shows that the existing infrastructure can be described as very fragmented and grossly ineffective. Our findings indicate that the implementation of a common integrated information infrastructure could significantly contribute to reducing costs especially by speeding up processes, by providing transparency in the flow and reducing the lead time for international trade of fruit and vegetables. Further, the description format developed for this case can be useful for visualizing and analyzing other supply chains involving collaborations across borders.

Panel

Uses and benefits of qualitative approaches to culture in intercultural collaboration research BIBAFull-Text 25-27
  Sylvie Chevrier; Mary Yoko Brannen; Carol Hansen
Cross-cultural research is mainly based upon the measurement of cross-cultural dimensions popularized by Hofstede (1980, 2001), Trompenaars (1993) or Schwartz (1994). These dimensions stemming from attitude scales are useful to compare national cultural differences on a general level but cannot adequately account for what happens when people actually meet and interact with each other. For over twenty years, researchers have proposed alternative approaches drawing upon interpretive methods (d'Iribarne, 1989; Sackmann & Philipps, 2004). Beyond comparative studies, investigations were conducted into two types of cases: situations where management tools are used in another cultural context than the one from which they originated (D'Iribarne & Henry, 2007; Barmeyer & Davoine, 2011) and work interactions within multicultural organizations (Brannen & Salk, 2000; Chevrier, 2003; Moore, 2005).
   In both kinds of situations, the objective is to see reality from the eyes of the actor and to grasp the meaning of their action; "it is to unravel and understand the world from the perspective of the acting persons situated in their own local context and therefore, understanding the society in which they live" (Romani, Sackmann & Primecz, 2011, p. 4).

Session 2: intercultural small group collaboration

10,000 miles across the room?: emergent coordination in multiparty collaboration BIBAFull-Text 29-30
  Greetje F. Corporaal; Julie Ferguson; Dick de Gilder; Peter Groenewegen
This paper addresses cross-boundary coordination in a multiparty collaboration. So far, collaboration among multiple dispersed parties has received scant attention in research on cross-boundary coordination. Building on this gap, this study analyzes an extreme case of inter-organizational collaboration between four geographically dispersed groups of engineers from subsidiaries of a Japanese multinational and an American engineering contractor. We explain how coordination is achieved among multiple parties. In our study, diverse boundaries posed challenges to the execution of work tasks being performed. In response, collaborating parties developed four organizing processes for coordinating their task-related activities, comprising information sharing, task negotiation, task execution and task integration. We suggest that together, these processes constitute a dynamic coordinating structure that is developed and enacted in parties' everyday collaborating and coordinating activities, which may enable but can also impede the successful execution of joint work tasks.
To be like you to be liked by you: cultural effects on adjusting awareness information gathering behavior BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Nanyi Bi; Susan R. Fussell; Jeremy Birnholtz
Behavioral accommodation, the adjustment of one's own behavior to match that of other people, is prevalent in human communication, but people differ in the extent to which they accommodate each other. This paper presents a laboratory study examining how cultural background affects behavioral accommodation in awareness information gathering behaviors. Results suggested that members of collectivistic cultures (e.g., China) adjusted their behaviors to match those of their partners, when they were working with someone from other culture, whereas members of individualistic cultures (e.g.: the United States) did not accommodate when in the same situation. Our results suggest that accommodation exists even in online collaborations where no linguistic elements are involved, but this existence is affected by one's cultural background.
Verbal cues of involvement in dyadic same-culture and cross-culture instant messaging conversations BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Duyen T. Nguyen; Susan R. Fussell
This paper explores how people in same-culture and cross-culture pairs use verbal cues to express involvement in dyadic text-based Instant Messaging (IM) conversations. We report an experimental study with same-culture and cross-culture pairs of American and Chinese participants, in which we manipulated the participants' level of involvement in IM conversations using a distraction task (an online game). We found that American and Chinese participants used verbal involvement cues, such as cognitive words and definite articles, differently to express involvement. Our results provide suggestions for improving international, multicultural team collaboration using computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools.

Keynote 2

Cross cultural research, innovation and design in 2050 BIBAFull-Text 51
  Apala Lahiri Chavan
Cross Cultural Research, Innovation and Design has been my passion for many years and I never thought I would have a question like this! But as I have been envisioning what the future of user experience is going to be like, I am beginning to wonder if there will be 'cross cultural' anything left in 2050? Will we live in a universe where trans-humans and humanoid robots make up the population? A universe where we have 'evolved' to become much more powerful as individuals but very homogenous and hence the concept of 'across cultures' will cease to exist? OR, will 2050 see the opposite reality, where every single human / trans-human / humanoid robot is different and hence cross-cultural research, innovation and design will be the most sought after discipline?

Session 3: communicating in multi-lingual contexts

TransDocument: exposing sentence structure for efficient translingual communication BIBAFull-Text 53-62
  Takeo Igarashi
Machine translation systems are effective for translating relatively short sentences, but they often return incomprehensible results when applied to long sentences with complicated dependency structures. We therefore propose to expose sentence structure to writers and readers to facilitate translingual communication via imperfect machine translation systems. The writer encodes his or her message into a structured text, which is a collection of sentence fragments organized in a hierarchical structure. The system then translates these fragments individually, using a standard machine translation system. The structure itself is preserved. The reader reads the structured text in the target language. In this paper, we present an interactive text-editing system that supports the writing and reading of such structured texts. We also run a small scale user study to investigate the potential of the proposed method, and the result suggests that the structure information can be helpful in improving the understandability of machine translation results.
Playing the 'silence' card: email affordances in international inter-firm interactions BIBAKFull-Text 63
  Niki Panteli; Joyce Y. H. Lee; Anne Marie Bulow
In this paper, we argue that the international business (IB) literature has given only limited attention to the technology-mediated context of language. We find, through a case study of an international inter-organizational partnership where the use of English language was the lingua franca, that email not only had a dominant role but also created several possibilities for interaction. The findings show the relevance of email affordances to inter-cultural studies. Further, the study makes a contribution by repositioning communication technology within the language stream of IB research.
Keywords: Email, language; lingua-franca; affordances theory
Do automated transcripts help non-native speakers catch up on missed conversation in audio conferences? BIBAFull-Text 65-72
  Ari Hautasaari; Naomi Yamashita
Previous work has suggested that speeded up playback of recorded audio works well for native speakers (NS) to catch up on conversation they missed in real-time audio conferences. However, this might not be the case for non-native speakers (NNS) who normally have lower listening ability in their second language. In this study, we explore whether automated speech recognition (ASR) technology can aid NNS when combined with speeded up audio playback. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which 18 NS and 18 NNS listened to a pre-recorded audio conference with three English native speakers, during which they were briefly interrupted and missed parts of the ongoing conversation. They then caught up to the conversation with speeded up audio only (1.6x) and speeded up audio with ASR transcripts. Although ASR transcripts did not improve their comprehension of the conversational content when catching up, transcripts allowed NNS to shift their focus between the two modalities depending on their ability to follow second language speech in different audio speeds. The findings inform future development of ASR tools to support multilingual group communication.
Effects of video and text support on grounding in multilingual multiparty audio conferencing BIBAFull-Text 73-81
  Andy Echenique; Naomi Yamashita; Hideaki Kuzuoka; Ari Hautasaari
With computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools allowing collaborations to span the globe, teams can include multiple collaborators located in different countries. Previous research shows how audio communication supplemented by video conferencing or text transcripts improves conversation grounding between native speakers (NS) and non-native speakers (NNS) in one-on-one multi-lingual collaborations. This research investigates how supplemental cues (video or real-time text transcripts) support NNSs' participation in multiparty audio conferences. We implemented a collaborative grounding task with triad groups of NS and NNS to investigate possible effects. We found that NNSs' task accuracy dropped significantly between video+audio trials. By comparison, NNSs' ability to understand common ground increased over trials in the text transcripts+audio condition. Our results demonstrate the difficulties of common ground establishment for NNS in multiparty collaborations and how the development of supporting tools for multilingual audio conferencing can aid NNSs? communication ability.

Poster session (late breaking paper session)

Promoting intercultural awareness through native-to-foreign speech accent conversion BIBAFull-Text 83-86
  Takeshi Nishida
Large difference in pronunciation between languages often causes technical and mental difficulty in listening comprehension as well as in speech production. In spite of the rationale provided for native speakers to support non-native speakers in international contexts, negative reactions to foreign accents are common. To promote intercultural awareness in communication, we implemented a prototype system to convert native speech to have a foreign accent by combining speech recognition and text-to-speech engines.
Comparison on negative attitude toward robots and related factors between japan and the uk BIBAFull-Text 87-90
  Tatsuya Nomura
As one of further researches on cross-cultural comparison on attitudes toward robots, an online survey was conducted in Japan and the UK, using the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale and items on perceptions of the relation to the family and commitment to religions. The results found some differences on the attitudes between the nations and age groups, and correlations between the attitudes, perceptions of the relation to the family, and commitment to religions only in specific nation and age groups.
Unintentional intercultural collaboration in the 17th century: German "ballen", Japanese "Balen" and Portuguese missionaries BIBAFull-Text 91-94
  Mami Hild
Baren or balen is a well-known rubbing pad used in Japan for printing woodblocks. Balens had been in widespread use during the Edo period (17th -- mid-19th century) for sophisticated multicolored woodblock prints, including ukiyo-e. The general belief is that balen is a word of Japanese origin. However, through documents and interviews with professionals in hand-printing, I investigated the possibility that the word balen is a German loanword, and that this tool is actually a product of unintentional intercultural collaboration.
Cross-cultural communication protocol analysis BIBAFull-Text 95-98
  Kenji Terui; Reiko Hishiyama
Miscommunication problems are often caused by not only language barriers but also cultural ones. To avoid this, it is effective to know in advance about intercultural differences, such as differences in behavior, attitudes, and ways of thinking. We propose a methodology for cross-cultural understanding by exploring and looking at analytical thought process variation. Through the participatory case study experiments, we found that we could extract differences of protocol patterns among the participants groups: American, South Korean, and Japanese.
Enhancing machine translation with crowdsourced keyword highlighting BIBAFull-Text 99-102
  Mei-Hua Pan; Hao-Chuan Wang
Machine translation (MT) has the potential to bridge the language barrier in multilingual community, but its utility to support cross-lingual communication is often limited by its quality. Recent studies have shown the supporting effect of keyword highlighting on translation comprehension. What's missing is a way to identify and highlight keywords in translations efficiently and reliably. In this paper, we investigate crowdsourcing strategies for keyword highlighting. We compare three methods that involve human workers to highlight keywords in English-to-Chinese translations: English-only for adding keyword highlights on the original English sentences, Chinese-only for adding keyword highlights on the translated sentences, and Bilingual that allows people to choose keywords in either the original or the translated sentences. Results show that adding highlights to translated sentences (Chinese-only) is the fastest but doesn't improve the comprehensibility of translation. Highlighting both sentences (Bilingual) helps improve the understandability of hard-to-understand translations.
Social media use in higher educational organizations: a comparison of the US and Singapore BIBAFull-Text 103-106
  Mary Beth Watson-Manheim; Steve Jones; Chei Sian Lee; Eric Welch; Jodie Eason
In this research, we aim to explore the adoption of social media initiatives in the increasingly global higher education market. We will collect survey data from individuals in different administrative positions at large public universities in Singapore and the United States. We are particularly interested in the consequences for information flows in the organization, as well as the potential impact on traditional coordination, control, and accountability mechanisms. We expect that these consequences may take different forms and have different implications in the two national contexts. Preliminary survey results from the US are briefly discussed.
Catching up in audio conferences: highlighting keywords in ASR transcripts for non-native speakers BIBAFull-Text 107-110
  Ari Hautasaari; Naomi Yamashita
Previous works suggest that non-native speakers (NNS) may benefit from viewing textual transcripts of spoken dialogue generated by automated speech recognition (ASR) technology during audio conferences. However, viewing ASR transcripts while listening to the ongoing conversation may impose a higher cognitive load on NNS, especially in adverse audio conditions. We examined how automatically highlighted keywords in real-time ASR transcripts might benefit NNS when catching up on missed parts of an audio conference by reviewing a speeded up (1.6x) audio playback of the missed conversation.

Session 4: cultural contexts for interaction

Come_in@palestine: adapting a German computer club concept to a Palestinian refugee camp BIBAFull-Text 111-120
  Konstantin Aal; George Yerousis; Kai Schubert; Dominik Hornung; Oliver Stickel; Volker Wulf
Come_IN computer clubs are a well-established approach to foster learning, social networks and integration in German neighborhoods with a high percentage of migrant population. We have transferred this concept to a different part of the world: a Palestinian refugee camp. Similar to the German neighborhoods we deal with, refugee camps are also the result of migration moves; however, in this case -- an enforced one. This paper describes the come_IN approach and investigates its adaptation to a Palestinian refugee camp. Obviously it exhibits fundamental cultural, social, and political dissimilarities from the German setting. Refugees living in camps have to deal with a number of local living and subsistence challenges, as well as having to tackle mounting critical issues related to their refugee status. Here we describe the first three years of activities and experiences.
Cultural differences in how an engagement-seeking robot should approach a group of people BIBAFull-Text 121-130
  Michiel P. Joosse; Ronald W. Poppe; Manja Lohse; Vanessa Evers
In our daily life everything and everyone occupies an amount of space, simply by "being there". Edward Hall coined the term proxemics for the studies of man's use of this space. This paper presents a study on proxemics in Human-Robot Interaction and particularly on robot's approaching groups of people. As social psychology research found proxemics to be culturally dependent, we focus on the question of the appropriateness of the robot's approach behavior in different cultures. We present an online survey (N=181) that was distributed in three countries; China, the U.S. and Argentina. Our results show that participants prefer a robot that stays out of people's intimate space zone just like a human would be expected to do. With respect to cultural differences, Chinese participants showed high-contact responses and believed closer approaches were appropriate compared to their U.S. counterparts. Argentinian participants more closely resembled the ratings of the U.S. participants.
Marius, the giraffe: a comparative informatics case study of linguistic features of the social media discourse BIBAFull-Text 131-140
  Chris Zimmerman; Yuran Chen; Daniel Hardt; Ravi Vatrapu
On February 9, 2014, a giraffe named Marius was put to death by the Copenhagen Zoo in Denmark, sparking a storm of public discussion nationally and internationally. This paper presents a comparative informatics case study of the event. We employ the method of grounded comparison in the examination of the text of postings and articles in social media as well as mainstream media in Danish and English languages. At the macro-structural level, the social media discourse is characterized by arguments grounded in scientific and bureaucratic rationality, cultural and linguistic relativity, and animal ethics. At the micro-genetic level of language use, our findings show that international discourse was much more intense and emotional than the discourse in Danish media as evidenced by the differences in volume, sentiment and topics in English vs. Danish data. While these differences undoubtedly reflect a broad range of cultural, linguistic, organizational and societal factors, we suggest that to some extent the differences might result from specific features of the media landscape in Denmark.

Keynote 3 (closing keynote)

Evolution of human mind and culture viewed from the study of chimpanzees BIBAFull-Text 141
  Tetsuro Matsuzawa
I have studied chimpanzees both in the wild and in the laboratory. My talk illustrates the evolutionary origins of human mind and culture. The human mother -- infant relationship is characterized by physical separation, and the stable supine posture of infants; enabling face-to-face communication via facial expressions, vocal exchange, and manual gestures, and also demonstration of object manipulation. I have used the novel "participant observation" method in the laboratory and through "field experiments" in their natural habitat. There are several critical differences between the two species: chimpanzees lack the social referencing ability observed in human children and chimpanzees seldom engage in active teaching. Moreover, although young chimpanzees showed unique working memory capacity, often superior to that of human adults, they are less able to learning symbols. In sum, mind and culture in humans is fundamentally influenced by the manner of raising young children; characterized by collaboration among multiple adults. This aspect of human rearing may be linked to the development of empathy, altruistic behavior, reciprocity, understanding others? minds, and so on. Taken together, my talk presents evolutionary and ontogenetic explanations for the uniquely human cognition and culture.